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Woodrow Wilson – 1913-1921 – US History

Woodrow Wilson • Born in Virginia, Did most work at Princeton, being


a teacher and President there before being ousted
by the Alumni.
• Governor of New Jersey for 2 years.
• Democratic pick for 1912, won due to the
Republican split.
Domestic Program
• Very intelligent, but not really inspiring, just a
professor.

Federal Income Tax • New Nationalism


• Lowered tariff with the Underwood Tariff in 1913
o Went very low, to 15%-20%
o Bad for the Federal Government, income
was gone.
• 1913, only was paid by the top 2% of the richest
people.
• The 1907 Depression was still around
• Federal Reserve Act (p398) – Christmas Eve 1913
o Created the Federal Reserve System
o The central banking authority, like the Bank
of the U.S.
o Independent Agency of the Federal
Government, cannot be bossed around by
Government.
o Consists of 12 big banks in 12 Federal
Reserve Districts
Responsibilities / Jobs
o Almost all of these banks are East of the
Of the Fed.
Mississippi River, the only West ones are
Dallas and San Francisco.
o Their location is based on the population in
the area.
o These are run by a Board of Governors, who
meet once a month.
o They’re appointed by the President for 1 14
year term
Recap: o Their leader is the Federal Reserve
Chairman, who is appointed for 4 years. The
current
Woodrow Wilson was elected in 1912, and one is Ben
his domestic plan Bernanke.
was New Nationalism.
This plan created the Federal Reserve System, an agency which regulates money.
The FRS is run by a Board of Governors who are headed by a Chairman. This person
influences the economy.
The Federal Reserve System has 4 main responsibilities, 2 of which are Clearing Checks
Money System • Coins
o Penny
 Front = Lincoln
 Back = Lincoln Memorial
o Nickel
 Front = Jefferson
 Back = Jefferson’s Home, the
Monechello.
o Dime
 FDR
 Torches and Olive Branch (peace)
o Quarter
 Washington
 American Eagle
o 50 cent
 Kennedy (since 1963)
 Seal of the United States
o $1
 Sacajawea
 Bird flying
o Susan B. Anthony - on the back of the $1
coin of the 70s
• Paper
o $1
 Washington
 Eye in Pyramid and Seal of the United
States
o $2
 Jefferson
 Signing of the Declaration of the
Unites States
o $5
 Lincoln
 Lincoln Memorial
o $10
 Alexander Hamilton
 Treasury Building
o $20
 Jackson
 White House
o $50
 U.S. Grant
 Capital
o $100
 Ben Franklin
 Independence Hall
Fed Jobs Continued • Buys and Sells Government Bonds
o Sells if they want less circulation
o Buys if they want more circulation
• Lends money to member banks
o They charge interest
o If the economy is slow, they lower the
interest rate.
o If it is too fast, they raise the interest rate.
World War I • Money is backed by faith and stability in the
Government

• It was called the Great War, since there was no 2nd


at the time
• About the rivalry between Germany and France
• 1870 – Prussia fought in France, Prussia won
• The French were mad they got their land taken,
wanted honor.
• Germans sought Austria/Hungary in 1879, and Italy
in 1882 for allies, thus becoming the Triple Alliance.
• Not made out of friendship, but out of fear.
• France got allies too, Britain in 1904 and Russia
1907.
• This became the Triple Entente, also made of fear.
• Summer 1914 – Tension is high, one accident could
start a war
• July 28, 1914 – Ferdinand was plotted against and
shot.
o The Black Hand got 7 assassins, 1 shot him
and his wife.
o Crowd beat up the guy, but he was spared
since he was 19 years old.
• Austria Hungary though Serbia was behind the
attack.
o They wanted to punish Serbia, but Russia
would protect
o A/H told Germany to help if Russia indeed
protected.
o Germany gives 100% to Austria Hungary
o Russia then asks France to back them up.
• July 23rd – A/H gives Serbia an ultimatum, as a final
threat
o Very harsh terms, 9/10 were accepted.
Recap:
o The 10th allowed officials to investigate the
The Fed can Buy and Sell Government Bonds,
murderalong with lending money to member
banks. o They would not give in, and this meant war
World War I, or the Great War, was between Germany and France primarily.
Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy became allies known as the Triple Alliance.
France, Britain, and Russia were the Triple Entente. The assassination of Ferdinand
• Did not capture Paris, so France was still in.
Marne
Germany missed their goal, since their tactics fell
short from their weapons.
1914 – 1917 • Frontal assaults did not work with new types of
guns.
Trench Warfare o Trench Warfare began in order to hide from
shells.

• Each side dug interconnected trenches and


bunkers.
• Barb wire was strung around the trenches to stop
attackers.
• “No Mans Land” was the area in the open where
you could not survive, due to constant explosions
and fire, etc.
Secret Weapons • Artillery would pulverize the trenches from each
side.
o The noise would cause people to be shell
shocked.
• After days of fire, they would assume the enemy
dead, but when advancing, they would get shot up.
• 2 Million died in 2 miles of territory in trench
warfare.
Flamethrower
• Spring of 1915 – The Germans used the 1st one in
Zeppelin Belgium
• Poison gas of chlorine was sent at the enemy.
• All of the people ran, and the wind changed and
blew it back
World War I • Allies created gas too, so people simply wore gas
masks.
o Chlorine gas caused coughing, and lungs to
come out
Recap: o Phosgene (mustard) gas set nostrils and
lungs
Trench Warfare started after new weapons oncreated.
were fire It lasted from 1914 to 1917.
No Man’s Land was the area between the trenches, which would be constantly attacked.
Secret Weapons were used by both sides. The 1st was poison gas, followed by the
flamethrower and Zeppelin.
France and its buddies were known as the Allies, the opposite being the Central Powers.
Airplanes • Both sides developed the airplane
• They were really dangerous to fly, even before
using guns.
• Guns were added to the front, so planes needed
only a pilot.
• Sometimes the gun would hit the propeller, causing
it to break.
• A Dutch dude synchronized the propeller with the
Baron Manfred Von
gun.
Richtofein
The Red Baron • Shooting was not easy; you had to be directly
behind the plane.
• If you shot 5 planes or more, you were called an
Ace
Land Battleships
• The greatest Ace of all, shot 80 planes.
• His squadron was known as the Flying Circus.
• The greatest American Ace was Eddy Rickenbacker
o Started as a personal driver of Pershing
o One of the founders of Eastern Airline
World War I
(Mexican Dispute) • The British made trench defeating weapon
o Were large metal boxes with cannons
o Sent to troops in boxes labeled Water Tanks
o Since nobody had a name, they were then
called tanks.
o They were big and scary, but often
malfunctioned

• The US was in dispute with Mexico


• 1876 – Porifilio Diaz became the President of
Mexico
Recap: o He acted more as a Dictator
o Brought the Industrial Revolution to Mexico
Airplanes were dangerous but useful in World War I. Those who shot 5 down were Aces
The greatest Ace of all was Baron Manfred Von Richtofein. He shot down 80 planes.
Land Battleships were the earliest tanks, and were used to defeat the enemy in trench
warfare.
The US was in dispute with Mexico because Diaz was a dictator and was collecting
Francisco Madero • Diaz threw him in prison for running against him.
• He called the Mexicans to rise up because of this
outrage.
Mexican Revolution
• 1910 – Violence swept the country
• The Mexican government exiled Diaz to Spain
• Madero became the President and helped to reform
o Gave land to Peasants, wealth to workers
o Took privileges, the army didn’t like this.
Wilson • 1913 – General Huerta led forces and murdered
Madero
o He became the new dictator of Mexico
• Wilson became greatly disturbed, only liked
Fall 1914 Democracy
o Began arming rebels opposing Huerta with
weapons etc
o Emilio Zapata and Poncho Villa were rebel
people
o Tried to oust Huerta from power.
• The US Naval Squadron stopped in Veracruz,
Mexico
• The Mexican government said they could stay, but
not enter a certain part of the city.
• 2 sailors were imprisoned because they violated
this rule.
• We demanded their release and that they salute
the US flag.
Carranza
• The Mexicans refused to salute the flag, but led the
sailors go.
• The ABC Powers stepped in, Argentina, Brazil, and
Recap: Chile.
o They helped to negotiate a settlement with
Francisco Madero became President after Diaz, he was a good reformer.
General Huerta murdered him in 1913 and became another dictator like Diaz was.
After 2 soldiers entered a wrong area of Veracruz, the ABC Powers helped to avert war
with Mexico.
Carranza became the President in 1 9 15 after Huerta. The rebels did not like this and
Pershing • Led the buffalo soldiers again to find the rebels in
Mexico
o This intrusion was insulting to Mexico.
o We never caught the rebels in the
mountains; this was not good for relations.
Germany
• Knew that Britain imported food, wanted to destroy
the source.
• Merchant ships carried food; Germany wanted to
use submarines, or “undervaserboats” (U-Boats) to
attack them.
• They travelled faster on the surface, and were
easily shot.
• They had fairly weak but deadly torpedoes.
Luxury Liners • 1915 – War zones were established against
International Law
• Merchant ships were shooting U-Boats, etc.
• 1914 – 1915 – British merchant ships were sunk
around Ireland and Britain.

• Used to go around countries, they were huge ships.


• The Titanic was the largest of them, sunk in April
1912
o It was going to fast and hit an Iceberg
o Only 800 / 3000 survived the disaster
• It didn’t stop the tourists, 1915 – The Lusitania was
created
• On May 1st, it went from New York to Liverpool on a
1962 trip.
• The Germans saw that it was in a War Zone
• It was subject to any weak torpedoes without
warning
• The passengers didn’t care, they all still came.
• May 7th 1915 – U-Boat #20 with its crazy captain
spotted it.
o He would shoot anything, even hospital
boats
o There was only 2 torpedoes left, so why not?
o There was a huge explosion, it sunk in 20
minutes
o There was no time for lifeboats, 700 / 3000
Recap: survived.
• Divers looked
Pershing led the buffalo soldiers into Mexico at the
to find the remains of just
rebels, but the made
Lusitania
the US look
bad. o Found out where the torpedo hit the bridge
Germany wanted to destroy British merchant ships, and used submarines, or U-Boats, to
attack them.
Luxury liners were popular, like the Titanic and Lusitania, both which sank. The Lusitania
Election of 1916 • Democratic nominee – Woodrow Wilson
o Slogan – “He kept us out of war”
• Republican nominee – Charles Evans Hughes
o Attorney, Former Governor of New York
o Helps by Roosevelt ripping on Wilson
• The election was close; Wilson was losing when he
went to bed the night before.
o 3 States helped him, California, Oregon, and
Washington. They went to Wilson in the last
minute.
o Wilson won the 1916 election 277-254
• The nation was split on World War I
1915 • We were profiting from selling weapons to the
countries.

• Germany focused its attack on the East.


o Took over Poland, and much of Russia,
though they still were able to fight.
o Italy entered as an Allie in 1915, forcing
Austria Hungary to fight on 2 fronts.
1916 o Austria Hungary did conquer Serbia; the
Central Powers were going east.

February 1917 • Germany switched its forces West, eyeing Paris


o They did not get very far.

•The 2 top generals in Germany met the Kaiser


o They knew that the war could last to 1920 if
Germany simply fought on the defensive,
but they would surely lose the war.
o They needed to win quickly, or else the
United States would end up joining.
o They needed to take Russia out, followed by
Recap:
Italy and Britain.
Woodrow Wilson went against Charles Evans They began
 Hughes to torpedo
in the 1916 food
election, andships
Wilson
won.
The Germans could only attack one front, so they took over much of Russia in the East
Germany switched gears in 1916 and set their sites on Paris, France.
After a talk with the Kaiser, Germany decides they must be risky and not drag out the
Germany • They were taking a major gamble, but the Kaiser
agreed.
• Feb 1917 – Germany resumed unrestricted
submarine warfare
o In 3 days, 3 ships of the US were down
Zimmerman Note o The US demanded this to stop, but kept out
of war.

• This was the final straw for the United States


• Possibly the dumbest move in history.
• Came out of Germany’s desire to do espionage on
the US.
o Ex: Germans agents blew up a weapons
factory that sent its products mostly to the
Allies.
• Feb 1977 – Arthur Van Zimmerman sent a message
to the German ambassador of Mexico.
• He was to offer alliance between Germany and
th
April 6 1917 Mexico.
• Mexico in return would get Texas, Arizona, etc if the
Powers won. This was a bad plan because:
o Mexico did not want war with the United
States
Film: The Yanks Are o They would not win this war
Coming o The telegram was intercepted and put in
The US in WWI British papers
o The same offer was denied by Japan
• Wilson asks for a declaration of war on Germany
o Congress had the majority approve this.
• We were not really ready for a war, so a draft was
put in.
o The Selective Service Act of 1917.

•‘Over There’ – War song by George Cohan


o Made the term “Yanks” famous
• Doughboys – US Soldiers in WWI, wore buttons like
Recap: donuts.
• Russia March 1917 – A revolution came against the
Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare in Feb. 1917, causing the US to
become angered. Czar.
The Zimmerman Note to the German guy in Mexico wanted them to join the Central
Powers.
Wilson asked for war against Germany in April 19 17 , calling for more troops with a draft.
WWI continued • Operation Michael – the German plan to defeat
(Movie) trench warfare.
o It broke through 40 miles in Italy.
• The US was called to assist, to bring troops.
• The Germans could not replace their casualties,
but the Allies could, with the American help
• By the end of the war, men 12-60 were being
called in Germany to serve.
• Herbert Hoover – The head of the food production
here in the United States. He started the Wheat
less Mondays and Meatless Tuesdays, to provide
food for the service men.
• “Hooverizing” – was very patriotic to the country.
• On the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month
in 1918, the War was over; this day is the holiday
Armistice Day.
o Now it is called Veterans Day
• The US paid for the war by raising income taxes,
liberty loans, bonds, etc.
o Excise taxes were on the luxuries.
o Motion picture stars in rallies helped to sell
WWI bonds.
o Liberty gardens – backyard places where
fruit was grown to be canned and sent to the
soldiers.
o These were forms of patriotism to the
country.

• There was a huge anti-German action at the start


Movie Notes’
of the war.
• German people had to Americanize their names;
else they would have their stores boycotted, etc.
• Various things were renamed, such as the
hamburger to the liberty sandwich.
• German was removed from being taught at
Armistice schools.

• Silent movie stars were famous


• July 15th, 1918 – The 2nd Battle of the Marne,
Recap: Operation Bluker?
• The 1st people to understand that bombs off planes
WWI had many effects over here, and people wanted to help out the soldiers by doing
could be effective were led by General Billy
various things.
Herbert Hoover started days which you saved certain foods, Liberty gardens helped
supply food.
Anything German was disliked and boycotted at the beginning of the war.
WWI • November 9th, the Allies have almost reached
Germany.
• General Hindenburg suggested the Kaiser leave;
the war is lost
• He fled to Holland, Netherlands so that he would be
safe.
• A Democratic Government was set up, it asked for
an armistice

• The most that died in the war were 450,000,


100,000 shot or killed from disease.
o Buried in France and Belgium.
o Some were brought back to be honored.
• 1921 – Arlington National Cemetery – the tomb of
the unknown soldier who represented all who died.
• After WWII, they were able to be DNA traced and
returned.
Wilson • No doubt, the US caused the Allies to win WWI.
o With our money, troops, etc.
• The war cost about 60 Billion
• 2 Million died in the Great Influenza Epidemic of
1919.

• Assumed we would be a big part of the peace


negotiations.
• At the State of the Union, he gave the 14 Points,
Jan 8th 1918
• They were used as a guide for peace
o 5 were general ideals
Recap: o 8 were immediate territorial issues
o #14 was the most important of all.
The Allies won WWI, and the Kaiser fled. The death count of the entire war was 17
1. No secret treaties
million.
Wilson set up the 14 Points as a guide for peace.
The most important point was the 14th, which called for a League of Nations to be
assembled.
Wilson • Wanted to use the 14 points in the peace negotiations.
• The problems were:
o He took Democrats but no Republicans.
o None of the Allies had his nice attitude for
peace.
• They did not invite any Central Powers
representatives.
Big Four
• All the Allies except Russia were there.

• Wilson of the US - George Clemenceau of France


Treaty Negotiations
• D. Lloyd-George of Britain - V. Orlando of Italy

• Japan liked this; they got to keep their German


territories.
• Italy lost out; they didn’t get much land at all.
o They left, and the new name was the Big Three.
o Orlando resigned as well after this misfortune.
• Wilson wanted to be nice and promote Democracy.
• The French and British wanted to punish the Germans.
• They used the excuse of not joining the League of
Treaty of Versailles
Nations, so Wilson gave in to their guidelines.
• Some say he suffered a stroke, causing brain damage,
etc.

• June 1919 – This was extremely punishing on Germany


o They had to give land back, including Russia.
o They gave away all their colonies around the
world.
o Their army was reduced from 8 Million to 100
Recap: thousand.
o No navy was allowed, no submarines or planes.
Wilson disagreed with the Allies, he wanted peace and democracy, but they wanted to
punish Germany.
o They gave up some territory to places.
The Big Four were the US, France, Britain, and Italy, which dropped out after receiving
little land in the treaty
Wilson had a stroke, which made him talk different and agree with the Allies on their
Versailles Treaty • The final part set up a League of Nations just as
Wilson wanted.
• It needed to be approved by the Senate first.
• Bad feelings were beginning to sink in about the war
in the US.
o The treaty resembled little of his ideas earlier.
o We lent a bunch of money but did not get
repaid.
• The Senate was divided into 3 groups:
o Democrats supporting Wilson
o Irreconcilables who hated the treaty
 Led by Hiram Johnson
o Revisionists led by Henry Cabbotlodge of MA.
 Would accept it if tweaks were made.
• Wilson said accept it or forget it.
• 1st Vote – Wilson said no, it was tweaked, and it was
rejected.
• 2nd Vote – He took it to the people, making speeches
all over.
o The feelings started to turn around after this.
• September 1919 – In Colorado, he had a massive
Election of 1920 stroke.
o It paralyzed half his body, rendering him
motionless.
• So the Senate never approved it, and in 1921 we
made a separate peace with Germany.
• We never entered the League, but it got started
anyway.
• Wilson was down, so his wife Edith basically ruled the
Palmer Raids country.

• Wilson was not running, so the Democrats nominated


James Cox.
Recap: o He supported the League, treaty, and Wilson

Wilson disagreed with the Allies, he wantednominated
Republicans Warren G. Harding;
peace and democracy, Lenardto
but they wanted
punish Germany.
The Big Four were the US, France, Britain, and Italy, which dropped out after receiving
little land in the treaty
Wilson had a stroke, which made him talk different and agree with the Allies on their
• Prohibition – You cannot make, sell, transport, or drink
Volstead Act alcohol
(18th Amendment) o It had to be prescribed
o It cut alcohol use by a 1/3, so many illegally
19th Amendment drank.

New countries after • Women’s Suffrage


War
• Poland – out of Germany and Russian land
• Czechoslovakia – out of Czech places.
• Hungary – independent now
• Yugoslavia – out of Serbia and Slavs
• Baltic States from Russia form:
Recap: o Finland
o Estonia
18th Amendment was Prohibition
19th Amendment was Women’s suffrage
New countries were Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Finland, Estonia,
Latvia, Lithuania.
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