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14 MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION READING COMPREHENSION Section 3 dalam ujian TOEFL adalah Reading comprehension. Ini digunakan untuk mengukur kemempuan peserta ujian dalam memahami teks tertulis dalam bahasa inggris. Bagian ini mengujikan setidaknya 5 bacaan, dimana masing-masing bacaan biasanya terdiri dari sepuluh pertanyaan. Sehingga pertanyaan pada bagian ini berjumlah limapuluh pertanyaan. Anda harus menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan dalam waktu limapuluh menit. Bagian ini hanya mengujikan teks bacaan saja, tanpa gambar, diagram, atau alat Bantu visual lainnya. Tema bacaan yang diujikan dalam bagian ini cukup bervariasi, namun secara umum berkaitan dengan materi perkuliahan yang diajarkan oleh universitas-universitas di Amerika Serikat. Misalnya, sejarah, sastra, seni, arsitektur, geologi, biologi, kesehatan, astronomi, geografi, dan seterusnya. Adapun pertanyaan pada section 3 bisa dikategorikan ke dalam dua bentuk pertanyaan sebagai berikut: 1. Reading comprehension Pada section 3 ini anda akan diminta untuk menjawab pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan informasi yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Mulai dari main idea, bagian bacaan yang lebih rinci, sampai inferasi atau penyimpulan atas informasi yang terdapat pada bacaan. 2. Vocabulary Section 3 juga meminta anda untuk menjawab arti dari kata-kata tertentu yang terdapat pada teks bacaan. Namun apabila anda sama sekali tidak tahu arti kata-kata tertentu, anda masih tetap bias mengetahui arti kata-kata tersebut dengan memahami konteks bacaan. Dengan demikian anda bias memperkirakan arti dari kata-kata yang ditanyakan dalam soal. Permasalahan yang biasa dihadapi oleh peserta tes TOEFL dalam ujian Reading Comprehension adalah batasan waktu yang singkat. Banyak peserta tes yang tidak bias menyelesaikan semua pertanyaan ketika waktu yang disediakan telah habis. Untuk itu Berbagai kemampuan yang dibutuhkan dalam reading harus anda kuasai sebelum benar-benar menjalankan ujian TOEFL. Sekalipun demikian, Anda masih berpeluang untuk mendapatkan skor TOEFL yang lebih tinggi apabila menguasai trik-trik taktis. Berikut disajikan beberapa kunci yang bisa membantu anda berkompetisi dengan waktu yang ketat sekaligus untuk mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.

1. Kunci umum Kunci 1: Jangan terlalu lama membaca teks bacaan. Harus diingat bahwa anda tidak memiliki cukup waktu untuk membaca teks bacaan secara mendalam. Pertanyaan yang muncul dalam tes reading ini umumnya dpat dijawab secara tepat dengan tanpa langsung membaca bacaan secara rinci. Anda dapat mengalokasikan satu atau dua menit untuk membaca main idea pada masing-masing paragraph dari sebuah bacaan sebelum mulai membaca pertanyaan. Dengan demikian anda sudah mendapatkan gambaran sekilas tentang informasi yang disampaikan oleh bacaan. Kunci 2 : Perhatikan semua pertanyaan yang terdapat pada sebuah bacaaan dan ingat-ingat kata kuncinya. Setelah membaca sekilas main idea masing-masing paragraph, selanjutnya anda harus segera membaca pertanyaan pada soal-soal yang terdapat pada bacaan tersebut. Rekamlah kata-kata kunci pada masing-masing pertanyaan pada pikiran anda sehingga anda dapat mencari jawabannya pada bacaan dengan sekali tempo untuk beberapa pertanyaan. Anda juga dapat memeberi tanda pada kata kunci di lembar soal, karena anda tidak dilarang memberikan coretan. Cara ini sangat efektif untuk menghemat waktu, sehingga pandangan anda tidak bolak-balik antara teks bacaan dengan pertanyaaan. Kunci 3 : Jangan panic apabila tema bacaan bukan merupakan disiplin yang anda kuasai.. Ujian TOEFL sudah didisai sedemikian rupa sehingga peserta ujian tidak dipersyaratkan untuk menguasai tema-tema dari disiplin ilmu tertentu. Semua informasi yang ditanyakan dalam soal section 3 sudah tersedia dalam teks bacaan. Sehingga apapun latar belakang keilmuan yang anda kuasai anda akan tetap dapat menjawab soal-soal pada bacaan yang sama sekali berbeda dari disiplin anda. KUNCI KHUSUS Materi yang diujikan dalam tes reading biasanya memiliki pola-pola dan standar tertentu. Biasanya anda diminta untuk mengetahui tema bacaaan, menentukan main idea, mengetahui arti dari kosakata tertentu, mengetahui informasi tertentu, melakukan penyimpulan, melakukan identifikasi ats pengecualian-pengecualian dan mengetahui rujukan dari pronoun tertentu. Untuk membekali diri anda dalam mengahadapi are apersoalan yang diujikan dalam reading tes, perhatikan kunci-kunci berikut ini : Kunci 4 : Lakukan previewing untuk mengetahui topic bacaan.. Topik merupakan salah satu item yang hampir dapat dipastikan keluar pada setiap tes TOEFL. Untuk mengetahui topic sebuah bacaan, anda tidak perlu membaca secara detail dan mendalam. Anda cukup membaca kalimat pertama dan terakhir pada tiap-tiap paragraph bacaan. Anda tidak dituntut untuk memahami bacaan secara rinci melainkan hanya untuk menentukan topic, oleh karena nya anda harus membaca secepat mungkin. Kunci 5 : Perhatikan kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph untuk mengetahui main idea. Tes reading sering kali mengujikan pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang berkaitan dengan main idea. Main idea biasanya terdapat pada kalimat pertama dari sebuah paragraph. Dengan mengetahuinya, anda dapat memahami pesan apa yang ingin disampaikan oleh penulis. Main Idea dari sebuah bacaan biasanya terdapat pada dua kalimat pertama. Kunci 6 : Pahamilah konteks yang terdapat pada bacaan untuk mengetahui arti kata tertentu. Konteks dalam bacaan bahasa Inggris adalah kombinasi dari kosakata dan grammar yang digunakan pada sebuah kata. Ia dapat berupa sebuah kalimat, paragraph, atau bacaan. Dengan memahami sebuah konteks anda akan dapat memperkirakan arti sebuah kata. Karena dengan mengetahui arti secara umum dari sebuah kalimat berarti anda juga memahami arti kata-kata yang terdapt pada kalimat tersebut.

Kunci 7 : Lakukan scanning untuk menemukan informasi tertentu yang berkaitan dengan permintaan soal. Sebuah teks bacaan dalam ujian TOEFL biasanya diikuti dengan sepuluh pertanyaan, karena batasan waktu yang sangat mendesak sebaiknya anada membaca kesepuluh pertanyaan tersebut. Ketika membaca semua pertanyaan anda harus menemukan kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan dan merekamnya dalam pikiran. Bacalah secara cepat dengan cara scanning untuk menemukan kata-kata tertentu yang menjadi kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan. Hal ini sngat berguna dalam melakukan klarifikasi pada teks bacaan untuk menemukan informasi yang ditanyakan. Dengan mengingat semua kata kunci pertanyaan, pandangan, dan focus anda tidak perlu terpecah untuk mencocokkan pertanyaan dengan teks. Karena biasanya urutan nomor soal tidak menanyakan kalimat atau bagian dari teks secara berurutan. Sehingga bila anda hnaya membaca satu pertanyaan kemudian mencarinya di teks bacaan akan menghabiskan banyak waktu karena anda perlu melakukan hal yang sama berkali-kali. Kunci 8 : Kumpulkan fakta dan data dalam bacaan untuk melakukan inferasi atau penyimpulan Tidak semua jawaban dari sebuah pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL dapat ditemukan secara langsung dalam teks bacaan. Hal ini karena informasi yang dimaksud tidak secara eksklusif disebutkan dalam sebuah pernyataan langsung. Sering kali dlam ujian reading anda diminta untuk membuat kesimpulan mengenai informasi tertentu. Untuk itu ketika membaca teks sebaiknya anda memberikan perhatian khusus terhada data atau fakta tertentu yang mengarah pada sebuah kesimpulan yang informative. Lagi-lagi dalam hal ini mengetahui kata kunci dari sebuah pertanyaan terlebih dahulu merupakan sebuah keuntungan tersendiri. Dengan berbekal kata kunci anda akan menentukan data dan fakta apa yang patut and apilih dan kump[ulkan untuk membuat sebuah kesimpulan. Kunci 9: Berkonsentrasi selama membaca teks bacaan. Konsentrasi sangat diperlukan dan merupakan salah satu kunci keberhasilan yang paling menentukan dalam readng test. Sering kali peserta ujian lupa dengan apa yang telah disampaikan oleh kalimat atau paragraph sebelumnya ketika ia mula membaca kalimat atau paragraph baru. Akhirnya ia membaca ulang lagi kalimat tersebut. Apabila ini juga terjadi pada anda, langlah berikut dapat dimanfaatkan untuk meminimalisasi kek\salahan tersebut. Ketika anada membaca sebuah kalimat, latihlah didri anda untuk menerka atau memperkirakan apa isi atau informasi yang akan disampaikan oleh kalimat selanjutnya. Perhatikan kesesuaian sebuah teks dengan judul atau main idea yang sudah anda ketahui sebelumnya, dengan cara ini anda tetap dapat menangkap pesan untama yang diasampaikan oleh masing-masing kalimat sekalipun anda sudah beranjak pada kalimat-kalimat berikutnya. Kunci 10 : Tingkatkan kecepatan membaca anda. Dengan keterbatasan waktu ujian yang singkat, maka kemampuan anda untuk membaca secara cepat dan singkat sangat penting dalam ujian TOEFL. Memang kecepatan membaca ini tidaklah sesuatu yang instant. Melainkan ia harus dilatih secara terus menerus apalagi membaca teks yang bukan bahasa asli kita. Salah satu caranya adalah dengan memilih kata-kata yang paling penting dalam sebuah kalimat, yang mana hal ini akan memberikan anda ringkasan atas arti sebuah bacaan. 2. RECOGNIZE THE ORGANIZATION OF IDEAS Dalam tes reading seringkali akn ada pertanyaan tentang pengorganisasioan ide-ide dalam teks pada jenis pertanyaan ini anda akan diminta untuk menentukan bagaimana ide-ide dalam paragraph berhubungan dengan ide-ide lain dalam paragraph lain. Example The passage : f asked who invented the game of baseball, most Americans would probably reply that it was Abher

Doubleday. At the beginning of this century, there was some disagreement over how the game of baseball had actually originated, so sporting-goods manufacturer Spaulding inaugurated a commission to research the question. In 1908 a report was published by the commission in which Abner Doubleday, a U.S Army officer from Cooperstown, New York, was given credit for the invention of the game. The National Baseball Hall of Fame was established in Cooperstown in honor of Doubleday., most sports historians are in agreement that Doubleday really did not have much to do with the development of baseball. Instead, baseball seems to be a close relation to the English game of rounders and probably has English rather than American roots. The question The second paragraph (A) provides examples to support the ideas in the first paragraph (B) precedes the ideas in the first paragraph (C) outlines the effects of ideas in the first paragraph D) refuses the ideas in the first paragraph TOEFL EXERCISE PASSAGE ONE (QUESTIONS 1-2) Conflict within an organization is not always viewed as undesirable, various managers have widely divergent ideas on the value that conflict can have. According to the traditional view of conflict, conflict is harmful to an organization. Managers with this traditional view of conflict see it as their role in an organization to rid the organization of any possible sources of conflict. The interactionist view of conflict on the other hand, holds that conflict can serve an important function in an organization by reducing complacency among workers and causing positive changes to occur. Managers who hold an interactionist view of conflict may actually take steps to stimulate within the organization. 1. How is the information in the passage organized? (A) The origin of ideas about conflict is presented. (B) Contrasting views of conflicts are presented. C) Two theorists discuss the strength and weaknesses of their views on conflict. (D) Examples of conflict within organizations are presented 2. What type of information is included in the third paragraph? (A) A comparison of the interactionist and traditional views of conflict (B) A discussion of the weaknesses of the interactionist view of conflict (C) An outline of the type of manager who prefers the interactionist view of conflict (D) A description of one of the opposing views of conflict PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-4) IQ, or intelligence Quotient as the radio of a patrons mental age to chronological age, with the radio multiplied by 100 remove the decimal. Chronological age is easily determined; mental age is generally measured by some kind of standard test and is not so simple to define. In theory, a standardized IQ test is set up to measure an individuals ability to perform intellectual operations such as reasoning and problem solving. These intellectual operations are considered to represent intelligence. In practice, it has been impossible to arrive at consensus at to which types of intellectual operations demonstrate intelligence. Furthermore, it has been impossible to devise a test without cultural bias, which is to say that any IQ tests so far proposed have been shown to reflect the culture of the test makers. Test makers from that culture would, it follows, score higher on such a test than test takers from a different culture with equal intelligence.

3. What type of information is included in the first paragraph (A) An argument (B) A definition (C) An opinion (D) A theory 4. How does the information in the third paragraph differ from that in the second paragraph? (A) It presents a contrasting point of view. (B) It follows chronologically from the ideas in the second paragraph. (C) It presents real information rather than a premise. (D) It presents an example of the ideas in the second paragraph PASSAGE THREE (Questions 5-6) The largest lake in the western United sates in the Great Salt Lake, an island saltwater lake in northwestern Utah, is just outside the state capital of Salt Lake City. Rivers and streams feed into the Great Salt Lake, but none drain out of it, this has a major influence on both the salt content and the size of the lake. Although the Great Lake was fed by freshwater streams, it is actually saltier than the oceans of the world. The salt comes from the more than two million tons of minerals that flow into the lake each year from the rivers and creeks that feed it. Sodium and chloride-the components of salt- comprise the large majority of the lakes mineral content. The Great Salt Lake can vary tremendously from its normal size of 1,700 square miles, depending on long term weather conditions. During periods of heavy rains, the size of the lake can swell tremendously from the huge amount of water flowing into the lake from its Feeder Rivers and streams; in 1980 the lake even reached a size of 2,400 square miles. During periods of dry weather, the size of the lake decreases, sometimes drastically, due to evaporation. 5. How is the information in the passage organized? (A) Two unusual characteristics of the Great Lake are discussed. (B) Contrasting theories about the Great Salt Lakes salt levels are presented. (C) The process by which the Great Salt Lake gets its salt is outlined. (D) The reasons for the variation in the Great Salt Lakes size are given. 6. The third paragraph contains information on (A) how the size of the lake affects weather conditions (B) the effects of contrasting weather conditions on the size of the lake (C) the effects of changes in the size of the lake (D) the causes of the varied weather conditions in the area of the lake Common types of calendars can be based on the Sun or on the Moon. The solar calendar is based on the solar year. Since the solar year is 362.2422 days long, solar calendars consist of regular years of 365 days and have an extra day every fourth year, or leap year, to make up for the additional fractional amount. In a solar calendar, the waxing and waning of the moon can take place at various stages of each month. lunar calendar is synchronized to the lunar month rather than the solar year. Since the lunar month is twenty-nine and thirty days. A twelve-month lunar year thus has 354 days, 11 days shorter than a solar year. Solar eclipse Lunar eclipse 1. What is the main idea of the passage? (A) All calendars are the same. (B) The solar calendar is based on the sun.

(C) Different calendars have dissimilar bases. (D) The lunar month is twenty-nine and a half days long. 2. How is the information in the passage organized? (A) Characteristics of the solar calendar are outlined. (B) Two types of calendars are described. (C) The strengths and weakness of the lunar calendar are described. (D) The length of each existing calendar is contrasted. Vaccines are prepared from harmful viruses or bacteria and administered to patients to provide immunity to specific diseases. The various types of vaccines are classified according to the method by which they are derived. The most basic class of vaccines actually contains disease-causing microorganisms that have been killed with a solution containing formaldehyde. In this type of vaccine, the microorganisms are dead and therefore cannot cause disease; however, the antigens found in and on the microorganisms can still stimulate the formation of antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine are the ones that fight influenza, typhoid fever, and cholera. A second type of vaccine contains the toxins produced by the microorganisms rather than the microorganisms themselves. This type of vaccine is prepared when the microorganism itself does little damage but the toxin within microorganism is extremely harmful. For example, the bacteria that cause diphtheria can thrive without much harm, but when toxins are released from the bacteria, muscles can become paralyzed and death can ensue. A final type of toxin contains living microorganisms that have been rendered harmless. With this type of vaccine, a large number of antigen molecules are produced and the immunity that results is generally longer lasting than the immunity from other types of vaccines. The Sabin oral antipolio vaccine and BCG vaccine against tuberculosis are examples of this type of vaccine. 3. Which of the following expresses the main idea of the passage? (A) Vaccines provide immunity to specific diseases. (B) Vaccines contain disease-causing microorganisms. (C) Vaccines are derived in different ways. (D) New approaches in administering vaccines are being developed. 4. How many types of vaccines are presented in the passage? (A) two (B) three (C) four (D) five 3. FIND UNSTATED DETAILS Dalam tes reading anda seringkali akan diminta untuk menentukan jawaban yang tidak disebutkan atau tidak benar dalam teks. Jenis pertanyaan ini berarti bahwa ada tiga pilihan yang disebutkan atau benar dalam teks, sementara satu pilihan tidak. Jadi tugas anda adlah menemukan tiga pilihan yang benar kemudian memilih satu pilihan yang tersisa yang menjadi jawaban pada soal. Anda harus memperhatikan bahwa ada dua macam pilihan atas pertanyaan ini : 1. Tiga pilihan benar dan satu tidak dibahas dalam teks. 2. tiga jawaban benar dan satu salah menurut teks. The passage: In English there are many different kinds of expressions that people use to give a name to anything whose name is unknown or momentarily forgotten. The word gadget is one such word. It was first used by British sailors in the 1850s and probably came from the French word gachette, which was a small hook. In everyday use, the word has a more general meaning. Other words are also used to

give a name to something, unnamed or unknown and these words tend to be somewhat imaginative. Some of the more commonly used expressions are a what-dye-call-it, a whatsis, a thingamabob, a thingamajig, a doodad, or a doohickey. 1. Which of the following is NOT true about the word gadget ? (A) It is used to name something when the name is not known (B) It was used at the beginning of the nineteenth century (C) It most likely came from a word in the French language. (D) Its first known use was by British sailors. 1. Which of the following is NOT mentioned in the passage as an expression for something that is not known? 2. (A) a thingamabob 3. (B) gadget 4. (C) A doohickey 5. (D) A what-is-it 6. Passage one (question 1-2) 7. Blood plasma is a clear, almost colorless liquid. It consists of blood from which the red and white blood cells have been removed. It is often used in transfusions because a patient generally needs the plasma portion of the blood more than the other components. 8. Plasma differs in several important ways from whole blood. First of all, plasma can be mixed for all donors and does not have to be from the right blood group, as whole blood does. In addition, plasma can be dried and stored, while whole blood cannot. . 1. All of the following are true about blood plasma EXCEPT 2. (A). it is a deeply colored liquid 3. (B). blood cells have taken out of it 4. (C). patients are often transfused with it 5. (D). it is generally more important to the patient than other part of whole blood 6. 2. Which of the following is NOT stated about whole blood? 7. (A). it is different from plasma 8. (B). it cannot be dried 9. (C). it is impossible to keep in storage for a long time. 10. (D). it is a clear, colorless liquid. 11. Passage two (question 3-4) 12. Elizabeth Cochrane Seaman was an American journalist at the turn of the century who wrote for the newspaper New York World under the pen name Nellie Bly, a name which was taken from the Stephen, Foster song Nellie Bly. She achieved fame for her exposes and in particular for the bold and adventuresome way that she obtained her stories. 13. She felt that the best way to get the real story was from the inside rather than as an outside observer who could be treated to a prettified version of reality. On one occasion she pretended to be a thief so that she would get a nested and see for herself how female prisoners were really treated. On another occasion she faked mental illness in order to be admitted to a mental hospital to get the real picture on the treatment of mental patients. 14. 3. Which of the following is NOT true about Nellie Bly? 15. (A). Nelly Blys real name was Elizabeth Cochrane seaman. 16. (B). Nellie Bly was mentally ill 17. (C). The name Nellie Bly came from a song. 18. (D). The name Nellie Bly was used on articles that Seaman wrote. 19. 4. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as something that Nellie Bly did to get a good

story? 20. (A). she acted like a thief 21. (B). she got arrested by the police. 22. (C). she pretended to be ill. 23. (D). she worked as a doctor in a mental hospital. 4. FIND PRONOUN REFERENTS Dalam tes reading seringkali anda diminta untuk menentukan sebuah pronoun mengacu pada noun yang mana? Cara menjawab pertanyaan ini adalah dengan melihat kalimat /kata-kata sebelum pronoun. Anda akan mendapatkan noun yang dimaksud disana. Example The passage Carnivorous plants, such as the sundew and the Venus Flytrap are generally found in the humid areas where there is an inadequate supply of nitrogen in the soil. In order to survive, these plants have developed mechanisms to trap insects within their foliage. They have digestive fluids to obtain the necessary nitrogen from the insects. These plants trap the insects in a variety of ways. The sundew has sticky hairs on its leaves; when an insect lands on these leaves, it gets caught up in the sticky hairs, and the leaf wraps itself around the insect. The leaves of the Venus-Flytrap function more like a trap, snapping suddenly and forcefully shut around an insect. The questions : 1. The pronoun they in line 4 refers to 2. (A) humid areas 3. (B) these plants 4. (C) insects 5. (D) digestive fluids 6. 2. The pronoun it in line 6 refers to 7. (A) a variety 8. (B) the sundew 9. (C) An insect 10. (D) the leaf 5. INDIRECTLY ANSWERED QUESTIONS Beberapa pertanyaan dalam tes TOEFL akan meminta jawaban yang tidak secara langsung disebutkan dalam teks. Untuk menjawab pertanyaan ini anda harus menarik kesimpulan dari informasi yang di berikan dalam teks. Pertanyaan jenis ini meliputi dua : (1) implied detailed questions and (2) transitions questions. ANSWER IMPLIED DETAILED QUESTIONS CORRECTLY Example The passage The Hawaiian language is a melodious language in which all words are derived from an Alphabet of only twelve letters, the five vowels, A,E,I,O,U and the seven consonants H,K,L,M,N,P,W. Each syllable in the language ends in a vowel, and two consonants never appear together, so vowels have a much higher frequency in the Hawaiian language than they do in English. This musical sounding language can be heard regularly by visitors to the islands. Most Hawaiians speak English, but it is quite common to hear English that is liberally spiced with words and expressions from the traditional language of the culture. A visitor may be greeted with the

expression aloha, and may be referred to as a malihini because he is a new comer to the island. This visitor may attend an outside luau where everyone eats too much and be invited afterwards to dance the hula. The questions : 1. Which of the following is probably NOT a Hawaiian word? (A) mahalo (B) mahimahi (C) meklea (D) moana 2. It is implied a luau is (A) a dance (B) a feast (C) a concert (D) a language TOEFL EXERCISE PASSAGE ONE (Questions 1-2) Eskimos need efficient and adequate means to travel across water in that the areas where they live are surrounded by oceans, bays, and inlets and dotted with lakes and seas. Two different types of boats have been developed by the Eskimo, each constructed to meet specific needs. The Kayak is something like a canoe that has been covered by deck. A kayak is generally constructed with one opening in the deck for one rider, however, some kayaks are made for two, Because the deck of a kayak is covered over except for the hole (or holes) for its rider (or riders), a kayak can tip over in the water and roll back without filling with water and sinking. One of the primary uses of the kayak is for hunting. The umiak is not closed over, as is in the kayak, instead it is an open boat that is built to hold ten to twelve passengers. Eskimos have numerous uses for the umiak which reflect the size of the boat; e.g. the umiak is used to haul belongings from campsite to campsite, and it is used for hunting larger animals that are too big to be hunted in a kayak. 2. It can be inferred from the passage that an example of the animal mentioned in lines 12-13 might be (A) a kangaroo (B) a snake (C) a whale (D) a salmon PASSAGE TWO (Questions 3-5) Two types of trees from the same family of trees share honors in certain respects as the most impressive of trees. Both evergreen conifers, the California redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) and the giant sequoia (Sequoiandendrom gigantteum) are found growing natively only in the state of California. The California redwood is found along the northern coast of the state, while the giant sequoia is found inland and at a higher elevations, along the western slopes of the Sierra Nevadas. The California redwood is the tallest living tree and is in fact the tallest living thing on the face of the earth; the height of the tallest redwood on the record is 385 feet (120 meters). Though not quite as tall as the California redwood, with the height of 320 feet ( 100 meters), the giant sequoia is nonetheless the largest and the most massive of living things ; giant sequoias have been measured at more than 100 feet (30 meters) around the base, with weights of more than 6,000 tons. 3. It is implied in the passage that (A) the leaves of only California redwood turn brown in the autum (B) the leaves of only the giant sequoia turn brown in the winter (C) the leaves of both types of trees in the passage turn brown in the winter

(D) the leaves of neither types of tree in the passage turn brown in the winter 4. It can be inferred from the passage that the Siera Nevadas are (A) a type of giant redwood (B) a coastal community (C) a group of lakes (D) a mountain range 5. Which of the following is implied in the passage? (A) The giant sequoia is taller than the California redwood. (B) The California redwood is not as big around as the giant sequoia. (C) The California redwood weighs more than the giant sequoia. (D) Other living things are larger than the giant sequoia. TRANSITION QUESTION CORRECTLY You will sometimes be asked to determine what a probably came before the reading passage (in the preceding paragraph) or what probably comes after the reading passage (in the following paragraph). Of course, the topic of the preceding or following paragraph is not directly stated, and you must draw a conclusion to determine what a probably in these paragraph. This type of question. It asks you to demonstrate that you understand that good writing contains transition from one paragraph to the next. A paragraph may start out with the idea of the previous paragraph as a way of linking the ideas in the two paragraphs. A paragraph may also end with an idea that will be further developed in the following paragraph. Example The passage: Another myth of the oceans concerns Davy Jones, who in folklore is the mean-spirited sovereign of the oceans depths. The name Jones is thought by some etymologists to have been derived from the name Jonah the Hebrew prophet who spent three days in a whales belly. According to tradition, any object that goes overboard and sinks to the bottom of the ocean is said to have gone to Davy Joness locker, the ocean sized, mythical receptacle for anything that falls into the water, needless to say, any sailor on the seas is not so eager to take a tour of Davy Joness locker, although it might be a rather interesting trip considering all the treasures located there. The questions: 1. The paragraph preceding this passage most probably discusses 1. The youth of Davy Jones 2. Davy Jones career as a sailor 3. A different traditional story from the sea 4. Preparing to travel on the ocean 1. The topic of the paragraph following the passage most likely is 1. valuable items located of the bottom of the ocean. 2. Where Davy Jones is found today 3. Jonah and the whale 4. Preventing objects from failing overboard 6. VOCABULARY QUESTIONS Dalam tes reading akan ada sejumlah soal tentang vocabulary. Jawaban atas soal ini seringkali sudah ada dalam teks itu sendiri. Berikut ini beberapa macam jenis soal vocab. FIND DEFINITIONS FROM STRUCTURAL CLUES (Menemukan definisi dari kata kunci yang ada dalam teks

Ketika anda diminta untuk menemukan kata dalam tes reading kemungkinannya: 1. Teks memberikan informasi tentang kata itu 2. Ada tanda-tanda trtentu yang mengarahkan kita pada kata tersebut Example The passage ; One of the leading schools of psychological thought in the twentieth century is behaviorism the belief that the role of the psychologist is to study behavior, which is observable, rather than conscious and unconscious thought, which is not. Probably the best known proponent of behaviorism is B.E Skinner, who is famous for his research on how rewards and punishment influence behavior. He came to believe that positive reinforcements such as praise, food, or money were more effective in promoting good behavior than negative reinforcement or punishment. The questions 1. In behaviorism In line 2, a psychologist is concerned with (A) unconscious thought patterns (B) observable actions (C) unobservable actions (D) unobservable actions 2. What is positive reinforcement in line 7 A) a gift B) A reward C) A bribe D) A penalty 3. What is negative reinforcement in line 9? (A) A promotion (B) A reward (C) A surprise D) A punishment To answer the first question, you should look at the part of the passage following word behaviorism. The dash punctuation (-) gives extra or further information about behaviorism. In the information following the dash you should see that the behaviorist in behavior which is observable, so the best answer to this question is answer (C). To answer the second question, you should look at the part of the passage following the expression positive reinforcements. The expression such as indicate that examples of positive reinforcement are going to follow. Your job is to look at the examples of positive reinforcement and draw a conclusion about what positive reinforcement might be. Since price, food, or money might be given in return for a job well done, then positive reinforcement must be a reward. The best answer to this question is therefore answer (B).To answer the third question, you should look at the part of the passage following the expression negative reinforcement. The word or following negative reinforcement tells you that the idea is going to be restated in different words. You can see in the passage that another word for negative reinforcement is punishment, so answer (D) is the best answer to this questions DETERMINE MEANINGS FROM WORD PARTS When you are asked to determine the meaning of long words but you do not know THE MEANING in the reading comprehension section of the TOEFL test, it is sometimes possible to determine the meaning of the word by studying the word part. Example The Passage Ring lardner himself was born into a wealthy, educated, and cultured family. For the book of his

carrier, he worked as a reporter for newspapers in South Bend, Boston, Santa Louis, and Chicago. However, it is for his short stories of lower middle clash Americans that ring lardner is perhaps best known. In these stories, Lardner vividly creates the language and the ambiance of this lower class, often using the misspelled words, grammatical errors and incorrect diction that typified the language of the lower middle class. The questions 1. The word vividly in line 6 is closest in meaning to A) in a cultured way (B) in a correct way (C) in a lifelike way (D) in a brief way 2. The word misspelled in line 7 is closest in meaning to (A) highly improper (B) vulgar (C) incorrectly written (D) slang 1. The word diction in line 8 is closest in meaning to (A) Writing (B) Sentence structure (C) Form (D) Speech In the first question, the word vividly contains the word part viv, which means life, so the best answer is answer (C). In the second question, the word misspelled contains the word part mis, which means error or incorrect, so the best answer is answer (C). In the third question, the word diction contains the word part dic, which means speak, so that answer is answer (D). USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF DIFFICULT WORDS On the TOEFL test you will sometimes be asked to determine the meanings of a difficult word, a word that you are expected to know. In this case, the passage will give you a clear indication of what the word means. Example Line in the passage : The barges headed across the lake The question : A barge is probably, which of the following? A) A trai (B) A plane C) A bicycle (D) A boat USE CONTEXT TO DETERMINE MEANINGS OF SIMPLE WORDS You will sometimes be asked to determine the meaning of a simple word, a word that you see often in everyday English. In this type of question, you should not give the normal everyday meaning of the word, instead, the TOEFL test wants you to know the meaning of the word in this situation. Example A line from the passage : He put his answer this way The question : The word put is closest meaning to which of the following?

A) Placed (B) Set (C) Expressed D) handed She always helps many people. She, however, is bad with her mother. Cardamon is not as widely used as a spice in the United States as it is in other parts of the world. This fruit of the ginger plant provides an oil that basically has been used solely as a stimulant in American and English medicines. Other cultures have recognized the multipurpose benefits of this aromatic fruit. In Asia it is used to season sauces such as curry; in Middle Eastern countries it is seeped to prepare a flavorful golden colored tea; in parts of northern Europe it is used as spice in various types of pastry. 1. The word solely in line 2 could best be replaced by A) initially B) only C) reportedly D) healthfully 2. The word multipurpose in line 3 is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4? (A) Health (B) Singular (C) Recognized (D) varied 3. Which of the following is closest in meaning to the word season in line 4? (A) Divide (B) Forecast (C) Spice (D) Put a time limit 4. Curry in line 4 is (A) the fruit of ginger plant (B) A spicy type of sauce (C) A culture in the area of the Middle East (D) A type of golden-colored tea 5. The word seeped in line 5 is closest in meaning to (A) Steamed (B) Dried (C) Stored (D) grown The life-span of an elephant that dies from natural causes is about sixty-five years. Of course, an elephant can perish from a number of unnatural causes; e.g it can be killed by hunters, most probably for the valuable ivory in its tusks; it can die from deases that spread throughout an elephant herd; or it can die from drought or from the lack of food that almost certainly accompanies the inadequate supply of water. If, however, an elephant survives disasters, it falls prey to old age in its mid-sixties. Around this age, the cause of death is attributed to the loss of the final set of molars. When this last set of teeth is gone, the elephant dies from malnutrition because it is unable to obtain unadequate nourishment. In old age, elephant tend to search out a final home where there is shade for comfort from the sun and soft vegetation for cushioning; the bones of many old elephants have been found in such places. 1. The word perish in line 2 means 2. (A) fall ill 3. (B) shoot

4. (C) die 5. (D) get rich 1. The word unnatural in line 2 is closest meaning to 2. (A) wild 3. (B) violent 4. (C) domesticated 5. (D) abnormal 1. The word drought in line 4 means 2. 3. (A) a drowning 4. (B) a lack of food 5. (C) an inadequate supply of water 6. (D) an overabundance of animals 1. Which of the following could be used to replace the word survives in line 6? 2. 3 (A) Rises to 4 (B) Succumbs to 5 (C) Denies 6 (D) Lives through 1. Molars in line 7 are 2. (A) germs 3. (B) old-age characteristics 4. (C) types of food 5. (D) teeth 1. In line 8, malnutrition is used to describe someone who 2. (A) is in good health 3. (B) has an illness 4. (C) suffers from poor eating 5. (D) experiences dental problems 1. The expression a final home in line 9 is closest in meaning to 2. (A) a place to die 3. (B) a comfortable house 4. (C) a place for sale 5. (D) the only remaining place to live 1. The word shade in line 9 is closest in meaning to 2. (A) color 3. (B) heat 4. (C) diminished light 5. (D) a front porch 6. GRAMMAR/STRUCTURE NORMAL SENTENCE PATERN IN ENGLISH Subject Verb Complement Modifier (predicate) (object) (adverb) John and I ate a pizza last night We studied present perfect last week.

Learn the following sentences and their sentence patterns! They smile. They smile. Subject Verb / predicate We sleep. We sleep. Subject Verb / predicate My father drinks coffee. My father drinks coffee. Subject Verb / predicate Complement / object The lady writes a letter. The lady Writes A letter. Subject Verb/ predicate Complement / object The man lives in a village. The man lives in a village. subject Verb/ predicate Modifier/ adeverb The man makes handicrafts in a village. The man makes Handicrafts in a village. Subject Verb / predicate Complement / object Modifier / adverb She can dance. She can dance. Subject verb phrase Mr. Joko has gone. Mr.Joko Has gone. Subject Verb phrase He is shopping. He is shopping. Subject verb phrase Linking verb : am, is, are Incorrect : She drove on the street the car. Verb modifier complement Correct : She drove the car on the street. Verb complement modifier Urutannya subject + Verb + complement + modifier, tidak bisa dibalik antara complement dengan modifier . Identify the subject, verb, and modifier 1. George is cooking dinner. 2. Henry and Marcia have visited the president. 3. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today. 4. Pat should have visited the president. 5. We can eat lunch in this restaurant today. 6. Trees grow

7. It was raining at seven oclock this morning. 8. Jill is buying a new hat in the store. 9. Harry is washing dishes right now. 10. She opened her book. B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives My car is new. He has a house. His house is old And so on. I have a car. Aku dalam bahasa Inggris ketika sebagai subjek = I, ketika sebagai objek = me.. Selanjutnya ketika aku berfungsi menyatakan kepunyaan berubah menjadi my, kemudian you menjadi your, dst. Rumusnya Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives I my You your They their We our He his She her It Its C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns My hat is red and your hat is blue. My hat is red and yours is blue. Your hat is blue and mine is red. Ketika kita mau mengatakan topiku bahasa Inggrisnya = my hat. Lantas apa bahasa inggrisnya milikku? Yaitu mine.. milik mereka = theirs, mikik kami ours, dst.Rumusnya Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns My mine Your yours Their Theirs Our Ours His His Her Hers Its Its D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns He cooked for me yesterday. He cooked for himself last night. Anisa bought her little brother a new hat. Joan bought herself a new hat. Rumus ini digunakan ketika sebuah subjek melakukan perbuatan yang terarah pada dirinya sendiri. Misalnya, Aku membeli makanan untuk diriku, maka bahsa inggrisnya I buy food for myself. Dia menyakiti dirinya = He hurts himself. Jadi ada penambahan self/selves pada pronounya.

Rumusnya

Rumusnya Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns Me myself You yourself yourselves Them themselves Us ourselves Him Himself Her Herself It Itself Do the following exercises! 1. I go to school with (he/him) yesterday. 2. I see (she/her/herself) at the union everyday. 3. She speaks to (we/us/ourselves) every morning. 4. (He/Him) is going to New York on vacation. 5. (She/her) and John gave the money to the boy. 6. I hurt (my/mine/the) leg. 7. John bought (he/him/ hisself /himself) a new hat. 8. (Your/yours) record is scratched and (my/mine) is too. 9. (We/us) girls are going camping over the weekend. 10. We like (our/ours) new car very much. 11. Marry and (I/me) would rather go to the movies. 12. Monday is a holiday for (we/us) teahers. VERBS AS COMPLEMENTS Verbs as Complements, artinya kata-kata kerja sebagai pelengkap. Maksudnya sering kali kata kerja itu berfungsi sebagai pelengkap, yaitu pelengkap dari kata-kata kerja lain. Contoh : 1. He agrees to meet. 2. He enjoys sitting there. 3. Kata meet adalah sebagai pelengkap kata agrees, tapi coba perhatikan meet ditulis dengan to meet. Bukan meet saja atau ditambah ing meeting. 4. Sedangkan kata enjoys diikuti verb ing sitting, bukan sit saja, atau to sit. 5. Jadi materi ini mengajarkan bahwa ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti to verb, dan ada daftar kata kerja yang diikuti verb-ing. 6. Dalam tes TOEFL materi ini sangat sering diujikan. A. Verbs yang diikuti infinitives (to verb) Agree : setuju Desire : ingin Intend : ingin Prepare : menyiapkan Tend : cenderung Attempt : berusaha Fail : gagal Learn : belajar Pretend : berpura-pura Try : mencoba Claim : mengklaim Forget : melupakan

Need : membutuhkan Refuse : menolak Want : menginginkan Decide : memutuskan Hesitate : ragu-ragu Offer : menawarkan Seem : kelihatan Wish : berharap Demand : menuntut Hope : berharap Plan : berencana Agree : setuju Contoh Marry learned to swim when she was very young. The soldiers are preparing to attack the village. The budget committee decided to postpone this meeting. B. Verbs diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) Admit : mengakui Appreciate : menghargai Delay : menunda Miss : ketinggalan / rindu Regret : menyesal Risk : mengambil resiko/beresiko Deny : menyangkal Postpone : menunda Report : melaporkan Suggest : menyarankan Avoid : menolak Enjoy : menikmati Practice : berlatih Resent : marah, benci, merasa tersinggung Cant help : tidak betah Finish : menyelesaikan Quit : berhenti Resist : menahan, menolak Consider : mempertimbangkan Mind : keberatan Recall : mengingat Resume : melanjutkan, mulai lagi Object to : keberatan Look forward to : mengharap-harap Confess to : mengakui Approve of : setuju dengan Give up : menyerah Worry about : merasa cemas dengan Be better off : lebih baik Insist on : bersikeras

Succeed in : berhasil Count on : mengharapkan Keep on : terus , tetap Think about : depend on Put off : menunda Think of : berpikir terhadap Contoh : John admitted stealing the money. We enjoyed seeing them again. Michael was considering buying a new car. John gave up smoking Marry insisted on taking the bus instead of the plane. Fred confessed to stealing the jewels. We are not looking forward to going back to school. C. Verbs yang dapat diikuiti oleh gerund = verb-ing atau infinitives = to verb tanpa perubahan makna. Begin : mulai Like : suka Cant stand : tidak betah Love : cinta Continue : melanjutkan Prefer : lebih suka Dread : takut kepada Start : mulai Hate : benci Contoh : He started to study TOEFL. OR He started studying TOEFL. Joan hates to ride her bicycle. OR Joan hates riding her bicycle to school. He dreads meeting the headmaster. OR He dreads to meet the headmaster. D. Be berapa verbs yang dapat diikuti baik oleh infinitive = to verb atau gerund = verb-ing, tapi maknanya berubah. stop remember forget For examples John stopped studying. (John sedang belajar kemudian berhenti, dan tidak melanjutkan lagi) John stopped to study. (John sedang melakukan suatu pekerjaan, kemudian berhenti unuk belajar) I remember meeting him in a seminar last year. (Aku ingat peristiwa ketika bertemu dia di sebuah seminar tahun lalu.) I remember to meet him today. (Aku ingat bahwa aku harus / berencana untuk menemui dia hari ini.) Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat yang diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) Accustomed to : terbiasa dengan Intent on : bermaksud sungguh-sungguh untuk Afraid of : takut pada Interested in : tertarik pada Capable of : mampu untuk

Successful in : sukses dalam Fond of : senang pada Tired of : lelah dengan For examples Mitch is afraid of getting married now. I am accustomed to smoking We are accustomed to sleeping late on weekends. Alvaro is intent on finishing school next year. Crag is fond of dancing. Tambahan* Daftar kata benda yang diikuti oleh the gerund (verb ing) Choice of : pilihan terhadap/atas Possibility of : kemungkinan terhadap Excuse for : alasan untuk Intention of : keinginan untuk Reason for : alasan untuk Method for / method of : metode. Contoh : George has excuse for dropping out of school. There is a possibility of acquiring this property at a good price. There is no reason for leaving this early. Connie has developed a method for evaluating this problem. Tambahan* Daftar kata sifat diikuti oleh infinitive (to verb) Anxious : khawatir Eager : ingin tahu Pleased : senang Usual : biasa Boring : membosankan Easy : mudah Prepared : siap Common : umum Dangerous : berbahaya Good : bagus Ready : siap Difficult : sulit Hard : keras Strange : aneh Able : dapat For Examples Muhammad is anxious to see his family. It is dangerous to drive in this weather. We are ready to leave now. It is difficult to pass this test. Do the following exercise 1. The teacher decided (accepting/to accept) the paper. 2. They appreciate (to have/ having) this information. 3. We found it very difficult (reaching / to reach) a decision) 4. Dona is interested in (opening/to open a bar). 5. Marry regrets (to be/ being) the one to have to tell him.

6. George pretended (to be/being) sick yesterday. 7. He demands (to know/knowing) what is going on. 8. Henry shouldnt risk (to drive/driving) so fast. 9. There is no excuse for (to leave/leaving) the room in this condition. 10. She is looking forward to (return/returning) to their country. THE VERB NEED The boy needs cutting his hair or The boy needs to cut his hair? Kata kerja need diikuti infinitive / to verb hanya jika subjeknya benda hidup. Tapi jika subjeknya benda mati maka kata kerja need diikuti oleh gerund (verb ing) atau diikuti oleh to be + past participle (Verb 3) A. Subjek benda hidup + infinitive John and his brother need to paint the house. My friend needs to learn Spanish He will need to drive B. Subjek benda mati + verb ing (to be+ past participle) The grass needs cutting. OR The grass needs to be painted. The television needs repairing. OR The television needs to be repaired. The composition needs rewriting. OR The composition needs to be written. Perhatikan, kita menggunakan in need of dengan aturan berikut. subject + be + in need of + noun For examples Jill is in need of money. (Jill needs money) The roof is in need of repairing. (The roof needs to be repaired.) The organization is in need of volunteers. (The organization needs volunteers.) Exercise 1. Its too hot and my hair needs (cut). 2. The computer needs (repair). 3. James needs .. (see) a doctor. 4. Marry will need (make) a new dress for the party. 5. His car needs (tune). 6. You will need to be here at night. 7. The house needs (paint) soon. QUESTIONS Dalam pertanyaan selalu digunakan kata kerja Bantu atau to be sebelum subjek. Contoh : Are you sad? Is he tall? Why are they angry? What do you eat? What will we get? Etc Selalu beriringan to be / kata kerja Bantu + subject Penting*Embedded Questions : Adalah sebuah pertanyaan yang terdapat dalam sebuah kalimat lain ; kalimat positive, negative, atau interrogative. Pelajari susunannya. Rumusnya : Subject + verb (phrase) + question word + verb Pelajari contoh-contoh berikut !

Question : Where will the meeting take place? Embedded question : We havent ascertained where the meeting will take place. Q.word Subject verb phrase Question : Why did the plane land at the wrong airport? Embedded Questions : The authorities cannot figure out why the plane landed at the Q.word subject verb wrong airport. Embedded Questions : Do you know where he went? Could you tell me what time it is? The professor didnt know how many students would be in her afternoon class. I have no idea how long the interview will take. Tambahan (perkecualian)* Apabila kalimat Tanya nya seperti berikut (question word berfungsi sebagai subject) maka dalam embedded question kalimat Tanya tersebut tidak mengalami perubahan. Question : Who will paint that picture? Embedded question : They cant deide who will paint the picture. Question : Whose car is parked in the lot? Embedded Questions : The police cant determine whose car is parked in the lot. Question tag* Dalam bahasa Indonesia kita sering mengatakan kamu lapar kan?..Dia tinggal di Jogja kan?.. dst. Berikut caranya, pelajari baik-baik! You are sick, arent you? He likes tea, doesnt he? You helped him, didnt you? You were at home, werent you? He can swim, cant he? Berikut ini beberapa contoh tipe soal dalam tes TOEFL, pelajari baik-baik! Tipe soal 1 Penggunaan to be Find the incorrect word/words! Buying clothes are often a very time-consuming practice because those clothes AB C that a person likes are rarely the ones that fit him or her. D Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah A. To be are yang ditulis disana salah, seharusnya to be nya adalah is. Nah dari sini seharusnya kita kita kritis bertanya, mengapa yang benar is bukan are? Kapan digunakan is, kapan digunakan are? Pertama, to be is digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah he, she, atau it atau orang ketiga tunggal (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu tunggal). Contoh The boy is handsome. The cat is funny. Kedua, to be are digunakan manakala subjeknya adalah you, they, we atau orang ketiga jamak (manusia, hewan, atau benda, atau apa saja yang kita bicarakan dan itu jamak) Contoh : The boys are handsome. The cats are funny. Adapun untuk soal di atas to be yang benar adalah is karena subjeknya adalah buying clothes (membeli pakaian). Buying clothes disini dianggap tunggal karena sama maknanya dengan kata it (sesuatu yang kita bicarakan, dan itu tunggal). Perhatikan kalimat berikut!

Membeli banyak pakaian tidak baik. (Buying clothes is not good.) Coba kita perhatikan frase membeli banyak pakaian itu termasuk subjek tunggal. Jangan terkecoh pada kata banyak pakaian (clothes)! Frase buying clothes tetap itu dianggap tunggal karena frase itu merupakan sebuah topic/ issue tunggal. Tipe soal 2 Penggunaan many atau much, a few atau a little Find the incorrect word/words! Because they had spent too many time considering the new contract, the students AB C lost their opportunity to lease the appartment. D Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah B. Karena too many time.. adalah salah. Seharusnya too much time. Mengapa yang benar pakai much bukan many? Bagaimana aturannya? Rules Diikuti kata benda terhitung /countable nouns Diikuti kata benda tak terhitung /uncountable nouns a, the, some, any some chairs the, some, any some water this, that, these, those this, that none, one, two, three None Many a lot of a large number of a great number of (a) few (b) fewer than (c) more than much (usually in negatives or questions) a lot of a large amount of (a) little (b) less than (c) more than Tipe soal 3 Penggunaan pronoun kata ganti; my/me, they/them, himself/hisself? Find the incorrect word/words! These televisions are all too expensive for we to buy at this time, but perhaps we AB C D will return later. Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah C. ..all too expensive for we to buy. Kata for we disini salah, yang benar seharusnya for us. Mengapa? Karena kata kita disini berposisi sebagai object of preposition/complement of preposition(objek preposisi) Contoh mudahnya sebagai berikut, mana yang benar?

I buy an apple for. (he/him).tentu yang benar adalah him He builds a house for (they/them.) Berikut teori lengkapnya: A. Subject pronouns Vs Object/complement pronouns I like him. He likes me. They like us. We like them. I write a letter for her. And so on.. Subject pronouns Object pronouns (Complement pronouns) I Me You You They Them We Us He Him She Her It It B. Subject pronouns Vs Possessive adjectives I have a car. My car is new. He has a house. His house is old And so on. Subject pronouns Possessive adjectives I My You Your They Their We Our He His She Her It Its C. Possessive adjectives Vs Possessive pronouns My hat is red and your hat is blue. My hat is red and yours is blue. Your hat is blue and mine is red. Possessive adjectives Possessive pronouns my Mine your Yours their Theirs our Ours his His her Hers its Its D. Object/complement pronouns Vs Reflexive pronouns He cooked for me yesterday. He cooked for himself last night. Anisa bought her little brother a new hat.

Joan bought herself a new hat. Object/complement pronouns Reflexive pronouns me Myself you yourself yourselves them themselves us ourselves him Himself her Herself it Itself Tipe Soal 4 Embedded question Find the incorrect word/words! The next important question we have to decide is when do we have to submit the AB C D proposal. Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah pilihan C. Seharusnya kalimat itu adalah The next important question we have to decide is when we have to submit the proposal. Jadi tidak pakai do. Untuk lebih memahaminya perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut; When do you go? Then question is when you go. Penggunaan do dihilangkan manakala kalimat tersebut berfungsi sebagai objek/complement dari sebuah kalimat (noun clause) Contoh lain : Where do you live? I know where you live. Where is your house? He told me where your house is. Tipe soal 5 Penggunaan either dan neither Find the incorrect word/words! George has not completed the assignment yet, and Maria hasnt neither. AB C D Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah pada pilihan D. Seharusnya yang benar adalah Maria hasnt either, atau Maria has neither. Kata either artinya juga. Sama, kata neither artinya juga. Kedua-duanya digunakan untuk kalimat bermakna negatif. Anda mau mengatakan : Dia tidak makan, dan aku juga. Anda dapat mengatakan : He does not eat, and neither do I. Atau

He does not eat, and I dont either. Jadi rumusnya : Neither + auxiliary verb + subject Subject + auxiliary verb + not + either Tipe soal 6 Susunan modifier dan complement yang dibalik John decided to buy in the morning a new car, but in the afternoon ABC he changed his mind. D Apa jawaban anda? Jawaban yang benar adalah B. Seharusnya kalimat diatas John decided to buy a new car in the morning, but .. Jadi masalah di atas terkait dengan posisi complement(objek) dengan modifier (keterangan) yang di awali preposis yang terbalik. Seharusnya complement dulu, baru modifier yang diawali preposisi. Pelajari teori berikut. Normal Sentence Pattern in English Subject Verb Complement Modifier John and I ate a pizza last night We studied present perfect last week. They smile. They smile. Subject verb We sleep. We sleep. Subject verb My father drinks coffee. My father drinks coffee. Subject verb complement The lady writes a letter. The lady writes a letter. Subject verb complement The man lives in a village. The man lives in a village. Subject verb modifier The man makes handicrafts in a village. The man makes handicrafts in a village. Subject verb complement modifier She can dance. She can dance. Subject verb phrase Mr. Joko has gone. Mr.Joko Has gone.

Subject Verb phrase He is shopping. He is shopping. Subject verb phrase Linking verb : am, is, are Incorrect : She drove on the street the car. Verb complement Correct : She drove the car on the street. Verb complement Tipe soal 7 Penggunaan kata other Some of the plants in this store require very little care, but this one needs AB much more sunlight than the others ones. CD Tipe soal 8 Penggunaan tenses dalam adverbial clause yang menggunakan kata after dan before After George had returned to his house, he was reading a book. AB C D After + s + had + v3s + v2 After I had taken a bath, I prayed. After I had taken a bath, I was sleepy. Before I ate , I had taken a bath. Tipe A Tipe B Predikat Kata kerja Predikat selain kata kerja We sleep. He drinks tea. I go home. I do not stand. We do not walk. She does not sing. We do not have money. Do you smoke? Do I sleep? Does she sing? Do you eat rice? What do you eat? Does she drink milk? What does she drink? Who do you go with? What do you work for? Last night I met a ghost. Yesterday they walked. Yesterday I did not eat. Yesterday he did not smile. Did you go to the beach yesterday? What did you write last night? Tomorrow I will meet the director.

Tomorrow I will meet the director. Tomorrow I will go to Bali. Will you fly? Will you sleep? Will she cry? What will you eat? Who will you go with? I have eaten. She has gone. They have left jogja. Has she gone? Have they left jogja? Have I eaten? What have I eaten? I am sitting. He is reading. They are talking. Are they studying? What are they studying? They are not playing. I have eaten now. At that time I had eaten. At that time she had gone. At that time she had not gone. Now we are studying English. At that time we were studying. At that time I would call you. She is beautiful. They are rich. My mother is pretty. I am not hungry. She is not famous. She is not angry. We are not at home. Are you crazy? Am I beautiful? Why are you sad? Why am I tired? Why are they sad? Last night I was afraid. Yesterday they were angry. Yesterday I was not healthy. Yesterday they were not sick. Were you happy last night? Was crazy last night? Why were you sad last night? Next year I will be happy. Will she be happy? Will she be mine? Why will you be here?

They have been here. He has been satisfied. Why has he been satisfied? Why have you been disappointed? Tipe soal 9 Subject-verb agreement Many theories on conserving the purity of water has been proposed, AB but no one has been as widely accepted as this one. CD The girls .are/isin bad condition. The boy playing toys..naughty. They boys are I eat. You eat. They eat. He eats. She eats. The lady eats. The ladies eat. The lady ..has/have.. a car. The ladies ..has/have.. a car. Tipe soal 10 Beberapa kata yang tidak pernah digunakan dalam bentuk continuous The food that Mark is cooking in the kitchen is smelling delicious. AB C D Know Understand Have Believe Hate Need Hear Love Appear See Like Seem Smell Want Taste Wish Sound Own Tipe soal 11 Pemahaman tenses dasar After John eaten dinner, he wrote several letters and went to bed. AB C D

Tipe soal 12 Keterangan waktu pada tenses dasar The manager has finished working on the report last night, and now she will AB C begin to write the other proposal. D I have eaten now. I have eaten two hours ago. S + v2 S + have/has + v3 I have eaten now. I ate two hours ago. I have bought a dictionary today. I have bought a dictionary this morning. Tipe soal 13 Masalah pronoun Because Sam and Michelie had done all of the work theirselves., they were AB C unwilling to give the results to Joan. D Tipe soal 14 Masalah conditional sentence Daniel said that if he had to do another homework tonight, he would not be able AB to attend the concert. D TIPE 1 If I meet Mr. Yanto, I will address him. If I get money , I will treat you. If it rains, I will wear a raincoat. TIPE 1 If I am hungry, I will buy some food. If you are sick, I will take care of you. If he comes, I will be happy. Tipe 2 If I brought money, I would treat you. If he met me, I would be happy. If they helped me, I would thank them. TIPE 2 If I were healthy, I would work. If I were rich , I would build a villa Tipe 3 If I had brought money , I would have given you some food. If I had passed, I would have studied abroad. If they had come, they would have helped us. If I had been healthy, I would have helped you. If I had been rich, I would have built a villa. Tipe soal 15 Prepositions + gerunds (Verb-ing)

After to take the medication the patient became drowsy and more manageable. AB C D Tipe soal 16 Verbs + prepositions followed by gerund We insist on you leaving the meeting before any further outburst take place. AB C D Approve of Give up Rely on Worry about Be better off Insist on Succeed in Count on Keep on Think about Depend on Put off Think of Tipe soal 17 Question tag It has been a long time since we have talked to John , isnt it? AB C D You are sick, arent/isnt you? You will go, wont you? He sleeps, doesnt he? Tipe soal 18 Verbs + prepositions followed the word to as preposition (object to, look forward to, confess to) Henry objects to our buying this house without the approval of our attorney, and AB C John does so. D I want to go. He comes to sleep. Tipe soal 19 Verbs that are followed by gerund / verb ing Rita enjoyed to be able to meet several Congress members during her vocation. AB C D Admit Delay Miss Regret Risk Appreciate Deny Postpone Report Suggest

Avoid Enjoy Practice Resent Cant help Finish Quit Resist Consider Mind Recall Resume Tipe soal 20 Verbs that are always followed by infinitive (to + verb) After being indicted for his part in a bank robbery , the reputed mobster decided find AB C D another attorney. Agree Desire Intend Prepare Tend Attempt Fail Learn Pretend Try Claim Forget Need Refuse Want Decide Hesitate Offer Seem Wish Demand Hope Plan Strive LISTENING COMPREHENSION KUNCI UMUM Kunci 1 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk perintah (direction) pada masing-masing bagian (part) dengan baik sebelum hari- H ujian. Kunci 2 : Baca pilihan-pilihan jawaban pada masing-masing soal sebanyak mungkin ketika narrator sedang membacakan directions dan contoh soal (example) Kunci 3 : Dengarkan dengan penuh konsentrasi dan fokuskan perhatian Anda pada percakapan yang sedang Anda dengarkan.

Kunci 4 : Maksimalkan kemampuan listening Anda pada soal-soal pertama pada masing-masing part. Kunci 5 : Fokuskan pendengaran Anda pada pembicara kedua. Kunci 6 : Jangan panik bila tidak bisa memahami kata demi kata dalam percakapan secara komplit. Anda hanya perlu menangkap ide atau isi percakapan. Kunci 7 : Bila Anda sama sekali tidak bisa memahami apa yang diucapkan pembicara kedua, pilihlah jawaban yang paling berbeda dari apa yang telah Anda dengar. Kunci 8 : Pahamilah bentuk-bentuk functional expression (agreement, uncertainty, suggestion, surprise), idiomatic expression, dan situasi ketika pembicaraan dilakukan. LONGER CONVERSATION Kunci 9 : Ketika narrator membacakan direction part B anda sebaiknya membaca pilihan jawaban secara sekilas kemudian mrekamnya dan memperkirakan tema apa yang akan menjadi perbincangan. Kunci 10 : ketika menyimak conversation, anda harus mengetahui apa tema/topic yang dibicarakan Kunci 11 : waspadalah terhadap masing-masing pertanyaan. Kunci 12 : Cermati kondisi dan situasi yang terjadi selama percakapan berlangsung, yakni menyangkut tempat dan waktu pembicaraan, apa dan siapa yang dibicarakan. Kunci 13 : Bila anda memiliki waktu, lihatlah pilihan-pilihan jawban yang tertera pada lembar soal dan temukan kata kuncinya. Kunci 14 : Waspadailah pembicaraan pada kalimat-kalimat pertama karena biasanya akan menjadi topic bagi kalimat-kalimat selanjutnya. Kunci 15 : Fokuskan pendengaran anda pada hal-hal yang berkaitan dengan pertanyaan 5-wh (what, who, when, where, why) dan how. Kunci 16 : buatlah kesiompulan\inferasi atas situasi yang terjadi saat pembicaraan dilakukan. PENTING!!! (PELAJARI EXPRESI-EXPRESI BERIKUT) Turned out well : sangat baik Watch your step : hati-hati Take it easy : santai aja Thats it : ya itu / beres Youve got to be kidding : menyatakan keterkejutan Make ones own mind : berpikir sendiri Stand on ones own foot : mandiri Thanks for the attention and forgive me any of my lacks! Good Luck! MATERI B INGGRIS-TOEFL-READING COMPREHENSION Oleh : Gun gun Maulana,S.Pd Komentar petel mengatakan: 15/02/2013 pukul 16:14 Thanks Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan:

11/12/2013 pukul 05:50 ok sama2 martinsmart94@yahoo.co.id mengatakan: 17/03/2013 pukul 07:29 I think your explanation is good Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan: 11/12/2013 pukul 05:49 thnx.. sakti mengatakan: 07/04/2013 pukul 14:24 nice post, thank a lot my bro Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan: 11/12/2013 pukul 05:49 ok smoga bermanfaat. bertousman mengatakan: 25/04/2013 pukul 03:56 this site is very useful.. nice post =) Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan: 11/12/2013 pukul 05:49 ok thanx. icutnadia mengatakan: 15/05/2013 pukul 08:18 ijin Re-Share yaa.. =] Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan: 11/12/2013 pukul 05:48 boleh silahkan aja dennis mengatakan: 23/08/2013 pukul 05:20 terimakasih tips nyaa semoga sangat membantu ^^ Balas gungunmaulana mengatakan: 11/12/2013 pukul 05:48 sama2smoga membantu Putra mengatakan: 10/12/2013 pukul 13:12 wow sangat membantu sekali di dalam menyelesaikan soal toefl

Balas ukie mengatakan: 01/01/2014 pukul 11:50 makasih infonya,ijin share ya Balas

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