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MS T102 Anatomy and Physiology

Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samsthana


(A Yoga University, established under Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956)

Block - 4 Circulatory System, Blood and Lymphatic System & Reproductive System
Each Soulis potentially Divine. The goalof life is to manifest that Divinity within by controlling nature internaland external. Do it by Work or Worship or Philosophy or Psychic control, by one or more or allof these and be FREE. Swami Vivekananda

EXPERT ADVICE AND COURSE PREPARATION TEAM


Dr H R Nagendra Vice chancellor, SVYASA University Dr Shirley Telles Joint Director Research, SVYASA University Dr Ramachandra G Bhat Dean, Division of Yoga & Spirituality, SVYASA University Prof N V C Swamy Dean, Yoga & PhysicalSciences, SVYASA University Dr Nagarathna R Dean, Division of yoga & Life Sciences, SVYASA University Prof R N Iyengar Dean, Division of Yoga & Humanities, SVYASA Dr N C B Nath Dean, Yoga & Management, SVYASA University Prof R Venkatram Directorate, Distance Education, SVYASA University

BLOCK PREPARATION TEAM


Ms Karuna Nagarajan Lecture , SVYASA University Swami Vivekananda Yoga Anusandana Samasthana (A Yoga University) Allrights are reserved. No part of this work may ereproduced in any form, by mimeograph or any other means, without permission in writing from the Swami Vivekananda yoga Anusandana Samsthana, University. Printed & Published by Swami Vivekananda Yoga Prakashana (SVYP), Bangalore 2

UNIT 1 THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM Structure 1.0 Introduction 1.1 Objectives 1.2 Heart 1.3 Blood 1.4 Summary 1.5 Questions

1.0 INTRODUCTION The circulatory system consists of the heart, blood vessels and lymphatic. The heart, which is great pumping organ maintaining the circulation throughout the body, Arteries carrying blood from the heart, Veins carrying blood to the heart, Capillaries uniting the arteries and the veins and forming the capillary lake where the traffic between nourishment and waste matter proceeds and the interchange of gases take place in the extracellular or interstitial fluid. Lymphatics, which collect, filter and pass back to the blood streams the lymph which has exhuded through the minute capillary walls to bathe the tissues, may also be regarded as part of the circulatory system. 1.1 OBJECTIVES In this unit 1.2 HEART

The heart is a cone-shaped, hollow, muscular organ, having the base above and the apex below. The apex inclines towards the left side. The heart weights about 300 grms. Position of the Heart. The heart lies in the thorax, between the lungs and behind the sternum, and directed more to the left than the right side. The exact position may be marked on the body.

A line drawn from the third right costal cartilage 1205 mm (1/2 In) from the sternum, upwards to the second left costal cartilage 18 mm (3/4 In) from the sternum, marks the position of the base of the heart where blood vessels enter and leave. A point marked on the left side between the fifth and sixth left ribs or in the fifth left intercostal space 9 cm (3 In) from the mid-line, gives the position of the apex of the heart, which is the pointed extremity of the ventricles. By uniting these two marking by lines, as shown in the accompanying diaphragm, the position of the heart may be indicated. Structure of the Heart. The heart is about the size of a close fist. The adult heart weighs about 220-260 g (8-9 oz). It is divided by a septum into two sides, right and left. There is normally no communication between these two sides after birth. Each side of the heart is further subdivided into two chambers, an upper chamber called an atrium and a lower chamber, a ventricle. There are two atria, right and left, and two ventricles. The atria and ventricles of each side communicate with one another by means of the atrioventricular openings, which are guarded by valves; on the right side by the tricuspid valve and on the left the mitral valve. The atrioventricular valves permit of the passage of blood in one direction only, i.e., from atrium to ventricle; and they prevent the blood flowing backwards from ventricle to atrium. The tricuspid valve is composed of three flaps or cusps and the mitral of two flaps, which gives it some resembles to a bishops mitre, hence the name. The heart is composed of a specialized cardiac muscle and is surrounded by a membrane called the pericardium, a serous membrane, which is closely adherent to the heart, and the parietal pericardium, a fibrous layer which is reflected back from the base of the heart and surrounded it like a loose sac. By this arrangement the heart lies ina double sac of pericardium with serous fluid between the two layers which, by a lubricating action, allows the heart to move freely. The heart is lined by endothelium; this layer is called the endocardium. The valves are simply thickened portions of this membrane. The thickness of the heart wall is composed of a network of heart muscle fibres, and is known as the myocardium. The heart may thus be described as consisting of three layers: The pericardium, or outer covering, The Myocardium or the middle muscular layer, The Endocardium, the inner lining. 5

The muscular walls of the heart vary in thickness; the ventricles have the thickest walls; the walls of the left are thicker than those of the right ventricle, because the force of contraction of the left ventricle is much greater. The walls of the atria are composed of inner muscle. The interior of each of the ventricular walls is marked by thickened columns of muscles. Some of these project as pappilae, the papillary muscles, and to the apices are attached thin tendious cords, the chordae tendineae. These cords have a second attachment to the lower borders of the atrioventricular valves, and this attachment prevents the flaps of the valves from being forced up inyo the atria, when the ventricles contract. The Blood Vessels attached to the Heart. The superior and inferior vanae cavae empty their blood into the right atrium. The opening of the latter is guarded by the semilunar valve of Eustachius. The pulmonary artery carries blood away from the right ventricle. The four pulmonary veins bring blood from the lungs to the left atrium. The aorta carries blood away from the left ventricle. The opening of the aorta and the pulmonary artery are guarded by the semilunar valves. The valve between the left ventricle and the aorta is called the aortic valve and prevents blood flowing backwards from the aorta to the left ventricle. The valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery is called the pulmonary valve and prevents blood flowing backwards from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle.

Blood Supply and Nerve Supply of the Heart. The right and left coronary arteries are the first to leave the aorta; these then divide into smaller arteries which encircle the heart and supply

blood to all parts of the organ. The return blood from the heart is collected mainly by the coronary sinus and returned directly into the right atrium. Nerve supply. Although the action of the heart is rhythmic is character, its rate of contraction is modified by impulses reaching it from the vagus and symphatic nerves. Branches from the symphatic system, cause the action of the heart to be slowed or inhibited. Normally the heart is all the time being inhibited by the vagus, but when the vagal tone or break is removed to meet the needs of the body during exercise or emotional excitement, the rate of the heart beat increases; conversely, during physical rest and emotional tranquility, it decreases. The principal blood vessels

There are several kinds of blood vessels. Arteries and arterioles, which convey blood away from the heart, always carry oxygenated blood, the exception being the pulmonary arteries which carry venous blood. Venules and veins carry blood towards the heart and except the pulmonary veins, always carry deoxygenated blood. Capillaries are very minute blood vessels in which arterioles terminate and venules begin. They form a delicate network of vessels which ramify in most parts of the tissues of the body. Certain arteries, such as those carrying blood to the brain and some of the vessels of the lungs, liver and spleen, do not terminate in ordinary capillaries. The Structure of Blood Vessels. Arteries are composed of three coats: Outer fibrous and connective tissue coat, tunica adventitia, middle muscular and elastic coat, tunica media and inner endothelial coat, tunica intima. The outer coat is protective. The middle layer is strong; it holds the vessel open and by

the state of contraction of the muscle fibres exerts steady pressure on the blood. The inner endothelial coat is very smooth, being lined by a single layer of flat pavement cells. The middle coat of the aorta and the larger arteries contains a large quality of elastic fibre and less muscular tissue, as these arteries require to be very distensible. The smaller arteries and arterioles contain relatively more muscle tissue, as their walls must be readily adapted by the vasomotor control to the needs of the body. The thick walls of larger arteries are themselves supplied with blood by a special system of tiny vessels, known as the vasa-vasoru; they have also a nerve supply of slender nerve filaments embracing the wall of the vessels. Names of the important arteries in our body:

The Aorta The Abdominal Aorta The Common Carotid Artery The Subclavian Artery The Femoral Artery etc.

Veins are composed of the same three layers as the arteries, but the middle muscular layer is thinner, less firm, more collapsible and much less elastic than the arteries. The veins in the limbs where the blood travels against gravity have valves arranged so as to allow the blood to flow towards the heart, but not in the opposite direction. These valves are crescent-shaped folds composed of the inner lining of the vein, endothelium, strengthened by a little fibrous tissue. The folds are opposite one another; their free edge is in the direction in which the blood is flowing. When distended with blood the valves give a knotted appearance to the vein.

Names of the important veins in our body: The Deep Veins The Superficial Veins Veins of the Thorax 8

Superior Vane cava Inferior vane cava Internal & external Jugular Vein Capillaries are the minute vessels in which the arteries terminate. As the arterioles get smaller and smaller, the three coats gradually disappear until, when the fine hair-like capillary vessels are formed, these consists of one layer, the inner endothelial coat of the arteries. The extreme thinners of these vessels permits the transudation of lymph, which forms the tissue fluid and brings water, valuable salts and nutrients to the cells and by the interchange of gases between the capillary vessels and tissue cells, supplies oxygen and carries away waste matter including carbon dioxide. The capillaries, therefore perform a very important function as they distribute the substances to the tissues which enable the various processes of the body to go on.

THE CIRCULATION OF THE BLOOD The heart is the chief organ of the circulation of the blood. The course of the blood from the left ventricle through arteries, arterioles and capillaries, returning it to the right atrium by veins is called the greater or systemic circulation, to the left atrium is the lesser or pulmonary circulation. The Systemic Circulation. The blood leaves the left ventricles of the heart by the aorta, the largest artery in the body. This breaks up into smaller arteries which carry the blood to the different parts of the body. These divide and subdivide until the arterioles are reached. These have very muscular walls which narrow their channels and resist the flow of blood. This has two functions: it maintains the arterial blood pressure and-by varying the size of the channel-it

regulates the flow of blood into the capillaries. The capillaries have very thin walls so that exchange can take place between the plasma and the interstitial fluid. These capillaries then unite and form larger vessels called venules which in turn becomes veins, and carry the blood back to the heart. The veins unite and unite again until finally two large venous trunks are formed, the inferior vena cava which collects the blood form the trunk and lower extremities and the superior vena cava which collects blood from the head and upper extremities. Both these vessels empty their contents into the right atrium of the heart.

Pulmonary Circulation. This blood then passes into the right ventricle which contract and pumps it into the pulmonary artery. This divides to carry the blood to right and left lungs. The lungs offer very little resistance to the to the blood in the vessels flowing through them. In the lungs each artery breaks up into numerous smaller arteries, then into arterioles and finally into pulmonary capillaries which surround the alveoli in the lung tissue where the blood takes up oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. The pulmonary capillaries than unite vein are formed and the blood is returned to the heart by four pulmonary veins which empty into the left atrium. This blood then passes into the left ventricle which contracts and pumps it into the aorta to begin the systemic circulation again. 1 0

Pulmonary oedema accompanies failure of the left side of the heart. Tissue fluid collects in the lungs, whose function is impaired. Pulmonary eodema can also occur if a patient who is ill is overhydrated; his lungs become waterlogged and it is possible that he may drown in his own pulmonary eodema.

Portal Circulation. Blood from the stomach, intestines, pancreas and spleen is collected by the portal vein. In the liver this vein breaks down into a capillary system and portal obstruction may occur when a branch or branches of the portal vein are obstructed, in severe injury to the liver and in some instances in hepatitis. When sever, such an obstruction is complicated by ascites, a collection of excess fluid in the peritoneal cavity.

The Cardiac Cycle


The heart is a pump and the events which occurs in the heart during the circulation of the blood are spoken of as the cardiac cycle. The hearts action originates in the sino-atrial node, then the atria contract, the electrical impulse moves along the bundles of His and the ventricles then contract. This action is described in two parts, contraction or systole and relaxation or diastole. Contraction of the atria occurs almost simultaneously and is called the atrial systole; their relaxation , the atrial diastole. Similarly the contraction and relaxation of the ventricles are the ventricular systole and diastole respectively. The ventricular contraction lasts 0-3 seconds; the relaxation phase is longer, 0-5 seconds. In this way the heart beats continuously, night and day, throughout life, and the only rest the cardiac muscle gets is during the periods of ventricular diastole.

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The contraction of the atria is short, that of the ventricles is longer and more forcible, and that of the left ventricle the most forcible of any, as it has to force the blood throughout the body to maintain the system; arterial blood pressure. The right ventricle, although it pumps exactly the same volume of blood only has to send it round the lungs where the pressure is much less. The Heart Sounds. Two sounds may be heard during the action of the heart due to the passive closing of the valves. The first sound is due to the closing of the atrioventricular valves, and the contraction of the ventricles; the second to the closing of the aortic and pulmonary valves, after the contraction of the ventricles. The first is long and dull and the second short and sharp. Thus the first sound like lubb and the second like dup/ normally the heart makes no other noise, but if the flow of blood is rapid or if there are deformities in the valves or other chambers there may be extra noise, usually called murmurs. The Cardiac Impulse or apex beat is the impact of the left ventricle against the anterior wall of the chest, occurring during the contraction of the ventricles. This impulse cab be left, and often seen in the fifth left intercostals space, about 9 cm (3 In) from the middle line of the sternum. Properties of Heart Muscle. Cardiac muscle has its characteristicsContractility. By contracting the muscle of the heart pumps out of its chambers the blood which enters during diastole. Conductivity. The contraction is conveyed (conducted) along every individual fibre of the heart muscle with perfect smoothnes. This property is very marked in the bundle of His. Rhythm. Cardiac muscle possess the inherent power of automatic rhythmic contraction, independent of its nerve supply. In a condition known as heart block the bundle of His fail to transmit the impulses started at the sino-atrial node or sinus. If the block is incomplete the ventricles only respond to every second or third impulse. In complete heart block the ventricles contract independently of the atria. In this condition they obey a new pace-,aker in the bundle of His. The Atrial pulse. Is a wave of increased pressure which is felt at the arteries when blood is pumped out of the heart. It may be conveniently felt at any point where an artery crosses a bone 1 2

and lies superficially, as: the radial artery at the front of the wrist, the temporal artery over the temporal bone, or the dorsalis pedis artery into the aorta that is felt, but the pressure transmitted from the aorta which travels more rapidly than blood. The pumping rate of the heart varies in health under conditions of living, working, food intake, age and emotion. The pulse rate corresponds with the cardiac cycle. If the pulse count is 70, the cardiac cycle will occur 70 times a minute. Normally Pulse Rate Range (number of beats/min) In the newly born During the 1st year During the 2 year
nd

140 120 110

At the age if 15 years At the age of 10 years In the adult

96-100 80-90 60-80

The Cardiac Output. In a resting person the heart beats about 70 times a minute and pumps 701 ml each time (the stroke volume is 70 ml). The amount of blood pumped each minute is therefore 70 * 70 ml or about 5 liters. During exercise the heart rate may be 150/min and the stroke volume over 150 ml, making a cardiac output of 20 to 25 lts/min. An exactly equal volume of blood is returned to the heart in the veins each minute. If, however, the venous return is not well balanced and the ventricles fail to deal with the cardiac output, heart failure occurs. The large veins neat the heart become distended with blood as the venous pressure rises and unless this condition can be dealt with quickly oedema occurs. The Oedema of heart failure is partly due to the back-pressure in the veins, which increases the filtration of fluid in the capillaries and partly due to the low cardiac output which reduces the blood flow to the kidney; the kidney then fails to excrete sodium. Retention of sodium causes retention of water. 1.3 THE BLOOD Blood is a fluid tissue composed of two parts. The intercellular substance is a fluid called plasma, in which float formed elements-the blood cells or corpuscles. The total volume of blood forms about one-twelfth of the weight of the body or about 5 lts. About 55%, a little over half the volume is fluid, the remaining 45% of the volume being made up of the blood cells. This figure is described as the haematocrit or packed cell volume, ranging from 40-47.

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The volume of blood is constant in health, being regulated to a greater extent by the osmotic pressure in the vessels and in the tissue. Composition of Blood. Blood serum or plasma is made up as flows: Water 91.0% Protein 8.0% (Albumin, globulin, prothrombin and fibrinogen) Salts 0.9% (Sodium Chloride, sodium bi-carbonate, salts of calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron etc) The balance is made up of traces of a number of organic materials: glucose, fats, urea, uric acid, creatinin, cholesterol and amino-acids. The plasma also carries: Gases- oxygen and carbon dioxide, Internal secretions, Enzymes and antigens. Blood cells. There are three varieties: Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBC), Leucocytes or white blood cells (WBC) and Thrombocytes or platelets. The Red Cells or Erythrocytes are small circular bi-concave discs, so-called because they are concave on both sides, so that when looked at from the side they appear like two crescents placed back to back. There are about 5 lakh red cells in each cubic millimeter of blood. They are a pale buff color when seen singly, but in masses appear red and give the color to the blood. In structure they consist of an outer envelope or stroma which encloses a mass of haemoglobin. The RBC need protein for their structure derived from the amino-acids; they also need iron, so that a balanced diet containing some iron is necessary for their replacement. Women require more iron as some is lost in the menstrual flow, in pregnancy the requirement is greater to supply iron for the developing fetus for the milk in lactation. The red cells originate in bone marrow, especially in that of the short, flat and irregular bones, in the cancellous tissue at the ends of the long bones and in the marrow in the shafts of the ribs and in the sternum. In process of development in the bone marrow the red cells pass through several stages: at first they are large and contain a nucleus but no haemoglobin; they are next charged with haemoglobin and finally lose their nucleus and are then passes out for circulation in the blood. The average life of a RBC is about 120 days. The cells then wear out. They are disintegrated in the reticulo-endothelial system, principally in the spleen and liver. The globin of 1 4

the haemoglobin is broken down into amino-acids to be used as protein in the formation of future RBC. The rest of the haem is converted into bilirubin, the yellow pigment, and biliverdin the green one seen in the color changes of reduced haemoglobin in a bruise. When bleeding occurs red cells, with their oxygen-carrying haemoglobin, are lost. In moderate haemorrhage these cells will be replaced during the following weeks, provided a balanced diet, containing adequate iron is taken; but if the percentage of haemoglobin falls to 40 or below, a blood transfusion may be needed. Haemoglobin is a complex protein rich in iron. It has an affinity for oxygen and combines with it forming oxy-haemo-globin in the red cells. By means of this function oxygen is carried to the tissues from the lungs. The mount of haemoglobin present in normal blood is about 15 g/100 ml blood and this amount is usually called 100 %. Anything over 90 % is condidered normal. In many forms of anemia the amount of haemoglobin persent in the blood is diminished. In some severe forms it may fall below 30%, that is 5g/100 ml. ass haemoglobin contains the iron necessary to combine with oxygen, it will readily be understood that these patience percent symptoms of deficient oxygen such as breathlessness, often one of the first indications of iron deficiency anemia. Blood Groups. Substances in the plasma, called agglutins, will, if blood of an incompatible group is transfused, cause clumping and haemolysis of the red cells. Blood grouping and tests of incompatibility are carried out in order to ensure a high degree of safely before a blood transfusion is given. The Landsteiner ABO system is based on the agglutinin content of the blood. The four main groups designated are: Group AB representing A B O 3.0% of people in Great Britain 42.0% 8.5% 46.5%

In addition there are a number of Landsteiner sub-groups and the Rh or Rhesus factor in blood is of importance in the newly born when the blood of the fetus may be incompatible with that of the mother. 1 5

In considering donors of blood: Group AB may give blood to AB A to A and AB B B AB o is a universal donor for all groups.

Recipients: Group AB is a universal recipient A may receive blood from groups A and O B B O O from O

It is customary to transfuse blood of the same group as the patient, and only in emergency to give the blood of a universal donor. White Blood Cells (WBC) which are transparent and not colored, are large and fewer than the red. There are from 6,000 to 10,000 in each cubic mm of blood. They are classified as follows: Granulocytes or polymorphonuclear cells form almost 75% of the total white cell count; they are formed in the red marrow of bone. These cells contain a many-lobed nucleus and the protoplasm of the cells is granular, hence the term granular cell or granulocyte. Deficiency of granulocytes is described as granulocytopenia. Complete absence Of them, agranulocytosis may arise when certain drugs are given, including some of the antibiotics. Therefore under these conditions, frequent blood examinations are made in order to detect this condition as soon as possible. Staining. When a drop of blood is placed on a slide and two stains are added in order to make a blood count, cells in this group are typed according to their manner of staining. Neutrophil cells forms the majority; these stain with neutral dyes, or a mixture of the acid and alkaline stains and deeper purple. Eosinophil cells. A very few cells form this group; they take the acid strain and appear red. Basophil cells take the basic dyes and strain blue. Lymphocytes form about 25% of the total white cell count. These cells are developed in the lymph glands, the spleen, liver and lymphatic tissue as well as in the bone marrow. They are 1 6

non-granular cells and have no power of amoeboid movement. They are subdivided into small and large lymphocytes. In addition a few larger cells are described as monocytes; these cells are capable of amoeboid movement and are phagocytes in action. Functions of the White Cells. The granulocytes and monocytes play a very important part in protecting the body from micro-organisms. By phagocytic action they ingest living bacteria. As many as 10 to 20 micro-organisms may be seen in a granulocyte under microscopic examination. When performing this function they are called phagocytes. By their out of the blood vessels and wander about in all parts of the body. In this way they can: Surrounded any area which is infected or injured, Take in living organisms and destroy them (ingetion), Remove other materials such as bits of dirt, splinters of wood, caught sutures, etc., by a similar process and in addition, the granulocytes possess a protein-spliting ferment which enables them to act on living tissue, break it down, and remove it. In this way diseased or injured tissue can be removed and healing promoted. As the result of the phagocytic action of the WBC inflammation may be entirely arrested. When the activity does not proceed to complete resolution, pus may be formed. Pus consists of the dead bodies of friends and foes-phagocytes killed in the battle against the invading germs are called pus cells. Many dead germs also are present in pus and in addition there is a considerable amount of liquefied tissue. As the fight proceeds, if the white cells overcome the invading organisms, eventually all signs of destruction will be removed, living and dead bacteria, pus cells and liquefied tissue all being removed by the healthy granulocytes acting as phagocytes. Of the function of the lymphocytes less is known. They have no over power of amoeboid movement, they float in the blood streams and are also found in lymphatic tissue in all parts of the body. They do not ingest bacteria, but it is thought that they make valuable antibodies to protect the body against chronic infection and to maintain some degree of immunity to all infections. Leucocytosis is the term used to describe increase in the total number of white cells in the blood when the increase exceeds 10,000/cubic mm. Leucopenia means decrease in the white count to 5,000 or less. Lymphocytosis-increase in the number of lymphocytes. Agranulocytosis-a marked decrease in the number of granulocytes or polymorphonuclear cells. Blood Platelets or Thrombocytes are small cells about one-third the size of a RBC. There are 1 7

300,000 of them in each cubic mm of blood. They play an important part in the control of bleeding after injury and in the clotting of blood. Summary of the Number of Blood Cells in each cubic Millimeter of Blood The Normal blood count or the number of cells/cubic mm of blood is approximately: Red Cells 4,500,000 to 5,500,000 Average Average 5,000,000 8,000

White Cells 6,000 to 10,000 Made up as follows: Granulocytes: Neutrophil cells Eosinophil cells Basophil cells Lymphocytes (larger and small) Monocytes Platelets

percent 60-70 1-4 1/2-2 20-30 4-8 Total 250,000 to 500,000

average percent 66 3 1 25 5 100 350,000 Average

Blood Plasma is a straw-colored fluid, slightly alkaline in reaction. The composition of plasma and the list of substances contained in it. Functions of plasma. Plasma acts as the medium for the transmission of nutrient, salts, fats, glucose and amino-acids to the tissues; and as the medium for the carrying away waste materials-urea, uric acid and some of the carbon dioxide. Plasma proteins. Albumin. There is normally 3-5 g of albumin in each 100ml of blood. It has three functions:

It is responsible for the osmotic pressure which maintains the blood volume. Many special substances are carried in combination with the albumin and It provides protein to the tissues.

Globulin. There are normally 2-3 g of globulin in each 100 ml of blood. Globulin is much more 1 8

variable than albumin in composition and really comprises a very large number of different proteins. It is less important in providing osmotic pressure than albumin but more important in other ways; for instance all the protective antibodies are globulins. Fibrinogen is essential for blood coagulation. The reaction of blood plasma. Blood is always alkaline; the degree of alkalinity depends on the hydrogen-ion concentration and this is expressed as the ph of blood. The ph of 7 ______ represents a neutral solution. The ph from 7 to 1 ____ an acid solution. The ph from 7 to 14 ____ an alkaline solution. It will be seen that the figure ph 7 is a neutral solution. Blood is always slightly alkaline-the ph of blood is 7.35-7.45.this figure is constantly maintained; only very slight variation on either side is compatible with life. The maintenance of the constant degree of alkalinity of the blood therefore is most important and this is controlled by the following factors: The elimination of carbon dioxide from the lungs, the excretion of acids in the urine. The alkaline reserves property of the blood, which depends on the presence of sodium bicarbonate in the plasma, acting as what is described as a buffer substance and preventing reduction of the alkalinity of the blood by acids resulting from metabolism. The Coagulation of Blood. When blood has been shed, it quickly becomes sticky and soon sets as a red jelly. This jelly or clot contracts or shins and straw-colored fluid called serum is squeezed out from it. If shed blood is microscopically examined, very fine threads will be seen, the insoluble fibrin threads formed from the fibrinogen in the blood plasma by the action of a ferment thrombin. These threads entangles the blood is collected in a test tube, the clot will eventually float in the serum. The clotting of blood is a complicated process, and several factors are necessary to bring it about. As already stated the ferment thrombin is instrumental is converting fibrinogen into fibrin threads. Thrombin is not present in normal unshed blood but its precursor prothrombin is present and is converted into the active ferment thrombin by the action of thrombokinase. Thrombokinase or thromboplastin is an activating agent liberated on injury to the blood cells, it is thought largely by injury to the blood platelets, which provided that calcium salt are present in the blood, will convert prothrombin into thrombin so that clotting can take place. To produce a clot therefore four factors are necessary: 1 9

Calcium salts, normally present in blood, Cell injury which liberates thrombokinase. Thrombin formed from prothrombin in the presence of thrombokinase and Fibrin formed from fibrinogen in the presence of thrombin. The process of clotting may be expressed by the formula: Prothrombin+calcium+thrombokinase= Thrombin Thrombin+fibrinogen Fibrin+blood cells = Fibrin = Clot

Prothrombin is made in the liver. Vitamin K is necessary for its production. Coagulation is hastened (a) by heat a little higher than the body temperature, (b) contact with rough material, such as the roughened edge of a damaged blood vessels or a surgical dressing. It is retarded (a) by cold, (b) by being kept in a vessel coated with paraffin wax because blood needs to be in contact with a surface that can be wet by water before it will clot, and paraffin is not a water-wetting surface, (c) by the addition of potassium citrate or sodium citrate, which removes the calcium salts normally present. Clinically a thrombus is a clot formed in the circulation; the condition is one of thrombosis. A femoral thrombosis may occur after an operation; a clot in a coronary artery causes coronary thrombosis. When a portion of a clot becomes detached and enters the circulating blood it is called an embolus, by one of the pulmonary arteries, a small or large vessel might be blocked by it, consisting a pulmonary embolism. Summary of the Functions of Blood

To act as the transport system of the body, conveying all chemical substances, oxygen and nutrients required for the nourishment of the body in order that its normal functions may be fulfilled, and carrying away carbon dioxide and other waste products. The red cells convey oxygen to the tissue and remove some of the carbon dioxide. The plasma distributes proteins needed for tissue formation; it service the tissue fluid by which all cells receive nourishment; the and forms the vehicle by which waste matter is conveyed to the various excretory organs for elimination. The white cells provide many of the protective substances and by phagocytic action some of the cells protect the body against bacteria.

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The internal secretions, hormones and enzymes are conveyed from organ to organ by means of the blood.

All tissues need an adequate supply of the blood, which depends on a normal arterial blood pressure being maintained. In the lying position the blood pressure in the body is level, but when sitting or standing the blood to the brain has to be pumped uphill. The brain in particular needs a continuous adequate supply pf blood; if deprived of blood for longer than 3-4 minutes, irreversible changes take place and some brain cells die. Therefore in cardiac arrest from any cause, urgent immediate treatment is essential to get the heart acting again. Even in simple faint, such as many are caused by emotional or physical strain a fall in blood pressure diminishes the blood supply to the brain. Therefore it is essential to lower the head of the subject, either by pressing it forward between his knees if sitting, or perfectly to have him lying on the floor. BLOOD PRESSURE Arterial Blood Pressure is the force of pressure which the blood is exerting against the walls of the blood vessels in which it is contained. This pressure varies during the cardiac cycle. During ventricular systole, when the left ventricle is forcing blood into the aorta the pressure rises to a peak, systolic pressure. During diastole the pressure falls, the lowest value it reaches being called diastolic pressure. Systolic blood pressure is produced by the heart muscle which drives the contents of the ventricle into the already stretched arteries. During diastole the arteries are kept partly distended because the peripheral resistance of the arterioles prevents all the blood running off into the tissues. Thus the blood pressure depends partly on the contraction of the muscles in the walls of the arterioles. This contraction is maintained b vasoconstrictor nerves which are controlled by the vasomotor centre in the medulla oblongata of the brain. The vasomotor centre adjusts the peripheral resistance to maintain the blood pressure relatively constant. It changes slightly in physiological variations of exertion as in exercise, with mental changes of anxiety and emotions, in sleep and when eating. For this reason the blood pressure is always taken when a person is relaxed, resting and preferably recumbent. In Measuring Arterial Blood Pressure an instrumental called a sphygmomanometer is used. The upper arm is encircled by an inflatable rubber bag contained in a cuff which is connected to a 2 1

pressure pump and manometer. By pumping, the pressure in the bag is rapidly raised to 200 mm of Hg which is sufficient to obliterate completely the brachial artery so that no blood comes through, and the radial pulse disappear. The pressure is then lowered to a point where the pulse can be felt or, more exactly, when, by using a stethoscope, the pulsation of the brachial artery at the bend of the elbow can be distinctly heard. At this point the pressure shown on the column of mercury in the manometer is considered to be the systolic pressure,. The pressure on the brachial artery is then gradually reduced until the heart sounds or arterial pulse beats can be distinctly heard or felt, and the point at which the sounds begins to fade is generally accepted as the diastolic pressure. The different in pressure between systole and diastole is called the pulse pressure and is normally from 30-50 mm of Hg. The lower limit of systolic pressure in the normal adult is estimated at approximately 105 mm of Hg and the upper limit at 150. In women the blood pressure is from 5-10 mm of Hg lower than in men.

1. 4 SUMMARY Here is what we have learned from this unit:

The cardiovascular system consists of the heart, which is a muscular pumping device, and a closed system of vessels called arteries, veins, and capillaries. The vital role of the cardiovascular system in maintaining homeostasis depends on the continuous and controlled movement of blood through the thousands of miles of capillaries that permeate every tissue and reach every cell in the body.

The heart is a muscular pump that provides the force necessary to circulate the blood to all the tissues in the body. Three layers of the heart are: the epicardium, the myocardium, and the endocardium. The four chambers of the heart are: the right atrium, the right ventricle, the left atrium, and the left ventricle. Two types of valves of the heart are the atrioventricular valves and semilunar valves. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle and then is pumped to the lungs to receive oxygen. From the lungs, the blood flows to the left atrium, then to the left ventricle. From there it is pumped to the systemic circulation.

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Specialized cardiac muscle cells that make up the conduction system of the heart coordinate contraction of the chambers. The pulmonary vessels transport blood from the right ventricle to the lungs and back to the left atrium. The systemic vessels carry blood from the left ventricle to the tissues in all parts of the body and then returns the blood to the right atrium. Substances pass through the capillary wall by diffusion, filtration, and osmosis. 1.5 QUESTIONS

Write a brief account on: a. Principle blood vessels b. Functions of blood. c. Circulation of blood d. Cardiac cycle UNIT 2 THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM Structure 2.0 Introduction 2.1. Objectives 2.2 Functions of lymphatic system 2.3 Components of lymphatic systemLymph nodes, Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus. 2.4 Summary 2.5 Questions 2.0 INTRODUCTION The lymphatic system is intimately connected with circulatory system. The blood leaves the heart by arteries and in returned to it by veins. Some of the fluid which leaves the circulation is returned to it by the lymphatics which penetrate the tissue spaces. Functions.

To return fluid and protein from the tissues to the circulation. To transport lymphocytes from the lymphatic glands to the circulation. To carry emulsified fat from the intestine to the circulation. The lymphatics performing this function are the laterals. 2 3

The lymphatic glands filter out and destroy micro-organisms in order to prevent infection spreading from the point where the organisms entered the tissue to other parts of the body. Following an infection the lymphatic glands produce antibodies to protect the body against subsequent infection.

2.0 OBJECTIVES In this unit you will be learning about Functions of lymphatic system, Components of lymphatic systemLymph nodes, Tonsils, Spleen, Thymus. 2.1 FUNCTIONS OF THE LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system has three primary functions. First of all, it returns excess interstitial fluid to the blood. Of the fluid that leaves the capillary, about 90 percent is returned. The 10 percent that does not return becomes part of the interstitial fluid that surrounds the tissue cells. Small protein molecules may "leak" through the capillary wall and increase the osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid. This further inhibits the return of fluid into the capillaries, and fluid tends to accumulate in the tissue spaces. If this continues, blood volume and blood pressure decrease significantly and the volume of tissue fluid increases, which results in edema (swelling). Lymph capillaries pick up the excess interstitial fluid and proteins and return them to the venous blood. After the fluid enters the lymph capillaries, it is called lymph. The second function of the lymphatic system is the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from the digestive system and the subsequent transport of these substances to the venous circulation. The mucosa that lines the small intestine is covered with fingerlike projections called villi. There are blood capillaries and special lymph capillaries, called lacteals, in the center of each villus. The blood capillaries absorb most nutrients, but the fats and fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed by the lacteals. The lymph in the lacteals has a milky appearance due to its high fat content and is called chyle. The third and probably most well known function of the lymphatic system is defense against invading microorganisms and disease. Lymph nodes and other lymphatic organs filter the lymph to remove microorganisms and other foreign particles. Lymphatic organs contain lymphocytes that destroy invading organisms. 2.2 COMPONENTS OF LYMPHATIC SYSTEM The lymphatic system consists of a fluid (lymph), vessels that transport the lymph, and organs that contain lymphoid tissue.

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Lymph

Lymph is a fluid similar in composition to blood plasma. It is derived from blood plasma as fluids pass through capillary walls at the arterial end. As the interstitial fluid begins to accumulate, it is picked up and removed by tiny lymphatic vessels and returned to the blood. As soon as the interstitial fluid enters the lymph capillaries, it is called lymph. Returning the fluid to the blood prevents edema and helps to maintain normal blood volume and pressure. Lymphatic Vessels

Lymphatic vessels, unlike blood vessels, only carry fluid away from the tissues. The smallest lymphatic vessels are the lymph capillaries, which begin in the tissue spaces as blind-ended sacs. Lymph capillaries are found in all regions of the body except the bone marrow, central nervous system, and tissues, such as the epidermis, that lack blood vessels. The wall of the lymph capillary is composed of endothelial in which the simple squamous cells overlap to form a simple one-way valve. This arrangement permits fluid to enter the capillary but prevents lymph from leaving the vessel.

The microscopic lymph capillaries merge to form lymphatic vessels. Small lymphatic vessels join to form larger tributaries, called lymphatic trunks, which drain large regions. Lymphatic trunks merge until the lymph enters the two lymphatic ducts. The right lymphatic duct drains lymph

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from the upper right quadrant of the body. The thoracic duct drains all the rest.

Like veins, the lymphatic tributaries have thin walls and have valves to prevent backflow of blood. There is no pump in the lymphatic system like the heart in the cardiovascular system. The pressure gradients to move lymph through the vessels come from the skeletal muscle action, respiratory movement, and contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls.

Lymphatic Organs

Lymphatic organs are characterized by clusters of lymphocytes and other cells, such as macrophages, enmeshed in a framework of short, branching connective tissue fibers. The lymphocytes originate in the red bone marrow with other types of blood cells and are carried in the blood from the bone marrow to the lymphatic organs. When the body is exposed to microorganisms and other foreign substances, the lymphocytes proliferate within the lymphatic organs and are sent in the blood to the site of the invasion. This is part of the immune response that attempts to destroy the invading agent. To learn more about lymphatic organs, you have to learn about : Lymph Nodes, Tonsils , Spleen , Thymus Lymph Nodes Lymph nodes are small bean-shaped structures that are usually less than 2.5 cm in length. They are widely distributed throughout the body along the lymphatic pathways where they filter the lymph before it is returned to the blood. Lymph nodes are not present in the central nervous system. There are three superficial regions on each side of the body where lymph nodes tend to cluster. These areas are the inguinal nodes in the groin, the axillary nodes in the armpit, and the cervical nodes in the neck. The typical lymph node is surrounded by a connective tissue capsule and divided into compartments called lymph nodules. The lymph nodules are dense masses of lymphocytes and macrophages and are separated by spaces called lymph sinuses. Several afferent lymphatic vessels, which carry lymph into the node, enter the node on the convex side. The lymph moves through the lymph sinuses and enters an efferent lymphatic

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vessel, which carries the lymph away from the node. Because there are more afferent vessels than efferent vessels, the passage of lymph through the sinuses is slowed down, which allow time for the cleansing process. The efferent vessel leaves the node at an indented region called the hilum.

Tonsils Tonsils are clusters of lymphatic tissue just under the mucous membranes that line the nose, mouth, and throat (pharynx). There are three groups of tonsils. The pharyngeal tonsils are located near the opening of the nasal cavity into the pharynx. When these tonsils become enlarged they may interfere with breathing and are called adenoids. The palatine tonsils are the ones that are located near the opening of the oral cavity into the pharynx. Lingual tonsils are located on the posterior surface of the tongue, which also places them near the opening of the oral cavity into the pharynx. Lymphocytes and macrophages in the tonsils provide protection against harmful substances and pathogens that may enter the body through the nose or mouth.

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The Spleen The spleen is located in the upper left abdominal cavity, just beneath the diaphragm, and posterior to the stomach. It is similar to a lymph node in shape and structure but it is much larger. The spleen is the largest lymphatic organ in the body. Surrounded by a connective tissue capsule, which extends inward to divide the organ into lobules, the spleen consists of two types of tissue called white pulp and red pulp. The white pulp is lymphatic tissue consisting mainly of lymphocytes around arteries. The red pulp consists of venous sinuses filled with blood and cords of lymphatic cells, such as lymphocytes and macrophages. Blood enters the spleen through the splenic artery, moves through the sinuses where it is filtered, then leaves through the spleenic vein.

The spleen filters blood in much the way that the lymph nodes filter lymph. Lymphocytes in the spleen react to pathogens in the blood and attempt to destroy them. Macrophages then engulf the resulting debris, the damaged cells, and the other large particles. The spleen, along with the liver, removes old and damaged erythrocytes from the circulating blood. Like other lymphatic tissue, it produces lymphocytes, especially in response to invading pathogens. The sinuses in the spleen are a reservoir for blood. In emergencies such as hemorrhage, smooth muscle in the vessel walls and in the capsule of the spleen contracts. This squeezes the blood out of the spleen into the general circulation.

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Thymus The thymus is a soft organ with two lobes that is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum. It is relatively large in infants and children but after puberty it begins to decrease in size so that in older adults it is quite small.

The primary function of the thymus is the processing and maturation of special lymphocytes called T-lymphocytes or T-cells. While in the thymus, the lymphocytes do not respond to pathogens and foreign agents. After the lymphocytes have matured, they enter the blood and go to other lymphatic organs where they help provide defense against disease. The thymus also produces a hormone, thymosin, which stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes in other lymphatic organs.

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2.3 SUMMARY

Here is what we have learned from this unit:

d. The lymphatic system returns excess interstitial fluid to the blood, absorbs fats and fatsoluble vitamins, and provides defense against disease. di. Lymph is the fluid in the lymphatic vessels. It is picked up from the interstitial fluid and returned to the blood plasma. dii. Lymphatic vessels carry fluid away from the tissues. diii. div. The right lymphatic duct drains lymph from the upper right quadrant of the body Pressure gradients that move fluid through the lymphatic vessels come from the and the thoracic duct drains all the rest. skeletal muscle action, respiratory movements, and contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls. dv. Lymph enters a lymph node through afferent vessels, filters through the sinuses, and leaves through efferent vessels. dvi. dvii. blood. dviii. The thymus is large in the infant and atrophies after puberty. Tonsils are clusters of lymphatic tissue associated with openings into the pharynx The spleen is a lymph organ that filters blood and also acts as a reservoir for and provide protection against pathogens that may enter through the nose and mouth.

2.4 QUESTIONS

1. Of the fluid that leaves the capillary, about ________ percent is returned. The ________ percent that does not return becomes part of the interstitial fluid that surrounds the tissue cells. A. 50, 50 B. 40, 60 C. 90, 10 D. 20, 80 2. One of the functions that the lymphatic system performs is to return excess _______ fluid to 3 0

the blood. A. clear B. interstitial C. red-colored D. thoracic 3. Lymph nodes are widely distributed throughout the body along the lymphatic pathways where they filter the ________ before it is returned to the ________. A. lymph, blood B. lymph, heart C. blood, heart D. blood, lymph 4. Lymph enters a lymph node through ________, filters through the ________, and leaves through ________. A. efferent vessels, afferent vessels, sinuses B. sinuses, afferent vessels, efferent vessels C. afferent vessels, sinuses, efferent vessels D. afferent vessels, efferent vessels, sinuses 5. The ________ tonsils are the ones that are located near the opening of the oral cavity into the pharynx. A. lingual B. pharyngeal C. palatine D. oral 6. The spleen is a lymph organ that filters blood and also acts as a reservoir for ________. A. water B. fat C. interstitial fluid 3 1

D. blood 7. The thymus is a soft organ with ________lobes that is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum. A. one B. two C. three D. four 8. The thymus also produces a hormone, _________, that stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes in other lymphatic organs. A. oxytocin B. thymosin C. calcitonin D. estrogen Write a brief note on : a. Functions of Lymphatic system. b. Lymphatic organs.

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UNIT 3 REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Structure
3.0 Introduction to reproductive system 3.1 Male reproductive system--- Testes, Duct system, Accessory glands, Penis, Male sexual response. 3.2 Female reproductive system--- Ovaries, Genital tract, External genitalia, Female sexual response and hormone control, Mammary glands. 3.3 Summary 3.4 Check your progress 3.0 INTRODUCTION The major function of the reproductive system is to ensure survival of the species. Other systems in the body, such as the endocrine and urinary systems, work continuously to maintain homeostasis for survival of the individual. An individual may live a long, healthy, and happy life without producing offspring, but if the species is to continue, at least some individuals must produce offspring.

Within the context of producing offspring, the reproductive system has four functions:

To produce egg and sperm cells


o o o

To transport and sustain these cells To nurture the developing offspring To produce hormones

These functions are divided between the primary and secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. The primary reproductive organs, or gonads, consist of the ovaries and testes. These organs are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells, (gametes), and for producing hormones. These hormones function in the maturation of the reproductive system, the

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development of sexual characteristics, and have important roles in regulating the normal physiology of the reproductive system. All other organs, ducts, and glands in the reproductive system are considered secondary, or accessory, reproductive organs. These structures transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring.

Male Reproductive System

Female Reproductive System

3.1 OBJECTIVES

In this unit you are introduced reproductive system Male & female. 3.1 MALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM The male reproductive system, like that of the female, consists of those organs whose function is to produce a new individual, i.e., to accomplish reproduction. This system consists of a pair of testes and a network of excretory ducts (epididymis, ductus deferens (vas deferens), and ejaculatory ducts), seminal vesicles, the prostate, the bulbourethral glands, and the penis.

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Testes

Duct System

Accessory Glands

 

Penis Male Sexual Response and Hormonal Control

dix.

Testes

The male gonads, testes, or testicles, begin their development high in the abdominal cavity, near the kidneys. During the last two months before birth, or shortly after birth, they descend through the inguinal canal into the scrotum, a pouch that extends below the abdomen, posterior to the penis. Although this location of the testes, outside the abdominal cavity, may seem to make them vulnerable to injury, it provides a temperature about 3 C below normal body temperature. This lower temperature is necessary for the production of viable sperm.The scrotum consists of skin and subcutaneous tissue. A vertical septum, or partition, of subcutaneous tissue in the center divides it into two parts, each containing one testis. Smooth muscle fibers, called the dartos muscle, in the subcutaneous tissue contract to give the scrotum its wrinkled appearance. When these fibers are relaxed, the scrotum is smooth. Another muscle, the cremaster muscle, consists of skeletal muscle fibers and controls the position of the scrotum and testes. When it is cold or a man is sexually aroused, this muscle contracts to pull the testes closer to the body for warmth.

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Structure

Each testis is an oval structure about 5 cm long and 3 cm in diameter. A tough, white fibrous connective tissue capsule, the tunica albuginea, surrounds each testis and extends inward to form septa that partition the organ into lobules. There are about 250 lobules in each testis. Each lobule contains 1 to 4 highly coiled seminiferous tubules that converge to form a single straight tubule, which leads into the rete testis. Short efferent ducts exit the testes. Interstitial cells (cells of Leydig), which produce male sex hormones, are located between the seminiferous tubules within a lobule.

Spermatogenesis

Sperm are produced by spermatogenesis within the seminiferous tubules. A transverse section of a seminiferous tubule shows that it is packed with cells in various stages of development. Interspersed with these cells, there are large cells that extend from the periphery of the tubule to the lumen. These large cells are the supporting, or sustentacular cells (Sertoli's cells), which support and nourish the other cells.

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Duct System

Sperm cells pass through a series of ducts to reach the outside of the body. After they leave the testes, the sperm passes through the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and urethra.

Epididymis

Sperm leave the testes through a series of efferent ducts that enter the epididymis. Each epididymis is a long (about 6 meters) tube that is tightly coiled to form a comma-shaped organ located along the superior and posterior margins of the testes. When the sperm leave the testes, they are immature and incapable of fertilizing ova. They complete their maturation process and become fertile as they move through the epididymis. Mature sperm are stored in the lower portion, or tail, of the epididymis. Ductus Deferens

The ductus deferens, also called vas deferens, is a fibromuscular tube that is continuous ( or contiguous) with the epididymis. It begins at the bottom (tail) of the epididymis then turns sharply upward along the posterior margin of the testes. The ductus deferens enters the abdominopelvic cavity through the inguinal canal and passes along the lateral pelvic wall. It crosses over the ureter and posterior portion of the urinary bladder, and then descends along the posterior wall of the bladder toward the prostate gland. Just before it reaches the prostate gland, each ductus deferens enlarges to form an ampulla. Sperm are stored in the proximal portion of the ductus deferens, near the epididymis, and peristaltic movements propel the sperm through the

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tube.

The proximal portion of the ductus deferens is a component of the spermatic cord, which contains vascular and neural structures that supply the testes. The spermatic cord contains the ductus deferens, testicular artery and veins, lymph vessels, testicular nerve, cremaster muscle that elevates the testes for warmth and at times of sexual stimulation, and a connective tissue covering.

Ejaculatory Duct

Each ductus deferens, at the ampulla, joins the duct from the adjacent seminal vesicle (one of the accessory glands) to form a short ejaculatory duct. Each ejaculatory duct passes through the prostate gland and empties into the urethra. Urethra

The urethra extends from the urinary bladder to the external urethral orifice at the tip of the penis. It is a passageway for sperm and fluids from the reproductive system and urine from the urinary system. While reproductive fluids are passing through the urethra, sphincters contract tightly to keep urine from entering the urethra.

dxi.

Accessory Glands

The accessory glands of the male reproductive system are the seminal vesicles, prostate gland, and the bulbourethral glands. These glands secrete fluids that enter the urethra.

Seminal Vesicles

The paired seminal vesicles are saccular glands posterior to the urinary bladder. Each gland has a short duct that joins with the ductus deferens at the ampulla to form an ejaculatory duct, which then empties into the urethra. The fluid from the seminal vesicles is viscous and contains

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fructose, which provides an energy source for he sperm; prostaglandins, which contribute to the mobility and viability of the sperm; and proteins that cause slight coagulation reactions in the semen after ejaculation. Prostate

The prostate gland is a firm, dense structure that is located just inferior to the urinary bladder. It is about the size of a walnut and encircles the urethra as it leaves the urinary bladder. Numerous short ducts from the substance of the prostate gland empty into the prostatic urethra. The secretions of the prostate are thin, milky colored, and alkaline. They function to enhance the motility of the sperm.

Bulbourethral Glands

The paired bulbourethral (Cowper's) glands are small, about the size of a pea, and located near the base of the penis. A short duct from each gland enters the proximal end of the penile urethra. In response to sexual stimulation, the bulbourethral glands secrete an alkaline mucus-like fluid. This fluid neutralizes the acidity of the urine residue in the urethra, helps to neutralize the acidity of the vagina, and provides some lubrication for the tip of the penis during intercourse.

Seminal Fluid

Seminal fluid, or semen, is a slightly alkaline mixture of sperm cells and secretions from the accessory glands. Secretions from the seminal vesicles make up about 60 percent of the volume of the semen, with most of the remainder coming from the prostate gland. The sperm and secretions from the bulbourethral gland contribute only a small volume.

The volume of semen in a single ejaculation may vary from 1.5 to 6.0 ml. There are usually between 50 to 150 million sperm per milliliter of semen. Sperm counts below 10 to 20 million per milliliter usually present fertility problems. Although only one sperm actually penetrates and fertilizes the ovum, it takes several million sperm in an ejaculation to ensure that fertilization will take place.

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dxii.

Penis

The penis, the male copulatory organ, is a cylindrical pendant organ located anterior to the scrotum and functions to transfer sperm to the vagina. The penis consists of three columns of erectile tissue that are wrapped in connective tissue and covered with skin. The two dorsal columns are the corpora cavernosa. The single, midline ventral column surrounds the urethra and is called the corpus spongiosum.

The penis has a root, body (shaft), and glans penis. The root of the penis attaches it to the pubic arch and the body is the visible, pendant portion. The corpus spongiosum expands at the distal end to form the glans penis. The urethra, which extends throughout the length of the corpus spongiosum, opens through the external urethral orifice at the tip of the glans penis. A loose fold of skin, called the prepuce, or foreskin, covers the glans penis.

dxiii.

Male Sexual Response

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The male sexual response includes erection and orgasm accompanied by ejaculation of semen. Orgasm is followed by a variable time period during which it is not possible to achieve another erection.

Three hormones are the principle regulators of the male reproductive system. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) stimulates spermatogenesis; luteinizing hormone (LH) stimulates the production of testosterone; and testosterone stimulates the development of male secondary sex characteristics and spermatogenesis.

3.2 FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

The organs of the female reproductive system produce and sustain the female sex cells (egg cells or ova), transport these cells to a site where they may be fertilized by sperm, provide a favorable 4 1

environment for the developing fetus, move the fetus to the outside at the end of the development period, and produce the female sex hormones. The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, accessory glands, and external genital organs. Select a topic below to learn more about the female reproductive system.

dxiv.

Ovaries

The primary female reproductive organs, or gonads, are the two ovaries. Each ovary is a solid, ovoid structure about the size and shape of an almond, about 3.5 cm in length, 2 cm wide, and 1 cm thick. The ovaries are located in shallow depressions, called ovarian fossae, one on each side of the uterus, in the lateral walls of the pelvic cavity. They are held loosely in place by peritoneal ligaments. Structure

The ovaries are covered on the outside by a layer of simple cuboidal epithelium called germinal (ovarian) epithelium. This is actually the visceral peritoneum that envelops the ovaries. Underneath this layer there is a dense connective tissue capsule, the tunica albuginea. The substance of the ovaries is distinctly divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla. The cortex appears more dense and granular due to the presence of numerous ovarian follicles in various stages of development. Each of the follicles contains an oocyte, a female germ cell. The medulla is loose connective tissue with abundant blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and nerve fibers.

Oogenesis

Female sex cells, or gametes, develop in the ovaries by a form of meiosis called oogenesis. The sequence of events in oogenesis is similar to the sequence in spermatogenesis, but the timing and final result are different. Early in fetal development, primitive germ cells in the ovaries differentiate into oogonia. These divide rapidly to form thousands of cells, still called oogonia, which have a full complement of 46 (23 pairs) chromosomes. Oogonia then enter a growth phase, enlarge, and become primary oocytes. The diploid (46 chromosomes) primary oocytes replicate 4 2

their DNA and begin the first meiotic division, but the process stops in prophase and the cells remain in this suspended state until puberty. Many of the primary oocytes degenerate before birth, but even with this decline, the two ovaries together contain approximately 700,000 oocytes at birth. This is the lifetime supply, and no more will develop. This is quite different than the male in which spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes continue to be produced throughout the reproductive lifetime. By puberty the number of primary oocytes has further declined to about 400,000.

Beginning at puberty, under the influence of follicle-stimulating hormone, several primary oocytes start to grow again each month. One of the primary oocytes seems to outgrow the others and it resumes meiosis I. The other cells degenerate. The large cell undergoes an unequal division so that nearly all the cytoplasm, organelles, and half the chromosomes go to one cell, which becomes a secondary oocyte. The remaining half of the chromosomes go to a smaller cell called the first polar body. The secondary oocyte begins the second meiotic division, but the process stops in metaphase. At this point ovulation occurs. If fertilization occurs, meiosis II continues. Again this is an unequal division with all of the cytoplasm going to the ovum, which has 23 single-stranded chromosome. The smaller cell from this division is a second polar body. The first polar body also usually divides in meiosis I to produce two even smaller polar bodies. If fertilization does not occur, the second meiotic division is never completed and the secondary oocyte degenerates. Here again there are obvious differences between the male and female. In spermatogenesis, four functional sperm develop from each primary spermatocyte. In oogenesis, only one functional fertilizable cell develops from a primary oocyte. The other three cells are polar bodies and they degenerate.

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Genital tract

Fallopian Tubes

There are two uterine tubes, also called Fallopian tubes or oviducts. There is one tube associated with each ovary. The end of the tube near the ovary expands to form a funnel-shaped infundibulum, which is surrounded by fingerlike extensions called fimbriae. Because there is no direct connection between the infundibulum and the ovary, the oocyte enters the peritoneal cavity before it enters the Fallopian tube. At the time of ovulation, the fimbriae increase their activity 4 3

and create currents in the peritoneal fluid that help propel the oocyte into the Fallopian tube. Once inside the Fallopian tube, the oocyte is moved along by the rhythmic beating of cilia on the epithelial lining and by peristaltic action of the smooth muscle in the wall of the tube. The journey through the Fallopian tube takes about 7 days. Because the oocyte is fertile for only 24 to 48 hours, fertilization usually occurs in the Fallopian tube.

Uterus

The uterus is a muscular organ that receives the fertilized oocyte and provides an appropriate environment for the developing fetus. Before the first pregnancy, the uterus is about the size and shape of a pear, with the narrow portion directed inferiorly. After childbirth, the uterus is usually larger, then regresses after menopause.

The uterus is lined with the endometrium. The stratum functionale of the endometrium sloughs off during menstruation. The deeper stratum basale provides the foundation for rebuilding the stratum functionale.

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Vagina

The vagina is a fibromuscular tube, about 10 cm long, that extends from the cervix of the uterus to the outside. It is located between the rectum and the urinary bladder. Because the vagina is tilted posteriorly as it ascends and the cervix is tilted anteriorly, the cervix projects into the vagina at nearly a right angle. The vagina serves as a passageway for menstrual flow, receives the erect penis during intercourse, and is the birth canal during childbirth.

External Genitalia

The external genitalia are the accessory structures of the female reproductive system that are external to the vagina. They are also referred to as the vulva or pudendum. The external genitalia include the labia majora, mons pubis, labia minora, clitoris, and glands within the vestibule.

The clitoris is an erectile organ, similar to the male penis that responds to sexual stimulation. Posterior to the clitoris, the urethra, vagina, paraurethral glands and greater vestibular glands open into the vestibule.

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Female Sexual Response and Hormonal Control

The female sexual response includes arousal and orgasm, but there is no ejaculation. A woman may become pregnant without having an orgasm.

Follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estrogen, and progesterone have major roles in regulating the functions of the female reproductive system.

At puberty, when the ovaries and uterus are mature enough to respond to hormonal stimulation, certain stimuli cause the hypothalamus to start secreting gonadotropin-releasing hormone. This hormone enters the blood and goes to the anterior pituitary gland where it stimulates the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. These hormones, in turn, affect the ovaries and uterus and the monthly cycles begin. A woman's reproductive cycles last from 4 5

menarche to menopause. The monthly ovarian cycle begins with the follicle development during the follicular phase, continues with ovulation during the ovulatory phase, and concludes with the development and regression of the corpus luteum during the luteal phase.

The uterine cycle takes place simultaneously with the ovarian cycle. The uterine cycle begins with menstruation during the menstrual phase, continues with repair of the endometrium during the proliferative phase, and ends with the growth of glands and blood vessels during the secretory phase.

Menopause occurs when a woman's reproductive cycles stop. This period is marked by decreased levels of ovarian hormones and increased levels of pituitary follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. The changing hormone levels are responsible for the symptoms associated with menopause.

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Mammary Glands

Functionally, the mammary glands produce milk; structurally, they are modified sweat glands. Mammary glands, which are located in the breast overlying the pectoralis major muscles, are present in both sexes, but usually are functional only in the female.

Externally, each breast has a raised nipple, which is surrounded by a circular pigmented area called the areola. The nipples are sensitive to touch, due to the fact that they contain smooth muscle that contracts and causes them to become erect in response to stimulation. Internally, the adult female breast contains 15 to 20 lobes of glandular tissue that radiate around the nipple. The lobes are separated by connective tissue and adipose. The connective tissue helps support the breast. Some bands of connective tissue, called suspensory (Cooper's) ligaments extend through the breast from the skin to the underlying muscles. The amount and distribution of the adipose tissue determines the size and shape of the breast. Each lobe consists of lobules that contain the glandular units. A lactiferous duct collects the milk from the lobules within each lobe and carries it to the nipple. Just before the nipple the lactiferous duct enlarges to form a

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lactiferous sinus (ampulla), which serves as a reservoir for milk. After the sinus, the duct again narrows and each duct opens independently on the surface of the nipple.

Mammary gland function is regulated by hormones. At puberty, increasing levels of estrogen stimulate the development of glandular tissue in the female breast. Estrogen also causes the breast to increase in size through the accumulation of adipose tissue. Progesterone stimulates the development of the duct system. During pregnancy these hormones enhance further development of the mammary glands. Prolactin from the anterior pituitary stimulates the production of milk within the glandular tissue, and oxytocin causes the ejection of milk from the glands.

3.3 SUMMARY

Here is what we have learned from this unit:

The four functions of the reproductive system are: To produce egg and sperm cells To transport and sustain these cells To nurture the developing fetus To produce hormones

The primary reproductive organs are the gonads, which produce the gametes and hormones. The secondary, or accessory, structures transport and sustain the gametes and nurture the developing offspring.

The male reproductive system consists of the testes, duct system, accessory glands, and penis. The male gonads are the testes. Their location within the scrotum is necessary for the production of viable sperm. The female reproductive system includes the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, accessory glands, and external genital organs. The female gonads are the ovaries, which are located on each side of the uterus in the pelvic cavity.

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Estrogen and progesterone stimulate the development of glandular tissue and ducts in the breast. Prolactin stimulates the production of milk, and oxytocin causes the ejection of milk.

3.4 QUESTIONS Choose the correct Answer: 1. The ________ system functions for the survival of the species. A. digestive B. urinary C. endocrine D. reproductive 2. The primary reproductive organs, also called gonads, are ________, which are responsible for producing the egg and sperm cells. A. male and female accessory glands B. the ovaries and testes C. the male duct system and female genital tract D. the male and female external genitalia 3. Spermatogenesis differs from mitosis because the resulting cells have ________ the number of chromosomes as the original cell. A. twice as many B. only half C. three times of

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D. only a quarter of 4. The final step in the development of sperm is called ________. A. spermiogenesis B. spermatogenesis C. oogenesis D. spermatogonia 5. Sperm complete their maturation process and become fertile as they move through the ________. A. epididymis B. ductus deferens C. ejaculatory duct D. urethra 6. Although only one sperm actually penetrates and fertilizes the ovum, it takes ________ sperm in an ejaculation to ensure that fertilization will take place. A. dozens of B. hundreds of C. thousands of D. millions of 7. Female sex cells, or gametes, develop in the ovaries by a form of ________ called oogenesis. A. oocytes B. mitosis

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C. meiosis D. oogonia 8. Functionally, the mammary glands produce milk; structurally, they are modified ________. A. pituitary gland B. thyroid gland C. adrenal glands D. sweat glands

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