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Aldous Huxley's Brave New World (1932)

THOMA! " 'TOMA#$N'% 'TH &$R CTOR' administrator in the year 632AF of the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. The Director runs a futuristic baby-factory here the assembly-line !roduction of genetic castes is streamlined and controlled" and maturing youngsters are brain ashed #ia neo-$a#lo#ian conditioning and hy!no!aedia %&slee!-learning&' into being ha!!y ith their state-allotted roles in life. The Director is an intelligent but orthodo(-minded Al!ha) he fro ns on *ernard+s indi#idualism. His manner is charmless" self-im!ortant and didactic. The Director is disgraced after a sordid se(scandal in his !ast is re#ealed. ,t trans!ires he is father of -ohn the .a#age" concei#ed after he im!regnated Linda on a tri! to the /e 0e(ico .a#age 1eser#ation. B RNAR& MAR' a slee!-learning s!ecialist at the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. *ernard is a misfit. He is unusually short for an Al!ha) an accident ith alcohol in *ernard+s blood-surrogate before his decanting has left him slightly stunted. *ernard+s inde!endence of mind stems more from his inferiority-com!le( and de!ressi#e nature than any de!th of !hiloso!hical con#iction. 2nli3e his fello uto!ians" *ernard is often angry" resentful and 4ealous. At times" he is also co ardly and hy!ocritical. His conditioning is clearly incom!lete. He doesn+t en4oy communal s!orts" solidarity ser#ices" or !romiscuous se(. He doesn+t e#en get much 4oy out of soma. *ernard is in lo#e ith the highly beddable Lenina. He doesn+t li3e her slee!ing ith other men" though in */5 &e#eryone belongs to e#eryone else&. *ernard+s trium!hant return to uto!ian ci#ilisation ith -ohn the .a#age from the 1eser#ation !reci!itates the do nfall of the Director" ho had been !lanning to e(ile him. *ernard+s trium!h is short-li#ed. .uccess goes to his head. Des!ite his tearful !leas" he is ultimately banished to an ,sland for his non-conformist beha#iour. JOHN TH !A(A) the illicit son of the Director and Linda. He as born and reared on the .a#age 1eser#ation 6&0al!ais&7 after Linda as un ittingly left behind by her errant lo#er. -ohn the .a#age is an outsider both on the 1eser#ation - here the ignorant nati#es still !ractise marriage" natural birth" family life and religion - and the ostensibly ci#ilised *ra#e /e 5orld8 a totalitarian elfare-state based on !rinci!les of stability and ha!!iness" albeit ha!!iness of a shallo and insi!id nature. The .a#age has read nothing but The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. He 9uotes them e(tensi#ely and" for the most !art" a!tly" though his allusion to &*ra#e /e 5orld& %0iranda+s ords in The Tempest' ta3es on a dar3er and bitterly ironic resonance as the no#el unfolds. -ohn the .a#age is intensely moral. He is also some hat na:#e. ,n defiance of */5+s social norms" he falls romantically in lo#e ith Lenina" but s!urns her !remature se(ual ad#ances. After his mother Linda+s death" the .a#age becomes e#er more disillusioned ith uto!ian society. ,ts technological onders and soulless consumerism are no substitute for indi#idual freedom" human dignity and !ersonal integrity. He debates !assionately and eruditely ith 5orld Controller 0usta!ha 0ond on the com!eting merits of !rimiti#ism #ersus the 5orld .tate. After his s!ontaneous bid to stir re#olt among the lo er castes has failed" the .a#age retreats to an old abandoned lighthouse" hi!s himself in remorse for his sins" and gloomily culti#ates his garden. *ut he is hounded by re!orters and hordes of intrusi#e bra#e ne orlders. ;uilt-ridden" the .a#age finally hangs himself after - e are gi#en to

infer - he has ta3en the soma he so des!ises and succumbed to an orgiastic debauch. *$N&A ageing mother of -ohn the .a#age. Linda is a *eta-minus left behind for dead after a storm on the 1eser#ation hile she as !regnant ith the Director+s child. Linda had been too ashamed to go bac3 on her o n initiati#e to the <ther $lace ith her illegitimate son) but she misses soma and the comforts of ci#ilisation. .he ages and gro s fat in the medically !rimiti#e conditions of the 1eser#ation. After returning home ith *ernard and her no gro n-u! child to the orld she had lost" Linda ends u! in $ar3 Lane Hos!ital for the Dying after o#erdoing her !ermanent &somaholiday&. Linda+s undignified death leads her son -ohn the .a#age to disru!t the &death-conditioning& of a #isiting !arty of Delta clones. The children fail to sho his dying mother the res!ect he feels she deser#es. -ohn causes a riot by trying to de!ri#e the Deltas of their soma rations) he has come to #ie the ideal !leasuredrug as nothing but a !oisonous narcotic. * N$NA CROWN a young" beautiful and se(ually liberated *eta. Lenina is a !o!ular and !romiscuous #accination- or3er at the Hatchery and Conditioning Centre. .ome hat 9uir3y - she normally dates only one !erson at a time - Lenina is basically ha!!y and ellconditioned. .he uses soma to su!!ress un elcome emotions. Lenina has a date ith *ernard" to hom she feels ambi#alently attracted) and she goes to the 1eser#ation ith him. <n returning ith relief to ci#ilisation" she tries and fails to seduce -ohn the .a#age. The .a#age lo#es and desires Lenina) but o ing to his 9ui(otic nature" he is re!elled by her for ardness and the !ros!ect of !re-marital se(. .o he casts her aside as an &im!udent strum!et&. M+!TA,HA MON& 1esident 5orld Controller of 5estern =uro!e. He !resides o#er one of the ten >ones of the 5orld .tate" the global go#ernment set u! after the cataclysmic /ine ?ears+ 5ar and great =conomic Colla!se. .o!histicated and good-natured" His Fordshi! is an urbane and hy!erintelligent a!ologist for *ra#e /e 5orld and its #el#et-glo#ed totalitarianism. 0ond defends */5+s ethos of &Community" ,dentity" .tability& by com!aring his harmonious !ost-Fordist ci#ilisation ith the horrors of the su!!ressed historical !ast. ,n his youth" 0ond had himself flirted ith doing illicit scientific research and heterodo( belief. He still 3ee!s a small library of forbidden boo3s in his safe. ?et he o!ted for training as a future orld leader rather than e(ile. The Controller argues that art" literature and scientific freedom must be sacrificed in order to secure the ultimate utilitarian goal of ma(imising societal ha!!iness. He defends the genetic caste system" beha#ioural conditioning and the lac3 of !ersonal freedom in the 5orld .tate as a !rice orth !aying for achie#ing social stability. .tability is the highest social #irtue because it leads to lasting ha!!iness. H *MHO*T- WAT!ON handsome and successful Al!ha-!lus lecturer at the College of =motional =ngineering. Helmholt> is a friend of *ernard. He is resti#e at the stifling conformism and !hilistinism of the 5orld .tate. /ot least" he feels unfulfilled riting endless !ro!aganda doggerel. Helmholt> is ultimately e(iled to an ,sland - a cold asylum for disaffected Al!ha-!lus non-conformists - after reading a heretical !oem to his students on the #irtues of solitude.

The Use of Technology to Control Society

Brave New World warns of the dangers of giving the state control over new and powerful technologies. One illustration of this theme is the rigid control of reproduction through technological and medical intervention, including the surgical removal of ovaries, the Bokanovsky Process, and hypnopaedic conditioning. Another is the creation of complicated entertainment machines that generate both harmless leisure and the high levels of consumption and production that are the basis of the World State s stability. Soma is a third e!ample of the kind of medical, biological, and psychological technologies that Brave New World critici"es most sharply. #t is important to recogni"e the distinction between science and technology. Whereas the State talks about progress and science, what it really means is the bettering of technology, not increased scientific e!ploration and e!perimentation. $he state uses science as a means to build technology that can create a seamless, happy, superficial world through things such as the %feelies.& $he state censors and limits science, however, since it sees the fundamental basis behind science, the search for truth, as threatening to the State s control. $he State s focus on happiness and stability means that it uses the results of scientific research, inasmuch as they contribute to technologies of control, but does not support science itself.
The Consumer Society

#t is important to understand that Brave New World is not simply a warning about what could happen to society if things go wrong, it is also a satire of the society in which 'u!ley e!isted, and which still e!ists today. While the attitudes and behaviors of World State citi"ens at first appear bi"arre, cruel, or scandalous, many clues point to the conclusion that the World State is simply an e!treme(but logically developed(version of our society s economic values, in which individual happiness is defined as the ability to satisfy needs, and success as a society is e)uated with economic growth and prosperity.
The Incompatibility of Happiness and Truth

Brave New World is full of characters who do everything they can to avoid facing the truth about their own situations. $he almost universal use of the drug soma is probably the most pervasive e!ample of such willful self*delusion. Soma clouds the realities of the present and replaces them with happy hallucinations, and is thus a tool for promoting social stability. But even Shakespeare can be used to avoid facing the truth, as +ohn demonstrates by his insistence on viewing ,enina through the lens of Shakespeare s world, first as a +uliet and later as an %impudent strumpet.& According to -ustapha -ond, the World State prioriti"es happiness at the e!pense of truth by design. he believes that people are better off with happiness than with truth. What are these two abstract entities that -ond /u!taposes0 #t seems clear enough from -ond s argument that happiness refers to the immediate gratification of every citi"en s desire for food, se!, drugs, nice clothes, and other consumer items. #t is less clear what -ond means by truth, or specifically what truths he sees the World State society as covering up. 1rom -ond s discussion with +ohn, it is possible to identify two main types of truth that the World State seeks to eliminate. 1irst, as -ond s own past indicates, the World State controls and muffles all efforts by citi"ens to gain any sort of scientific, or empirical truth. Second, the government attempts to destroy all kinds of %human& truths, such as love, friendship, and personal connection. $hese two types of truth are )uite different from each other. ob/ective truth involves coming to a definitive conclusion of fact, while a %human& truth can only be e!plored, not defined. 2et both kinds of

truth are united in the passion that an individual might feel for them. As a young man, -ustapha -ond became enraptured with the delight of making discoveries, /ust as +ohn loves the language and intensity of Shakespeare. $he search for truth then, also seems to involve a great deal of individual effort, of striving and fighting against odds. $he very will to search for truth is an individual desire that the communal society of Brave New World, based as it is on anonymity and lack of thought, cannot allow to e!ist. $ruth and individuality thus become entwined in the novel s thematic structure.
The Dangers of an All-Powerful State

,ike 3eorge Orwell s 1984, this novel depicts a dystopia in which an all*powerful state controls the behaviors and actions of its people in order to preserve its own stability and power. But a ma/or difference between the two is that, whereas in 1984 control is maintained by constant government surveillance, secret police, and torture, power in Brave New World is maintained through technological interventions that start before birth and last until death, and that actually change what people want. $he government of 1984 maintains power through force and intimidation. $he government of Brave New World retains control by making its citi"ens so happy and superficially fulfilled that they don t care about their personal freedom. #n Brave New World the conse)uences of state control are a loss of dignity, morals, values, and emotions(in short, a loss of humanity.
Motifs Motifs are recurring structures, contrasts, and literary devices that can help to develop and inform the texts major themes. Pneumatic

$he word pneumatic is used with remarkable fre)uency to describe two things. ,enina s body and chairs. Pneumatic is an ad/ective that usually means that something has air pockets or works by means of compressed air. #n the case of the chairs 4in the feely theater and in -ond s office5, it probably means that the chairs cushions are inflated with air. #n ,enina s case, the word is used by both 'enry 1oster and Benito 'oover to describe what she s like to have se! with. She herself remarks that her lovers usually find her %pneumatic,& patting her legs as she does so. #n reference to ,enina it means well*rounded, balloon*like, or bouncy, in reference to her flesh, and in particular her bosom. 'u!ley is not the only writer to use the word pneumatic in this sense, although it is an unusual usage. $he use of this odd word to describe the physical characteristics of both a woman and a piece of furniture underscores the novel s theme that human se!uality has been degraded to the level of a commodity.
ord! "#y ord!$ "%ear of &ur ord!$ etc'

$hroughout Brave New World, the citi"ens of the World State substitute the name of 'enry 1ord, the early twentieth*century industrialist and founder of the 1ord -otor 6ompany, wherever people in our own world would say ,ord& 4i.e., 6hrist5. $his demonstrates that even at the level of casual conversation and habit, religion has been replaced by reverence for technology( specifically the efficient, mechani"ed factory production of goods that 'enry 1ord pioneered.

$he motif of alienation provides a counterpoint to the motif of total conformity that pervades the World State. Bernard -ar!, 'elmholt" Watson, and +ohn are alienated from the World State,

each for his own reasons. Bernard is alienated because he is a misfit, too small and powerless for the position he has been conditioned to en/oy. 'elmholt" is alienated for the opposite reason. he is too intelligent even to play the role of an Alpha Plus. +ohn is alienated on multiple levels and at multiple sites. not only does the #ndian community re/ect him, but he is both unwilling and unable to become part of the World State. $he motif of alienation is one of the driving forces of the narrative. it provides the main characters with their primary motivations.

Brave New World abounds with references to se!. At the heart of the World State s control of its population is its rigid control over se!ual mores and reproductive rights. 7eproductive rights are controlled through an authoritarian system that sterili"es about two*thirds of women, re)uires the rest to use contraceptives, and surgically removes ovaries when it needs to produce new humans. $he act of se! is controlled by a system of social rewards for promiscuity and lack of commitment. +ohn, an outsider, is tortured by his desire for ,enina and her inability to return his love as such. $he conflict between +ohn s desire for love and ,enina s desire for se! illustrates the profound difference in values between the World State and the humanity represented by Shakespeare s works.

Shakespeare provides the language through which +ohn understands the world. $hrough +ohn s use of Shakespeare, the novel makes contact with the rich themes e!plored in plays like The Tempest. #t also creates a stark contrast between the utilitarian simplicity and inane babble of the World State s propaganda and the nuanced, elegant verse of a time %before 1ord.& Shakespeare s plays provide many e!amples of precisely the kind of human relations(passionate, intense, and often tragic(that the World State is committed to eliminating.
Symbols Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts. Soma

$he drug soma is a symbol of the use of instant gratification to control the World State s populace. #t is also a symbol of the powerful influence of science and technology on society. As a kind of %sacrament,& it also represents the use of religion to control society. 8ori9ten/e tehnologi/e "a kontrolu dru9tva :rli novi svi/et upo"orava na opasnosti od davan/a dr;avnu kontrolu nad novim i mo<nim tehnologi/ama . +edan prim/er ove teme /erigidna kontrola reprodukci/e kro" tehnolo9ke i medicinske intervenci/e , ukl/u=u/u<i kirur9ko odstran/ivan/e /a/nika , u Bokanovsky proces, a hypnopaedic ure>a/ . ?rugi /estvaran/e kompliciranih "abavnih stro/eva ko/i stvara/u oba be"a"lenu ra"onodu i visoke ra"ine potro9n/e i proi"vodn/e ko/i sutemel/ stabilnosti Sv/etske dr;ave . Soma /etre<i prim/er takve vrste medicinskih , biolo9kih , psiholo9kih i tehnologi/a ko/e :rli novi svi/et kriti"ira na/o9tri/e . :a;no /e prepo"nati ra"liku i"me>u "nanosti i tehnologi/e . ?ok dr;ava govori o napretku i "nanosti , 9to "apravo "na=i da /epobol/9an/u tehnologi/e , ni/e pove<ao "nanstveno istra;ivan/e i eksperimentiran/e . ?r;ava koristi "nanost kao sredstvo "a i"gradn/u tehnologi/u ko/a mo;e stvoriti be9avne , sretan, povr9an svi/et kro" stvari kao 9to su @ feelies . @ ?r;ava cen"ora i

granica "nanosti , me>utim, budu<i da ga vidi temel/nu podlogu i"a "nanosti , u potra"i "a istina, kao i pri/ete<i da <e kontrole dr;ave . ?r;ave na usredoto=enost na sre<u i stabilnost "na=i da koristi re"ultate "nanstvenih istra;ivan/a , budu<i da oni pridonose tehnologi/ama kontrole , ali ne podr;ava samu "nanost . Potro9a=ko dru9tvo :a;no /e ra"um/eti da /e Brave Aew World ni/e samoupo"oren/e o tome 9to bi se moglo dogoditi da se dru9tvo , ako stvari krenu po "lu , to /e isatira dru9tva u ko/em 'u!ley posto/ala , a ko/a /o9 uvi/ek posto/i i danas . ?ok su stavovi i pona9an/e World dr;avnih gra>ana na prvo po/avl/u/u bi"arno , okrutni , ili skandalo"no , mnoge indici/e upu<u/u na "akl/u=ak da /eSv/etska dr;ava /ednostavnoekstremno , ali logi=no /e ra"vio * ver"i/a ekonomske vri/ednosti na9eg dru9tva , u ko/em po/edinac /e sre<a definira kao sposobnost da se "adovol/e potrebe i usp/eha kaodru9tvo i"/edna=iti s ekonomskog rasta i prosperiteta . Aekompatibilnost sre<e i istine :rli novi svi/et /e pun likova ko/i rade sve 9to mogu kako bi se i"b/eglo suo=ava s istinom o vlastitim situaci/ama . 3otovo univer"alna uporaba droga soma /e v/ero/atnona/i"ra"iti/e prim/er takvog svo/evol/nog samo"avaravan/a . Soma "amagl/u/e realnost sada9n/osti i "am/en/u/e ih sa sretnim halucinaci/ama , te /e stogaalat "a promican/e soci/alne stabilnosti . Ao, =ak i Shakespeare mo;e koristiti kako bi se i"b/eglo okrenuti istinu , kao 9to /e +ohn poka"u/e n/egovo in"istiran/e na gledan/e ,enina kro" ob/ektiv Shakespeareovog svi/eta , prvo kao +uli/a , a kasni/e kao @ be"obra"na prostitutka . @ Prema -ustapha -ond ,Sv/etska ?r;ava prioritet sre<a nau9trb istine po di"a/nu . on smatra da su l/udi bol/e sre<e nego s istinom . Bto su ove dvi/e apstraktne osobe ko/e -ond suprotstavl/a 0 Cini se dovol/no /asno i" -ond argument da sre<a odnosi na neposrednu "adovol/en/e ;el/e svakog gra>anina "a hranu , seks , droge , li/epu od/e<u i ostale potro9a=ke stavke . $o /e man/e /asno 9to "na=i -ond istinom , ili konkretno 9to istine on vidi svi/et State dru9tvo kao prikrivan/e . Od -ond /e ra"govor s #vanom , mogu<e /e identificirati dvi/e glavne vrste istine da /eSv/etska dr;ava nasto/i eliminirati . Prvo , kao -ond vlastita pro9lost poka"u/e ,Sv/etska dr;ava kontrolira i muffles sve napore gra>ana "a st/ecan/e bilo kakve "nanstvene ili empiri/ske istine . ?rugo ,:lada poku9ava uni9titi sve vrste @l/udski@ istina , kao 9to su l/ubav, pri/atel/stvo, i osobne ve"e . Ove dvi/e vrste istine su vrlo ra"li=iti /edni od drugih . ob/ektivna istina ukl/u=u/e dola"ak do kona=nog "akl/u=ka o tome , dok /e@ l/udski@ istina mo;e biti samo istra;iti , ni/e definirano . #pak, ob/e vrste istine su u/edin/eni u strasti dapo/edinac mo;e os/e<ati "a n/ih . 8ao mladi< , -ustapha -ond postala enraptured s odu9evl/en/em i"rade otkri<a , ba9 kao i +ohn voli /e"ik i inten"itet Shakespearea . Potraga "a istinom a "atim , tako>er se =ini da ukl/u=u/e mnogo individualnih napora , nasto/e<i i borbe protiv prevaga. :rlo vol/a "a tra;en/e istine /eindividualna ;el/a dakomunalno dru9tvo :rli novi svi/et , /er se ona nala"i na anonimnost i nedostatak misli , ne mogu dopustiti da posto/i. #stina i individualnost time posta/u isprepleteni u romanu tematsko/ strukturi . Opasnosti od svemo<nog dr;ave 8ao i 3eorge Orwell DEFG , ova/ roman opisu/e distopi/e u ko/o/ /esvemo<an stan/e kontrolira pona9an/e i postupke svo/ih l/udi , kako bi se o=uvala svo/u stabilnost i mo< . Ao,glavna ra"lika i"me>u n/ih /e 9to , dok /e u DEFG kontroli odr;ava stalnim nad"orom vlade , ta/ne polici/e i mu=en/a , vlast u :rli novi svi/et se odr;ava kro" tehnolo9ke "ahvate ko/i po=in/u pri/e ro>en/a i tra/e do smrti , i da /e "apravo prom/ena ono 9to l/udi ;ele . :lada i" DEFG odr;ava snagu kro" sile i "astra9ivan/a . :lada :rli novi svi/et "adr;ava kontrolu tako 9to n/e"ini gra>ani tako sretan i povr9no ispun/eni da oni ne brinu o svom osobnom slobodom . H Brave Aew World posl/edice

dr;avne kontrole sugubitak dosto/anstva, morala , vri/ednosti i emoci/e * ukratko,gubitak =ov/e=anstva . motivi -otivi su ponavl/a/u<i strukture, kontrasti i kn/i;evni ure>a/i ko/i mogu pomo<i da se ra"vi/e i informirati glavne teme tekstaI . pneumatski 7i/e= pneumatski se koristi s i"vanredne frekvenci/e opisati dvi/e stvari. ,enina t/elesnih i stolice . Pneumatske /eprid/ev ko/i obi=no "na=i da ne9to ima "ra=ni d;epovi ili d/ela putem komprimiranog "raka . H slu=a/u s/edalica 4 u feely ka"ali9tu i na -ond uredu 5 , to v/ero/atno "na=i da su stolice J /astuci napuhati "rakom . H ,enina slu=a/u ,ri/e= se koristi od strane 'enry 1oster i Benito 'oover opisati ono 9to /e kao da ima/u spolni odnos. Ona sama isti=e da n/e"ini l/ubavnici obi=no prona<i svo/u @ pneumatski @, tap9u<i n/e"ine noge kao ona to =ini . H odnosu na ,enina to "na=i dobro "aobl/ena , balon *like , ili odsko=iti , u odnosu na n/e"inu ti/elu , a posebno /o/ /e grudi . 'u!ley /e nesamo pisac koristiti ri/e= pneumatski u tom smislu , iako /e toneobi=no kori9ten/e . 8ori9ten/e ove ak ri/e=i opisati fi"i=ke karakteristike ob/e ;ene i komad nam/e9ta/a nagla9ava u romanu temu da /e l/udska seksualnost /e degradiran na ra"inu roba . 1ord , @ -o/ 1ord @, @ 3odina -a/ke 1ord @, itd. 8ro" :rli novi svi/et , gra>ani Sv/etske dr;ave "ami/eniti ime 'enry 1ord, po=etkom dvadesetog stol/e<a tvorni=ar i osniva= tvrtke 1ord -otor 6ompany , gd/e god l/udi u na9em svi/etu ne bi mogao re<i. @ 3ospodine 4 t/. 8rista 5 . $o poka"u/e da /e =ak i na ra"ini usputnog ra"govora i navike , religi/a /e "ami/en/en po9tovan/a prema tehnologi/i posebno u=inkovito , mehani"irane tvornice proi"vodn/u robe ko/a 'enry 1ord /e uveo . otu>en/e -otiv otu>en/a osigurava kontrapunkt motivom ukupnog sukladnosti ko/a pro;ima sv/etske dr;ave . Bernard -ar! , 'elmholt" Watson i +ohn su otu>eni i" Sv/etske dr;ave , svako "a svo/e ra"loge . Bernard /e otu>en /er /enepodoban , premala i nemo<na "a radno m/esto mu /e uv/etovan da u;ivate . 'elmholt" /e otu>en "a suprotni ra"loga . previ9e /e inteligentan i igrati ulogu Alpha Plus . +ohn /e otu>en na vi9e ra"ina , a na vi9e m/esta . ne samo#ndian "a/ednica ga odbiti , ali on /e i ne ;eli i ne mo;e postati dio sv/etske dr;ave . -otiv otu>en/a /e /edan od glavnih pokreta=a pri=e . ona pru;a glavne likove sa svo/im primarnim motivaci/ama . seks :rli novi svi/et obilu/e referencama na seksu . H sredi9tu Sv/etske dr;ave kontrole stanovni9tva /e n/egova kruta kontrolu nad seksualnim sklonostima i reproduktivnih prava . 7eproduktivna prava kontrolira/u se kro" autoritarnog sustava ko/i sterili"ira oko dvi/e tre<ine ;ena , tra;i ostatak koristiti kontracepci/u , a kirur9ki uklan/a /a/nike kada treba proi"vesti nove l/ude . Cin seksa /e pod kontrolom sustava soci/alnih nagrade "a promiskuitet i nedostatak predanosti . +ohn ,autsa/der , mu=e svo/om ;el/om "a ,enina i n/e"ine nemogu<nosti da vrati svo/u l/ubav kao takva . Sukob i"me>u #vanove ;el/e "a l/ubavl/u i ,enina ;el/u "a seksom ilustrira duboku ra"liku u vri/ednosti i"me>u Sv/etske dr;ave i humanosti ko/u "astupa Shakespeareovih d/ela . Shakespeare Shakespeare pru;a /e"ik kro" ko/i +ohn ra"umi/e svi/et . 8ro" #vanova uporaba Shakespearea ,roman =ini kontakt s bogatim temama istra;enih u predstavama kao 9to su $he $empest . $o tako>er stvara o9tar kontrast i"me>u utilitarnog /ednostavnosti i besmislen ;ubor Sv/etske dr;ave propagande i i"ni/ansiran , elegantnim stihovima /ednog vremena @pri/e 1orda . @ Shakespeareove drame pru;a/u bro/ne prim/ere upravo u ono/ vrsti l/udskih odnosa * strastveni , inten"ivnih i =esto tragi=no * daSv/etska dr;ava se obve"ala na uklan/an/u .

simboli Simboli su ob/ekti , likovi , likovi i bo/e ko/e se koriste "a "astupan/e apstraktne ide/e ili koncepte . Soma ,i/ek Soma /esimbol kori9ten/e instant "adovol/en/e kontrolirati svi/et dr;ave na stanovni9tvo . Ona /e tako>ersimbol sna;nim ut/eca/em "nanosti i tehnologi/e na dru9tvo . 8ao svo/evrsni @ sakramenta @, 9to tako>er predstavl/a kori9ten/e religi/e da kontrolira dru9tvo .