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ARCANE SCHOOLS by John Yarker This book provides a background necessary to understand e e!

ents o" the #o den $a%n and O&T&O& initiations' particu ar y in !atters ike the inc usion o" the Sa!othraian deities in the "or!er and the detai s o" the o%er and !idd e degrees "or the atter& The (estern Occu t Reviva is docu!ented in it)s origins& Yarker)s thesis is to de!onstrate universa and indigenous initiation in sy!bo and egend throughout the history and p aces o" the %or d* and' by re ating the !eanings and practices o" ancient and !odern +asonry ,through the -.th century/' to disc ose the universa content o" the rites and !ysteries& The author is !ore skeptica than !ost' and there is a distinct " avor o" 0ra1ier in the sty e o" presentation& +any Christian traditions are presented in great detai and !u tip e e2a!p e to be ignorant g osses o" the ancient !ysteries& Theories o" ost continents are brie" y propounded %ith open !ind' so!e dated by i!its o" scho arship o" the period3 e&g& Yarker did not kno% that 4o ynesians trave ed thousands o" !i es by ship' that !id oceanic sea " oors spread' etc& Theosophica egends are used %ith !ore restraint than %as co!!on in the period& 5Aryan5 is used "or an i!aginary race' co!!on in the period but not as ater& 5Learned5 racist stereotypes o" the period are perpetuated' but %ith considerab e !ore restraint than in other conte!poraries& At the ti!e o" %riting' race and cu ture %ere !udd ed concepts& Since universa 5+asonry5 is the sub6ect o" this %ork' 5Aryan5 is better understood in !ost instances as 5possessed o" the secrets o" i u!ination5 or so!e such concept& There is occasiona and e2cessive dependence on phi o ogy "or evidence' a so co!!on in the period o" authorship& 7n the ast chapters o" the book' Yarker de"ends variant +asonry on the grounds o" the 8nited #rand Lodge o" Eng and being ignorant o" !any traditions and indi""erent to o der charters& 5York5 !asonry is uphe d as being !ore traditiona & The Arian and Cabiric races taken "or granted in this book are "ictiona ' though based on "ar !ore i!ited actua ancient cu tures& At the period in %hich this %ork %as %ritten' a racist theory o" %or d civi i1ation %as current& This theory cu !inated in anti9Se!itis! and u ti!ate atrocity in the second :uarter o" the ;<th century& Caution shou d be e2ercised by the reader to distinguish the ater e2cesses o" Arianis! "ro! the a titude o" Yarker)s book&

European scho ars o" the ti!e %ere the!se ves a deve op!ent o" history' as such re!ain today& These racist theories o" %or d history ste!' in part' "ro! the ear ier re igious be ie" in the age o" the %or d as rough y ='<<< years& 0or so short a span' a universa and si!p istic vie% o" history is a natura concept& (ith the !odern discovery o" severa !i ions o" years "or hu!an tenure a one' a !ore diverse genesis o" history is appropriate& 0or 5Arian5' take e!pire9 bui ding con:uerors and invaders& 0or 5Cabiric5' take indigenous pagans or sett ed peop e o" the soi & The atter is so!eti!es associated %ith 5natura

re igion5 by Yarker& The various theories and dates !ust be "urther ad6usted in ight o" !odern archaeo ogy and ethno ogy& ight o" !odern archaeo ogy and ethno ogy& Scho ars and students o" European iterature %i "ind unusua va ue in the %ork& Ho% e se !ay %e understand stray re"erences ike3 5(e shou d ook ike the t%o sons o" Ay!on' %ho had ost their brother&5 99"ro! Chapter >>?777 o" 5The Three +usketeers5 o" A e2andre $u!as@ ,Spe ing varies in the origina te2t "or so!e na!es and co!!on %ords& 4unctuation a so varies "ro! conte!porary nor!s' perhaps representing the oratorica sty e o" breaking ong passages !ore than error in usage& Origina typos are a so co!!on& An a phabetica ist o" variant spe ings is avai ab e "or this te2t&/ 999Ai Heidrick 4RE0ACE& 7N the "o o%ing pages 7 have sought to satis"y a re:uest' o"ten !ade to !e' to give a short but co!prehensive vie% o" the %ho e "abric o" the Arcane !ysteries' and a""inity %ith the +asonic Syste!* and 7 here take the opportunity o" recording !y protest against the sceptica tendencies o" the present generation o" the +oderns %ho are +asons' and against the e""orts that are !ade' in season and out o" season' to underrate the indubitab e anti:uity o" the +asonic cere!onies& These e""orts' %hich tend to o%er the prestige o" our ancient Cra"t' are not a together %ithout good resu ts' as they have ed to a !ore care"u e2a!ination o" our +asonic egends and o" ancient docu!ents' and 7 have there"ore added' to a genera History o" the Arcane Schoo s' a vie%' su""icient y e2p icit' o" the ancient rites o" the +asons' eaving the inte igent 0ree!ason o" our day to trace the re ative bearing o" these& 7t is no co!p i!ent to the +asons %ho "ounded the #rand Lodge o" Eng and in -B-B' and %ho' ho%ever i in"or!ed they !ay have been in London' yet' as is a!p y proved' accepted o d custo!s o" the #ui ds %ith discri!ination' to suppose that they unani!ous y undertook to i!pose upon the pub ic' a syste! as ancient %hich they the!se ves %ere engaged in concocting& Nor is it any co!p i!ent to the inte igence o" their i!agined victi!s& (hether or not 7 succeed in convincing the candid reader o" the great anti:uity o" the 7nstitution !ust be e"t to ti!e* those o" !y readers %ho are p edged to the vie%s o" these +oderns %i no doubt adhere CvD through i"e to the ideas in %hich they have indoctrinated the!se ves' but en:uiry is progressing and there is sti a very arge substratu! o" the Cra"t %hose be ie" is yet strong in the good9"aith o" their predecessors' %hether' in %hat %as ast century' ter!ed Ancients or +oderns' and it is to such that 7 !ore particu ar y address !yse "& The best re%ard "or !y abours %ou d be to "ind that the study o" our Cra"t and ana ogous societies %as !aking progress' and that others are supp ying ne% "acts "ro! o d books' that !ay aid in bridging over any chas!s that !ay be noticed in the "o o%ing pages& +y endeavour has been to print %e authenticated !atter on y' in order that the in"or!ation supp ied !ay be re iab e& Every paragraph is a "act

or deduction "ro! "acts' and ho%ever !uch condensed nothing o" !o!ent'

kno%n to the present ti!e and having a bearing upon 0ree!asonry' has been o!itted& The %orks o" the earned Arother #eorge O iver' $&$&' ack critica cohesion' and have conse:uent y "a en into undeserved neg ect' but su""icient %i be "ound in these pages to sho% that his theories are not devoid o" !ethod' and %i ad!it o" an authentic construction being put upon those c ai!s %hich he advances "or the anti:uity o" the +asonic 7nstitution& o!itted& The %orks o" the earned Arother #eorge O iver' $&$&' ack critica cohesion' and have conse:uent y "a en into undeserved neg ect' but su""icient %i be "ound in these pages to sho% that his theories are not devoid o" !ethod' and %i ad!it o" an authentic construction being put upon those c ai!s %hich he advances "or the anti:uity o" the +asonic 7nstitution& Those %ho obstinate y deny the e2istence o" anything %hich is outside their o%n co!prehension are "u y as credu ous as those %ho accept everything %ithout discri!ination& There are certain inte ects %hich ack intuition and the abi ity to take in and assi!i ate abstruse truths' 6ust as !uch as there are peop e %ho are co our9b ind' or dea" to the !ore de icate notes o" !usic* this %as %e kno%n to the ancient theo ogians and !ystics' and the reasons %hich they assigned "or the !enta incapacity %i appear in the "o o%ing pages& 7 cannot a o% the opportunity to pass' in c osing !y abours' %ithout thanking !y pub isher "or his invariab e kindness' courtesy' and genera care* and the reader is a so !uch indebted to hi! "or the co!pi ation o" the 7nde2& (e have considerab y e2ceeded the =<< pages CviD %ith %hich %e !ade the announce!ent to the pub ic' hence the s ight de ay in pub ication& 7 have a so to thank our subscribers "or their un%earied patience in %aiting "or the appearance o" this %ork' %hich' e2cept "or !odern revisions' has ain dor!ant "or -< years& JOHN YAREER& (EST $7$SA8RY' +ANCHESTER' 5-Bth Apri ' -.<.&5 CviiD 7NTRO$8CT7ON& THE ob6ect o" the "o o%ing chapters is to give a broad but condensed vie% o" the various traces %hich are to be "ound a!ongst the ancients' in their re igion' in their Art' and in their bui dings 99civi ' sacred' and !i itary 99o" a specu ative syste!' such as is no% pro"essed under the designation o" 0ree!asonry& The %ork is necessari y a co!pi ation o" suitab e in"or!ation gathered "ro! books upon history' !ystery' !ysticis!' and 0ree!asonry* but it e!braces the !ost recent vie%s upon these sub6ects %hich have been evo ved by a c ose critica e2a!ination' and genera y accepted by the earned&

7n the 5"irst and second chapters5 %i be "ound the proo"s o" a syste! o" !ost ancient sacerdota grades and !ysteries %hich in the ear iest or proto9Aryan' civi isation added to their cere!onies those e!b e!s o" geo!etry and art %hich have been trans!itted by 0ree!asonry& 7n the 5third and "ourth chapters5 %e see !ore c ear y the advance %hich the Aryan civi isation introduced into the pri!itive association* the deve op!ent o" a caste organisation' and the reduction o" the !ore ancient civi isation' by invasions' to a sub6ect state' %hich in ti!e created an independent syste! o" Art9+ysteries' co!bined %ith natura re igion' or %hat %e no% ter! 0ree!asonry&

7n the 5"i"th and si2th chapters5 %e have atte!pted the e ucidation o" the doctrine and sy!bo is! o" the Ancient +ysteries and their re ationship %ith the !inor schoo s C2D o" 4hi osophy %hich sprang "ro! the!' as "or instance the 4ythagorean and 4 atonic schoo s' proving that a these possessed !uch in co!!on 99in doctrine' rites' and sy!bo s' not on y %ith each other but %ith 0ree +asonry o" our o%n days' %ithout the distinguishing "eatures o" the atter as an operative art* %hi st' side by side' the Arcane schoo s o" 4hi osophy passed on%ards through the centuries o" Christianity' in nu!erous branches' %ith the o d rites and sy!bo s& doctrine and sy!bo is! o" the Ancient +ysteries and their re ationship %ith the !inor schoo s C2D o" 4hi osophy %hich sprang "ro! the!' as "or instance the 4ythagorean and 4 atonic schoo s' proving that a these possessed !uch in co!!on 99in doctrine' rites' and sy!bo s' not on y %ith each other but %ith 0ree +asonry o" our o%n days' %ithout the distinguishing "eatures o" the atter as an operative art* %hi st' side by side' the Arcane schoo s o" 4hi osophy passed on%ards through the centuries o" Christianity' in nu!erous branches' %ith the o d rites and sy!bo s& 7n the 5seventh and eighth chapters5 %e have' "or convenience' a recapitu ation o" proo"s o" the e2istence and trans!ission o" Art +ysteries and sy!bo s "ro! the !ost ancient ti!es to our o%n days' %ith detai s o" the Constitutions o" a 0raternity' specu ative in its teaching and operative in its app ication' "or the conservation o" Arts and Sciences in their tripartite app ication to houses' churches' and "ortications' and %hich entering this country in Aritish and Ro!an ti!es "ro! Egypt %as !odi"ied by Cu dee !onks and earned c erics' and so continued as 0o c9!otes or #ui ds in the ti!e o" the Ang o9Sa2ons& 7n the 5ninth and tenth chapters5 so!e space is devoted to an en:uiry as to the origin o" the Se!itic egends o" 0ree +asonry %hich entering this country in Ang o9Nor!an ti!es' %ith an Eastern syste! o" %ork' o" !arks' and sy!bo s' %ere engra"ted upon the o der Constitutions* together %ith so!e account o" the esoteric !arks' e!b e!s' and rites o" the organised Aui ding9 brotherhood %ho erected our nob e #othic edices' and re"erences are !ade to !any o" these edi"ices in i ustration o" 0ree +asonry& (e see the end o" the #othic and reviva o" the C assic Arcanu!& The re!aining 5e eventh' t%e "th' and thirteenth chapters5 give a short account o" the principa points in the history o" +odern 0ree!asonry "ro! -B-B to our o%n days* and %hich inc udes a chapter upon the design' origin and history o" %hat has co!e to be ter!ed high9grade 0ree9!asonry' C2iD and out o" %hich sprung the distinction bet%een Ancient and +odern +asonry' a dissension %hich continued unti the union o" these t%o sects o" +asons in -F-G& Last y in the 5Appendi25 %e have added a "u series o" Constitutiona Charges %hich continued in "orce "ro! Sa2on ti!es unti the year -B-B and even !uch ater* these %e have s ight y !odernised "or the ease o" the reader&

C2iD C O N T E N T S& 4age& 4RE0ACE & & & & & & && & & & & & & v 7NTRO$8CT7ON 99#ENERAL 4LAN O0 THE (ORE & & & & & & i2 4ART 7& 99THE ARCANE SCHOOLS& Chapter&

7& ARCHA7C LE#EN$S & & & & & & & & & & & 77& 4ROTO9ARYAN C7?7L7HAT7ON AN$ +YSTER7ES & & & & & ;< 777& ARYAN C7?7L7HAT7ON AN$ +YSTER7ES & & & & & & & IB 7?& THE +YSTER7ES 7N RELAT7ON TO 4H7LOSO4HY & & & & & -<< ?& 4H7LOSO4HY 7N RELAT7ON TO +ASON7C R7TES & & & & & -;G ?7& THE +YST7C AN$ HER+ET7C SCHOOLS 7N CHR7ST7AN T7+ES & & -=J 4ART 77& 99O4ERAT7?E AN$ S4EC8LAT7?E& ?77& RECA47T8LATE$ 4ROO0S O0 ANC7ENT +ASONRY & & & & & ;-. ?777& +ASONRY 7N AR7TA7N AN$ SA>ON EN#LAN$ & & & & & & ;J= 7>& +ASONRY 7N NOR+AN T7+ES & & & & & & & & & ;.= >& 0REE+ASONRY 7N +O$ERN T7+ES & & & & & & & & GI= 4ART 777& 99S4EC8LAT7?E RE?7?AL& >7& OR7#7N O0 THE SYSTE+ TER+E$ H7#H9#RA$E ,ANC7ENT/ & & & J;>77& 0REE+ASONRY 7N THE #RAN$ LO$#E ERA ,+O$ERN/ & & & & J.>777& 0REE+ASONRY 8N$ER THE 8N7TE$ #RAN$ LO$#E & & & & & =;4ART 7?& 99ANC7ENT +SS& A44EN$7> 9 SER7ES O0 CONST7T8T7ONAL CHAR#ES & & & & & & & =GB 7N$E> & & & & & & & & & & & & & & & =IB ERRATA& 4A#E - 99=th ine "ro! top' "or 5%as5 read 5%ere&5 -I 99-<th ine "ro! top' "or 5ter!5 read 5ter!s&5 ;J 99Jth ine "ro! top' "or 5e2ists5 read 5e2ist&5 GB 99Grd ine "ro! top' "or 5proto9Aryan5 read 5pre9Aryan&5 .I 99top ine' a"ter 5the egend is'5 read #R3Eta9Eappa98psi on9Rho97ota9A pha9Epsi on 7ota9Sig!a97ota9Sig!a A pha9#a!!a9Nu9Eta& .I 99Ith ine "ro! top' a"ter 5-J.< is'5 read 5#R3Epsi on97ota9Sig!a Heta9Eta98psi on9Sig!a Sig!a9A pha9Rho9A pha97ota9Sig!a A pha94i9O!icron9Nu O!icron9Nu9O!icron9+u9A pha Sig!a9A pha9Aeta9A pha9O!ega 4hi9O!ega9Sig!a A pha9Nu9A pha9Tau9O!icron9La!bda9Eta Chi9Theta9O!ega9Nu trans ated One Jupiter' Serapis' Ho y Na!e' Sabaoth' the Light' the $ay9 Spring' the EarthK #R3Epsi on97ota9Sig!a Theta9Epsi on9O!icron9Sig!a

Sig!a9A pha9Rho9A pha94i97ota9Sig!a ,o"ten abbreviated into #R3Epsi on& O!icron& Heta&/ There is but one #od& and he is Serapis& He is a so ca ed #R3Epsi on97ota9Sig!a Heta9O!ega9Nu Theta9Epsi on9O!icron9Sig!a' The one Living #od& -;B 9-;th ine "ro! top' "or 5 ocius'5 read 5' Socius&5

-BJ 99Fth ine "ro! botto!' "or 5dani5 read 5do!i&99Fth ine "ro! botto!' "or 5dani5 read 5do!i&5 ;-< 99--th ine "ro! botto!' "or 5 ast century5 read 5in the eighteenth century&5 ;G- 99;<th ine "ro! top& "or 5as ast'5 read 5"or in the eighteenth&5 ;GG 99-;th ine "ro! top' "or 5Henry5 read 5Her!ann&5 ;GJ 99-Jth ine "ro! botto!' read 5#R3O!icron9O!ega9Nu' kappa9a pha9iota' o!icron eta9nu' kappa9a pha9iota' o!icron' epsi on9rho9chi9o!icron9!u9epsi on9upsi on9o!icron9sig!a&5 ;GI 99=th ine "ro! botto! "or 5the 4arthenon5 read 5one at Aaa bec&5 ;JB 99-;th ine "ro! botto!' "or 5Tacitus5 read 5Tra6an&5 ;FF 99--th ine "ro! botto!' "or 5cri!ina s5 read 5ani!a s&5 G-J 99-Fth ine "ro! top' "or 5Octroyie5 read 5Octroyee&5 GG< 99-.th ine "ro! top' "or 5bearing5 read 57t bears&5 GJ- 99.th ine "ro! top' "or 5 ast5 read 5the eighteenth&5 G=- 99Fth ine "ro! botto!' read 5oy & & & sunn & & & se sunn & & & donne his "aedr&5 GFB 99Grd ine "ro! botto!' "or 5-= inches5 read 5-F inches&5 G.< 99;nd ine "ro! top' "or 5-IF=5 read 5-I.=&5 J;J 99-Bth ine "ro! top' "or 5-BGB5 read 5-BG;&5 J;B 99;nd ine "ro! top' "or 5+ANET7NAETER5 read +ANET 7N AETER & & ,N8+&/ J;B 99-<th ine "ro! botto!' "or 5 ast5 read 5in the eighteenth&5 JJG 99-.th ine "ro! botto!' add 5as5 a"ter 5+asonry&5 J.< 99Fth ine "ro! top' "or 5-.<=5 read 5Sept& ;Jth' -.<;&5 OR7#7N AN$ ANT7L87TY O0 THE ARCANE SCHOOLS& CHA4TER 7& ARCHA7C LE#EN$S 7T !ay reasonab y be supposed that the advance!ent o" !ankind %hich %e ter! civi isation had !ade great progress in hot c i!ates be"ore the Arts' science' and !ore especia y the !ystery o" bui ding te!p es and houses o" stone' brick' or %ood %as deve oped& Re igious !ysteries' the rudi!ents o" science' and open and secret %orship' i" not innate' %hich %e be ieve the! to be' %ou d arise' and as the erection' "irst o" te!p es' and then o" houses' indicates a kno% edge o" geo!etry and constructive too s' it i!p ies a !ore advanced cu ture& The tradition %hich has reached us through the ages is that !ankind contracted very s o% y the protop as! %hich "or!s our natura body' a"ter %hich a variety o" %ants beca!e apparent that %ere in ear ier ages un"e t& (hether %e accept or re6ect this vie%' %e can rea ise that the united inte ect o" thousands o" years has been unab e to supp y any better idea o" the creation

and progress o" hu!anity upon earth than that handed do%n to us "ro! the && ancient sages& As !ans !ateria nature increased his spiritua ity decreased' and as his intuition tended to beco!e dor!ant !eans %ere sought %hich !ight restore his ancient status& The discip ine necessary "or this purpose %as

neither suitab e nor agreeab e to the !a6ority' and this ed to the estab ish!ent o" secret or esoteric C-D schoo s "or those %ho sought the higher spiritua deve op!ent& O" an unpretentious nature at "irst and possessing but !ora tria s or proo"s' these schoo s gradua y assu!ed a !agni"icent e2terior under State contro ' %ith even proo"s dangerous to i"e' and %ere designated THE +YSTER7ES& The natura %ants had no% co!e to be provided "or* the Arts and Sciences %ere deve oped3 Architecture' +eta urgy' Ship9bui ding' Astrono!y' Agricu ture' etc&' %ere added to Theosophia' and re igious ritua & This is the tradition o" the +ysteries& o" secret or esoteric C-D schoo s "or those %ho sought the higher spiritua deve op!ent& O" an unpretentious nature at "irst and possessing but !ora tria s or proo"s' these schoo s gradua y assu!ed a !agni"icent e2terior under State contro ' %ith even proo"s dangerous to i"e' and %ere designated THE +YSTER7ES& The natura %ants had no% co!e to be provided "or* the Arts and Sciences %ere deve oped3 Architecture' +eta urgy' Ship9bui ding' Astrono!y' Agricu ture' etc&' %ere added to Theosophia' and re igious ritua & This is the tradition o" the +ysteries& There are certain ancient egends in regard to a ost or sunken continent and a de uge %hich' though not abso ute y accepted as history' are too probab e to be passed over in si ence& 7t is ad!itted by scientists that the sur"ace o" our earth is continua y %asting a%ay' %ith the resu t that the bed o" the ocean is being s o% y raised' and the geographica position o" the and is changing3 %e see in one oca ity that the ocean is %ashing the and a%ay' %hi st in another the sea is receding& E:ua y great c i!atic changes are s o% y deve oping* thus #reen and %as at one ti!e a torrid c i!e' %hich at a ater age' to be reckoned on y by tens o" thousands o" years' %as succeeded by intense co d' and %hen our o%n is and %as depopu ated by a de uge o" ice and "rost& These changes are attendant upon %hat astrono!ers ter! the 54recession o" the E:uino2es5* there is a gradua disp ace!ent o" the po es o" the earth' occurring in cyc es or periods o" ;='<<< years' and the ast o" %hich reached its e2tre!e point about -;'=<< years ago' %hen it is he d that a great catac ys! occurred %hich changed the "ace o" the entire g obe& 7t "o o%s o" necessity that && !en s habits !ust change %ith c i!atic changes& The Hindu priests have a co!p icated series o" cyc es %ithin cyc es' %hich are not a together i!aginary but are grounded upon recondite astrono!ica ca cu ations& (hen %e re!e!ber that there is a great centra sun round %hich the entire ga a2y o" p anets and suns revo ve' %e !ay dra% the ana ogy that in i!!ense cyc es %hat %e !ay ter! seasona C;D changes or states are produced' even on these p anets and suns' si!i ar to those %hich occur on our earth&MM ?ide 5Notes and Lueries5 ,S& C& and L& +& #ou d' +anchester' N&H&/' 2i' p& ;<G&NN There e2ists in Thibet and 7ndia a 5Secret $octrine5 %hich is o" un:uestioned anti:uity' and o" %hich ana ogica con"ir!ation !ay be "ound in the %ritings o"

the ancient 4hi osophers& This doctrine a o%s "or the e2istence in e2tre!e anti:uity o" a sunken continent in the 4aci"ic ocean' o" %hich the present is ands are !ountain tops' and in the At antic ocean o" seven is ands' the ast o" %hich sank beneath the %aters about the period %hich %e have assigned "or a great catac ys!' or -;'=<< years ago& Aehind this account' %hich in the East is considered historica ' ies the cyc ica doctrine o" a $ay and Night o" Arah!' or by %hatever other %ord the i!persona $eity is designated& These cyc es are the Outbreathing and 7nbreathing o" the 8nkno%ab e deity' or ever iving Spirit and pri!a +atter* the gradua progress o" a created !atter is the divine $ay %hich proceeds "ro! the etheria or co!etary to the concrete by !eans o" the Tat%as' %hich %i correspond %ith the #enetic $ays o" +oses' and these again %ith the gestation o" the ordinary "oetus* in the divine Night everything again reverts to the etheria state' to be again "o o%ed' in i!!ense cyc es' by a reversed action& The !ytho ogica account o" the Hindu 4aradise p aces +ount +eru at the North9po e' or the i!perishab e and * a circu ar is and upon %hich is the 5City

o" the #ods'5 %hich is supposed to be a per"ect s:uare guarded by a %a protected by eight circu ar to%ers' and the ho y !ount' %hich is o" conica shape' rises in the centre o" the cityMM5Anaca ypsis'5 i& p& =<BNN& rded by a %a protected by eight circu ar to%ers' and the ho y !ount' %hich is o" conica shape' rises in the centre o" the cityMM5Anaca ypsis'5 i& p& =<BNN& Te!p es have been designed to represent this egendary +eru' and it has a so "or!ed the basic p an o" cities' %hich %e !ay !ention ater& 7t is a so note%orthy that the Egyptian egend o" the +ystery #od' Osiris or Heseri' is app icab e to IF $egrees north atitude' or %here the sun dies CGD "or J< days' and %hich %as then a hot c i!ate' according to the egends& (e kno% that the +a!!oth e2isted there and "ed on tropica herbage& The north they consider to have been torrid o%ing to the then nebu ous or co!etary state o" our g obe' %hich had neither coo ed do%n nor hardened& Hu!anity' o" a sort' e2isted in that and' but %as !oon9bred' etheria ' g obu ar' gigantic' se2 ess' generated as are ato!s by se "9!u tip ication& To these succeeded a second race' giants' o" %ho! the ater and !ore !ateria %ere inspired by the So ar gods' these %ere dua 9se2ed or her!aphrodite' as !any "or!s o" i"e yet are' and !ore co!pact than the "irst race& The Arabs and 4ersians have egends o" such a race' and represent that it %as ru ed by B; kings o" the na!e o" Su ei!an' o" %ho! the three ast reigned one thousand years each& 7t does not see! that these Su ei!ans' %ho are' par9e2ce ence' the ru ers o" a $6ins' A"reets' and other e e!enta spirits' bear any re ationship to the 7srae ite Eing' that being a !ore !odern app ication& (e "ind the na!e as one o" the gods o" the ancient Aaby onians' and the ate $octor Eenea ey' %ho as a 4ersian scho ar trans ated the poe!s o" Ha"i1' asserts that the ear iest Aryan teachers %ere na!ed +aha9Aodhs or So y!i' and that Su ei!an %as an ancient tit e o" rega po%er' synony!ous %ith Su tan in Asia' 4haraoh in Egypt' Ehan in Tartary' Tsar in Russia& There is a so a 4ersian egend %hich a eges that in the !ountains o" Ea"' %hich can on y be reached by a !agic ring ,that o" Su ei!an/' there is a ga ery bui t by the giant Ar1eak %here the statues o" the ancient !en are preserved %ho %ere ru ed by the Su ei!ans' or %ise Eings o" the East& +any an Eastern storyte er a!ents the departed g ories o" the throne o" Su ei!an' ocated near the present Aden in Arabia' %hich it has been suggested !ay have been popu ated by Eushites "ro! the Hindu Eush& There is a very %onder"u structure he%in out o" so id rock on the con"iness o" A"ghanistan and 7ndia ca ed the Takht9i9Su ei!an' or throne o" So o!on' its ancient Aryan na!e CJD being Shanker Acharya' "ab ed to have been erected by supernatura !eans' and kno%n to have been a great rende1vous "or t%o thousand years o" !erchants & caravans&

7t is on the %estern side o" the Su ei!an +ountains& Leaving this s ight digression %e return to the Secret $octrine' %hich goes on to re ate that in course o" ti!e a third race o" !en %ere produced %ith bones and divided into se2es' and %ho are practica y the "irst race o" Ada!ic !en' "or the rib o" Ada! is a euphe!is! a uding to the division o" se2& These are said' a"ter deve oping a !onosy abic anguage' no% represented by Chinese' to have spread over the ong ost 4aci"ic continent* here they beca!e great bui ders' deve oped the re igious +ysteries' and spread "ro! north to south' popu ating the At antic continent' %ho are considered a "ourth race' a"ter the 4aci"ic continent had disappeared& Here %as the ho!e o" the proto9Aryan race o" a bro%n9%hite co!p e2ion& A co ony o" these sett ed in Egypt in re!ote ages' %here they introduced the astrono!y and 1odiac o" Asura9+aya o" Ro!akapura' and the pupi o" Narida' o" %hose books the 7ndians c ai! to have

so!e "rag!ents& Another co ony o" educated priests sett ed upon an is and' %here the desert o" #obi no% e2ists' but then an in and ake' %hich he d in its boso! -; s!a er is ands& These priests' or at east so!e o" the!' a ied the!se ves %ith a red9ye o% +ongo oid race possessing great intuitive po%ers' a race o" %hich the Chinese are a branch' "or it is c ai!ed that there %ere seven sub9races in each o" the Grd and Jth races& %here the desert o" #obi no% e2ists' but then an in and ake' %hich he d in its boso! -; s!a er is ands& These priests' or at east so!e o" the!' a ied the!se ves %ith a red9ye o% +ongo oid race possessing great intuitive po%ers' a race o" %hich the Chinese are a branch' "or it is c ai!ed that there %ere seven sub9races in each o" the Grd and Jth races& The inter!arriage o" these t%o races' %hich %e !ay co!pare %ith that o" the sons o" #od %ith the daughters o" !en' gave rise to a "i"th race o" Aryans' %ho sent out civi ising !issions over the %or d' and it is asserted that there are records %hich sho% that these priests trave ed into Europe to superintend the erection o" re igious structures such as e2isted a!ongst the Aritish $ruids' and it is not i!possib e' as the Eastern civi isation had a engthy precedence over that o" Europe& C=D (hen the is and o" At antis sank a pass %as re"t %hich drained the $esert o" #obi' and caused the Aryans to take re"uge in the !ountains and high tab e ands' and the change o" c i!ate !ay have sent out others to seek a %ar!er ho!e* others being "orced out%ards by the increase in popu ation' and thus co!pe ed to co onise ne% regions& Thibet has preserved !any detai s o" the %ars o" this ost At antis' charging the cause o" its destruction to the cu tivation' by a portion o" its tribes o" b ack !agic' or the e"t9hand path& 7t !ay be !entioned that there yet re!ains bet%een Cabu and Aa kh' or the ancient Aactria' so!e "ive i!!ense statues "ro! -;O to I< "eet high' said to sy!bo ise this doctrine o" these successive racesMMThe Secret $octrine' o" H& 4& A avatsky&NN& 7t is curious that on Easter 7s and there are so!e si!i ar statues' ranging "ro! B< to G "eet high' !entioned by Cooke as e:ua to our best !asonry' and o" %hich investigation has been !ade by the S!ithsonian 7nstitute' and %hich are said to have been %rought in ava %ith iron too s& The Egyptian priests had a chrono ogy vast y in e2cess o" the ordinary co!putation' and the accounts dovetai %ith %hat %e have a ready re ated& Herodotus' %ho visited Egypt about J=< A&C&' states that the "o o%ing %ere care"u records o" ti!e preserved by the priests& Ae"ore any Eing' a dynasty o" gods ru ed in Egypt* the 0irst o" these %ere the F great gods' so!eti!es enu!erated as B* then "o o%ed the -;' %ho %ere produced "ro! the eight' o" %hich the Egyptian and Tyrian Herac es %as one' and %ho ru ed -B'<<< years && be"ore the historians ti!e* Horus' the son o" Osiris' %ho the historian te s us is identica %ith Aacchus and his son %ith the #recian Apo o' ru ed -='<<< years be"ore his o%n visit& 0ro! the ti!e o" +enes' the "irst hu!an king and

"ounder o" +e!phis' the priests read over to hi! the na!es o" GG< kings' and a so sho%ed hi! the statues o" GJ7 hierophants' %hich the historian esti!ates' at G to a century' as representing --'GJ< years "ro! the "oundation o" +e!phis& Herodotus CID %as prohibited "ro! giving any esoteric in"or!ation' but %e !ay point out that there is an a""inity bet%een the t%e ve 1odiaca signs and the abours o" the #recian Herac es %ho! Herodotus considers to be !uch !ore !odern than the Herac es o" Egypt and Tyre' and %hose abours %ere app ied to the Hercu es o" the Latins& The great gods !ay re"er to the Cabiric cu te' the esser gods to the Aryan' but %e sha see !ore o" this as %e proceed& The "or!er are represented by the p anets' and the atter by the 1odiaca signs& The birth o" the gods !ay indicate the introduction o" their %orship into a country or district' their !arriage the era %hen one %orship %as associated %ith another' %hi st their death !ay be e2p ained on the doctrine o" an a eged

reincarnation& The Egyptians' Herodotus says' %ere the "irst %ho erected a tars' shrines' and te!p es' and %ho engraved the "igures o" ani!a s in stone* the "irst to divide the year into t%e ve !onths' and to give na!es to the -; a tars' shrines' and te!p es' and %ho engraved the "igures o" ani!a s in stone* the "irst to divide the year into t%e ve !onths' and to give na!es to the -; && gods* the "irst to de"end the doctrine o" the sou s i!!orta ity* the "irst to deve op geo!etry& 7t is %orthy o" note that G' B' and -; are pro!inent y represented in Hebre%& There are G !other etters' B doub e' and -; si!p e characters' %hich actua y bear a p anetary and 1odiaca signi"ication& The Hebre% a phabet is but an adaptation "ro! an o der one' but the arrange!ent proves that the inventor %as an 7nitiate o" the +ysteries' o" %hich this a phabet is the synthesis& 7t is asserted that in the !ost ancient ti!es there %ere t%o secret 1odiaca signs and ten that %ere kno%n as a so -< si!p e characters& 7t is no% i!possib e to "i2 %ith !athe!atica precision the dates o" such 1odiacs as e2ist& O" the Egyptian that at $endara !ight re"er to -G'<<< A&C&' but there is one at Esne %hich !ight re"er to -='<<< A&C& (ithout doubt the ancient Hierophant %ho designed these "igures e!bodied therein a secret doctrine' and it has been supposed that the syste! %as intended to sy!bo ise the destinies o" hu!anity "or the ;'=<< years %hich each sign represents' or "or the period %hich the sun occupies in over9running CBD a sign& The chrono ogy here set "orth is !uch in e2cess o" that a o%ed by the !ore e2travagant archaeo ogists' but' in so!e con"ir!ation o" it' Aaron Aunsen ad!its traces o" buried pottery %hich !ay be ;<'<<< years o d' esti!ated upon the deposit %hich the Ni e eaves at each annua " o%& The Aryan egend o" the sunken At antis is said to have been recorded in Egypt& 4 ato indirect y in"or!s us in the 5Ti!aeus5 that %hen his ancestor So on visited Egypt the priests o" Neith at Sais in"or!ed hi! that !any catastrophes had occurred to !ankind in re!ote ti!es' the !ost re!arkab e o" %hich %as one contained in the records o" the te!p e& That so!e .'<<< years be"ore this visit' %hich took p ace about I<< A&C&' a arge continent and so!e ad6acent is ands had perished in one night by earth:uakes' and that "ro! these is ands %as the %ay to the true continent* that the inhabitants o" this At antis %ere a race %ho recognised that great advantages sprang "ro! a 6ust and righteous co!!erce* that they had con:uered and co onised #reece' and e2tended the!se ves on one side as "ar as Lybia' and on the other to Tyrrhenia& && Aut a part o" the is ands inhabitants had given the!se ves up to se "ish aggrandi1e!ent' and had !ade %ar upon the %e disposed peop e' and to subvert the good regu ations %hich had been estab ished by 4oseidon and his son At as& (hereupon the incensed gods' in one night' sank the country o"

At antis beneath the %aves o" the ocean& 7t is "urther stated that the country had te!p es o" b ack and %hite stones' decorated %ithin and %ithout %ith precious !eta s& The shrine o" 4oseidon and the pa ace o" the Eing %as surrounded %ith three sheets o" %ater' "or!ing three para e concentric circ es' and a te!p e e2isted roo"ed %ith gi ded copper& Theopo!pus in his 5+eropis5 attributes a si!i ar account to the priests o" 4hrygia' and te s us that the is and contained a "ighting and a conte!p ative race* the "or!er kne% ho% to !ake the!se ves invu nerab e to iron' so that they cou d on y be %ounded by stone or %ood& 4roc us :uotes +arce us on the sub6ect& CFD A avatsky says that they had a %ritten character and used it %ith the tanned skins o" !onstrous ani!a s no% e2tinct& 4ro"essor Ao%d er Sharpe thinks that a ied "or!s o" birds point to a ost continent %hich stretched "ro! South

A!erica to Austra ia %ith an ar! e2tending to +adagascar' and this %ou d !eet the account o" 4 ato& !eet the account o" 4 ato& (e have another account' si!i ar in its essentia s to that recorded& 5The 4opu 9?u '5 or 5Aook o" the A1ure ?ei 5 o" the +e2icans' te s us that these At antians %ere a race that 5kne% a things by intuition'5 and repeat the charge o" sorcery' or b ack !agic' as the cause o" the destruction o" their country by the gods& This book a egorises and personi"ies the "orces o" nature& The 5Troano +S&5 records the sa!e !atter %ith specia !ention o" the geo ogica changes %hich the catastrophe caused& $r& e 4 ongeon trans ates a passage thu3 9957n the year I Ean' on the --th +u uc' in the !onth Hac' there occurred terrib e earth:uakes %hich continued %ithout interruption unti the -Gth Chuen&5 The +S& goes on to say that the and o" +u disapeared and that ten countries %ere scattered' and that this occurred F'<I< years be"ore the book %as %ritten& This %riter advances sti !ore e2traordinary !atter con"ir!ative o" the state!ents o" the book& (e "ind in the grave9!ounds o" a prehistoric raceMMSee 5Ars Luatuor Coronatoru!'5 v' part 77&NN' as %e as in the architectura scu ptures o" the +ayau2' the cross in its various "or!s* the tau cross CTD o" Egypt' on the breast o" nu!erous statues throughout A!erica' the e:ui i!bed cross COD' and the so9 ca ed Latin cross Csy!bo 3 a Latin crossD' a "or! e:ua y "ound in Egypt in pre9 Christian ti!es& There is the %inged9egg %ith a sy!bo ic e2p anation sa!e as %as given to it in EgyptMM5Sacred +ysteries o" the +ayas and Luiches --'=<< Years Ago&5NN& Arother #eorge O iver' $&$&' asserts that these races used a cube o" pure crysta in their te!p es' and $r& e 4 ongeon' %ho spent t%e ve years in overhau ing the ruins o" Yucatan' has "ound cubica dice upon %hich is engraved a hu!an hand' as %e as crysta s o" a g obu ar "or!' arro%s o" 6ade' the C.D hardest o" stones' etc& The hand' as a sy!bo ' he d an i!portant p ace a!ongst these peop e' as it is "ound sta!ped on the inside o" bui dings as i" it %as done %ith the actua hand o" the architect as a !ark o" approva ' or as a !odern 7ndian Ra6ah sta!ps his o%n hand on the standard given to one o" his troops* the sa!e custo! appears in the Te!p es o" 7ndia& Le 4 ongeon "urther "ound an a tar %hich is a "acsi!i e o" one at Anger9tho! in Ca!bogia' and he a so c ai!s that he has discovered the to!b' statue' and cre!ated body o" 4rince Cay Canchi' the High9priest* in the centre o" his !auso eu! %as represented -; serpent heads' and the statue %hich he disinterred at Chichen 7t1a' the city o" the Sages' possesses a carved apron on %hich is "igured an open hu!an hand& The nu!ber seven is an i!portant "actor in their secret sy!bo is!& The $octor' %ho "ound a di""icu ty in getting into print because the pub ishers sa% no !oney in the sub6ect' c ai!s that the "o o%ing account is scu ptured upon the ruined te!p e o" 82!a ' and con"ir!ed by the 5Troano +S&5 as the veritab e history o" the country' but %hich has beco!e !ytho ogised in the o d %or d3 the history o" an E!pire !ore ancient than At antis' e!bracing three continents peop ed by a red and b ack race' that is inc uding North and South A!erica and At antis* that this e!pire %as

sy!bo ised by the trident' and the three9peaked cro%n o" its kings' and a uded to in !ytho ogy as the kingdo! o" 4oseidon' Eronos' or Saturn& There %as' says the author' a dei"ied king na!ed Can' %hose tote! or e!b e! %as the serpent' and a ru e o" his kingdo!' as in so!e Asiatic countries' %as that the e dest son shou d !arry his youngest sister& This Can

had G sons and ; daughters' thus !aking a "a! y o" B' each o" %ho! ru ed one o" seven cities& 0o o%ing the ru e a ready !entioned' one o" the brothers na!ed Coh' chac!o or eopard' took to %i"e his sister +oo' but their brother Aac' %hose TOTE+ %as the turt e' out o" ove "or his sister s e% her husband treacherous y& According to C-<D the custo! o" the country he is represented as ughters' thus !aking a "a! y o" B' each o" %ho! ru ed one o" seven cities& 0o o%ing the ru e a ready !entioned' one o" the brothers na!ed Coh' chac!o or eopard' took to %i"e his sister +oo' but their brother Aac' %hose TOTE+ %as the turt e' out o" ove "or his sister s e% her husband treacherous y& According to C-<D the custo! o" the country he is represented as o""ering her "ruit' %hi st she is seated under a tree upon %hich is perched a !aca% as the 5tote!5 o" +oo* the serpent' or her husband && s e!b e!' is t%ined in the branches o" the tree' %hi st a !onkey stands by as i" representing a counci or& The tree is the e!b e! o" the country' and the representation is in c ose con"or!ity %ith the egend o" #enesis as to the te!ptation o" Eve& +oo re"uses to accept this sy!bo o" the ove o" Aac' and he puts her to death' as %e as her e der brother Cay Canchi' or Hunacay' the %ise9"ish' the high9 priest& 7t is note%orthy that in the scu ptured representations o" this egend' or history' %hichever it !ay be' the !urderer Aac is represented as a Sun9 %orshipper' %hi st Coh and his sister +oo venerate the serpent& A curious ana ogy to this is to be "ound in Egypt' it is in a statue o" Typhon or Set as described by 4 utarch& 7t is the representation o" a hippopota!us' %hich corresponds to the turt e o" Aac' and on the back o" the ani!a is a ha%k and a serpent in the act o" "ighting& Le 4 ongeon again a""ords another correspondence %ith Egypt in the description o" the -; kings descended "ro! the B o" the race o" Can' %ho ru ed be"ore the destruction o" At antis* "or %e have here the -; !inor gods and the 1odiac' and the B greater gods or p anets& The account !ay be veritab e history' as Le 4 ongeon !aintains that it is' but it is possib e that the author !ay have !istaken "or history a sti o der !ytho ogy carried "ro! At antis to 4ucatan& The te!p e o" Chichen 7t1a is itse " an interesting study& 7t is bui t on a ground p an o" three apart!ents %hich CSy!bo on t%o ines o" te2t3 A #reek cross %ith a short hori1onta bar at the top and botto! o" the vertica ar!D !ake a trip e cross& 7n one pecu iarity it corresponds - %ith so!e ancient te!p es in Egypt and Ca!bodia %here a keyed arch %as then not kno%n& 7t has a triangu ar arch constructed by the over apping o" arge stones' in %hich the three sons o" Can are sy!bo ised* by taking in the sides %e have "ive to inc ude the t%o sister* and adding the ends %e have seven or the %ho e "a!i y* nu!bers %hich are sacred both in Centra A!erica and in C--D the East& Over

the door o" the sanctuary is represented both the cross9bones and a ske eton ho ding up its t%o " esh ess ar!s in the "or! o" t%o s:uares' a position %hich is so!eti!es represented in Egypt as that in %hich the sou appears be"ore Osiris& Here again it is singu ar that a corresponding doctrine is "ound in 7ndia as to the sy!bo is! o" the %a s and " oors o" their te!p es& There are other te!p es in Yucatan %hich %ere intended "or sun9%orship' the ground p an being three concentric circ es' ike the akes %e have !entioned as surrounding a pa ace in At antis Aut the !ost e2traordinary part o" the c ai!s o" Le 4 ongeon is that he has discovered the interpretation o" the hierog yphica inscriptions and "inds that the character used' %ith the e2ception o" a very "e% etters' is abso ute y identica %ith the hieratic a phabet o" Egypt' %hi st the anguage %hich these characters bespeak is yet "ound in a !ost pristine purity in the dia ect o" 4atan' a anguage %hich is per"ect y constructed and striking y rese!b es the Coptic& As in Egypt and Cha dea the ground p an o" a te!p e %as the ob ong

s:uare Csy!bo o" a hori1onta rectang eD' %hich %as again the sy!bo both in Yucatan and Egypt o" the etter + or 5+a5' %hich i!p ies the earth' and the %ord +aya& 7n the na!es o" the #reek a phabet Le 4 ongeon "inds a poe!' the 4atan %ords o" %hich gives the history o" the great catastrophe& Yucatan and Egypt o" the etter + or 5+a5' %hich i!p ies the earth' and the %ord +aya& 7n the na!es o" the #reek a phabet Le 4 ongeon "inds a poe!' the 4atan %ords o" %hich gives the history o" the great catastrophe& The +ayau2 had their re igious +ysteries %hich %ere governed by -; priests' %ith initiations and care"u y guarded sacred rites' o" %hich so!e account !ay be gathered in the %ritings o" the Luiches' a neighbouring race at >iba ba3 in passing through these initiations the Neophyte had to undergo !ost severe bodi y tria s' %hich Le 4 ongeon co!pares %ith certain descriptions in the Cha dean 5Aook o" Enoch5& 7t is not' ho%ever' sho%n that in these +ysteries Art sy!bo is! e2ists such as %e sha "ind in Thibet and China and in 0ree!asonry& (e earn e se%here "ro! so!e researches !ade at the instance o" the S!ithsonian 7nstitute that these' or si!i ar +ysteries' C-;D are yet preserved by the Huni peop e and consist o" t%e ve orders o" priests' into so!e degrees o" %hich +r& 0rank H& Cushing has recent y obtained ad!ission a"ter undergoing severe bodi y tria s& Historica and re igious ana ogies %ith Yucatan are to be "ound a!ongst the Japanese %ho represent the "irst seven gods by the sa!e sy!bo s as the +ayas' and Arother #eorge O iver sets "orth that a && Japanese candidate' in initiation into their +ysteries' represents the sun s passage through the t%e ve Hodiaca signs& 7t is singu ar that the +ayau2 egends or +ytho ogy shou d contain so !uch in co!!on %ith Egypt' Asia' and 7ndia& 4ersia has the tradition o" one brother s ain by another& The Hindu 5Ra!ayana5 represents that the king o" the !onkey race' perhaps an in"erior aborigina tribe such as the Anda!ans' had t%o sons' Aa i and Sougravia' each o" %ho! desired the sa!e %i"e' and Sougravia' by the aid o" the divine Ra!a' treacherous y s e% his brother Aa i& 7t is a eged' in con"ir!ation o" So on & s state!ent' that At antian e!igrants sett ed in Egypt and #reece' that they e:ua y sett ed in the $ekkan& 7ndeed' the 5Ra!ayana5 states that +aya' the !agician and architect o" the $avanas' took possession o" South 7ndia and navigated the ocean "ro! %est to east and "ro! the south to the north* the %ord +aya here !eaning a d%e er upon the sea& 7n the At antic 7s ands' or !ountain tops o" At antis' there is a genera be ie" that a syste! o" secret +ysteries prevai s' and this see!s to have been

estab ished as a "act by severa recent +asonic e2peri!ents&MM5Canadian Cra"ts!an5' 2vii' No& J* a so A&L&C&NN The natives o" ?irginia have a society o" 7nitiates designated Huseana%er& The !other prepares a "unera pyre "or her son o" %ho! a si!u ated sacrice is to be !ade' as in the case o" 7saac' and during the preparation she %eeps hi! as dead& A tree is cut do%n and a cro%n !ade "ro! its boughs3 the initiate is given a po%er"u narcotic by %hich he is thro%n into a state o" so!na!bu is!' and a"ter a protracted retire!ent he C-GD is ooked upon by his tribe as a ne% !an& Again' the negroes o" #uinea have certain +ysteries ca ed the Ae y 4aaro* the candidate is ed into a %ood %here he is divested o" a c othing and !eta s* here he passes "ive years in abso ute sec usion* a"ter this he is initiated into the !ost secret doctrines o" the sect&MM5Secret Societies o" A Ages and Countries5& Jno& Hogg' 7FB=' by Heckethorn&NN The ob6ect o" their %orship' as %ith the +aoris' is Rangi and 4apa' or the heaven y 0ather and the earth y +other Even in the 4aci"ic is ands' or the !ountain tops o" a great sunken continent %hich has been deno!inated Le!uria' there e2ists a syste! o" re igious +ysteries& Heckethorn !entions that at Tahiti and scattered over 4o ynesia' is

a society ca ed Areoiti' %hich has seven degrees o" initiation' %hich none but the king !ay pass over a at once& One o" their cere!onies is practised at the %inter so stice' and it is a "unerea cere!ony rese!b ing that in honour o" Osiris' Aacchus and Adonis& The !eaning under ying this initiation is the generative po%ers o" nature' and ay!en have to undergo severe bodi y tria s&MM5Secret Societies o" A Ages and Countries5& Jno& Hogg' 7FB=' by Heckethorn&NN the king !ay pass over a at once& One o" their cere!onies is practised at the %inter so stice' and it is a "unerea cere!ony rese!b ing that in honour o" Osiris' Aacchus and Adonis& The !eaning under ying this initiation is the generative po%ers o" nature' and ay!en have to undergo severe bodi y tria s&MM5Secret Societies o" A Ages and Countries5& Jno& Hogg' 7FB=' by Heckethorn&NN There are cave pictures in Austra ia o" a race !ore ancient than the Aos6es!en' one o" these caves has a robed "igure %ith a rainbo% round the head %hich the Rev& J& +atthe% considers to be identica %ith the chie" god o" Su!atra&MM5Luci"er5' 2iv' -F.J&NN There are !any genera assertions that a syste! o" signs identica %ith !odern 0ree!asonry e2ists a!ongst the native Austra ians' and one such account appears in 5Ars Luatuor Coronatoru!&5MM?o & 2& Aro& 0& Jones&NN Aut the !ost precise account is a paper in the 5Ne% Hea and Cra"ts!an5 o" F 0eb&' -F.F' by Arother Henry Sto%e ' %hose grand!other %as a +aori& The paper deserves to be "u y copied& 5The +aori in their traditions' 50angita%hiti5 ,epic poe!s/' and anguage sho% conc usive y that ages ago there %as at Ha%aiki' a grand te!p e kno%n as (harekura' C-JD at %hich te!p e !eetings %ere regu ar y he d and presided over by Tohunga' or initiates o" a very high order' and %herein %as taught and practised a per"ect syste! o" princip es in an esoteric "or!' %ith e2haustive and appropriate ritua s' a so sy!bo s' signs' and pass%ords' and that these %ere kept and preserved on tab es o" stone' %hich atter %ere deposited in the te!p e& The ritua and sy!bo s %ere entrusted by the Ariki9Ran6i ,divine and supre!e head/ to the various o""icers in order to proper y carry out the cere!onia s connected %ith these !eetings' %hereat on y those others %ho %ere entit ed to be present had the happiness o" istening to the recita s' and o" observing the uses o" the higher sy!bo s& Regarded "ro! a +aori point o" vie% && this +asonry is neither !ore nor ess than the re ation o" the !ain "eatures o" && creation and the origin and history o" the higher destiny o" !an' %hich re ation

%as acco!panied %ith appropriate sy!bo s& TANE %as the #&A&O&T&8&' he !ay or !ay not be identica %ith the Cha dean Oannes& The anguage in %hich this %isdo! re igion %as e!bodied is e2tre!e y archaic' but thanks to !y having been taught in !y youth by an aged Tohunga' and re ative' so!e o" the sy!bo s and !ysteries' 7 understand !any o" the a usions and a! ac:uainted %ith various signs& A kno% edge o" astrono!y being abso ute y essentia to a proper rea isation o" the princip es o" the order' its Adepts 99Tohunga9 Eokorangi 99constant y taught in observatories its e e!ents and pheno!ena' to those %ho %ere accepted "or :ua i"ication& 58nder the +aori syste! the t%o !ain 4i ars' together %ith their Chapters' %ere represented be"ore the do!e o" the sky& These %ere divine& A &&&& subordinate pi ar %as the 4i ar o" the Earth* at certain points the Nagana or centre %as traced& These %ere t%o great circ es %hich intersected and %hich had their corresponding circ es& The s:uare %as taught upon "our points o" the visib e universe& +ora teachings %ere !ore or ess C-=DD associated %ith the 0igure o" the Ripeka cross' the type o" good and evi ' or en ighten!ent and ignorance by t%o opposing ines& 7t appears that there is a universa tendency && to restrict' th%art' de i!it its bene"icia "unctions& &&&& or Hence' 5He %ae%ae tapeka ta ta ara Ripeka&5 , A "oot %hich diverges "ro! the good or pure to the

&& evi or i!pure path&/ The "igure o" the triang e' Tantora' "or!ed the basis o"' or "or' the !ost e aborate ca cu ations in connection %ith astrono!y and geography& && &&P&&&&P&& && 5The ter! +ason' +asonry' +asonic' are used in the Eng ish sense and "or convenience& $ays and !onths %ere !easured by successive phases o" the !oon' %hi e the year %as !arked by the he iaca rising in June o" the star 4uanga' Rige in Orion' due east' this being the star o" the +aori ne% year' and the "irst sign o" the A%ahio9Rangi' or 1odiac& 57 have no kno% edge o" the use o" such a thing as the ;J inch gauge' but can vouch that ca cu ations o" ength or distance %ere %orked out %ith nice e2actitude& The signs in use varied "ro! those o" the Europeans& Sti in so!e i!portant respects' so "ar as a !ere +&+& is ab e to co!pare' there is astonishing agree!ent' and the agree!ent suggests 5a variation on the European sca e'5 o%ing to the incorporation or b ending therein' o" the ter!s o" the Oath& The ordinance o" the Tapu sanctity %as its ,+asonic/ very essence3 any in"ringe!ent thereo"' or neg ect o" its observance' by %ho!soever' resu ted in sure and speedy death' %hich %as the true pena sign' si ent and a%eso!e& &&&& Then again Specu ative +asonry%as not advanced or urged' and each one appears to have used his en ighten!ent "or the purpose o" "urthering his kno% edge a ong these ancient ines' %hich e!braced the co!p ete syste!' o""ering that "u ness o" happiness granted to !orta s %ho %ere enab ed to penetrate the very depths o" nature' and by reve ing in her !ysteries attain the thresho d o" the divine&5 There are nu!erous other archaic egends %hich !ight have appeared in this

chapter but %hich it %i be !ore C-ID convenient to re"er to herea"ter by %ay o" i ustration& Those o" #enesis' "or instance' co!e %ithin this category& The Ada!ic egend o" #enesis has the appearance o" being the esoteric caste !ytho ogy o" a tribe %hich sett ed in the Caucasian high ands' ho ding the Aryan doctrine o" divine incarnations' to %hich they gave the e2pression o" a co!ing +essiah' or divine reincarnation' %ho %as to redee! and rehabi itate their o%n "a en race a one' and %e have seen that the serpent %as e:ua y an esoteric e!b e! in A!erica& Ana ogous egends to those o" #enesis appear a so in ?edaic iterature& A c ergy!an recent y advanced in his book entit ed the 50a o" Ada!5 that it a egorised the intercourse o" the higher spiritua or Ada!ic !an %ith the o%er and sou ess race o" pre9Ada!ites' and as %e are not bound do%n by the Rabinica chrono ogy %e !ay carry such a theory back to the 5+oon5 and 5Sun5 races o" Thibet& 7n the A!erican Can %e !ay have a coincidence %ith the Tartar tit e o" Ehan' and perhaps %ith the Aib ica Cain& 7n the scriptura account it is Cain' the e dest son' %ho' ike the Thibetians' o""ers a sacri"ice o" the "ruits o" the earth' s ays his younger brother Abe %ho o""ers a sacri"ice o" b ood' and %ho eaves no progeny& The continuance o" a spiritua y !inded ine devo ves upon the third son' or race o" Seth& 7t is a"ter the !arriage o" these sons o" #od %ith the daughters o" !en that %e "ind the union o" the %or d y arts o" the ine o" Cain %ith the !ore spiritua ine o" Seth& According to the Ta !ud La!ech !arries the t%o daughters o" Eeenan' to %ho! it assigns the stone tab ets o" prophecy* the progeny o" these !arriages beco!e !en o" reno%n 99Jaba ' Juba ' Tuba Cain ' Qc& 7n Egypt o%ing either to a racia inversion o" the egend' %hich !ay have either been the production o" so!e very o d racia %ar' or ater to !ark their detestation o" the Hyksos' or Shepherd Eings' the priests !ade o" the god

Set' or Seth' a devi identica %ith Typhon %ho !urdered his brother Osiris& There e2isted in A"rica' conte!porary %ith the beginning o" C-BD Christianity' a sect o" Abe ites' and it is not i!probab e that the Syrian Aaa ' the Cretan Abe ios' the Ce tic Abe io' and the #reek Apo o' %ere !odi"ied versions o" the Hebre% Hebe or Abe & on %ho !urdered his brother Osiris& There e2isted in A"rica' conte!porary %ith the beginning o" C-BD Christianity' a sect o" Abe ites' and it is not i!probab e that the Syrian Aaa ' the Cretan Abe ios' the Ce tic Abe io' and the #reek Apo o' %ere !odi"ied versions o" the Hebre% Hebe or Abe & 7t is %orth %hi e to note that the Je%ish Aib e !akes the ine o" Cain to be the "irst to bui d a city' %hich !ay !ean a series o" %ooden huts ana ogous to those %hich originated the trabeated' or bea! sty e o" stone %ork' prevai ing a!ongst the ear y Egyptians' #reeks' and Ro!ans in their te!p es and co!ing do%n even to Christian ti!es* "ound as %e in the cave te!p es o" 7ndia' %hich are rich y and %onder"u y carved to represent %ood%ork& A"ter the " ood it is the descendants o" Ha! %ho beco!e the great bui ders' and Japhet is to 5d%e in the Tents o" She!'5 %hich tent is the prototype o" the 4agodas o" China' 4ersia' and Japan& As these egendary accounts o" an art %hich spread "ro! a sunken continent are scarce y !ore than prehistoric tradition' %e need not "o o% the sub6ect "urther in this chapter* %ide y spread as these traditions are' they can scarce y be a together base ess& So!e con"ir!ation has been "ound by scienti"ic sea9 soundings' and "urther corroboration is a""orded in the accepted "act that a the 4aci"ic is anders are o" the sa!e race' and speak dia ects o" the sa!e anguage' and this at a distance "ro! each other %hich is i!passab e to their s!a boats* a e:ua y say that their "ore"athers d%e t in a and over %hich the %aves o" the ocean no% s%eep& (e are' "or these various reasons' 6usti"ied in a be ie" in the veritab e e2istence o" such continents' and' by the sa!e parity o" reasoning' as %e "ind sacred and secret !ysteries e2isting a!ongst the!' in the 4aci"ic' At antic' and in Austra ia' %e are 6usti"ied in supposing that these sacred schoo s are as o d as the race that inhabited these continents& (e see' ho%ever' that these !ysteries have no architectura ai!s' and are a part o" the con6ecture %ith %hich %e began this chapter' as to the re ative position o" re igion and art& 7" the reader p aces no C-FD con"idence in these traditions' unti science has pronounced upon the!' he can "orget that he has read the!' and pass on to %hat is !ore genera y accepted& 7n the "o o%ing pages c oser proo" %i be "ound o" the e2istence o" a syste! rese!b ing 0ree +asonry' and though %e have not a !inute book to prove that pri!eva !an invented 0ree +asonry' under a !ore ancient na!e' and then estab ished Lodges in Tartary' Egypt' Aaby on' #reece' 7ta y' Aritain' etc&' yet the "act that si!i ar societies e2isted in a these countries is indisputab e' and there is no doubt that other and !ore i!portant inks %i yet be brought to

ight by a di igent perusa o" o d c assica authors' by so!eone %ho has the intuitive abi ity to understand the anguage o" +ystery& C-.D CHA4TER 77&

4ROTO9ARYAN C7?7L7SAT7ON AN$ +YSTER7ES& 9ARYAN C7?7L7SAT7ON AN$ +YSTER7ES& 4H7LOLO#7STS see! to be "ast arriving at the vie% that %hen the %ho e earth %as o" 5one anguage and o" one speech5 it %as a pri!itive !onosy abic or Turanian tongue& The %ord Turanian is !ost inde"inite' "or it is taken to inc ude the s!a ' dark' ong9headed $ravidian race o" 7ndia' %hich penetrated Aritain be"ore the Aryan Ce t and o" %hich the Aas:ues o" Spain are a surviva * the ong9headed %hite race o" Scandinavian hunters* and the %hite' broad9 headed +ongo oid' %ho! %e chie" y ter! proto9Aryan' as an ear y branch o" the Aryan race* a race %hich in prehistoric ti!es spread "ro! Lap and to Aaby on' and "ro! 7ndia to Egypt and Europe& The !odern discoveries o" archaeo ogists' in the countries occupied in re!ote ti!es by this once po%er"u proto9Aryan race' have scarce y yet had ti!e to "i ter do%n into the ordinary +asonic channe s' but they !ust in course o" ti!e considerab y !odi"y the vie%s o" o der %riters upon our +asonic +ysteries& 7t %ou d see! "ro! %hat can be gathered that %e o%e advanced bui ding in stone and brick to this race' and the assi!i ation o" their so9ca ed Turanian speech is indicated by this' that' +onsieur Lenor!ant traces the re!ote y connected 4roto9+edian and Akkadian o" Aaby on to the 8gro9A taic "a!i y o" anguages' traces the Aryan to the sa!e 0innic race o" the 8ra !ountains' and the anthropo ogica evidence is as conc usive as the anguage o" the 8gro9A taic origin o" the Aryan race& 7t !ay have taken C;<D tens o" thousands o" years "or the deve op!ent o" the proto9Aryan into the 7ndo97ranian tongue' Hend' Sanscrit' 4ushtu' Aa uchea' as %e as the Aryo9European anguages' inc uding #reek' Latin' Sc avonic' Lettic' and Teutonic& 0ro! it a so sprang' at an ear ier period' the Ce tic o" Europe' and "ro! it' by a probab e !i2ture %ith a b ack or Ha!itic speech' the Se!itic tongues spoken in Assyria' 4hoenicia' Arabia' and 4a estine& Even %ith the co!parative y s ight kno% edge %hich %e possess o" the ancient Turanian and proto9Aryan speeches it !ay be taken "or granted that a race %hich had "ounded a anguage %hich e!braced certain roots e:ua y "ound in Teutonic' #reek' Ce tic' Se!itic' and Sanscrit' and their cognate dia ects' be"ore separating into co onies' and %hich e!braced ter!s in art' agricu ture' 6urisprudence' "a!i y i"e' re igion' etc&' had even then !ade progress in geo!etry' in the bui ding o" te!p es and houses' and architecture genera y& 7n this chapter' ho%ever' %e are dea ing !ore particu ar y %ith an ear ier phase o" cu ture' but it is necessary to say so!e itt e o" Aryan advance!ent& A high state o" civi isation %as deve oped in the high ands o" Europe and e2tended to other centres in Northern 7ndia %hich inc uded Thibet& The 7ndian ?edas assign the centre o" their cu ture to the Hi!a ayan source o" the #anges' 5the abode o" the #ods&5 The 4ersian Avesta see!s to point to the northern p ateau o" 4a!ir& (e have no certain in"or!ation in regard to the departure o" co onies "ro! their parent ho!e' but no doubt the causes %ere various& The continuous increase o" popu ation %ou d' o" itse "' !ake it a necessity& The

Hend Avesta attributes their departure "ro! their origina ho!e to c i!atic changes3 Ahri!an' the evi spirit' %ho is !entioned both in the Avesta and the ?edas' introduced co d& The no!adic habits o" the peop e as breeders o" catt e ed the! into Europe& 7n the Hi!a ayan centre or that o" the Hindu' a %ar arose bet%een those %ho had assu!ed divine po%ers in virtue C;-D o" their'

ora y ac:uired' kno% edge o" the sacred hy!ns' and the %arrior or +ahara6ah c ass' %ho %ere subdued by a divine being %ho incarnated as Ra!a' upon %hich the priests a o%ed "avourab e ter!s and per!itted the %arriors to receive a i!ited a!ount o" sacred kno% edge' and to 5hear5 the ?edas' %hen co ected in %riting' read& A previous incarnation is a eged "or the bene"it o" the 5!onkey race'5 by %hich is perhaps !eant so!e o%9caste tribe' but that o" Ra!a represents so!e prehistoric re"or!er o" the Turanian cu ture' to %ho! a divine origin is assigned& c ass' %ho %ere subdued by a divine being %ho incarnated as Ra!a' upon %hich the priests a o%ed "avourab e ter!s and per!itted the %arriors to receive a i!ited a!ount o" sacred kno% edge' and to 5hear5 the ?edas' %hen co ected in %riting' read& A previous incarnation is a eged "or the bene"it o" the 5!onkey race'5 by %hich is perhaps !eant so!e o%9caste tribe' but that o" Ra!a represents so!e prehistoric re"or!er o" the Turanian cu ture' to %ho! a divine origin is assigned& At the period %hen the advance into 7ndia began' so!e I'<<< to F'<<< years ago' a race e2isted under the na!e o" Tchanda as' probab y part y Aryan' and part y Ha!itic and other con:uered Turanian races& These !igrated to other parts' and so!e are be ieved to have originated the Se!itic tribes& Such o" the Tchanda as as re!ained %ere treated %ith the greatest barbarity by the Rishis or ancient Arah!in ru ers' and %ere co!pe ed to sub!it to a s avery %hich & reads ike that o" the Hebre%s in Egypt&MM5+acken1ie && s Roya +asonic Cyc opaedia'5 a so 5A avatskys Secret $octrine&5NN There %ere e29Arah!ins a!ongst the!' and a caste syste! %as estab ished a!ongst the tribes %hich the Rishis did their best to suppress& 7t is not possib e to give any re iab e esti!ate o" the centuries that e apsed be"ore the reduction into %riting o" the ancient hy!ns' and the conversion o" the rocks into te!p es o" Cyc opian architecture& The ate Aaron Aunsen dee!ed that the date J'<<< A&C& !ight be a very suitab e era "or %hat %e !ay ter! the 5!ani"estation o" ight'5 or the beginning o" recorded history' and the desire to trans!it the sa!e upon !onu!ents' in Egypt in hierog yphics' in Cha dea upon s abs in the cunie"or!& The 7ran and the Hindu had deve oped the Avesta and the ?edas* the Aaby onian an epic upon the 6ourney o" the sun through the signs o" the Hodiac* the Egyptian the Aook o" the $ead' and the

books o" Her!es& Aut the no!adic Aryans o" Europe had not !ade the sa!e C;;D progress' the Ce t %as the !ost advanced but used bron1e too s unti about ;'<<< A&C& Hence the Esoteric c ai!s deserve serious consideration& Their ear iest bui dings are subterranean caves %rought %ith in"inite abour and perseverance& (e shou d have iked to en arge upon these %onder"u cave te!p es %rought in so id rock but space "orbids& An interesting visit to so!e o" && these is recorded in the ate H& 4& A avatsky s book entit ed 5The Caves and Jung es o" Hindustan&5 That o" E ephanta is a three"o d construction' and it is a eged that a castes' and even kings %rought %ith the chise in its construction& (hi st the o dest cyc opean architecture is attributed in Europe to the 4e asgians' in 7ndia it is attributed to the 4andus %ho %ere a pre9 Arah!in tribe' and 0erguson regards the ana ogy o" this sty e %ith that o" the 7ncas o" 4eru as one o" the !ost re!arkab e "acts o" history& 7t %as in these prehistoric ti!es that the sy!bo s o" the t%o creative "orces o" nature deve oped' represented by cru29ansata' ithoi' or inga!' and the vesica piscis' or yoni& They are e:ua y the signs o" a dog!a %hich ay at the root o" a re igions in regard to "ire' not the "ire burning upon the a tar' but the "ire %hich that sy!bo ised and %as ter!ed 5divine darkness'5 a spiritua or !agica "ire' seen by gi"ted seers' o" %hich the earth y sy!bo s are the pyra!ids' the obe isk' and the church spires&MM5The Rosicrucians'5 Jennings&NN The o dest o" the Turanian' or proto9Aryan' races had an organised priesthood o" three grades' as in that o" the Art schoo & 7t is true that %e cannot no% give proo" that such a syste! is as ancient as hu!anity' but %e

!ay accept its e2tre!e anti:uity "ro! the "act that in the !ost ancient historic ti!es there %as a %idespread syste! o" three degrees o" Theosophy a!ongst peop e hope ess y separated& ti!es there %as a %idespread syste! o" three degrees o" Theosophy a!ongst peop e hope ess y separated& The 0in anders "ro! the !ost ancient ti!es to the present day have had a !agica syste! o" three grades %hich are ter!ed Tieta6at , earned/' Asaa6at ,inte igent/' C;GD and Lau a6at ,incantators/& The Aaby onian Chasdi! %ere ter!ed Ehartu!i! ,con6urors/' Chaka!i! ,physicians/' and Asaphi! ,theosophists/&MM5Cha dean +agic'5 by Lenor!ant&NN There yet e2ists in 7ndia certain Eo arian and $ravidian tribes %ho possess a !agica syste! si!i ar to that o" the 0innic and Aaby onian races' and they practise a syste! o" secret initiation %hich they c ai! has descended to the! "ro! a ti!e !ore ancient than the invasion o" their p ateau in centra 7ndia by the Aryans' a con:uest occurring thousands o" years ago' but %e purpose y abstain "ro! "o o%ing European dates as they are a together unre iab e& Their grades are Na6o ,%itches and %i1ards/' $eoni or +ati ,%i1ards/' and Ahagat ,diviner/& 7t is said that in the grade o" Ahagat the +aster priest goes through a part o" the initiation a one %ith the aspirant' and that the cere!ony is co!p eted at night ti!e %ith a corpse' near to so!e %ater& A!ongst these tribes are the #onds' sprung "ro! $ravidians' %ho in ear y ti!es reached a high degree o" cu ture* in Chanda are the ruins o" a pa ace and to%n %ith a per"ect net%ork o" underground passages' %hich have never been e2p ored by Europeans' and %hich' tradition states' ead to a series o" ha s %here secret conc aves %ere "or!er y he d&MM5The Eneph'5 v' p& J< See a so +r& E& $& E%en & s paper ,%ho resided severa years a!ongst these peop e/ in 50ive Years o" Theosophy&5NN +r& Ja!es 0erguson' 0&R&S&' in a ecture read be"ore the Aenga 7nstitute o" this country !aintains that the origina occupiers o" 7ndia %ere a Turanian race o" bui ders %ho %ere tree and serpent %orshippers' and that the 4e asgian inhabitants o" #reece possessed the sa!e "eatures' in each case be"ore the Aryan invasions and con:uest o" these countries& The "u co!prehension o" this is the key to !uch that is pu11 ing in the trans!ission o" +asonry and the +ysteries& There are i!portant distinctions bet%een the Hindus and these aborigina hi 9tribes* the atter have no caste divisions' they eat " esh "ood and o""er ive victi!s in sacri"ice to their C;JD gods* and are essentia y either o" a +ongo ian or Turanian type' ike the Aur!ese and Japanese& The +edian +agi' or sacerdota c ass o" the proto9+edes %ere origina y a so9

ca ed Turanian priesthood& Aut at so!e re!ote period there arose in the region north o" Aactria a !onotheistic re"or!er %ho! his "o o%ers ter!ed Haradust' the "irst o" the na!e' and %ho is probab y the sa!e prophet %ho! the Hindus ter! 4arusha9Ra!a' and it is this re"or!ed +edian civi isation %hich constituted the re igion o" the !ost ancient Aaby onians* and o" the so!e%hat !ore !odern 4ersians& 7t is c ear that the race %orked !eta s and bui t in brick and stone "ro! their ear iest !igrations& 7n the ti!e o" Cyrus 7& these +agi consisted o" three c asses' thus na!ed by the earned #er!an scho ar Heeren 99Harbed' or discip e* +obed' or !aster* $estur9+obed' or co!p ete +aster& These constituted a sacerdota Co ege over %hich presided a Rab9+ag' or chie" !agian& The %ord +agi' or +aha6i in Sanscrit' !eans great or %ise& Their distinguishing attributes %ere the Costi or gird e* the Havan' or sacred cup* and the Aarso!' or bund e o" t%igs grasped in the hand* a sy!bo not proper y understood but supposed to represent staves that %ere e!p oyed

in divination' but it is !uch !ore probab e that it %as a sy!bo o" that union %hich %as to give strength to their order& The cubica dice %ere said to be used by the! "or divinatory purposes& Aristot e asserts that this +agian ponti"icate %as !ore ancient than the "oundation o" Egypt* and 4 ato' %ho had an e2a ted opinion o" the purity o" its doctrines' con"ir!s this anti:uity& Her!eppius says that the pri!itive Horoaster %as initiated by one A1anaces ='<<< years be"ore the Tro6an %ar' or' as is supposed' F'-IF years ago* Endo2es says that he ived I'<<< years be"ore the death o" 4 ato' or F';GB years ago& 7n its proper p ace %e %i take the rites o" the Aryan +ysteries o" +ythras& Heckethorn asserts that the 7ndian #y!nosophists %ere the discip es o" the ear y +agi' and that these +agi had C;=D put "orth ='<<< years be"ore the 7 iad %as %ritten the three grand poe!s o" the Hend Avesta' the "irst ethica * the second !i itary* and the third scienti"ic& They taught the dua ity o" nature as e2e!p i"ied in ight and darkness' heat and co d' su!!er and %inter' good and evi ' o" %hich t%o princip es' in the revo ving cyc es' the good %ou d beco!e para!ount& %hich %as to give strength to their order& The cubica dice %ere said to be used by the! "or divinatory purposes& Aristot e asserts that this +agian ponti"icate %as !ore ancient than the "oundation o" Egypt* and 4 ato' %ho had an e2a ted opinion o" the purity o" its doctrines' con"ir!s this anti:uity& Her!eppius says that the pri!itive Horoaster %as initiated by one A1anaces ='<<< years be"ore the Tro6an %ar' or' as is supposed' F'-IF years ago* Endo2es says that he ived I'<<< years be"ore the death o" 4 ato' or F';GB years ago& 7n its proper p ace %e %i take the rites o" the Aryan +ysteries o" +ythras& Heckethorn asserts that the 7ndian #y!nosophists %ere the discip es o" the ear y +agi' and that these +agi had C;=D put "orth ='<<< years be"ore the 7 iad %as %ritten the three grand poe!s o" the Hend Avesta' the "irst ethica * the second !i itary* and the third scienti"ic& They taught the dua ity o" nature as e2e!p i"ied in ight and darkness' heat and co d' su!!er and %inter' good and evi ' o" %hich t%o princip es' in the revo ving cyc es' the good %ou d beco!e para!ount& Ernest de Aunsen says that it is proved that the three grades o" the Je%ish Rabbinica schoo are an e2act para e o" the three grades o" the +agi* that it %as a secret schoo o" Scribes' its highest teaching e!bracing the doctrine o" the ind%e ing Ho y Spirit in !an' and that Jesus %as a Rabboni& The Aaby onian Rabu corresponding %ith the Hebre% Rab' the +obed %ith the Rabbi' and the $estur +obed %ith the Rabban or Rabboni& The 4ersian +a1da is e:ua y sty ed Ah!i yat Ah!i 997 a! that 7 a!&MM5+isce & N& Q L&5 ,#ou d' -F.J/' 2ii' p& G<J&NN The Aritish or Ce tic $ruids %ere a priesthood that had "eatures co!!on to the Eastern +agi' and %ere divided into three c asses deno!inated Aards' Ovates' and $ruids& +ichae et says that it is %onder"u the ana ogy %hich the na!es o" the gods o" 7re and 99A2ire' A2ceavis' Cois!aoi ' Cabir' bear to the && Cabiri&MM50ree!asons+ag&'5 -FI<' i' p& -II&NN The evidence o" Strabo is to the sa!e e""ect' as he says that the Aritish $ruids practise the sa!e re igious

rites as e2isted at Sa!othrace& They cause their ancient progenitor to e2c ai!3 57 a! a $ruid' 7 a! an architect' 7 a! a prophet' 7 a! a serpent&5 (e sha see that the Cabiric Rites %ere the prerogative o" priests and architects' e!bodying the dra!a o" a !urdered god& There can be s!a doubt that the 7rish egend o" #obha!9Saer' the son o" Turibi o" the Strand' %ho %as !urdered %ith his -; co!panions by -; robbers' is a vu garised e2oteric !urdered Cabir and the -; signs o" the Hodiac& O && re"erence to the Arien says that he %as a #uabhres or Cabiri' and that Saer has the signi"ication o" son o" #od& He advocates in his C;ID 5Round To%ers5 the 4hoenician origin o" these bui dings %ith their appropriation by ater Christian +onks* o"ten' as at # enda ough' seven s!a chape s' or a tars' are attached& 7t is possib e' as has been !aintained' that north Europe %as the centre %hence the Orienta s derived their egends' and that Cha dean' %hence Cu deean' %as as appropriate to the $ruids as to the Aaby onian' and that as the Essenians %ere Aaby onians' the Cu dees %ere Essenes' as he d by the venerab e Aede' and thus the Essenes' or Assidiana' %ere Cu dees& The chie" Aritish gods %ere Hu and Cerid%en' or the Ouranos and #he o" the Cabiri* and it is %orthy o" !ention that there are $ruidica unhe%n stones and te!p es in cruci"or!' the one in the is and o" Le%es consists o" -; stones each i!b having three' and the subterranean o" Ne% #range in 7re and is a so

cruci"or!& Higgins in his 5Ce tic $ruids'5 !entions in Scot and as prechristian' a cruci"i2 on one side o" %hich is a a!b' and on the other an e ephant& a cruci"i2 on one side o" %hich is a a!b' and on the other an e ephant& There is nothing very re!arkab e in the prechristian e2istence o" such cruci"or! structures' in 7ta y it predates architecture' and the Rev& Aaring #ou d points out that there are in South 7ta y ake9d%e ings o" an i!!ense anti:uity %here the cross9"or! is o" greater anti:uity than the bron1e age& The cyc opean te!p e at #a11o is bui t on the basis o" a Latin cross' and hence it %as a re igious e!b e! o" the Cabiri& 7t is "ound in 7ndia in the !ost ancient cave o" E ephanta' and is e:ua y an e!b e! in centra A!erica& There are a so && t%o prechristian caves in 7re and o" this "or!&MMSee 50ree!asons+aga1ine'5 -F=B& p& ;BI&NN (e !entioned its use by the +aori race& To and points out that the three divisions o" the $ruidica syste! %hich %e have !entioned !ust not be taken as progressiona degrees& They %ere three c asses corresponding to Soothsayers' 4hysicians' and 4rophets& The ast' or the $ruid c ass' had "our degrees con"erred at interva s o" G' I' and . years& The Aards and Ovates C;BD %ere each divided into three c asses %ith specia "unctions&MM5To and'5 :uoting Jones&NN Ta iesin as an initiate e2c ai!s 95 Thrice %as 7 born' no% 7 kno% ho% to ac:uire a kno% edge by !editation&5 The e!b e! o" the $ruid %as a vitri"ied egg' chased in go d' and hung "ro! the neck' and %hich he d up to the ight she%ed a sacred token* the 5Serpents'5 or $ruids' prepared it& 7t is genera y accepted that the theo ogy o" these sacred Co eges' even in the !ost ancient ti!es' taught the e2istence o" one so e po%er or creator o" the visib e universe' though trip icated in His !ani"estations' and that "ro! Hi! proceeded the !inor gods' ange s' and de!i9gods& He' the one' %as $yaus in Sanscrit' Heus in #reek' Tiu in Teutonic' the ancient inscriptions and books o" the Egyptians p ace it beyond doubt* the Chinese' the +agi' Hindus' Hebre%s' etc&' a add con"ir!ation' and various other proo"s are adduced in the %ork entit ed 5Natura and Revea ed Re igion5 o" our brother the Cheva ier Ra!say& 7t is i!!ateria by %hat na!e the prophet' or outte er' %ho revea ed this doctrine %hether Taut' 0ohi* Haradust' Ra!a* Enoch or Edris %hose pupi Abra!' or great9"ather' %as* the doctrine o" one #od' uncreated' incorporea ' a 9seeing' a 9po%er"u ' every%here present' and d%e ing inco!prehensib y in his o%n unity' g ea!s out through the darkness o" the ages& And though the doctrine ad!its o" !inor deities as agents o" the Supre!e the dog!a o" unity "or!ed the background o" a the ancient re igious +ysteries' coup ed %ith that o" divine incarnations' and that ind%e ing ho y spirit in !en' %hich !akes hi! e:ua %ith the !inor gods& The e2a!p es %hich %e have given o" an arcane society divided into degrees' so %ide y separated by oca ity' by anguage' and by !anners' "ro! data

e2isting so!e thousands o" years ago' un!istakab y point to a !uch !ore ancient derivation "ro! a co!!on centre' un ess %e ad!it an intuitive need "or so!e such syste!& (e C;FD "ind e:ua y the sa!e %idespread distribution o" geo!etrica sy!bo s intended to typi"y Theosophica truths' and e!bracing cos!ogony and creation& 7t is he d that each sy!bo represented a etter' a co our' a nu!ber and a sound' thus constituting an esoteric hierog yphic understood by the 7nitiates o" every country& As an e2a!p e %e !ight easi y arrange a set o" very ancient sy!bo s "or!ing itt e understood +asonic e!b e!s' and e:ua y carved by operative !asons on the ancient ruins o" Asia' 7ndia' and Egypt' and these !ight again be app ied on the p an o" the o d

4hi osophers to the recondite !ysteries o" nature& Take the "o o%ing as nu!era s nu!era s 7' 77 or ?& Ce:ui atera triang e %ith ape2 to top' s:uare& 4entagra!& He2agra!& he2agra! circu!scribed& cube& cube circu!scribed&D -<& 7n !ystic crosses o" e:ua anti:uity %ith a our other e!b e!s %e "ind the "o o%ing "or!s' na!e y' CSy!bo s3 reverse s%astika& T& Ankh& >& Latin cross& Earth& Latin cross co!posed o" t%o transparent rectang esD& each having specia app ication to a dog!a& (e have a ready !ade s ight a usion to the Cabiri' and a authorities are agreed that the +ysteries practised under this na!e %ere a ied %ith the Cyc opean +asonry and its bui ders' and that those Rites and Aui dings' in a countries' %ere the re igion and architecture o" a pri!itive race %hich preceded the Aryan invasions o" +edia' Aaby on' 7ndia' #reece' and Egypt& The pri!itive inhabitants o" Aaby on' %ho! it has been agreed to ter! Akkadian' %ere !ore near y a ied in b ood' anguage' and re igion' %ith the 0in anders' +ongo ians' ear y Egyptians' proto9+edes' 4e asgi' Etruscans' perhaps a so A!erican 7ndians' a so9ca ed Turanian' than they %ere %ith the E a!ites' Ethiopians' Arabians' and other Se!ites' or %ith the Hindu' 4ersian' and other Aryan races' that appear ater on in the pages o" resuscitated history& Yet there are actua traces o" specu ative 0ree!asonry' inti!ate y a ied %ith the re igious +ysteries' a!ongst these pri!itive proto9Aryans& A c ear e2p anation o" these particu ars does not ad!it o" being printed' but every inte igent 0ree9+ason %i be ab e to read' C;.D %hat %e !ay %rite' bet%een the ines' and thus supp y "or hi!se " %hat %e !ay eave une2p ained& Recent discoveries go to prove that 4a estine had its Cabiric or +agian Rites' and that ong be"ore the invasion o" the 5brigand Joshua'5 the son o" Nun' as an o d inscription is said to ter! that scriptura %arrior' Akkadian civi isation e2isted in Syria' and the egendary Cain' Abe ' and Seth o" #enesis' and their progeny' "ind their ana ogies in other o" the re igious +ysteries& Aut the Ta !ud or +ishna' %hich is ancient e2p anation o" the La%' di""ers && !ateria y "ro! 5#enesis*5 thus it is said that in the days o" Cains son Enoch' && a very and in the days o" Seth

s son Enosh' the peop e !ade i!ages o" copper and %ood to %orship' and it is to Eeenan the son o" Enosh that the Ta !ud attributes the prophecies o" the destruction o" the %or d' %hich he %rote upon tab ets o" stone& Enoch is represented as a Her!it' and the %ord i!p ies 7nitiation& La!ech %hen b ind by age is said to shoot his progenitor Cain by the accident o" an arro%' and "urther' in his grie"' ki s by accident his o%n son& Hence the traditiona La!ent o" La!ech in #enesis %hich has been supposed to be a vei ed con"ession o" 7nitiation& The scriptura Tuba 9Cain %ho %as son o" La!ech by the daughter o" the Sethite Eeenan see!s to be e:ua y a Cabiric egend in the Crysor o" Sanconiathon the 4hoenician historian' %ho is supposed to have ived as a conte!porary o" Eing So o!on& E:ua y Tuba 9 Cain' and Crysor' is the ?u can o" #reek !ytho ogy& Sanconiathon says o" this Crysor3 995+en %orshipped hi! as a god a"ter his death and they ca ed hi! $ia!achius' or the great inventor' and so!e say his brother invented the !aking o" %a s and bricks& A"ter these things' o" his race %ere born t%o young !en' one o" %ho! %as ca ed Technites or the artist' the other #einos Autochthon or earth born' or generated "ro! the earth itse "& These !en "ound out to !i2 stubb e %ith the brick earth' and to dry the bricks so !ade in the

&& sun&5MMCorys 5Ancient 0rag!ents'5 -FBI' p& F&NN CG<D Sanconiathon "urther states that 8psistos %as dei"ied a"ter he had been torn in pieces by %i d9beasts' and that he %as the "ather o" Ouranos %ho invented scu pture' and o" Tautus %ho invented hierog yphics' and represented the conste ations by pictures* he says a so that in the third generation t%o 4i ars %ere erected %hich %ere dedicated to 50ire5 and 5(ind&5 According to 0& von Sch ege there e2ists a tribe in Eastern Asia' in the !ountains' that possesses an inverted history rese!b ing the Cain and Abe egend' but %ith these peop e it is the youngest brother %ho out o" envy at the success o" his e der brother' in !ining "or go d and si ver' drives hi! out o" the "ather and into the East& This %riter' in his 54hi osophy o" History5 thinks that the %ars o" races' the giants and the Titans' !ay be traced in the Aib ica egends' and he is inc ined to identi"y the ho y Sethite race %ith the seven ho y Rishis o" Arah!inica tradition& He a so supposes that the con"ession o" && La!ech !ay hint at the beginning o" hu!an sacri"ice& As Cains o""ering %as the "ruits o" the earth' ani!a i"e ought to have been as sacred to hi! as to the && Audists& As Cain %as the e dest son Sch ege s vie% %ou d !ake hi! the prototype o" the Turanians' %hi st Seth %ou d represent the prehistoric Aryan* and these races the Ta !ud %ou d again reunite in the posterity o" La!ech' %hich does actua y point to the union o" re igion and art& As a !atter o" "act the Aaby onian' 4hoenician' and Je%ish egends o" the invention o" the arts can on y be ooked upon as an atte!pt to e2p ain the re!ote origin o" these' so!ething invented to p ease the curious' and to point out the ear y period at %hich these %ere supposed to have successive y originated* the 4ersians have si!i ar egends app ied to their o%n peop e& Aut %e are not %ithout so!e proo" to she% that an esoteric +asonic syste! %as kno%n to these ear y races' "ro! %hich proceeded the 5hundred "a!i ies5 that "ounded the Chinese cu ture& O%ing to the researches o" 4ro"essors de Laco!perie' CG-D $oug as' and Aa ' it has been estab ished that the Aak tribes' %hich entered China about J'<<< years ago' had the archaic cunei"or! character' and the custo!s o" the tribes o" E a! and Cha dea' %hich a one is su""icient to estab ish a co!!unity o" race& The Yh9Eing' or Aook o" Changes' in its origina "or! %as about a si2th o" its present e2tent and ter!ed the Eu%en' and is a vocabu ary o" the pri!itive cunei"or! thus uniting %ith the other countries %hich used it& There can be no doubt that the pri!itive +ysteries %ere he d in #roves' and that the 7nitiates' as in the $ruidica Rites' %ere received 5in the eye o" day'5 the tria s being rather !ora than physica ' the atter being a ater stage' %hen the schoo s had so!e%hat degenerated' and

te!p es specia y adapted "or the physica proo"s began to be bui t& Ae"ore %e enter upon the nature o" the CAA7R7C +YSTER7ES' and the Architecture ter!ed CYCLO4EAN' %e %i endeavour to prove that in the !ost ancient ti!es there %as in e2istence an actua Society such as %e no% ter! 0ree!asonry& (e %i take "irst the Chinese' %ho are the !ost pri!itive o" civi ised races' and sti retain their !onosy abic anguage' represented by hierog yphics o" %hich each is the picture o" a root9%ord' o" such va ue that the characteristic !eaning is understood throughout the E!pire' even %here the spoken anguage is !utua y uninte igib e& 7t is a cu ture concreted thousands o" years ago a!ongst a race c ose y a ied in anguage' re igion' !ytho ogy' and astrono!y %ith Akkadian Aaby on& +oreover the archaic tab ets o" Thibet have

!ystica a usions in consonance %ith the +ysteries' but %e %i a ude to these in a ater chapter& in a ater chapter& There occurred in the year -FB. in the $istrict #rand Lodge o" China a discussion upon the sub6ect %e have !entioned above' "ro! %hich %e earn that about J'<<< years ago this peop e had a sy!bo is! identica %ith the +asonic Cra"t& An a tar in "or! o" a per"ect cube %as used to typi"y the earth' and this !ay be read in con6unction %ith %hat %e %rote in our ast chapter on the +aori CG;D rites' the circ e being an e!b e! o" heaven' and 5earth5 and 5heaven5 in union %ere Cabiric deities& The N&E& and S&E& are re ative y used to i!p y the beginning and conc usion o" an ob6ect in vie%& One o" the o dest %ords in the anguage is itera y 5s:uare and co!passes5 and signi"ies right conduct& The skirret as an hierog yphic signi"ies the origin o" things& (hen the E!peror o" a ne% dynasty succeeded he began the erection o" a ne% te!p e under the oversight o" a #rand Architect& Aprons %ere used %hich bore e!b e!s denoting re igious o""ice 99there is a p ant' an a2e' and another not c ear& The Shu9Eing' %hich is one o" the o dest books in the anguage' gives the representation o" t%o 6e%e s in 6adestone' %hich is one o" the hardest and !ost va uab e o" a stones and the !ost di""icu t to %ork* these t%o are the s:uare and the p u!b9ru e& The sa!e book speaks o" Chien 6en' !agistrates' %hich is itera y 5 eve !en'5 i!p ying %hat is e2pected o" the!* and the three chie" o""icers o" State are ca ed the San chai' the three houses or bui ders* and one o" the !ost ancient na!es o" deity is the 50irst Aui der&5 The E!peror Shun' about G'<<< years ago' had a!ongst his attributes the circ e and ru e* and the ha!!er in the hands o" their kings %as an e!b e! o" authority& (hen a !onarch died the e!b e!s o" authority %ere returned "or the purpose o" reinvestiture&MMThe 5+asonic +aga1ine5 ,Eenning/&NN 7n +asonry this is done on e ection o" a ne% +aster& (e earn "ro! the 5Aook o" Odes5 that %hen an E!peror sacri"iced he divested hi!se " o" his 7!peria robes' %as bare"ooted and bareheaded and girt %ith a a!bskin& At the spring "estiva ' %hich has !uch in co!!on %ith the rites o" the #recian Ceres' %e see "o o%ing the procession a boy %ith one "oot bare and the other shod' but %hich they app y to the 5yang5 and 5yin'5 or the positive and negative princip es o" nature& Arother Cha oner A abaster' "ro! %ho! %e copy so!e o" these i ustrations' says that this bui ding sy!bo is! %as continued by the Chinese phi osophers o" the =th century A&C& Thus %e CGGD read in the 5#reat Learning5 that 5a !an shou d abstain "ro! doing unto others %hat he %ou d not they shou d do unto hi!5* and the %riter adds' 5this is ca ed the princip e o" acting on the s:uare&5 Other si!i ar e2pressions are used by Con"ucius JF- A&C&* and his ater "o o%er +encius says' 5that a +aster +ason' in teaching his apprentices' !akes use o" the co!passes and s:uare* ye %ho are engaged in the pursuit o" %isdo! !ust a so !ake use o" the co!passes and s:uare&5MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5' ii' p& -;O' and iii' p& -J&NN Every trade in Japan has a #ui d' and they are said to have been derived "ro! China' by %ay o" Eorea' G'<<< years ago& At the present ti!e %e are not thorough y in"or!ed %hether a syste!

identica in a respects %ith that o" China e2isted in Aaby on' but there are indications that such %as the case' as %e as in Egypt' and %e have a ready pointed out that Yh9Eing is an Akkadian vocabu ary o" root9%ords& +r& St& Chad Aosca%en has a""orded us a note' %here he treats o" the ancient Ca neh' about G'F<< A&C&MM5+odern Thought'5 -FFG&NN* in this artic e he represents

the ?iceroy #udea as 4atesi' or sceptre9bearer' subservient to the Eing o" Erech' and ter!s hi! the chie" priest and architect as %e ' his pa ace indicating the art in" uence o" Egypt& His statue represents hi! as seated and having the right ar! and shou der bare* on his knees is a tab et containing a p an' or %hat +odern +asons ter! a Tracing9board' o" his pa ace or te!p e* the edge o" this tab et is divided into a sca e o" ;< GR-< inches to the cubit' a !easure corresponding %ith that used in Egypt& Arother (& H& Ry ands dee!s that this cubit !ay have divided the p an into che:uered s:uares though not she%n thereon& 4ure copper i!ages o" the Cabiri have been disinterred at Ca neh& 9bearer' subservient to the Eing o" Erech' and ter!s hi! the chie" priest and architect as %e ' his pa ace indicating the art in" uence o" Egypt& His statue represents hi! as seated and having the right ar! and shou der bare* on his knees is a tab et containing a p an' or %hat +odern +asons ter! a Tracing9board' o" his pa ace or te!p e* the edge o" this tab et is divided into a sca e o" ;< GR-< inches to the cubit' a !easure corresponding %ith that used in Egypt& Arother (& H& Ry ands dee!s that this cubit !ay have divided the p an into che:uered s:uares though not she%n thereon& 4ure copper i!ages o" the Cabiri have been disinterred at Ca neh& ?ery strong phi o ogica grounds have been she%n by $r& +i er in his 5Har!oad5 "or identi"ying the Chinese +asonic syste! %ith Aaby on' and this !ust be read in the ight o" the re!arks %e have !ade thereon& CGJD One o" the ear iest Akkadian Eings na!ed Lik9baga %as a pyra!id bui der and' ike +e chisedek' a king and priest o" the +ost High* he uses as a tit e the ter! 4a9teshi' %hich is thus itera y trans ated 54a5 99anoint' 5te5 99corner stone' 5shi5 99to strike* and the sa!e ter! is used by his successors& 4atasso is a ha!!er' and the ter! 4atoeci %as the habitua designation o" the i!ages o" the gods o" the Cabiric +ysteries& Lik9baga see!s to have !odi"ied Akkadian theo ogy and %as the cro%ned architect and apost e o" Sin ,!oon/' Sa!as ,sun/' Ae ' and Anu& Another ter! used by these kings' and app ied by Nebuchadne11ar to the !ost ancient kings' is 4a9teshi tsi9ri' %hich is trans ated Sub i!e +aster by $r& Schrader* it is connected %ith the Hebre% 4at9tish' a ha!!er' or the Cabiric ha!!er in the hand o" Tuba 9Cain or the #reek ?u can& (ith the Akkadians the god o" copper9s!iths had the sa!e na!e as the god o" iron%orkers a!ongst the Lap anders' and the %ords "or iron and copper are the sa!e respective y&MM5Cha dean +agic5 99Lenor!ant&NN 7t is' ho%ever' through the Aryan Sanskrit that %e can !ore particu ar y trace the assi!i ation o" Akkad to a bui ding "raternity' "or the %ord Ak !eans to pierce' Akra is a sharp point' Akri is corner' Akana is a stone' Aktan is the nu!ber eight or the ang es %hich are in a cube& Ak!an in Sanscrit is a stone and in 4ersian heaven' and as a cube sy!bo ises the eight cos!ogonica po%ers' the %ord co!es to i!p y the %ho e heavens& 7n #reek' %hich is an Aryan tongue' the na!e o" the "ather o" Ouranos is Ak!on' and $iodorus !akes 8r' or Ouranos and Ops chi dren o" Ak!on and parents o" the Titans' %ho are again the Cabiri& Ak!on is a so an anvi ' %hich !eans a !eteoro ite' "ro! %hich

iron %as "irst !ade' "or in #reek Sideros is iron and re ated to the Latin Sidus' a star& The %ord Ak in the Akkadian signi"ies to bui d or to !ake' hence %e have ta9ak' tak' tag' a stone or !ountain' and akka' a bui ding te!p e or sanctuary* these signi"ications "urther connect Akkad' or proto9Aryan' %ith the Hindus and their architecture& CG=D Ak is a so the !onogra! o" Nabu %ho is +ercury' +arduk' %hence Ni!rod* Nabu is there"ore +ercury' and the Her!es o" Egypt' the revea ing #od& 7n Se!itic Assyrian abn is stone' abni stones' banah ,Heb& benah/ is to bui d& The earned A e2ander (i derMM#ou d && s 5N& Q L&5' 2iii' p& ;.I&NN e2presses an opinion that Ni!rod' "ounder o" Aaby on' %as o" Tartar descent' in %hich anguage the %ord !eans 5spotted'5 and !ay point to the eopard skin in %hich the Assyrian priests o" $ionnisi %ere c othed& 7" Ni!rod personates Eronos' as so!e ho d' he %as in that case a Cabiri or king o" the race o" Cyc opean bui ders&

0ro! a this it is argued' %ith !uch soundness' that the "irst kings %ere both priests and architects' or the #rand +asters o" these' and o" the c ass o" Cabiri %ho %ere "irst %orkers in stone and brick' and a"ter%ards in !eta s' and that they trans!itted a traditiona doctrine o" the te!p e' based upon cos!ogony and the creation o" the %or d&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 v' pt& ;&NN 7t e2p ains %hy #enesis assi!i ates the %or d y arts %ith re igion' and she%s the high respect the Hebre% priests had "or art' though de"icient in practice& The Aaby onians !ust have a""orded in"or!ation to E1ra %ho revised the Je%ish Aib e' and it !ay be pointed out that these peop e %ere bui ders in brick rather than stone' and hence that the practice o" art %ou d vary in a country %ith that in %hich stone %as used& o! a this it is argued' %ith !uch soundness' that the "irst kings %ere both priests and architects' or the #rand +asters o" these' and o" the c ass o" Cabiri %ho %ere "irst %orkers in stone and brick' and a"ter%ards in !eta s' and that they trans!itted a traditiona doctrine o" the te!p e' based upon cos!ogony and the creation o" the %or d&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 v' pt& ;&NN 7t e2p ains %hy #enesis assi!i ates the %or d y arts %ith re igion' and she%s the high respect the Hebre% priests had "or art' though de"icient in practice& The Aaby onians !ust have a""orded in"or!ation to E1ra %ho revised the Je%ish Aib e' and it !ay be pointed out that these peop e %ere bui ders in brick rather than stone' and hence that the practice o" art %ou d vary in a country %ith that in %hich stone %as used& CAA7R7C +YSTER7ES AN$ CYCLO4EAN (ORE& (hen %e approach historic ti!es %e "ind that the actua Cabiric +ysteries %ere o" #recian continuation and perpetuated at Sa!othrace %here they had been in e2istence' "ro! a re!ote era' "ar into Christian ti!es' and %here they %ere he d in great veneration' not on y "or their anti:uity but "or the purity o" their doctrine& They are said to have retained !uch o" their techni:ue in the Cha dean anguage' and to have preserved !uch o" the +asonic sy!bo is! %hich %e have seen in Chinese practise' CGID "or the aborigina inhabitants o" #reece' 4e asgians' %ere an a ied race' and $r& 4etrie asserts that pre9 He enic' or proto9Aryan #reeks' %ere in Egypt' either as "riends or captives' ;'=<< A&C&' %ith a civi isation a their o%n& Aarbarous %ars arose' the Aryan He enes devastated the country' and during an era o" oppression reduced the o d inhabitants to sub6ection* %e "ind the! deno!inated 4e asgi %ith a succession o" ;I kings "o o%ed by B priests& Egypt eventua y sent the! ru ers %ho restored their country to prosperity' "ounded cities and gave the! a%s& 8pon this %e earn that the Cabiric +ysteries %ere in practice at Sa!othrace' and that they %ere' or had been' a "raternity %hich co!bined art %ith re igion& Herodotus says that Sa!othrace had these +ysteries "ro! the 4e asgi' and that they taught the initiated by a sacred tradition' %hy the "igure o" Her!es' +ercury' or Cas!i us %as constructed in a pecu iar !anner' "ro! %hich %e gather that they used 4ha ic sy!bo s as e!b e!s o" the generative po%ers o" nature* and this historian' %ho %rote J=< A&C&' te s us that the na!es o" their gods %ere derived "ro! Egypt' as ancient y they used the genera ter! 5$isposers&5

The vie%s o" a authorities are in unison %ith those o" 0rederick von Sch ege ' %ho says that this pri!itive peop e %ere the constructors o" the Cyc opean bui dings o" #reece and 7ta y' being the origina inhabitants %ho %ere con:uered and overrun by the Aryan i!!igration o" $euca ion' that they %ere a peop e %ho had the traits in co!!on %ith those o" !any other countries' at a re!ote period&MM54hi osophy o" History'5 p& ;GJ&NN Ae"ore %e consider their +ysteries %e %i say so!ething o" their architecture* a sty e %hich is o" prehistoric anti:uity& 7t %as very !assive' and bui t o" irregu ar and %e 9bound b ocks o" i!!ense si1e' so %e knit that though %ithout ce!ent a kni"e b ade %ou d not enter the 6oints' and so p aced that a arge b ock !ight be %ithdra%n %ithout endangering the structure& The 0rench CGBD 7nstitute' in -F<J' traced about -=< to%ns %hich %ere in part' at east' Cyc opean' and -;B o" these %ere in Europe& Strabo says that the

bui ders %ere "ro! Syria in Asia +inor' by %hich he !eans Assyria* the sa!e %riter !entions vast caverns in Argos %hich had been converted into a Labyrinth by the Cyc ops* and here %as a statue o" the "ather o" the gods' %hich had a third eye in the !idd e o" the "orehead' and %hich %as said to have been brought "ro! the pa ace o" 4ria! at Troy' an Asiatic city inti!ate y connected %ith Assyria& e !eans Assyria* the sa!e %riter !entions vast caverns in Argos %hich had been converted into a Labyrinth by the Cyc ops* and here %as a statue o" the "ather o" the gods' %hich had a third eye in the !idd e o" the "orehead' and %hich %as said to have been brought "ro! the pa ace o" 4ria! at Troy' an Asiatic city inti!ate y connected %ith Assyria& 4 iny states that in the is and o" Le!nos' the ho!e o" the Cabiric +ysteries' there %as a Labyrinth o" -=< co u!ns' each stone o" %hich !ight be !oved by a chi d* hence %e earn that they rese!b ed the rocking stones o" the $ruids* and $r& $anie C arke "ound a stone circ e at the top o" +ount #argarus' %here the gods' according to Ho!er' asse!b ed at the siege o" Troy&MM5Anaca ypsis&5NN 4 iny attributes the %orking o" iron to their invention' and the "irst inhabitants o" Sici y are said to be o" this race& Achi es Statius' bishop o" A e2andria' !entions a statue in a te!p e on +ount Cassius' bet%een Syria and Egypt' %hich he d a po!egranate in the hand* it is a te!p e %hich Sanconiathon dee!s && Cabiri&MM+ackey to have been bui t by the descendants o" the s 5Cyc o& Art& 4o!egranate&5NN This pecu iar +asonry is "ound upon the su!!its o" !ountains' a position in %hich Ho!er p aces the Cyc ops and the Lastragons' and Theocritus the estab ish!ents o" the o d 4e asgi& As it de!anded a arge e2ertion o" physica strength the ater' but sti ancient' #reeks attributed the %ork to giants %ho && had an eye in the !idd e o" the "orehead as had 4ria! s statue o" their deity& +ytho ogy !akes the! sons o" Neptune and A!phitrite' %ho! Jupiter overthre% and cast into Tartarus %here they beco!e the assistants o" ?u can* thus assigning a sea9pedigree to these %orkers in iron and stone' and typi"ying

an en"orced s avery by their CGFD Aryan con:uerors& They are "ab ed to have !ade the sick e o" the #reek Eronos or Saturn' %ho! the Latins !ade the god o" agricu ture' in %hose reign a ship grounded at Sa!othrace' %here the passengers sett ed and erected a te!p e "or their +ysteries& 7t is "urther pretended that these Cyc ops constructed "or Jupiter a cubica a tar o" brass upon %hich the "ather o" gods took his oath be"ore attacking the Titans' and upon this a tar %as engraved the na!e o" $eity& Three principa Cyc ops are !entioned 99Arontes' Steropes' and 4arac!ai& (e see that ike Hira!' %ho has credit "or bui ding the te!p e o" So o!on' the Cyc opean Cabiri %ere not on y ski ed bui ders in stone but %orkers in brass and iron' a race sub6ect to ?u can' and that a this ong preceded the introduction into #reece o" a +asonry o" " at and s:uared stones' %hich ca!e into use about the ti!e o" the Egyptian co onisation' a"ter the ages o" barbaris! occasioned by the Aryan %ars& Aesides 7ndia' %hich %e have !entioned in its cave te!p es' and #reece' other nations have this ancient sty e o" +asonry' and Syria' under Aaby onian in" uence' has !any traces o" it' o der than the invasion o" Joshua and the Abri' and it is :uite possib e that the Hebre% invaders had !uch o" their specia bias "ro! the schoo o" +e chisedek' Eing o" Sa e!& 7t has been she%n by +onsieur 4erotti that so!e o" the !ost ancient ruins in 4a estine are Cyc opean' or as he ter!s the! 4e asgian' and he instances so!e at Ephrata or He 1ah' in other p aces are ater ruins o" a !i2ed sty e' bui t co!posite y o" po ygona and s:uared b ocks* at Ra!a is a door%ay rese!b ing' && on a s!a sca e that o" Atreus at +ycenae*MM50ree!asons+ag&'5 -FI;' viii' p& GFJ&NN Cyc opean ruins e2ist a so at Aashan and Aaa bec& The Rev& Arother

0osbrooke says3 5The abacus o" the gate o" ions at +ycenae' %hich %as bui t by the Cyc ops' supports "our ba s or circ es' %hich are again surrounded by a second abacus' si!i ar to the "irst& They are supposed to be CG.D derived "ro! the %orship o" +ythras' the ion being his sy!bo & The triangu ar "or! o" the stone had a specia signi"ication& The Cyc ops %ere %orshippers o" "ire' ?u can' and the sun&5 by the Cyc ops' supports "our ba s or circ es' %hich are again surrounded by a second abacus' si!i ar to the "irst& They are supposed to be CG.D derived "ro! the %orship o" +ythras' the ion being his sy!bo & The triangu ar "or! o" the stone had a specia signi"ication& The Cyc ops %ere %orshippers o" "ire' ?u can' and the sun&5 O der and sti !ore i!portant than +ycenae is the recent discovery in Crete o" the pa ace o" +inos at Enossos' %ith its %orks o" art' and its $eda ian abyrinth o" passages and roo!s' but !ore re!arkab e sti tab ets and records part y in hierog yphics' and part y in a phabet& 7n an artic e in the 5Aui der5 in -FI=' +onsieur Renan states that this sty e is the !ost ancient in the %or d' e2cept it be the 4yra!ids' and he points out that Ho!er !entions the great strength o" the %a s o" Tiryns and +ycenae in Argo is' the "or!er o" %hich is said to be ;< "eet thick3 the Etruscan sty e' he says' is derived "ro! it' but %hen it had !ade a decided advance' as it indicates i!proved architectura kno% edge& He a so points out that %herever this +asonry is "ound there e2ists a tradition o" an ancient race o" giants' %ho have passed a%ay or been destroyed' and he attributes the re!ains o" this sty e in 4a estine to the Anaki!' Rephai!' and the Canaanitish tribes&MM7bid' -FI=' 2ii' p& -JI&NN 5Aritain&5 The Cyc opean architecture o" the Aritish is es is pro!inent and !ay range "ro! J'=<< to -'=<< years anti:uity'MM(EH NOTE3 Carbon dated in !odern ti!es to be up to F'<<< years o d as to %ooden precursors&NN and are %e described by To and as they e2isted ;<< years ago& Nu!erous circ es o" stone %ere dedicated to the sun3 that in the is e o" Le%es has -; obe isks and a -Gth in the centre representing the rudder o" a ship' and reached by a passage o" doub e obe isks each o" -. stones %ith a G.th guarding the entrance o" the avenue& (e have here the -; signs o" the Hodiac' the Sun' and the $ruid cyc e o" -. years& At St& Aurien in Corn%a is a te!p e o" -. stones' each -; "eet distant' and a ;<th o" greater height in the centre' this !ay re"er to the -. years cyc e o" -; !onths& 7n these te!p es a arge a tar %as erected near %hich stood CJ<D the Crui!thear or priest' and ad6acent are "ound prodigious stones %hich can be !oved by a touch at the right p ace' %hi st e se%here they resist a the strength o" !an& To and !entions one o" these Cro! eachs at Cruich' in Cavan' p aced in the !idst o" -; obe isks' covered %ith brass' on %hich stood statues o" the gods' %hi st the bo%ing9stone %as covered %ith go d and si ver& The Circ es o" Stonehenge are G'I<< years o d' according to the ca cu ation o" 4ro"essor Nor!an Lockyer' "ounded upon its orientation as a Sun9te!p e -IF<

years A&C& This ca cu ation is con"ir!ed by the discovery in -.<-' %hen !aking so!e repairs o" the chippings "ro! the t%o descriptions o" stones' o" %hich the t%o circ es are co!posed' together %ith rude " int a2es and ha!!ers o" the pre9bron1e age' 5i&e&5' -=<< to ;<<< A&C& 7n the "ace o" the varied authorities %e have :uoted it is not possib e to co!e to any other conc usion than that the Cyc ops %ere the pri!itive bui ders and %orkers in !eta s' and that their descendants the Cabiri %ere unti %e approach Christian ti!es a re igious and operative brotherhood %hich then beca!e entire y specu ative& There is a !ytho ogica ground%ork "or the assi!i ation o" the various nations that practised the Cyc opean sty e& 4 utarch :uotes Antic ides as a""ir!ing that 7sis %as the daughter o" 4ro!etheus' %ho as

a reve ator o" arts %as a Cabir' and %i"e to $ionysos or Aacchus' and $ionysius Ha icarnassus says that At as e"t his habitation on +ount Caucasus and beca!e Eing o" Arcadia& Apo odorus a""ir!s that this At as %as son o" Japhetus and brother to 4ro!etheus& 4ausanius in"or!s us that the Arcadians %ere a 4e asgi' as %ere a so the inhabitants o" Argos' and that the 4e asgians had that na!e "ro! a Eing 4a agius&MMAishop Cu!ber and* 5Origenes&5NN $ionisu is Assyrian' and a so 7ndian as $ionysos' %hi st ad!itted y Egyptian as Aacchus* hence the $ionysian arti"icers o" #reece !ay have sprang out o" the Cabiri& Rao Rochette considers that the Cyc op 4a ae!onius' to %ho! a Sanctuary %as raised' %as CJ-D the Tyrians Herac es& Ha icarnassus says that At as e"t his habitation on +ount Caucasus and beca!e Eing o" Arcadia& Apo odorus a""ir!s that this At as %as son o" Japhetus and brother to 4ro!etheus& 4ausanius in"or!s us that the Arcadians %ere a 4e asgi' as %ere a so the inhabitants o" Argos' and that the 4e asgians had that na!e "ro! a Eing 4a agius&MMAishop Cu!ber and* 5Origenes&5NN $ionisu is Assyrian' and a so 7ndian as $ionysos' %hi st ad!itted y Egyptian as Aacchus* hence the $ionysian arti"icers o" #reece !ay have sprang out o" the Cabiri& Rao Rochette considers that the Cyc op 4a ae!onius' to %ho! a Sanctuary %as raised' %as CJ-D the Tyrians Herac es& H& 4& A avatsky says that the 9bui ders o" the sacred co u!ns at #adir covered the! %ith !ysterious characters and "igures' o" %hich the sa!e is sti "ound on the %a s o" E ora' that gigantic ruin o" the te!p e o" ?isvakar!an sty ed 5the bui der and arti"icer o" the gods&5 7t is :uite ike y that the physica and superior strength o" the Cyc ops has a "oundation in "act& Apart "ro! the testi!ony o" ancient %riters' co ected by !en o" the sta!p o" #rotius' in regard to the e2istence at one ti!e o" a race o" giants' there has recent y been discovered at 4ied!ont in +oravia the ske eton o" a hu!an "a!i y' side by side %ith the bones o" the +a!!oth' that o" the !an being o" 5e2traordinary si1e&5 At the #rotto o" Rochers Rouges' +entone' ske etons have been "ound under ;. "eet o" i!estone sta ag!ite' %hich !ay be reckoned to represent F'<<< years' that o" a !a e %as B"t& .in& %ithout head' and that o" a "e!a e I"t& Gin& 5Cabiric +ysteries&5 7n order to arrive at an idea o" the Cabiric +ysteries and their severa great gods' or po%ers' %e !ust recognise their anti:uity' and the "act that their chie" conste ation %as the #reat Aear' the seven stars& O" the 4 eiades a seventh star is said to be ost' 5the si2 present the seventh hidden&5 (e !ust a so consider the !ost striking "acts o" nature' %hich ed to the division o" ti!e into days' !onths' and years& The "irst !easure o" ti!e is a contest bet%een ight and darkness' a day and a night' or %hat is no% kno%n to be a revo ution o" the earth round the sun& The ne2t !easure o" ti!e %as the birth and death o" the !oon' or %hat %e kno% as a !onth y revo ution o" the !oon round the earth& 7t %ou d ne2t be noted that the seven stars o" the #reat Aear !akes a co!p ete turn round in GI= days or thereabouts& The -G unar and -; so ar !onths in the annua birth and death o" the sun is a ater and !ore co!p icated ca cu ation o" a year' though it corresponds %ith the annua revo ution o" the seven stars round a po ar centre' %hich %as %hat the Cabiri p ain y co!!e!orated& CJ;D

The Sun %as the Se!itic' rather than the Cabiric sy!bo ' and !ay possib y be indicated in the archaic hy!n o" the Akkadian victory o" Hea over the seven9 headed serpent& Other changes o" the sy!bo is! succeeded and %e have the seven gods app ied to so !any spheres' or to the p anets' and "ina y anthropo!orphised into seven gods o" arts& (e readMM77 5Eings5 2vii&' v& G<&NN 5The !en O" Aaby on !ade Succoth Aenoth'5 %hich is understood to be the i!age %orship o" the 4 eiades& The ate $octor (a ker Arnott asserted that none cou d co!prehend +asonic ritua %ithout a "u kno% edge o" Hebre% astrono!y& These considerations tend to prove the greater anti:uity o" the Cabiric syste!' as preceding the +ysteries that !ade a dying god o" our so ar orb* and it has a so a higher scienti"ic basis' as i!p ying the origin o" syste!s "ro! that "ar distant centra sun' round %hich a the g obes revo ve& 7t is on these natura pheno!ena' spiritua i1ed in the +ysteries' that their cere!onies

are "ounded& Apo odorus and ?arro say that the Cabiri adored the heavens and earth under the na!es o" Ouranos and #he as the creators o" !ankind3 Hindu spirit and !atter& and earth under the na!es o" Ouranos and #he as the creators o" !ankind3 Hindu spirit and !atter& According to Sanconiathon and the 4hoenicians' the Cabiri %ere the eight sons o" Sadyk' o" %ho! the youngest' na!ed Esh!un or Ak!on' or in the #reek version Cad!i us or Cas!i us' %as s ain by the others& +isor' the brother o" Sadyk' %as "ather o" Taut' and received the inheritance o" Egypt' and the Cabiri record it' a c ai! that the !ost ancient inhabitants o" Egypt %ere o" this ritua & O" these eight' three %ere !ost noted' and %ere ter!ed by the #reeks A2ieros' A2iochersos' and A2iocheres' and as 52i5 is but the #reek 5chi5 it has been suggestedMM$r& Tyt er' in 50&+& +ag&5NN that these na!es !ay be trans!uted into Cha dean as Ahea' Ashur' Ahea' %hich is e:ua to 7 a! that 7 a!& +r& Ed%ard C& EingMM5Akkadian #enesis'5 p& =.* 5E2odus5 iii& v& 7J* Ahih Ashr Ahih&NN reads these %ords Aya' Asher' Aya' and CJGD %hen Theodoret asked a Je% the true pronunciation o" the sacred na!e HA3YH YH' the Je% said 5ya'5 and %rote 5aya'5 "or he %as not per!itted by his a% to pronounce the sacred na!e& E:ua y in +asonry there is a (ord %hich can be %ritten but not pronounced' and there is a !ode o" uttering that %ord %hich cannot be %ritten& So!e %riters suppose that the three Cabiri' or Corybantes' sy!bo ise sun' !oon' and earth' in the contest bet%een %hich one is supposed to be s ain in ec ipse' and :uote the %ords o" Hesiod 995Stained %ith b ood and "a ing by the hands o" t%o ce estia bodies&5 One o" the gods %as na!ed Eubu os' pronounced very si!i ar y to three %ords used in 5Ancient5 +asonry' && %hich had a re"erence to So o!ons te!p e' %hich a ancient %riters ad!it %as a type o" the universe& The s ain Cas!i us had the sa!e signi"ication as the Osirian sun9god' and in the 4hoenician' Aaby onian' and Egyptian books' and cos!ogonies are so!e curious re"erences %hich !ay typi"y circu!cision' the +ythraic baptis! o" && b ood' and the Taurobo iu! or baptis! o" bu s b ood' %hich is re"erred to in the 4hrygian version o" the Cabiric rites& Thus' on the authority o" 4hi o && Ayb us' %e have it in the egend o" Eronos that he sheds his sons b ood as a propitiation to his "ather Ouranos and circu!cised his "a!i y' and "ro! the %ords used it %ou d see! that this %as sy!bo ica y acted in the +ysteries& 7n another egend' E castrates his "ather Ouranos in order to "erti ise the rivers' in %hich is "ound the "irst ger! o" i"e& Again Ae +erodach cuts open the

dragon Tia!at' or chaos' "ro! %hich he proceeds& 7n the Egyptian 5Ritua o" the $ead5 it is said3 5the b ood is that o" the sun as he goes a ong cutting hi!se "&5 +asonic %riters te us that the 7nitiated sy!bo ica y e!brued his hands in the b ood o" the s ain Cas!i us& These !urdered gods' as in the case o" Osiris and Adonis' usua y su""er in the generative parts' indicative o" the trans"er o" the i"e princip e' and it is said !ytho ogica y that %hen the t%o other gods s e% Cas!i us they " ed CJJD %ith a chest containing his genita s to Etruria' in %hich %e have doubt ess a notice o" co onisation& The Cabiric gods %ere he d to be the instructors o" !ankind in a use"u kno% edge* !agica rites' bui ding' s!e ting and %orking in !eta s' shipbui ding' !usic' etc&' and %ere deno!inated Technites or arti"icers& Sanconiathon says that Ouranos %as the "ather o" Scu ptors' as %as Hira! the "ather or Abiv o" +asons' !eta %orkers' carvers' and dyers' and in verity a Cabir& 0aber considers that the ter! 0abri by %hich the Latins designated

Arti"icers in genera is derived "ro! Cabiri' and he a so asserts that 5a the !ost ancient re!arkab e bui dings o" #reece' Egypt' and Asia +inor %ere ascribed to Cabirian or Cyc opean +asons&5MM0aber' 5Cab&5 i& p& G=&NN !ost ancient re!arkab e bui dings o" #reece' Egypt' and Asia +inor %ere ascribed to Cabirian or Cyc opean +asons&5MM0aber' 5Cab&5 i& p& G=&NN As the rites a so pro"essed to instruct the candidate in incantations such as %e kno% %ere used by the Akkadians o" Aaby on that a one %ou d indicate identity o" origin& The earned Hyde attributes the na!e Cabir to #abri' #uebri' "ire or sun %orshippers* and as the s ain god is na!ed Ak!on' %hich %ord a so !eans a cube o" eight ang es' heaven or Ouranos' it is there"ore e:uiva ent to the Se!itic 8r and 8ri!' and re!ote y to Hira!' %hose "ather Josephus says %as na!ed 8r& 7t is said that the 7nitiatory cere!ony into the +ysteries o" Sa!othrace asted three days and %as ter!ed 5Enthrone!ent'5 and that !ystic dances representing the !otions o" the heaven y bodies %ere per"or!ed round the throne' %hich connects the rite %ith astrono!y& A %hite9stone %as presented to the 7nitiate as a sy!bo o" !e!bership& Hives o" bees %ere preserved in the te!p e' and the interior cavern or Sanctuary contained a pyra!idica cha!ber as its !ost sacred p ace& Heckethorn asserts that in the 4hrygian branch o" these +ysteries they had a pine tree cut to "or! a cross' %ith the "igure o" a !an upon it' and the sa!e thing is asserted o" the Aritish $ruids& The to!b o" +idas in 4hrygia is adorned %ith the' e:ua 9 i!bed cross' or the !odern #reek CJ=D "or!& Eusebius' %ho can see on y the %orst side o" the +ysteries' %rites o" the! in the sa!e sty e as the !odern secu arist upon the scriptures& Ection' he says' "ounded the Sa!othracian +ysteries' and ?enus sprang "ro! the !e!ber o" 8ranus %hich %as thro%n into the sea' %here"ore a u!p o" sa t is the sy!bo o" generation& These are %hat the 4hrygians ce ebrate as the rites to Attys' Cybe e' and the Corybantes& Certain signs %ere' 57 have eaten out o" the ta!bourine& 7 have drank out o" the cy!ba & 7 have carried the !ystic sa ver& 7 have s ipped into the bed&5 Si!i ar e2pressions are "ound a!ongst the $ruids' and %ere kno%n to the E eusenian initiates& They are but a egories and not actua rites& C e!ens o" A e2andria speaking o" these +ysteries says3 995Eno% that having ki ed their third brother they covered the head o" the dead body %ith a purp e c oth' cro%ned it ,or encirc ed it %ith a chap et/' and carrying it on the point o" a spear ,or bearing it on a bra1en shie d/' buried it under the roots o" O y!pus& The +ysteries are in short !urders and "unera s&5MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5 v&' p& -BG& 995E2hort'5 ch& ii&' a so 5Eiusebius'5 prep& 5#os&5 c& iii&' b& ;&NN (here t%o gods !urder a third the re"erence !ay be to t%o seasons and %inter& 5Aaby on&5 (e %i no% g ance at the Aaby onian conte!poraries o" these Cyc ops or Cabiri& Aerosus the Cha dean historian records that the civi isation o" Aaby on %as derived "ro! a god %ho %as ha " !an and ha " "ish' and %ho rose each day out o" the Erythrean sea' and Lepsius has e2pressed the opinion that the egend points to Egyptian sources& The "aith o" the o d Akkadians %as

o" a !agica nature in %hich a!u ets' as in the Cabiric +ysteries' p ayed a eading part& They adored the spirits o" nature and the e e!ents' %ho! they be ieved to be ru ed by three great gods 99Anu the supre!e* Hea the ru er o" the earth "ro! his heaven y boat* and +u gi the ord o" the under%or d or Hades& Each o" these had his "e!inine consort& Hea is the counterpart o" the Hebre% CJID Jehovah' he %a ks %ith' ta ks %ith' and instructs !ankind* and a hy!n' %hich is possib y the !ost ancient in the %or d' describes his po%er and !ight and his victory over the seven9headed serpent' a !etaphor e:ua y "ound

in Lap and' Thibet' Egypt' 7ndia' #reece' and even Yucatan& These Akkadians %ere' ike the Egyptians and +ayau2' pyra!id bui ders' and the ruins o" Aabe or Aorsippa is o" this nature& 7t ca!e to be ca ed the te!p e o" the Ait91ida or o" the right hand' and there is an ancient cy inder %hich represents a seven9 stepped pyra!id' at the top o" %hich is a co ossa hand' and eight %orshippers' corresponding to the Cabiric gods surround the pyra!id in %orship& %ere' ike the Egyptians and +ayau2' pyra!id bui ders' and the ruins o" Aabe or Aorsippa is o" this nature& 7t ca!e to be ca ed the te!p e o" the Ait91ida or o" the right hand' and there is an ancient cy inder %hich represents a seven9 stepped pyra!id' at the top o" %hich is a co ossa hand' and eight %orshippers' corresponding to the Cabiric gods surround the pyra!id in %orship& The oca ity o" Aaby on gave the! in specu ation t%o 5#reat 4i ars'5 the 5+ount o" the %or d'5 in the northeast' or Ararat' %hich they a so ter!ed 5the abode o" the gods'5 and %hich %as to the! %hat +eru %as to the Aryans' and a corresponding !ount in the south %est' %hence %as the descent to the do!ain o" +u gi the ru er o" the dead* %hich descent %as a eged to be guarded by seven concentric %a s' %ith one gate in each %a & A the great !ountains o" the East are represented as the residences o" a spiritua ised race& At a re!ote period the priests had co!posed an epic in t%e ve books ans%ering to the Hodiaca signs over %hich the sun9god 6ournies 99in Akkadian 7sdhubhar' in Egyptian Herac es' in Tyrian +e carth& 7t co!!ences the "irst book or !onth %ith the siege o" #hi1dubar or 7sdhubhar in Erech 99it is ight %hich overco!es darkness& 7n the second and third the hero resorts "or co!"ort to the prophet Heabani& 7n the "ourth and "i"th there is %ar' "iguring the e e!enta stor!s& 7n the si2th and seventh %e have the ives and disorders && o" the hero and 7shter' be ieved to re"er to the !oons changes& 7shtar descends into Hades' ike Ceres o" #reece' to seek aid "ro! +u gi' and is divested o" so!e portion o" her appare at each gate o" the seven %a s& 7n the eighth and ninth %e have the %anderings o" the hero and a 4aradisica garden& 7n CJBD the tenth the hero is "erried over the Sty2 that he !ay be restored to hea th by Ta!1i' the trans ated Sage& The e eventh is a si!i ar account o" the de uge to that in #enesis& The t%e "th co!!e!orates the death o" Heabani& 7n ana ogy %ith this sacred nu!ber seven' the to%er o" Aabe had seven stories' and Herodotus in"or!s us that Ecbatana in +edia %as guarded by seven concentric %a s' each o" %hich' as %ere the stories o" Aabe ' %as painted to represent one o" the seven spheres or p anets& The +ythraic +ysteries though proto9+edian in their conception' %ere Aryan %hen %e beco!e historica y ac:uainted %ith the!' and they had seven caverns o" 7nitiation approached by gates in a pyra!id o" seven andings' and the tria s o" 7nitiation are doubt ess y a egorised by the ancient 4ersian poet 0erdusi' in the He"t9 Ehan or abours o" Rusta!& 7n this the i!p ication is obvious that the !ytho ogy %as !ore ancient than the erections %hich sy!bo ised it' o d as

&& these are in the %or ds history& The to%er o" Aabe or Aorsippa' 5%hich had been e"t un"inished since the de uge'5 %as co!p eted by Nebuchadne11ar %ith the addition o" an eighth story 5according to the origina design5* this ast consisted o" a 5cubica cha!ber5 as a shrine "or the god' the appoint!ents being o" go d& The o dest te!p e in the %or d is said to have been discovered by e2cavators at Aiaya in Centra Aaby onia& The %a s o" the to%er %ere "irst uncovered and the su!!it c eared& The "irst inscription on the sur"ace %as brick sta!ped %ith the na!e $ungi o" ;B=< A&C& A itt e o%er appeared a cru!p ed piece o" && go d %ith the na!e 4ara! Si! %ho ived in GB=< A&C& ,50ree!asonsChronic e'5 -= Aug&' -.<F&/ 7n his 5Seven #reat +onarchies'5 4ro"essor #eorge Ra% inson ter!s the To%er o" Aabe the 5Airs9i9Ni!rod'5 the ancient te!p e o" Nebo at Aorsippa& 7t

%as a per"ect s:uare o" seven ascents or stages' ;B; "eet at base' each %ay' the "our corners "acing the Cardina points' and the CJFD seven stages occupying a height o" -=I "eet' the highest o" a %as a per"ect cube and the Sanctuary o" "our corners "acing the Cardina points' and the CJFD seven stages occupying a height o" -=I "eet' the highest o" a %as a per"ect cube and the Sanctuary o" && the #od& Ra% insons arrange!ent o" these is as "o o%s3 9 STA#E& COLO8R& 4LANET& Aase!ent' A ack' Saturn& Second Stage' Orange' Jupiter& Third 5 A ood Red' +ars& 0ourth 5 #o den' Sun& 0i"th 5 4a e Ye o%' ?enus& Si2th 5 A1ure' +ercury& Seventh 5 Si ver' +oon& A si!i ar sy!bo ic p an e2isted in 7ndia' "or %e "ind Seven Courts o" %hich the ast' or centra ones' have no canopy' but that o" the heavens& 7n Egypt' the !ost ancient o" the 4yra!ids' that o" Saccarah' consisted o" Seven Stages' the sa!e thing e:ua y e2isted in +e2ico& A the %onder"u %orks %rought by the god Hea upon earth %ere per"or!ed by virtue o" an o!ni"ic (ord' %hich %ou d see! to have been ost to the +agi' though the ancient priests o" Egypt appear to have c ai!ed that they possessed it' and they had a god 5%hose na!e is hidden&5 The Je%ish be ie" as to the po%er o" the 7ne""ab e na!e o" their #od JH?H 99Yahvah' Yihvah' or as %e' incorrect y' use it Jehovah' %ou d see! to be based on these be ie"s& Yahvah reads' He causes to bring "orth& 5Assyria&5 A co!p ete "usion o" the Akkadian and Se!itic "aiths had taken p ace be"ore ;=<< A&C&' and the popu ation had beco!e kno%n as Cha dean& Assyria' civi ised "ro! Aaby on' rose into po%er' though its precise beginning has not been traced& About -F;< A&C&' Sa!si9?u bui t at Assur a te!p e to Anu and ?u ' and 7ritak bui t one ca ed the 5House o" Sa vation&5 Sa!si9?u a so repaired the te!p e o" 7shter then at Nineveh& About -G=< A&C& Audi bui t a pa ace at Assur %hich his successor ?u 9Nerari 7& en arged and %hich his son Sha !aneser -G<< A&C& sti "urther e2tended* he a so restored the great te!p e ca ed the 5+ountain o" the %or d5* he "urther bui t the ne% city o" Ca eh' about -F !i es "ro! Nineveh' "ounded a pa ace at the atter p ace' and repaired the te!p e o" 7shter there& His son Tugu ti9Ninip CJ.D assu!ed the tit e o" 5Eing o" Nations' Eing o" Su!ar and Akkad' and con:ueror o" Earduniyas5 ,Aaby on/& The ne2t great bui der %as Tig ut i94i eser' --;< A&C&' he rebui t the te!p e o" Assur' a"ter a apse o" B<- years and raised there t%o pyra!idica to%ers* he a so i!proved the pa aces o" Assur and Nineveh' and e"t his country one o" the

"ore!ost !onarchies o" the %or d& His tab et' in the Aritish +useu!' represents hi! %ith a +a tese cross %hich hangs "ro! the breast' and there is a so one o" another king having the ike decoration& There is a so!e%hat re!arkab e Assyrian con"ir!ation o" the anti:uity o" the +asonic syste! o" consecration to be "ound in the inscriptions& (hen Cyrus Eing o" 4ersia discovered the "oundation o" his ear y predecessor in Assyria' Assur9bani9pa ' he says 9957 aid the "oundation and !ade "ir! the bricks* %ith beer' %ine' oi ' and honey&5MM5Records o" the 4ast'5 iv' p& -B-&NN Other inscriptions !ention oi ' and the sacri"ice o" ani!a s& The "oundation cy inder o" Naboniadus' a Aaby onian Eing con:uered by Cyrus' speaks o" the discovery

o" the "oundation9stone o" the te!p e bui t by Nara!9sin' son o" Sargon o" Akkadia the Se!itic con:ueror o" Aaby on G';<< years ear ier& Recent digging is said to carry Aaby onian data to F<<< A&C& 9stone o" the te!p e bui t by Nara!9sin' son o" Sargon o" Akkadia the Se!itic con:ueror o" Aaby on G';<< years ear ier& Recent digging is said to carry Aaby onian data to F<<< A&C& So!ething o" the nature o" caste initiation !ust a so have e2isted a!ongst the Augurs and Sacred Scribes& 4ro"essor Sayce in his 5Hibbert Lectures5 has to this e""ect 99A tab et states that an Augur !ust be' 5o" pure ineage unb e!ished in hand or "oot'5 and speaks thus o" the vision %hich is revea ed to hi! be"ore he is 5initiated and instructed' in the presence o" Sa!as and Ri!!on' in the use o" the book and sty us'5 by 5the Scribe' the instructed one' %ho keeps the orac e o" the gods'5 %hen he is !ade to descend into an arti"icia i!itation o" the o%er %or d and there beho ds 5the a tars a!id the %aters' the treasures o" Anu' o" Ae ' and Hea' the tab ets o" the gods' the de ivery o" the orac e o" heaven and earth' and the cedar tree' the be oved o" the great gods' %hich their C=<D hands have caused to gro%&5 7t is thought that each sign o" the Aaby onian Hodiac had its specia order o" priests' in a t%e ve& 7n very !any countries the eterna stabi ity and po%er o" the deity %as represented by a s:uare b ock or cube stone& +a2i!us Tyrius speaking o" the %orship o" so!e god by the Arabians says 995The statue that 7 sa% o" hi! %as a s:uare stone&5 4hurnutus speaking o" the "iguration o" Her!es or +ercury says 995As the s:uare "igure betokens his so idity* so he %anted neither hands or "eet to e2ecute %hat he %as co!!anded by Jove&5MMTo and && s 5$ruids&5NN So!e appro2i!ation o" the very ancient " ourishing period o" the Cabiric +ysteries !ay be "or!ed upon consideration that the Nagon9%at o" Ca!bodia contains Cabiric scu pture in its architecture* the "ish9!an or $agon o" Aaby on' and e:ua y %ith every nation' inc uding the +ayas o" A!erica' the !onkey god& No one no% kno%s %hat peop e erected the p ace' but A avatsky' %ho is good testi!ony on a point o" this nature' !aintains that %hoever bui t Nagon9%at %ere o" the sa!e re igion and race as those %ho bui t the ancient 4agodas' the Egyptian pyra!ids' and the ruins o" E ora' Copan' and Centra A!erica& 5Egypt5& 7" %e no% turn to Egypt %e "ind it accepted by scho ars that its ear iest kno%n popu ation %ere a ied %ith the Akkads o" Aaby on' by anguage and re igion& Aesides the a""inity o" the ancient Coptic to the Chinese and Cha dean speech' it is ad!itted that be"ore the Osirian %orship beca!e genera ' and it is as o d as +enes the "irst Eing o" Egypt' there %as an identity o" re igion* and that the seven gods o" +e!phis represented in the %orship o"

4tah 99the potter %ho creates the %or d out o" the !undane egg 99and his !inor gods' are identica %ith the gods o" the Cabiri& The greater anti:uity o" Egypt %ou d see! to be proved by the !utations o" the !ethods o" %riting' "or the Egyptians besides their Hieratic and $o!atic a phabet' reserved the hierog yphic syste! "or C=-D sacred things* the $o!atic %as then used "or secu ar !atters' and the Hieratic "or their sacred !anuscripts& This atter a phabet they trans!itted to 4hoenicia' %hence through #reece and Ro!e' in a gradua y !odi"ied state' it "or!s the characters o" our o%n ti!es& Aut %hen the Akkadians sett ed in Aaby on they %ere a ready possessed o" the cunei"or! a phabet' and a though the e2act oca ity %here this %as deve oped has not yet been sett ed' it is possib e that they carried it %ith their anguage and re igion by %ay o" Aactria "ro! their pri!itive ho!e in the Caucasian high ands' or those o" centra Asia& The Egyptian Sesun' the Aaby onian Nabu' the Akkadian and Aryan Ak' and the Chinese diagra!s ca ed the Eouas' introduced into the

pri!itive Yh9Eing at a ater period' a have the sa!e re ation and are e:ua y represented by eight para e ines in t%o "ours& The 5Ritua o" the $ead5 or +ani"estations o" Light' contains a usions to the Cabiric conste ation o" the #reat Aear or seven stars' %ho are e:ua y the seven sons o" 4tah* the seven spirits o" Ra* the seven co!panions o" Eing Arthur* the seven Hohgates o" A!erica* the seven Lu!a1i or eaders o" the star " ock o" Assyria* they !ay a so be app ied to the seven A!ashpands o" 4ersia' the seven Rishis o" 7ndia' and seven spirits that surround the throne o" #od& +r& (& St& Chad Aosca%en asserts that at a re!ote period' a c ose intercourse e2isted bet%een Egypt and Cha dea' the point o" 6unction o" the t%o civi isations being the peninsu a o" Sinai& The o d egends o" Cha dea and the o d hy!ns o" Eridu %hich' on the evidence o" si t' are assigned a period o" I'<<< years A&C&' betray a cu ture derived "ro! a !ariti!e peop e* Eridu' ike +e!phis' %as ca ed the 5Ho y City'5 and in Cha dea %e "ind a god na!ed Asari and in Egypt Heseri or Osiris' %hi st in 7ndia %e have 7s%ari& 9Eing at a ater period' a have the sa!e re ation and are e:ua y represented by eight para e ines in t%o "ours& The 5Ritua o" the $ead5 or +ani"estations o" Light' contains a usions to the Cabiric conste ation o" the #reat Aear or seven stars' %ho are e:ua y the seven sons o" 4tah* the seven spirits o" Ra* the seven co!panions o" Eing Arthur* the seven Hohgates o" A!erica* the seven Lu!a1i or eaders o" the star " ock o" Assyria* they !ay a so be app ied to the seven A!ashpands o" 4ersia' the seven Rishis o" 7ndia' and seven spirits that surround the throne o" #od& +r& (& St& Chad Aosca%en asserts that at a re!ote period' a c ose intercourse e2isted bet%een Egypt and Cha dea' the point o" 6unction o" the t%o civi isations being the peninsu a o" Sinai& The o d egends o" Cha dea and the o d hy!ns o" Eridu %hich' on the evidence o" si t' are assigned a period o" I'<<< years A&C&' betray a cu ture derived "ro! a !ariti!e peop e* Eridu' ike +e!phis' %as ca ed the 5Ho y City'5 and in Cha dea %e "ind a god na!ed Asari and in Egypt Heseri or Osiris' %hi st in 7ndia %e have 7s%ari& At the re!ote period o" %hich %e are %riting %e have no %ritten account o" the nature o" the +ysteries practised either in Egypt or Cha dea' and %e !ust 6udge the secret rites' by %hat %e can ascertain o" the! at a ater C=;D period* %e kno%' ho%ever' that that %hich %as app icab e to the Cabiric gods o" #reece and Cha dea %as a so app icab e to the seven sons o" 4tah at +e!phis& Sanconiathon in"or!s us that in the ti!e o" one o" the !ost ancient hierophants' they had corrupted their +ysteries by !ing ing cos!ogonica a""ections %ith the historica traditions* "ro! %hich %e see that be"ore his ti!e they had diverged "ro! the Cabiric ritua & 7t is very note%orthy that Egypt %as the !ost prosperous during the eras %hich "o o%ed the accession o" +enes their "irst Eing& +ost o" the arts kno%n at this day' and so!e %hich %e do not kno%' are pictured in the ear iest to!bs' and these inc ude go d !ining and s!e ting' Cabiric c ai!s' o" %hich %e accept Tuba 9Cain as the "ather on Hebre% evidence& 7t %as the custo! o" the priest y caste to con"er 7nitiation upon a ne% 4haraoh' as %as the case in Aaby on' and there are traces o" art sy!bo is! to

be "ound in the ear iest ti!es& Thus the Cubit ru e %as the sacred sy!bo o" Truth* and %e are to d by $iodorus that the ancient Hieratic a phabet' distinguished "ro! the $o!atic or co!!on' %as o" this nature' as it !ade use o" the too s o" carpenters' and he instances the hatchet' pincers' !a et' chise ' && and s:uare& The !ost ancient ruins contain +asons+arks' such as the point %ithin a circ e' the triang e' the tro%e ' the tau' and trip e9tau& (e give here a part o" the "irst chapter o" the 5Aook o" the $ead*5 the %ork is o" a co!posite character and co!!ing es the +e!phian theo ogy o" 4tah %ith that o" the Theban A!en' and the Osirian theo ogy& The copies a so vary according to the socia position o" the dead "or %hose buria the copies %ere intended& 57 a! a 4riest in Abydos in the day that the earth re6oiceth' 7 see the secret p aces o" the %inding region' 7 ordain the "estiva o" the spirit' the Lord o" the abiding and' 7 hear the %atch%ord o" the %atchers over !e' 7 a! the Architect o" the great barge o" Sochais' ,4tah&/ Aui ding it "ro! the stocks & & & & & ,a te!p e Sy!bo &/ OhK ye Liberators o" Sou s' ye Aui ders o" the house o" Osiris' C=GD Liberate the Sou o" the Osirian & & & ,Na!e o" deceased&/

He is %ith you in the house o" Osiris' He sees as you see' hears as you hear' He stands as you stand' sits as you sit' OK ye that give !eat and drink' To the sou s bui t into the house o" Osiris' , iving stones&/ #ive seasonab e "ood and drink to the Osirian & & & ,Na!e&/ 7 do not co!pute !y 6usti"ication in !any parts' +y sou stands up s:uare to the "ace o" tbe Judge' 7t is "ound true on the earth&5 ,#ui d Sy!bo is!&/ Another passage says 995As the sun died and rose again yesterday' so !an dies and rises again&5 There are !any passages in the Ritua %hich c ear y i!p y secret 7nitiation& The representations o" the Judg!ent Ha o" Osiris 9the iving one' the +aster o" i"e' the +aster o" a ' in a his creation' na!es' "unctions' diade!s' orna!ents' pa aces' etc&' is o" a very i!pressive character' and has been incorporated %ith the Christianity o" ater ti!es& 7n so!e o" the papyrus +SS&' both in hierog yphic and hieratic characters' G9J'<<< years o d' the spirit appearing "or 6usti"ication stands bet%een 7sis and Nepthys pictured %ith the sign o" a 0e o% 0ree!ason* in others he is ho ding up both ar!s' representing t%o s:uares* in this "o o%ing the %ritten state!ent that he stands 5s:uare5 be"ore his 6udge& Each district o" Egypt had its Trinity o" #ods3 99Thebes' in the -Jth century A&C& had the 5hidden god'5 A!en' 5+aker o" a things* Thou on y one5* +uth ,!other/ +other Nature* Ehensu ,the chi d/3 in the Jth century A&C& %e have A!en or Ehepura ,creator/* Te"unt ,hu!idity/* Shu , ight/& Abydos had Osiris' 7sis' and Horus& E ephantine 99Ehnu! or Chnou!is* Anuka or Anocuis* and Hak& He iopo is had Tu! or Har!achis* Nebhetp* Horus& +e!phis had 4tah by +erenphtah* Ne"er* Atu!& Though this chapter has run to great ength so!ething !ust be said o" the architecture o" this e2traordinary peop e& The o dest structures %hich re!ain are the C=JD pyra!ids' and the !ost ancient o" these is possib y F'<<< years o d' and !ay be described as a !ere cairn o" stones& Ne2t "o o%s the great pyra!id o" #hi1eh' %hich has been ter!ed a stone bib e' the +asons !ight ca it that %onder"u re igious' scienti"ic' and astrono!ica Tracing9board& According to Herodotus it %as bui t by Cheops' %ho! the priests he d in detestation' as he had caused a the te!p es to be c osed during its erection' its date various y esti!ated at GG;J to JG;= A&C& 7t is said that the architect %as Ehu"u9ankh' an Osirian' %ho %as buried near to it& Cheops %as certain y

an Osirian' %hi st the priests %ere opposed to that %orship&MM5Egypt'5 (!& O2 ey' p& FB&NN A the pyra!ids had their o""icia priests attached' and even in the ear iest ti!es "abu ous su!s %ere avished upon these structures' and upon their te!p es& These atter %ere divided into three portions3 99-' an outer court' not a %ays roo"ed* ;' the body o" the te!p e* G' the Ho y9p ace and the shrine o" the god in %hose honour the te!p e %as bui t& The te!p e o" Jerusa e! %as o" ana ogous character& Archaeo ogists consider that the prehistorica nuc eus %as the ho y9p ace' and that gradua y other cha!bers began to be erected around it& The pyra!id %as the !ode upon %hich the bui der acted' the %a s s oping and narro%ing up%ards& There are grave discrepancies a!ongst the earned in regard to the chrono ogy o" this nation' o%ing to disagree!ent as to %hether certain

dynasties o" kings %ere reigning conte!poraneous y* but the great pyra!id o" #hi1eh' %hatever its rea age' she%s a !arve ous kno% edge o" geo!etry' astrono!y' and operative +asonry& The hardest granite has been chise ed %ith such !athe!atica accuracy that a kni"e b ade %i not enter the 6oints' and !en o" science suppose that they have discovered in its construction the evidence o" a earning e:ua to that o" the present day& The nu!ber =' and its !u tip es' is the radica basis o" its !easure!ents* precise y as the 7srae itish Tabernac e is set up %ith the ike C==D !u tip e o" =' %hi st the Te!p e o" So o!on %orks upon its e2act doub e or -<& The pyra!id is "ound to be an e2act !athe!atica e2pression o" the proportion %hich the dia!eter bears to its circu!"erence' that is as - is to G&-J=.CS7CD& 7t is accurate y oriented' that is its "our sides are opposite the cardina points* and it occurs that t%ice in each year' at a period o" -J days be"ore the spring' and -J days a"ter the autu!na e:uino2' the sun "or a short period see!s to be resting upon the very ape2 o" the pyra!id' as i" it %as its pedesta & 7t is so constructed that "ive hundred !i ion pyra!id inches' or t%enty !i ion cubits' represent the po ar a2is o" the earth& The height !u tip ied by ten to its ninth po%er gives the distance o" the sun "ro! the earth ,about .; -R; !i ion !i es/& 7" the ength o" each o" its "our base ines is divided by cubits o" ;= inches it gives the e2act ength o" a so ar year' in days' hours' !inutes' and seconds& The ength in inches o" the t%o diagona ines' dra%n across the base' gives e2act y the nu!ber o" years occupied in a "u procession o" the e:uino2es' or ;='F;I -R; years& The entrance is so designed that it indicates the ob i:uity o" the po ar a2is o" the earth' and the stones o" the +asonry above the entrance "or! the !onogra! o" Osiris' it is a cube over %hich are t%o s:uares& The cha!bers are e:ua y based upon intricate !athe!atica ca cu ations' and various astrono!ica "acts are sy!bo ised in the arrange!ents o" its severa parts' but "or these particu ars the reader !ust consu t so!e o" the %orks %hich have s y* but the great pyra!id o" #hi1eh' %hatever its rea age' she%s a !arve ous kno% edge o" geo!etry' astrono!y' and operative +asonry& The hardest granite has been chise ed %ith such !athe!atica accuracy that a kni"e b ade %i not enter the 6oints' and !en o" science suppose that they have discovered in its construction the evidence o" a earning e:ua to that o" the present day& The nu!ber =' and its !u tip es' is the radica basis o" its !easure!ents* precise y as the 7srae itish Tabernac e is set up %ith the ike C==D !u tip e o" =' %hi st the Te!p e o" So o!on %orks upon its e2act doub e or -<& The pyra!id is "ound to be an e2act !athe!atica e2pression o" the proportion %hich the dia!eter bears to its circu!"erence' that is as - is to G&-J=.CS7CD& 7t is accurate y oriented' that is its "our sides are opposite the cardina points* and it occurs that t%ice in each year' at a period o" -J days be"ore the spring' and -J days a"ter the autu!na e:uino2' the sun "or a short period see!s to be resting upon the very ape2 o" the pyra!id' as i" it %as its pedesta & 7t is so constructed that "ive hundred !i ion pyra!id inches' or t%enty !i ion cubits' represent the po ar a2is o" the earth& The height !u tip ied by ten to its ninth po%er gives the distance o" the sun "ro! the earth ,about .; -R; !i ion !i es/& 7" the ength o" each o" its "our base ines is divided by cubits o" ;= inches it gives the e2act ength o" a so ar year' in days' hours' !inutes' and seconds& The ength in

inches o" the t%o diagona ines' dra%n across the base' gives e2act y the nu!ber o" years occupied in a "u procession o" the e:uino2es' or ;='F;I -R; years& The entrance is so designed that it indicates the ob i:uity o" the po ar a2is o" the earth' and the stones o" the +asonry above the entrance "or! the !onogra! o" Osiris' it is a cube over %hich are t%o s:uares& The cha!bers are e:ua y based upon intricate !athe!atica ca cu ations' and various astrono!ica "acts are sy!bo ised in the arrange!ents o" its severa parts' but "or these particu ars the reader !ust consu t so!e o" the %orks %hich have && been specia y %ritten on the sub6ect& The co""re in the Eings Cha!ber is genera y considered a 5pastos5 o" 7nitiation' but is said a so to constitute a standard o" dry !easures& Even a prophetica bearing is said to be "ound in its !easure!ents' but as this is the east certain o" these various uncertain correspondences %e %i not enter into it here& Herodotus says that it took G<<'<<< %ork!en to bui d the structure in G< years' and that one9third o" the !en and o" the ti!e %ere e!p oyed in !aking a cause%ay C=ID "or the b ocks& Noting its sp endid %ork' %e !ay ask' i" this pyra!id is on y ='<<< years o d' o" %hat age is Cyc opean %ork@ Aut the pyra!id o" Cheops has a !uch !ore i!portant bearing on Specu ative 0ree!asonry than anything that %e have yet said* and though the secrecy o" the priests o" Egypt %as abso ute' yet is not a together i!penetrab e& This secrecy %as e:ua y stringent at +e!phis' Thebes' and He iopo is' and %hen 4ythagoras app ied "or initiation he %as re"erred "ro! one to the other& The architect o" Cheops e!bodied the Osirian +ysteries in i!perishab e stone' as did a so the bui der o" the Aaby onian Aorsippa' and the designer o" the 4ersian cave o" +ythras& And no% "or so!ething o" the +ysteries o" Egypt' as represented by this pyra!id& The entrance and its passage con"or! to the etter Y' or 5t%o paths5 o" 4ythagoras and the broad and narro% %ay o" the #reek +ysteries& The descending path eads to an underground cha!ber' the " oor o" %hich is rough and unhe%n' as is the rough Ash ar o" a 0ree!ason& && The ascending passage eads "irst to a !idd e cha!ber na!ed the Lueens' or

&& that o" our Lady 7sis' and above that is the Eings cha!ber %ith the e!pty sarcophagus o" Osiris* over a are "ive secret cha!bers o" s!a di!ensions& $r& O iver asserts that the 5vesica piscis5 enters into the constructive design o" &&&& the Lueens cha!ber&MM50ree!asonsTreasury'5 p& ;J-&NN The %ho e o" the interna structure covers an a 9i!portant a egory& 7t has been recent y she%n by Arother (& +& Ada!s' and having the genera approva o" 4ro"essor +aspero' that there is a re ationship bet%een the interna structure o" the pyra!id and the 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 or as +aspero says' 5both the one and the other have re"erence to an idea house %hich Horus %as conceived to have erected "or his "ather Osiris'5 and Ada!s points out that the (e ' the hidden inte ' the north and south passages app y e:ua y to the heaven y te!p e' and the earth y counterpart& 7t is in "act the e!bodi!ent' perhaps I'<<< years ago' o" a C=BD specu ative and operative +asonry consonant %ith the spiritua "aith o" Osiris& && The re igious sy!bo s o" Egypt' according to +r& (i ia! O2 ey s %ork on Egypt' changed %ith the progress o" the sun through the signs o" the 1odiac' an assertion con"ir!ed by !uch evidence& The era o" Osiris and 7sis is !ythica ' yet they are represented as parents o" the t%ins Horus and Har!achis& 7n the year J'=I= A&C& the sun entered Taurus' and the Au beca!e the e!b e! o" Osiris& 7t entered Aries ;'J-< A&C&' and the Ra! beco!es the e!b e! o" A!en at Thebes& 7t entered 4isces ;== A&C&' and %e have crocodi e9shaped gods' and the "ish is a Christian sy!bo & The Egyptians conveyed so!ething o" this nature to Herodotus' %ho records it in a curious "ab e3 Herac es desired to beho d the highest god' he being one o" the -; !inor gods* at ength to !eet his prayers' the supre!e one revea ed hi!se " c othed in the skin and %ith the head o" a Ra!& The ate #od"rey Higgins supposes in his 5Anaca ypsis5 that %hen the sun entered Taurus he "ound !an a negro such as the b ack Audha' and %hen he entered Aries he "ound hi! sti b ack but %ith a:ui ine nose and straight hair as in the handso!e Chrishna& The recent discoveries o" Co one Ra! indicates that the Sphin2 is one o" the !ost ancient !onu!ents o" Egypt' as it %as o d in the days o" Cheops' and there is a tab et %hich sho%s that it %as repaired by 4haraoh Chephren& 7t represents' as "acing the rising sun' the god Ra9Har!achis and has at its base severa cha!bers he%n in the rock' the to!bs o" kings and priests devoted to the %orship o" Har!achis&

$uring the =th dynasty o" Eings severa s!a te!p es %ere erected' as at Esneh' so!e pyra!ids' and an Osirian te!p e at $endereh& There is an inscription o" the Ith dynasty in the #hi1eh +useu!' in %hich 8na' a !an o" the peop e' describes ho% he had been sent by 4epi 7& to cut' and then convey' a b ock o" stone "or the roya C=FD to!b* he detai s the !ode in %hich he acco!p ished this' %ith !uch engineering ski ' about G'J<< A&C&' and sty es hi!se " 5chie" o" the roya %ork!en&5 8sertesen 7&' perhaps G'<<< A&C&' aid the "oundation o" the te!p e o" the Sun at He iopo is' and assu!es hi!se " to be son o" the doub e Har!achis* the sa!e king bui t the "ront part o" the te!p e o" Earnak' %hich !easures -';<< "eet by GJF "eet* he a so en arged the te!p e o" 4tah at +e!phis& 4ro"essor Nor!an Lockyer' 0&R&S&' considers that as Earnak is oriented to receive the direct sha"t o" the sun ight at the season %hen it touched the hori1on' opposite the te!p e gate%ay' that it %as bui t G'B<< A&C& The superintendence o" Egyptian Cra"ts!en by higher o""icia s is she%n in the rockcut te!p e o" Rekh!ara' as G'J<< years ago the ?i1ier o" Thebes is

represented %ith a his attendants' 5inspecting a the handicra"ts !ade in the te!p e o" the house o" A!en' and teaching each !an his duty concerning his trade&5 His inscription conc udes3 57 have e"t no evi deeds behind !e' !ay 7 be dec ared 6ust and true in the great 6udg!ent&5 ,Aosca%en in 5# obe'5 Aug&' -.<<&/ te!p e o" the house o" A!en' and teaching each !an his duty concerning his trade&5 His inscription conc udes3 57 have e"t no evi deeds behind !e' !ay 7 be dec ared 6ust and true in the great 6udg!ent&5 ,Aosca%en in 5# obe'5 Aug&' -.<<&/ A "e% centuries ater the "a!ous Labyrinth %as erected* it represents the t%e ve Hodiaca signs' and the t%e ve great gods' and contains G'<<< cha!bers %ith a o"ty carved pyra!id as ad6unct& As proo" that the priests had a !onotheistic creed %e :uote the "o o%ing %ords "ro! over the gate9%ay o" the te!p e o" +edinet9Abou3 9957t is He that has !ade a that is' and %ithout Hi! nothing has been !ade&5 The te!p e o" Lu2or is the argest upon earth' but space "ai s us to record a tithe o" the !ighty %orks o" this %onder"u race& The na!es o" nu!erous architects are preserved and Arugsch' Leib ein' and Lepsius' give the na!es o" thirty9"our' so!e o" %ho! %ere a ied %ith the reigning 4haraohs& Co!!ercia intercourse e2isted %ith China' as pottery' and other %orks o" art' have been "ound in very ancient to!bs& There is the record o" an Artist o" the na!e o" 7retsen' o" about ;'F<< A&C&' in %hich he says3 9957 kno% the C=.D !ystery o" the divine (ord* the ordinances o" the re igious "estiva s' and every rite per"or!ed therein' and 7 have never strayed "ro! the!& 7 kno% ho% to produce the "or! that issueth "orth and co!eth in' so that each !e!ber goes to its p ace& 7 kno% the conte!p ating eye' %ithout a second' %hich a""rights the %icked* a so the posing o" the ar! that brings the hippopota!us o%& 7 kno% the !aking o" a!u ets' by %hich one !ay go and the "ire %i not give its " a!e' nor %i the %ater destroy& 7 a! an artist %ise in his art' a !an standing above a !en by his earning&5 One passage here can on y re"er to the egress and ingress o" the sou in trance' as in the Yogis! o" 7ndia' and the a!u ets against "ire and %ater %ou d see! to re"er to the tria s o" the Neophyte by "ire and %ater in the +ysteries& Aut in our days very e2traordinary ta es are to d about the priests o" Japan' and other ess civi ised peop e' %a king unhar!ed over hot coa s& (e %onder ho% this artist %ou d interpret the "o o%ing sy!bo ic design upon an ancient !onu!ent@ A ion ho ds in one pa% a cru29ansata CSy!bo 3 AnkhD' and %ith the other takes the hand o" a recu!bent !an' %hose head is near an a tar' as i" the ion intended to raise the !an* at the a tar stands a god %ith the hai ing sign o" a && Cra"ts!an&MM?ide 4ikes 5+ora s and $og!a'5 p& F<&NN The highest deve op!ent o" Egyptian civi isation %as during the patriarcha ti!es e2tending "ro! the Jth to the -;th dynasty' say "ro! B'<<< to ;'J<< A&C&' and be"ore Egypt began to be a""ected by "oreign in" uence& The kings had

their 5Court Architects'5 the pro"ession being he d in such honour that this o""icer o"ten !ated %ith the roya "a!i y& $uring the %ho e period that %e have na!ed the highest positions o" the State %ere open to inte ect' and the hu!b est !an !ight aspire to beco!e a #enera ' a Court Architect' or a roya Scribe3 the Eings %ere the "athers o" the peop e' and accessib e to their sub6ects' and a success"u so dier or architect !ight beco!e' as the highest pri1e' a 5Roya Co!panion'5 or a 5True roya CI<D Co!panion'5 and be inti!ate y associated %ith the Eing&MM(& St& Chad Aosca%en&NN Running conte!poraneous y %ith the Egyptian cu ture %as that o" the great Scytho9Hittite Eingdo!' the e:ua o" Egypt' in !eta s' bui dings' and art' and Captain Conder points out that the point %ithin a circ e' CSy!bo 3 Circ e %ith point in centerD' %as their phonetic sy!bo "or 5An'5 or #od* the "ive9pointed

star' CSy!bo 3 4entagra!D' the sy!bo o" 5to'5 %hich i!p ies either do%n' or to descend' and that the cypriote sy!bo o" t%o triang es 6oined at their ape2' Csy!bo ike 5>5 %ith the top and botto! chevrons c osed to triang esD' but %ithout the botto! ine' Csy!bo as ast' but %ith the o%er chevron e"t openD' %as the Hittite character "or !an or protection&MM5Luci"er'5 i2&NN bo o" 5to'5 %hich i!p ies either do%n' or to descend' and that the cypriote sy!bo o" t%o triang es 6oined at their ape2' Csy!bo ike 5>5 %ith the top and botto! chevrons c osed to triang esD' but %ithout the botto! ine' Csy!bo as ast' but %ith the o%er chevron e"t openD' %as the Hittite character "or !an or protection&MM5Luci"er'5 i2&NN A ong period o" historica darkness no% supervenes' and it has been discovered that a race tota y distinct "ro! the Egyptians had taken possession o" the high ands to the north o" Thebes' bet%een the Bth and .th dynasty& They %ere a ta ' po%er"u race' rese!b ing the Lybian and A!!onite peop e' had %avy bro%n hair' pro!inent a:ui ine noses' and used " int a2es and copper i!p e!ents& They %ere acco!p ished potters' stone %orkers' and !eta urgists& 7n a ritua istic sense they %ere canniba s' and broke the bones o" hu!an bodies to e2tract the !arro%& Near to the ho!e o" this recent y discovered race %as Nubt' a to%n %hich %as devoted to the %orship o" the e2ecrated Set and %hich is !entioned in one o" the Satires o" Juvena ' as the origin o" horrid %ars' and canniba orgies& 0o o%ing upon this' as i" in so!e !easure due to it' %as the do!ination o" the Hyksos' or Shepherd Eings' %ho overran Egypt' bet%een ;=<< and -I<< A&C&' perhaps dependent in part upon the "er!ent %hich arose in Centra Asia %hen the E a!ites invaded Aaby on' and these Hyksos see! to have "o o%ed the re igious vie%s o" the Se!itic tribes' though so!e %riters have thought that they %ere o d be ievers %ho %ere opposed to the ritua o" Osiris' %hich %e sha !ention in our ne2t chapter as an Aryan ritua ' the %eight o" evidence is a together in "avour o" a "oreign origin o" CI-D the invaders& +anetho' an Egyptian historian %ho %as e!p oyed by the #reek 4to o!ies to investigate the anna s o" Egypt' asserts that the Hebre%s %ere o" this race&MMJosephus' 5Against Apion&5NN Si!p icius asserts that %hat +oses taught the Hebre%s he had earned in the +ysteries& These Hyksos %ere at ength e2pe ed by a Theban o" the na!e o" Aaha!es and the Osirian te!p es %ere reopened& ?ery recent y the !u!!y o" +enephtah %as discovered at Lu2or' and on e2a!ination at Cairo %as he d to be the 4haraoh %ho pursued the 7srae ites* he %as the ;nd king o" the -.th dynasty& Thoth!es 777&' about -'I<< A&C&' re ates the cere!ony %hich he observed in aying a "oundation9stone at Auto' but the tab et is i!per"ect& The "irst stroke o" the ha!!er thereon appears to be intended to con6ure the keeping out o" the %ater* a docu!ent %as deposited in the stone containing the na!es o" a the great gods and goddesses' 5and the peop e re6oiced&5 There is a so an inscription o" this period on the Statue o" Se!ut' in %hich he is sty ed3 50irst o" the "irst' and +aster o" the %orks o" a +asters o" %ork&5

There are a so #eo!etrica diagra!s o" this period indicating the kno% edge o" the s:uare' and in the great pyra!id there yet e2ists a %ork!an && s diagra! indicating the !ethod o" !aking a right ang e* the 5vesica piscis5 e2ists in a && recess over the Eings Cha!ber& So!e o" the dra%ings yet e2ist o" a Canon o" proportion "or the construction o" the hu!an "igure' %hich ?itruvius represents by this C>D' the nave being the centre* and though "ro! the ear iest to the atest ti!es' the Canon varied' the re ative proportions %ere "i2ed by "or!ing a che:uered diagra! o" per"ect s:uares& C e!ent o" A e2andria says that the te!p es o" Jerusa e! and Egypt separated the congregation and the Sanctuary by a arge curtain o" "our co ours' dra%n over "ive pi ars' the one a uding to the cardina points o" the co!pass' the other to the e e!ents& The

4yra!ids %ere %orked "ro! the centre by the ang e CI;D G' J' =& The #ui ds say that this sy!bo CNeteru3 Three vertica ines %ith a hori1onta right ang e ine at the top o" each one to rightD' indicates the presence o" G #&+&+& & s& There "o o%ed upon this era the introduction into Egypt o" a arge a!ount o" Aaby onian in" uence' but to render this co!prehensib e so!e e2p anation is necessary& At so!e re!ote period races o" con:uering Cushites "ro! Ethiopia' "o o%ed by Se!ites' sett ed in E a!' had p anted the!se ves in Aaby on& The "irst o" the! %as probab y a %orshipper o" the god +arduk' or +ercury %ho is a so Thoth and Her!es' "or the Aib ica Ni!rod is one %ith +arduk' the beginning o" %hose kingdo! %as Aabe and Erech and ,8r in/ Accad' and Ca neh in the and o" Shinar& These ne% co!ers accepted the re igion o" the ear ier Akkadians' %hence %e !ay assu!e either that there had arisen no great distinctions in the !ode o" %orship' or that the atter had in" uence as a race o" higher cu ture& The con:uerors' ho%ever' changed the na!es o" the gods to adapt the! to their o%n Arya9Se!itic tongue' and as astrono!ica ter!s are in that anguage the in"erence is dra%n that that science %as a Se!itic deve op!ent&MM5Cha dean +agic'5 99Lenor!ant&NN The chie" gods o" the assi!i ated race %ere Sa!as the sun9god* Sin the !oon9god* and Yav 5the inundator'5 %ho is probab y Hea o" Akkad& They accepted the doctrine o" the && sou s i!!orta ity&MM5Records o" the 4ast5 99trans ated hy!n&NN The ear y Assyrian Eing Asir9nasir9pa c ai!s a the diabo ica con:uests %hich he re ates in his inscriptions "ro! these gods' and proc ai!ed hi!se " as the 5e2a ter o" Yav&5 The Se!itic na!es o" Aeth9Yakin and Yakin' as na!es o" p aces and persons are "ound in these ear y inscriptions& The re!ains o" this theo ogy e2ists to9day a!ongst the Ye1ids o" Asia' the sun is %orshipped by its o d na!e' and the !oon and bu receive e:ua veneration a!ongst so!e o" the tribes' and %ith the %orship have been trans!itted secret !odes o" && recognition' %hich a %riter %ho %as ac:uainted %ith the! ter!s 0ree!asons CIGD signs&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5 iv& 99Ye1ids ,Yarker/&NN 7t e:ua y constitutes an argu!ent "or the possibi ity o" the uninterrupted trans!ission o" 0ree!asonry "ro! century to century* and it is i!possib e to over ook the !any striking points o" si!i arity to the pri!itive +ysteries %hich it possesses* and the in"erence %hich %e !ay dra% "ro! this is that an educated priesthood had added art and science to their curricu u!' and that a te!p es yet continued to be erected under their supervision&

The Cha dean civi isation about J'<<< years ago do!inated Syria' and its tongue beca!e the dip o!atic anguage o" the kno%n %or d' %hi st co!!erce %as !aintained e2tensive y bet%een Egypt' Aaby on' 7ndia' and China& About -=<< A&C& an Egyptian Eing o" the na!e o" A!enophis 777&' a %orshipper o" the Theban god A!en' !arried an Asiatic %o!an %ho surrounded the throne %ith her kindred' and a Aaby on Scribe %as estab ished at the Court' "or Cha dean egends %ere copied and sent to Egypt& Their son A!en9hotep adopted the Cha dean "aith and changed his na!e to Ehu9en9aten' %ithdra%ing "ro! A!en' then one o" the o dest priesthoods in the %or d& He bui t in eight years the vast city o" Te 9e 9a!arna' %here "or seventeen years he en"orced the %orship o" the 5So ar disc'5 or its vita ising rays& 7t %as in "act the %orship o" && the suns vita rays as the source o" a vita i"e' po%er and "orce& 4robab y in so!e respects it %as a restoration o" the "aith o" the Hyksos but it ter!inated again %ith the death o" the Eing& 7n the erection o" his ne% city' Aek' the hereditary successor o" a ong ine o" Egyptian architects' is described as 995the

artist' the overseer o" the scu ptors' the teacher o" the Eing hi!se "&5 His assistant' or %hat %e shou d no% ter!' his $eputy or (arden' %as 4otha' %ho is described as 995+aster o" the Scu ptors o" the Lueen'5 by %ho! no doubt the Asiatic is !eant& These va uab e records have on y recent y been disinterred' and in the house o" the +aster' tria 9pieces %ere "ound in various stages e2e!p i"ying CIJD the cutting o" hierog yphics' and as %e ' per"ect y "inished portraits and statues' %ithout any ad!i2ture o" "oreign sty e' and %hich are e:ua to any %ork o" the !oderns& 7t is note%orthy that the ground p an o" the to!b o" the Lueen o" A!enophis 777&' about -JB< A&C&' is a cross o" the Latin "or!' and as +r& (i ia! O2 ey says' 5e2act y on the p an o" a Christian church&5 assistant' or %hat %e shou d no% ter!' his $eputy or (arden' %as 4otha' %ho is described as 995+aster o" the Scu ptors o" the Lueen'5 by %ho! no doubt the Asiatic is !eant& These va uab e records have on y recent y been disinterred' and in the house o" the +aster' tria 9pieces %ere "ound in various stages e2e!p i"ying CIJD the cutting o" hierog yphics' and as %e ' per"ect y "inished portraits and statues' %ithout any ad!i2ture o" "oreign sty e' and %hich are e:ua to any %ork o" the !oderns& 7t is note%orthy that the ground p an o" the to!b o" the Lueen o" A!enophis 777&' about -JB< A&C&' is a cross o" the Latin "or!' and as +r& (i ia! O2 ey says' 5e2act y on the p an o" a Christian church&5 The Ra!iside dynasty' in %hich the priests o" A!en ca!e again into po%er' did !uch in the -Jth century A&C& to adorn Egypt %ith state y bui dings' and Aeken9Ehonsoo describes hi!se " as the architect o" Ra!eses 77&' 5the "riend o" A!en'5 and the restorer o" Earnak' and $r& (!& Airch in"or!s us that the t%ins Suti and Har %ere +er9kat' architects' %ho had charge o" Earnak& Ra!eses 777& !akes a record o" the nu!erous te!p es %hich he restored& He bui t at Thebes a te!p e to Ehons' o" good he%n sandstone and b ack basa t' having gates %hose "o ding doors %ere p ated %ith go d and itse " over aid %ith e ectru! ike the hori1on o" heaven&MM5Records o" the 4ast'5 vi&NN 7t is un"ortunate that %e have so itt e that is authentic in regard to the rites o" the +ysteries' though the doctrine is "u y e!bodied in the 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 %e on y begin to have detai s a"ter they had been carried to #reece by Orpheus' Cad!us' and Cecrops in the -Ith century A&C& A the Egyptian Eings %ere initiated into the!' and are represented as adorned %ith very handso!e aprons& There are a so representations' in paintings' o" scenes %hich !ay e:ua y app y to the earth y +ysteries' or to the passage o" the sou in the a"ter i"e' %hich %as in rea ity the ob6ect o" the sacerdota !ysteries' and it %as a "ir! custo! in Egypt to adapt their %ho e i"e to their "aith in the "uture' or to enact in their re igious rites' that %hich they be ieved %ou d "o o% on :uitting the body& 7n our ne2t chapter %e !ay be ab e to "or! a !ore so id opinion upon the changes !ade in the Cabiric +ysteries' %hich %ere c ear y the !ost ancient o" the great +ysteries' by the advanced Aryans' and as to the a eged CI=D changes !ade in ancient Egypt by the substitution o" cos!ogonica or natura e""ects'

"or such traditiona history as that recorded by Sanconiathon' Aerosus' etc&' a natura conse:uence' "or the Egyptians %ere undoubted y a nation o" !i2ed b ood& They see! "irst to have been o" the Negro or Ha!itic type %ith a po ytheistic creed' they sa% #od in a nature and in a "or!s& As proto9Aryans they deve oped great y the arts and sciences& Last y' rein"orced by purer Aryans they beca!e the Apost es o" the conditiona i!!orta ity o" the hu!an sou & $uring the thousand years ru e o" the Hyksos' or Shepherd Eings' they %ere in constant contact %ith a !onotheistic creed' but no sooner had they driven out these oppressors than the rites o" the doctrine o" i!!orta ity' under a 0ather' +other' and Son' arose in their o d sp endour& Ay %ay o" c osing this chapter it !ay be pointed out that %e have "irst a series o" +ysteries' %hich a!ongst peop e %ho' iving in hot c i!ates' had itt e need o" art' and con"ined the!se ves rather to specu ative vie%s o" the creation o" the %or d and the re ations that e2ist bet%een heaven and earth& To these' in the ne2t stage %ere added the %ho e circ e o" arts and science' the o der

+ysteries as to the creation o" the %or d and the a""inity bet%een heaven and earth %ere retained' but a superior race o" Cabiri added an i!proved architecture' agricu ture' !eta urgy' shipbui ding' and a the arts& The third stage %hich "o o%ed %as the separation o" the +ysteries o" Re igion and Art into t%o branches& bet%een heaven and earth %ere retained' but a superior race o" Cabiri added an i!proved architecture' agricu ture' !eta urgy' shipbui ding' and a the arts& The third stage %hich "o o%ed %as the separation o" the +ysteries o" Re igion and Art into t%o branches& CIID CHA4TER 777& ARYAN C7?7L7SAT7ON AN$ +YSTER7ES& 7N the ong series o" ages %hich it took to deve op the 8gro9a taic !onosy abic anguage into proto9Aryan' and in the centuries %hich it took to convert the Aryo9European into Ce itc' Latin' Sc avonic' Lettic' #er!an* other branches into sub9dia ects as' "or instance' 7ndo9Aryan into Sanscrit' 4ersian' #reek' Ar!enian' 4ushtu' Eurd' Aa uchi' Hindustani* and again the Se!itic speech into Aaby onian' Assyrian' 4hoenician' Arabic' etc&' need %e "ee surprised i" the Rites o" the Theosophica and Art +ysteries under%ent a variation a so& Thus the pri!itive +ysteries kno%n as +agian and Cabiric' %ere deno!inated Osirian a!ongst the Copts* Ta!!u1 and Adonis a!ongst the Se!ites* $ionysian a!ongst the Assyrians and the #reeks* and app ied to Aacchus a!ongst the Latins& Yet a had the sa!e pri!itive origin in a re!ote Arcane Schoo ' and varied but by a gradua deve op!ent in techni:ue& And not%ithstanding such departures "ro! an e2act "or! o" trans!ission' %ith the change o" scene' in passing "ro! one country to another by co onists' the socia custo!s o" Orienta nations are !ost unchanging& (e have a ready instanced the practice to9day o" Aaby onian rites by the Ye1ids& The sacred springs and trees o" the o d %orship are venerated %ith the ancient rites o" !usic and the dance& The priests o" Christianity !ay be seen practising their cere!onia s %ith the serpent sta"" o" +ercury or Escu apius in their hands* and a so personating the High priest o" Heus o" ?anessa& The ancient CIBD Arte!is o" the Lakes' the Ephesian Aphrodite %ho is 7shter in Cha dea' and Astarte in 4hoenicia' has been succeeded by the ?irgin o" the Lakes' %ith a specia society ca ed the Tak!orei %hich has conso idated into a species o" 0ree!asonry ter!ed the 5Arotherhood o" the Sign&5 Even in this country !any curious custo!s o" the $ruids have been preserved in the three kingdo!s& And as 0ree +asonry can un:uestionab y be carried up to very ancient ti!es in Eng and' and' beyond' its egends into Orienta ands' %hat right can be adduced to conde!n its traditions as a together "a se@ The sacred +ysteries spread %ith the various co onies into !any ands and in the apse o" ages began to app y their traditiona kno% edge to their ne% ho!e' under the supposition that their ancestors had occupied this residence in a ti!e&

The ate Lord Aeacons"ie d' in his 5Lothair'5 speaks o" the +A$RE NAT8RA as the o dest and the !ost po%er"u o" the secret societies o" 7ta y' %hose !ystic origin' in the idea ised %orship o" nature' reaches the era o" paganis!' and

%hich' he says' !ay have been "ounded by so!e o" the despoi ed pro"essors o" the ancient "aith' %hich as ti!e advanced has assu!ed !any "or!s& 7ts tradition that one o" the 4opes' as Cardina de +edici' beca!e a !e!ber o" the 0raternity is accredited upon so!e docu!entary grounds' and it accepted the a egorica interpretation %hich the Neo94 atonists had p aced upon the 4agan creeds during the "irst Ages o" Christianity& the ancient "aith' %hich as ti!e advanced has assu!ed !any "or!s& 7ts tradition that one o" the 4opes' as Cardina de +edici' beca!e a !e!ber o" the 0raternity is accredited upon so!e docu!entary grounds' and it accepted the a egorica interpretation %hich the Neo94 atonists had p aced upon the 4agan creeds during the "irst Ages o" Christianity& 7t is necessary to say that in dea ing %ith the chrono ogy o" the ancients %e have no certain era %hich enab es us to give dates %ith the east precision& (e sa% in our ast chapter that "ro! North Europe co onies spread over Asia' Arabia' and Cha dea' erecting so!e %onder"u structures in their passage and introducing art into their ne% sett e!ents& The Ce ts' 4ersians' and #reeks continued together a su""icient ength o" ti!e to !erit the tit e o" true Aryans' but o" the !ain branch the Hindu undoubted y !ade the greatest progress in architecture' CIFD iterature' and ear y civi isation& There is a record' %hich %e %i a ude to ater' that a %ho e ar!y o" pure Aryans entered Egypt& The crad e o" the Hindu is traditiona y he d to be the high9tab e9 and bet%een Thibet and 7ndia in the region o" the ake +ansura%ara& Ae"ore their advance into 7ndia three chie" peop es %ere in possession o" that country3 the $ravidians o" the north %est' %ho have so!e a""inity %ith the aborigines o" south and %est Austra ia' use the boo!erang as a %eapon' and have the sa!e %ords "or 7' thou' he' you' etc&' these no% use a anguage represented by Ta!i ' +a aya a!' Te ugu' Eanarese' Tu u' Eudugu' Toda' Eota' #ond' Eandh' 8rain' Ra6!aha ' etc& A second tribe %as the Eo arians driven "ro! the north9east against the $ravidian' and so broken up into Santa s' Savars' Eurkus' Juangs' Hos' etc& A third race %ere the Tibeto9Aur!an tribes %ho have an a""inity %ith the +ongo ians& Last y' and a"ter the invasion o" 7ndia' Scythic tribes' as the Jats or #etae' and the #hakkars' secured a "ooting in the country* our #ypsies see! to spring "ro! the Jat race& As Aryan civi isation %as but an advance upon %hat %e have ter!ed proto9 Aryan' so a so it "o o%s that the art o" bui ding %ith s:uared and eve ed stones' %rought by the use o" s:uare' eve ' and p u!b %as the gradua i!prove!ent upon the Cyc opean syste! o" irregu ar b ocks* and !ing ed %ith the !ost ancient eve architecture o" 7ndia' e:ua y %ith various other countries' are %a s %hich rese!b e the Cyc opean !ethod o" bui ding*MM54hi osophy o" History&5 and "ro! this' and other circu!stances' %e !ay dra% the conc usion that Aryan cu ture %as the !ediu! o" advanced architecture& This i!prove!ent had birth in north 7ndia and one o" the o dest cities %as the Aryan co ony o" Aa kh %here are vast ruins' co ossa i!ages' o" %hich the nu!ber o" pro!inent "igures' or recesses' a!ount to t%e ve thousand' in subterranean te!p es he%n out o" the so id rock&

At a re!ote period there arose a contest "or supre!acy CI.D bet%een the %arrior and the priest' %ho had the ora hy!ns that no% co!pose the ?edas* a so ter!ed the %ars o" the so ar ,%arrior/ and unar ,Arah!in/ races& The priests or Arah!ins obtained a victory over the +ahara6ahs %ho %ere o" a di""erent branch o" the Aryan "a!i y' and %ere both %arriors and agricu turists& An a iance %as "or!ed' and the %arriors %ere per!itted to receive a i!ited a!ount o" re igious instruction' and at a period ater than the o dest ?edas' a syste! o" hereditary caste %as estab ished in three chie" divisions' the Arah!in' %arrior' and artisan' %hich !ay be no% considered three distinct Rites o" the +ysteries&

7t has ong been thought that so!e o" these ancient %ars %ere the resu t o" a dispute as to the re ative po%er o" the t%o "orces o" nature& 7n prehistoric ti!es a syste! had spread over the %or d in %hich creative spirit %as represented by the 4ha us' and "irst or pri!ordia !atter by the Yoni' or the !a e and "e!a e organs o" generation' but it is so!e%hat doubt"u %hether the !ost ancient hy!ns accepted these e!b e!s* the e!b e!s are o der than any o" the hy!ns %hen co!!itted to %riting' but the probabi ity is that %hen the hy!ns %ere %ritten they had not then been sectarian y adopted& 4ri!ordia !atter' upon %hich the action o" spirit is supposed to take p ace' is not ordinary !atter as %e designate it' but its originator* and it is a scienti"ic "act' %e kno%n to the ancients' and e!bodied in the 5$ivine 4oe!ander5 o" Her!es' that !atter' such as %e kno% it' cannot be destroyed' %e can on y change its "or!' and under a that %e see ies this pri!ordia !atter' as the vehic e o" spirit& e o" these ancient %ars %ere the resu t o" a dispute as to the re ative po%er o" the t%o "orces o" nature& 7n prehistoric ti!es a syste! had spread over the %or d in %hich creative spirit %as represented by the 4ha us' and "irst or pri!ordia !atter by the Yoni' or the !a e and "e!a e organs o" generation' but it is so!e%hat doubt"u %hether the !ost ancient hy!ns accepted these e!b e!s* the e!b e!s are o der than any o" the hy!ns %hen co!!itted to %riting' but the probabi ity is that %hen the hy!ns %ere %ritten they had not then been sectarian y adopted& 4ri!ordia !atter' upon %hich the action o" spirit is supposed to take p ace' is not ordinary !atter as %e designate it' but its originator* and it is a scienti"ic "act' %e kno%n to the ancients' and e!bodied in the 5$ivine 4oe!ander5 o" Her!es' that !atter' such as %e kno% it' cannot be destroyed' %e can on y change its "or!' and under a that %e see ies this pri!ordia !atter' as the vehic e o" spirit& Aoth spirit and pri!ordia !atter are eterna ' and in the recondite aspect o" Aryan phi osophy' a creation springs "ro! the union o" these t%o indestructib e princip es' %hich is 4ara9Arah!' or $eity %ithout "or!& 7n Egypt the con6oint %orship o" the t%o active princip es' or atent "orces' is "ound e!b e!ised in the cru2 ansata CSy!bo 3 AnkhD %hich e!braces both attributes* separate y they appear CB<D a so in the obe isk and the vesica9pisces' but a so in various other e!b e!s in a countries& 7n re!ote ti!es sects arose that !ade a separate sy!bo o" one or other o" the princip es& 7t has been she%n by $r& 7n!anMM5Ancient 0aiths in Ancient Na!es&5NN that !ost Hebre% na!es have re"erence to the !a e princip e& On the other hand the #reeks' %ho are designated Yavans in Hindu iterature' %ith other tribes that it %as said %ere e2pe ed the Aryan ho!e %ith the!' %ere %orshippers o" that "e!a e nature' or princip e o" nature' %hich in Egypt %as adored as 7sis* in Aaby on as 7shter* in Sa!othrace as #he* in Aritain as Cerid%en* in 7ta y as Cybe e* in #reece as Ceres* in Ar!enia as Anaitis* in #er!any as Hertha* in 4ersia as +ythra* and %e !ay even add' in Christian ti!es as the ?irgin +ary& The earned Arother $r& #eorge O iver' in his 5History o" 7nitiation'5 pro"esses to give the cere!onia s o" 7nitiation into the Arah!inica Rites o" +ahadeva' but as %e kno% o" no evidence o" their accuracy %e sha re"rain "ro! :uoting

the account& There is a very interesting egend in 4orphyry' %hich he gives upon the authority o" Aardesanes' an 7nitiate and #nostic' %ho had it "ro! the Arah!ins& There %as a very o"ty !ountain %hich had in it a cave o" arge di!ensions& 7t contained a statue o" -; cubits %ith its ar!s e2tended in "or! o" a cross' the "ace %as ha " !a e and ha " "e!a e* on the right breast %as represented the Sun' and on the e"t the +oon* the ar!s had "igures o" the sky' the ocean' !ountains' rivers' p ants' and ani!a s* on the head o" the "igure %as a god enthroned& Aeyond this %as a arge e2tension o" the cavern' guarded by a door "ro! %hich issued a strea! o" %ater' but on y the pure in !ind cou d pass this door* but upon doing this they reached a pe ucid "ountain& The %riter supposes that it is to this cavern o" 7nitiation that Apo onius o" Tyana a udes to the etters %hich he addressed to the Arah!ins' %here he is %ont to say' 5NoK by the Tanta ian %ater by %hich you 7nitiated !e into CB-D your +ysteries&5 The description o" this cavern has so!e points very si!i ar to the 4eak cavern in $erbyshire' %hich 0aber supposes %as used by the $ruids "or ike purposes& The ate H& 4& A avatsky asserts that every ancient and !odern 7nitiate takes the "o o%ing oath3 5And 7 s%ear to give up !y i"e "or the

sa vation o" !y brothers' %hich constitute the %ho e o" !ankind' i" ca ed upon' and to die in the de"ence o" truth&5 upon' and to die in the de"ence o" truth&5 A syste! o" caste initiation does e2ist a!ongst the Hindus at this day& Thus a Arah!in youth is "irst invested %ith a sacred sy!bo ic cord %orn "ro! the e"t shou der to the right hip' %hich is done at about F years o" age* "or a Arah!in the thread is cotton* %arriors o" " a2* traders o" %oo & As the 4arsees are o" Aryan race' a si!i ar custo! prevai s a!ongst the!* the cord in this case goes thrice round the %aist& 7t is three yarns t%isted into one thread' and three o" such threads knotted into a circ e' sy!bo ising 5one in three' and three in one5* it a so signi"ies these con:uests' over speech' thoughts' actions& The Hindu youth is "ro! this ti!e instructed in the +ysteries o" the ?edas' and %hen he co!es o" age he is "or!a y bound in the #opara! to the service o" his te!p e and instructed in the science and higher +ysteries o" his re igion* it is practica y ana ogous to Christian baptis!' and con"ir!ation& Aut the instruction o" a Hindu is so!eti!es co!pared to a 5nine9storied house'5 and they speak !ystica y o" nine spiritua grades' represented by nine 6e%e s upon a string' or in the hands o" a beggar& A Hindu +ason thus a egorises the practices o" a Arah!in3 5(ith the sacred (ord o" a Arah!in on his ips' the Yogi c oses his eyes to the visib e creation' that in abstraction he !ay erect the sy!bo ic te!p e' ooking heart"u y upon his body as a te!p e %ith nine gates' governed by three principa o""icers' supported by three subordinate agents& The te!p e o" Truth is thus bui t in the heart' %ithout the sound o" !eta too &5 The sy!bo o" a 4ranayani Yogi' as an e!b e! o" the pro ongation o" i"e beyond the ordinary ti!e' is the = pointed star in a circ e' CSy!bo 3 4entagra! in a circ eD& CB;D Then again there are degrees o" Aspirants %ho are taught by Arah!ins o" di""erent degrees o" earning' and these again by ascetics or +ahat!as o" di""erent degrees o" spiritua kno% edge& The Auddhists o" Thibet recognise "our degrees o" spiritua advance!ent* and a!ongst the +os e! sects o" 7ndia' 4ersia' and Turkey' the syste! is so!eti!es o" "our' and %ith others o" seven degrees& +uch o" this is spoken !ystica y and %ith secrecy' and has its counterparts in the esoteric side o" 0ree!asonry& There is a sy!bo ic doctrine taught by the Arah!ins to their discip es in respect to the construction o" their te!p es' and given ora y* their basic sy!bo is the e:ui atera triang e' the "irst corner represents 5birth'5 the ne2t 5death'5 and the ape2 5i!!orta ity*5 the "our %a s' " oor' etc&' are typica o" their doctrina teaching* the entrance !ust be either south or %est so that the %orshipper !ay "ace either the north %here the gods are said to reside and %hence kno% edge co!es' or the east %hence rites and cere!onies are derived* the body o" the te!p e represents our hu!an body' and the centra i!age' %hich has its e!b e!' !uch rese!b ing the 5Sea s5 o" the Rosicrucians' sy!bo ises our o%n 56ivat!a'5 or i!!orta spirit' but the aspects or "aces are on y e2p ained "u y to co!petent 7nitiates&MM5+is& Notes and Lueries'5 2' p& ;B.&NN This species o" instruction has been e:ua y app ied to our o%n cathedra s& There is a so supposed to be %hat %e !ay ca an invisib e ty er'

represented by a statue& That the ancient Arah!inica syste! o" 7nitiation %as "ear"u y secret is evidenced by the 5Agrouchada 4arikshai5 or !anua o" Hindu caste9initiation' %hich !akes death the pena ty o" indiscretion& Every initiate o" the "irst c ass %ho betrays the secret instruction to !e!bers o" other castes !ust have his

tongue cut out' and su""er other !uti ations& Again' it is said that3 5every 7nitiate' to %hatever grade he !ay be ong' %ho revea s the great sacred "or!u a !ust be put to death&5 And' 5any 7nitiate o" the third c ass %ho revea s' be"ore the prescribed ti!e' CBGD to the 7nitiates o" the second c ass' the superior truths' !ust be put to death&5 A avatsky states that i" an aged Arah!in %as tired o" i"e he !ight give his o%n b ood' in p ace o" an ani!a sacri"ice' to the discip e %ho! he %as initiating& She !akes no re"erence to her authority' but the act is probab e enough& 7nitiate' to %hatever grade he !ay be ong' %ho revea s the great sacred "or!u a !ust be put to death&5 And' 5any 7nitiate o" the third c ass %ho revea s' be"ore the prescribed ti!e' CBGD to the 7nitiates o" the second c ass' the superior truths' !ust be put to death&5 A avatsky states that i" an aged Arah!in %as tired o" i"e he !ight give his o%n b ood' in p ace o" an ani!a sacri"ice' to the discip e %ho! he %as initiating& She !akes no re"erence to her authority' but the act is probab e enough& (e sha a ude short y to the +ysteries o" +ythras' $ionysos' and Osiris' as syste!s practised by the Aryan race' but it !ust be borne in !ind that the Hindus teach that the 4ersians and #reeks %ere o" the %arrior and agricu tura caste' %ho %ere on y a o%ed partia instruction in ?edaic earning' but it is possib e that they branched "ro! the parent ste! be"ore the estab ish!ent o" caste' and others re"used caste arrange!ent& The +ahara6ahs o" 7ndia identi"y the!se ves %ith the egis ation o" Aacchus or $ionysos' %ho! the #er!an savant' Heeren' be ieves to be the 4arusha9Ra!a' or incarnated priest %ho aided the Arah!ins& The basis o" the $evanagari character o" the Hindus' ca ed the 5A phabet o" the #ods'5 is the s:uare Csy!bo o" a carpenter & s s:uare3 a vertica ine %ith hori1onta ine at top "ro! e"t to ape2 on yD' ter!ed 5the pi ar o" kno% edge ent%ined %ith the gar and o" thought&5 Aut besides the 7nitiatory cere!onies o" Arah!ins' and %arriors' there has e2isted "ro! re!ote ti!es a succession o" !e!bers o" an Art 0raternity' using the investiture o" the sacred thread' and %ith an 7nitiation o" their o%n intended to e!brace a castes& The god %ho! they recognise is ?isvakar!an' the great bui der' or Architect o" the 8niverse' and Lord o" the Art 0raternity& +ytho ogy says that he cruci"ied his son Surya ,the sun/ upon his athe' %hich is esoterica y the Jain cross' CSy!bo 3 S%astikaD' or "our s:uares 6oined at the ends* and the 4agodas o" Aenares' and +athura are bui t as an e:ua 9 i!bed cross' as an !any others' o" %hich %e !entioned so!e in our ast chapter&

7n a ecture o" -FFJ Aro& Nobin Chand Aura speaking o" the e2isting Hindu sect o" ?isvakar!a says that a description o" Arti1ans observe the ast day o" the !onth Aakdra as a c ose ho iday sacred to ?isvakar!a' and %i CBJD not even touch a too ' and says3 5+r& 0erguson' the ce ebrated archaeo ogist' %ho is a good authority on these !atters' connects the sect %ith so!e o" the o d te!p es abounding in those parts' and by reason o" these te!p es bearing +asonic sy!bo s and devices scu ptured on their %a s' co!petent authorities connect the sect %ith +asonry&5 (hen Jaco iot' the ce ebrated 0rench savant and author' %as studying the anti:uities o" 7ndia' he %as in"or!ed by the priests o" Aenares' that' in very re!ote ages' 5thousands o" ages be"ore our era'5 he says' the Artisan caste "or!ed t%o divisions the one o" %hich adopted as its !ark or sign the p u!b9 ru e' and the other the eve & They eventua y united into one' in order the !ore e""ectua y to resist the con"ederacy bet%een the t%o higher castes* and a the great %orks o" re!ote ages %ere e2ecuted by this con"ederacy& As this con"ederacy is evident y a !i2ed caste' and as the t%o higher castes' re"used the! e:ua recognition' it see!s evident' that these bui ders %ere a !i2ture o" Aryans and aborigines' %ho had their e2istence as a 0raternity be"ore caste e2isted' and "ro! the evidence adduced in our ast chapter' and the sp endour o" their abour' a branch o" the Cabiric "raternity&

A re!nant o" this con"ederacy %as recent y brought to ight by a very ridicu ous !istake o" our #overn!ent in 7ndia by interpreting 5!ystica 5 anguage as 5to the repair o" their te!p e'5 by Yogis' 5 itera y&5 7t is ocated in Cochin %here the 5dynasty5 is o" $ravidian origin& They c ai!' in a pa!ph et' e:ua right to the sacred cord %ith the Arah!ins' and even dispute their authority' c ai!ing that their privi eges and specia sy!bo ic instructions %ere conceded by the Rishis %ho "ounded the Arah!inica caste 7nitiation' in those re!ote ages %hen hereditary caste %as "irst estab ished& (hi st the Arah!ins use 5nature5 sy!bo s to e!body divine truths' they e2press the esoteric truths o" the ?edas by 5art5 sy!bo s' p ans' and !easure!ents& ,The reader shou d note this because it is the CB=D essentia di""erence bet%een +odern 0ree +asonry and the church&/ A te!p es and even private houses are erected according to traditiona sy!bo is!' %hich conveys a secret and esoteric doctrine& An Ang o97ndian O""icer %ho had the duty o" inspecting the #ui ds at the date o" the +utiny says they have a %hich +asonry possesses& ridicu ous !istake o" our #overn!ent in 7ndia by interpreting 5!ystica 5 anguage as 5to the repair o" their te!p e'5 by Yogis' 5 itera y&5 7t is ocated in Cochin %here the 5dynasty5 is o" $ravidian origin& They c ai!' in a pa!ph et' e:ua right to the sacred cord %ith the Arah!ins' and even dispute their authority' c ai!ing that their privi eges and specia sy!bo ic instructions %ere conceded by the Rishis %ho "ounded the Arah!inica caste 7nitiation' in those re!ote ages %hen hereditary caste %as "irst estab ished& (hi st the Arah!ins use 5nature5 sy!bo s to e!body divine truths' they e2press the esoteric truths o" the ?edas by 5art5 sy!bo s' p ans' and !easure!ents& ,The reader shou d note this because it is the CB=D essentia di""erence bet%een +odern 0ree +asonry and the church&/ A te!p es and even private houses are erected according to traditiona sy!bo is!' %hich conveys a secret and esoteric doctrine& An Ang o97ndian O""icer %ho had the duty o" inspecting the #ui ds at the date o" the +utiny says they have a %hich +asonry possesses& (e have here an Art Society springing out o" the o d re igious +ysteries but beco!ing by con:uest an independent organisation' to erated "or its great services& Such %ere the $ionysian Arti"icers o" #reece' %hence originated the Ro!an Co eges o" Arti"icers' and %e sha assign good reasons "or be ieving that it %as this creation o" caste that !ade Artists into a separate society& Arother C& 4urdon C arke' %ho has had practica e2perience a!ongst these +aster bui ders' con"ir!s the genera truth o" these c ai!s&MM5?ide Ars Luat& Cor&'5 vi' p& ..&NN He says that the Hindu carpenters and !asons' %ho are a so carvers' constitute a body that c ai!s pecu iar privi eges o" divine origin' %hich' though o"ten pre6udicia to the Arah!ins' %ere usua y conceded& To these arti1ans be ong G;' or as so!e reckon IJ' o" the Shastras o" %hich they are the custodians& At the great te!p e o" +adura' in -FF-' %hi st one o" these Shastras %ere read out' an architect dre% "ro! the detai s the representation o" one o" their deities& The record see!ed but a string o" !eaning ess "igures rese!b ing a tab e o" ogarith!s' but %hen these %ere !arked do%n in o""9set ines' on both sides o" a centre ste!' it produced a representation o" ?ishnu %ith his " ute' standing upon one eg& He noticed that the centre ste! %as

divided into .I parts' and he "urther states that the 4agoda at Cochin in Travancore has a specia roo! set apart "or the te!p e architect' the %a s being decorated %ith "u si1e "igures o" te!p e "urniture& A this see!s to be an advance upon the che:uer designs %hich %ere used in ancient Egypt& Ra! Ras' in his %ork upon the bui ding caste' says that 6ea ous o" the Arah!ins and o" trade co!petitions' they took care to concea "ro! CBID the rest o" the peop e the sacred vo u!es %hich have descended to the!& The Shastra on civi architecture says that' 5an architect shou d be conversant in a sciences' ever attentive to his vocations' generous' sincere' and devoid o" en!ity or 6ea ousy&5 The ate Arother (hy!per states that the key9stone used in erections by the ear iest Aryan bui ders %as tau9shaped Csy!bo 3 A s:uared ho o% 5T5 co!posed o" t%o rectang es and sho%n by out ine on yD and that the %edge9 shaped key9stone' though o" o d date' is o" a !ore !odern "or!&MM7bid& vi& NN According to the ?astu Shastra' the ancient Hindu te!p e consisted o" seven courts' as at Sriranga! and +ava ipura!' their seven %a s re"erring a egorica y to the seven essences o" the hu!an te!p e& 7n the centre o" these courts %as a raised seat %ithout any covering& At entrance the %orshippers had to undergo puri"ication be"ore a "ire' kept burning "or that purpose& The

#opara!s' or to%ers at the entrance' represent the !ountain over %hich $eity presides' surrounded by seven c asses o" ange s and puri"ied beings& The pa ace o" the Eing o" Sia! has seven roo"s' and he on y can occupy the highest stage& presides' surrounded by seven c asses o" ange s and puri"ied beings& The pa ace o" the Eing o" Sia! has seven roo"s' and he on y can occupy the highest stage& 7" %e re y upon the Hindu tradition' as %e !ay' that the 4ersians and the #reeks %ere !e!bers o" the +ahara6ah caste' coup ed %ith %hat see!s to be historica "act that certain parts o" 7ndia re"used caste a%s' %e "ind a reason "or the specia characteristics o" the +ysteries' so "ar as app ies to Arah!in governed countries but not there"ore o" genera practice& 7t eads to this conc usion that in the Rites o" +aha9deva %e have the Arah!in caste* in the +ythraic' and their e:uiva ents' %e have the +ahara6ah caste* %hi st in the "o o%ers o" ?isvakar!an %e have the Arti1ans' and this co!bination tends to prove the contentions o" the ast na!ed' coup ed %ith the evidence o" the priests o" Aenares' that they %ere sanctioned %hen the %arriors co!bined %ith the Arah!ins to con"ine each pro"ession in a c ose "o d' and !ake he%ers o" %ood' and dra%ers o" %ater' o" an ancient popu ation that they con:uered upon advancing into 7ndia& (e CBBD shou d not e2pect under the ru e o" an o d patriarcha govern!ent to "ind re igion and art divorced' nor a body o" +asons' practising a syste! o" re igion as a separate organisation& Native +ysteries' %hich "o o%ed the Cabiric syste! o" re igion and art in union' %ou d be rendered sub6ect by caste a%s to the Arah!ins' and socia y reduced to an in"erior position' and ne% bodies %ou d arise on this basis& 54ersia&5 The +agian syste!' as has a ready been observed' %as not 4ersian but proto9+edian' and as their civi isation preceded the Aryan it argues strong y that a +ystery o" the nature o" the Cabiric' %hich co!bined Theosophy' Science and Art' %as o" greater anti:uity than a +ystery "ounded upon caste a%s' and that the atter syste! si!p y !odi"ied the "or!er according to the doctrines o" their incarnate deity %ith separate rites so arranged as to preserve caste distinctions& The ponti"icate o" the +agi' as it had been received "ro! the "irst Haradust' %as the instructor o" the 4ersians' but re"or!ed in the ti!e o" Cyrus by a second Horoaster' and these +ysteries eventua y spread over the %or d and into severa counties o" Aritain& Art has a si!i ar tradition to 7ndia& 5+ythraic +ysteries&5 7t is be ieved that the 7nitiation o" +ythras consisted o" seven degrees& The "irst degree %as 5So dier o" +ythras'5 4orphyry says that the second %as that o" the 5Lion5 99Lion o" +ythras* then "o o%ed the 5Chi d o" the Sun'5 and %e "ind 7nitiates ter!ed 5Eag es'5 and 5Ha%ks&5 Herodotus asserts that +ythra is 8rania* and Ouranos' the Hindu ?aruna' %as the highest god o" Orpheus* $ionysius the Areopagite uses the ter!' 5the three"o d +ythras&5 $uring the 7nitiatory cere!ony the candidate passed' as is a so said o" the

Arah!inica ' through seven caverns' the ast o" %hich %as e!be ished %ith the signs o" the Hodiac& Ce sus !entions that there %as a great adder o" steps' %ith gates or porta s on each' co oured to represent the seven p anets as in the turrets o" the to%er o" Aabe ' CBFD and the %a s o" Ecbatana' but 0aber 6ust y thinks that this adder %as a pyra!id such as Aabe itse "& The Neophyte under%ent -; tria s' the nu!ber o" the Hodiaca signs' and during the reception %as o""ered a cro%n on the point o" a s%ord %hich he had to re"use' saying3 5+ythras is !y cro%n&5 He %as then o""ered a %reath %hich he cast do%n' saying3 5+y cro%n is in !y #od&5 Justin +artyr says3 5They take bread

and a cup o" %ater in the sacri"ice o" those that are 7nitiated and pronounce certain %ords over it&5MM0aber i& p& J=F&NN Augustine3 5The candidate received an engraved stone as a token o" ad!ission to the 0raternity&5MM; 5John'5 dis& B&NN Tertu ian3 5+ythras !arks the "orehead o" his so diers' ce ebrates the ob ation o" bread' introduces the i!age o" a resurrection' and under the s%ord %reathes a cro%n5* he a so speaks o" a baptis! and the pro!ise o" abso ution on the con"ession o" sins&MM5$e 4roescriptione'5 c& J<&NN 7t is said that %hen +a2i!e the Ephesian 7nitiated the E!peror Ju ian' he used the "o o%ing "or!u a' on baptising hi! in b ood3 5Ay this b ood 7 %ash thee "ro! thy sins& The %ord o" the highest has entered unto thee' and his spirit hence"orth %i rest upon thee' 5ne% y born&5 The ne% y begotten son o" the highest god& Thou art the son o" +ythras&5 nd pronounce certain %ords over it&5MM0aber i& p& J=F&NN Augustine3 5The candidate received an engraved stone as a token o" ad!ission to the 0raternity&5MM; 5John'5 dis& B&NN Tertu ian3 5+ythras !arks the "orehead o" his so diers' ce ebrates the ob ation o" bread' introduces the i!age o" a resurrection' and under the s%ord %reathes a cro%n5* he a so speaks o" a baptis! and the pro!ise o" abso ution on the con"ession o" sins&MM5$e 4roescriptione'5 c& J<&NN 7t is said that %hen +a2i!e the Ephesian 7nitiated the E!peror Ju ian' he used the "o o%ing "or!u a' on baptising hi! in b ood3 5Ay this b ood 7 %ash thee "ro! thy sins& The %ord o" the highest has entered unto thee' and his spirit hence"orth %i rest upon thee' 5ne% y born&5 The ne% y begotten son o" the highest god& Thou art the son o" +ythras&5 Aread and %ine have been he d to be the body and b ood o" Aacchus' and +r& St& Chad Aosca%en ,-.<</ announces that he has 6ust received "ro! Egypt so!e o d #nostic papyri o" the ;nd or Grd century A&$& in %hich the na!es o" Jesus' John' and 4eter are said to be po%er"u & Over a cup or cha ice these %ords appear in #reek3 5This is not %ine' this is the b ood o" Osiris'5 and over a piece o" bread3 5This is not bread' this is the very body o" Osiris&5 7t proves that the spirit o" the Arcane Schoo s e2isted "ar into Christian ti!es& The European Te!p es o" +ythras %ere an ob ong s:uare reached by a 4ronas on the eve ' "ro! %hich a "e% steps ed to the actua te!p e& On each side o" the entrance %as a hu!an "igure' one o" %hich ho ds a raised CB.D torch' and the other a torch reversed& Aenches occupied the t%o sides' and at the "urther end %as the A tar' and beyond it a statue o" +ythras Tauroticus %ith && the sun at the gods e"t hand' and the !oon at his right hand& +& Cau!ont in his !agni"icent %ork on the +ythraic +ysteries gives an e2a!p e o" the +ythraic scu pture at Chesterho !& 7t is a bordered triangu ar structure on %hich is scu ptured at the top a s!a circ e' be o% that an e:ua 9 i!bed cross' over a se!i9circ e or crescent& Ae o% that a cock' and at the corner a doub e circ e %ith cross in centre& The god o"ten appears ho ding a

pair o" sca es& He :uotes a te2t o" St& Jero!e to prove that the Rite had seven degrees and that the +ystae ,Sacratus/ took successive y the na!es o" Cro%' Occu t' So dier' 4ersian' Courier o" the Sun ,He eodro!us/' and 0ather& There are representations o" "our s!a oaves !arked %ith the cross' representing no doubt the bread and %ater %hich they consecrated& The ion' he says' is an e!b e! o" "ire' to %hich %ater is ini!ica & 0ro! t%o o" the passages :uoted above it %ou d see! that a si!u ation o" death preceded baptis!' thus !aking it a sy!bo o" the ne% birth' and hence it "o o%s that Christian baptis! is a version o" this !ystic rite o" the +ysteries& 7n a report o" 0er!ecius +aternus' read be"ore Constantine' it %as said that at the ce ebration o" the "estiva o" the Sun' %hich took p ace at the sa!e period o" ti!e as the Je%ish passover' a young ra! %as s ain& The priests o" +ythras o""ered bread and %ater to the %orshippers %hi st %hispering' 5Ae o" good courage' ye initiated in the +ysteries o" the redee!ed god' "or %e sha "ind rede!ption "ro! our a"" ictions&5 There are +ythraic !onu!ents %hich bear c ose rese!b ance to the sy!bo is! o" the 5Apoca ypse&5 7n so!e the god is represented in the act o" s aying a bu ' and he is cro%ned %ith a tiara on %hich is seven stars* in others he appears %ith a torch in each hand' %hi st a " a!ing s%ord issues out o" his !outh& +ost o" the "igures o" this god have a !an on each side o" hi!' one

ho ding a torch CF<D " a!ing up%ards' and the other in a reversed position& +r& Ernest de Aunsen co!pares the o""ering o" bread to the Hao!a sacri"ices o" the undivided Aryan "a!i y' %here the priests o""ered in a cup a piece o" the ho y p ant and so!e round " at cakes' or draona' corresponding %ith the Christian %a"ers' but !ystica y a uding to the so ar disc' and he "urther says that these Hota priests correspond %ith the seven so!a priests o" the Hindus' and that the Avesta has this address "or the +ysteries3 5Eat' ye !en' this !aya1da' ye %ho are %orthy o" the sa!e by your purity and piety&5MM5+is& Notes and Lueries5 ,#ou d/' 2ii' p& ;GF&NN Ernest de Aunsen co!pares the o""ering o" bread to the Hao!a sacri"ices o" the undivided Aryan "a!i y' %here the priests o""ered in a cup a piece o" the ho y p ant and so!e round " at cakes' or draona' corresponding %ith the Christian %a"ers' but !ystica y a uding to the so ar disc' and he "urther says that these Hota priests correspond %ith the seven so!a priests o" the Hindus' and that the Avesta has this address "or the +ysteries3 5Eat' ye !en' this !aya1da' ye %ho are %orthy o" the sa!e by your purity and piety&5MM5+is& Notes and Lueries5 ,#ou d/' 2ii' p& ;GF&NN A"ter the revo t o" the 4ersian tribe against the Arah!ins' the "or!er converted the ?edaic Ahri!an into an evi being' or devi * and na!ed other ?edaic gods as his "o o%ers* the #reek Ouranos is the Hindu ?aruna and +ythras is associated %ith Ahura' as the Hindu sun9god is %ith ?aruna& 5Arts&5 The invented arts have their egends& Hushang the son o" their "irst && Eing Eiu!ers accidenta y discovered "ire and the b acks!iths art' "urther deve oped by Tahu!ers* then %eaving %as invented* his s aves the de!ons taught hi! etters& The ne2t king %as the %ise Je!schid' in %hose ti!e !i itary accoutre!ents %ere "abricated* he bui t in brick and gave a%s' but ost his i"e at the hands o" Hohak' a !onstrous usurper o" Arabia' but %as avenged by 0eridun o" the Eainian race' one o" %hose sons s e% the other& According to the poet 0erdusiMM5Shah Na!ah&5NN' %ho co ected the anna s o" the 4ersian Eings c ose upon a thousand years ago' Je!schid erected the Arti1ans into a c ass by the!se ves' under a chie"' that %e shou d ca #rand +aster' giving the! a%s' %hich Je!schid hi!se " interpreted3 9 5Se ecting one "ro! each' the task to guide' Ay ru es o" art' hi!se " the ru es app ied&5 Arother C& 4& C arke in"or!s us that the !odern 4ersian +aster9bui der %orks out his ideas by a secret !ethod' in CF-D %hich a p an is divided into e:ua che:uered s:uares' o" %hich each s:uare represents either one or "our s:uare bricks such as are used in 4ersia& 7t is a !iniature o" one %hich is

&& trans"erred to the " oor o" the +asters %orkroo!' %here the patterns are incised in a p aster o" 4aris ground%ork ready to serve as a 5!ou d5 "ro! %hich s abs !ay be cast&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5' vi' p& ..&NN The syste! yet "or!s the " oor9c oth o" 0ree +asonry* it is sti in secret practice in 4ersia and agrees %ith the s:uare designs o" o d Egypt %hich served to "i2 a canon o" proportion& && The #ui d 0ree +asonry says that So o!ons te!p e had s:uares o" a cubit no% represented on their carpet& 5Egypt&5 The %orship o" Osiris had its centre at Abydos' and %as probab y the syste! o" an Aryan co ony' even i" the "irst Eing +enes %as not o" that race& Ea uka Ahatta !entions an Aryan king na!ed +anu ?ena' %ho %as driven out && o" 7ndia a"ter a "ive daysbatt e and ed his ar!y into Egypt& #eorgius Since us te s us that in the ear y ti!es o" A!enophis an 7ndian co ony i!!igrated to Egypt' but the %orship o" Osiris is very !uch o der than A!enophis& The historian Heeren de!onstrates that certain sku s o" !u!!ies rese!b e those o" Aenga ese' though this rather connects the! %ith a pre9Aryan race o" 7ndians' and a !odern 7ndian regi!ent "ound in the god9ruins o" Egypt' the deities o" their o%n country' and 4hi ostratus she%s that co!!ercia intercourse e2isted& There is' ho%ever' a per"ect rese!b ance o" priest y governance in Egypt %ith the a%s prescribed by +anu "or the Aryan priests* !oreover the socia habits' creed' and even !inute :uestions o" costu!e' are

rese!b ances bet%een Egypt and 7ndia that cannot be e2p ained a%ay& As in !inor so a so in :uestions o" re igious sacri"ice' the co%' bu ' and crocodi e %ere sacred ani!a s' but e:ua y the bu %as sacri"iced' and the doctrine o" +eta!psychosis %as he d' a e:ua y by both nations& 0 inders 4etrie has sanctioned the be ie" that Eing +enes is the +ythica +anu o" 7ndia& CF;D !inor so a so in :uestions o" re igious sacri"ice' the co%' bu ' and crocodi e %ere sacred ani!a s' but e:ua y the bu %as sacri"iced' and the doctrine o" +eta!psychosis %as he d' a e:ua y by both nations& 0 inders 4etrie has sanctioned the be ie" that Eing +enes is the +ythica +anu o" 7ndia& CF;D 5The +ysteries&5 The Egyptian +ysteries %ere ce ebrated in honour o" 7sis and Osiris' the "or!er sy!bo ised by the +oon' and the atter by the Sun& (e have "e% authentic detai s' but %e kno% that 7sis corresponds %ith the #recian $e!eter and Latin Ceres' and Osiris %ith the #recian $ionysos and Latin Aacchus& 7a!b ichus says that A!en represents the hidden "orce %hich brings a things "orth to ight* he is 4tah %hen he acco!p ishes a things %ith ski and truth* and Osiris as the good and bene"icent god& $a!ascius %rites3 5O" the "irst princip es the Egyptians said nothing' but ce ebrated it as a darkness beyond a inte ectua conception' a thrice unkno%n darkness&5 Jennings considers that the +ystic b ack and %hite banner o" the Te!p ars re"erred to this doctrine& 4 utarch in"or!s us that 7sis %as appare ed in c othing part y b ack and part y %hite to indicate a notion o" the $eity' and that the dead %ere so c othed to she% that the idea re!ained %ith the!& $ion Chrysosto! says that the cere!onies o" the +ysteries %ere an a ternation o" ight and darkness& 7t is said that hea ing o" the sick by s eeping in the te!p es %as an actua "act' aided o"ten by drea!s' and %as 5not "ab e as a!ongst the #reeks' but actua "act&5 The +ysteries o" 7sis re:uired o" the candidate a engthy puri"ication and severe bodi y tria s& 7t %as a representation o" the tria s o" the sou in the "uture i"e' "ro! %hich essons "or conduct in this i"e !ight be dra%n& (e sha see !ore o" this in co!parison %ith the #reek +ysteries' %hich %ere derived "ro! the Egyptian& 7n the dra!a o" Osiris the egend re ates ho% he %as s ain by his brother Typhon' in ike !anner as Aacchus %as s ain by the Titans' and his body thro%n into the Ni e& The river carried its burthen to Ayb os and deposited it on a 5ta!arind5 tree' %hich enc osed it in its gro%th& 7sis trave s about a!enting the oss o" her husband' as did the #recian $e!eter and Latin Ceres a!enting the oss o" her daughter 4roserpine' and is at CFGD ength ed to the p ace %here the body rests and %hich she recovers& A"ter this Typhon sei1es again the body' dis!e!bers it' and scatters the pieces over the ;I no!es into %hich Egypt %as divided& The sorro%ing 7sis no% %anders about to co ect the various pieces' and at ength recovers a but the generative part' "or %hich a substitute is !ade& Eventua y the son Horus overthro%s Typhon' and reigns in the p ace o" Osiris& A curious ana ogy %ith +asonry !ay here be noted3 the sacred %ord o" the

Hebre%s' JH?H' in that anguage signi"ies generation* in the Egyptian +ysteries it is the generative organ %hich is ost and a substitute !ade* in +asonry it is the %ord %hich is ost and a substitute %hich is given in its p ace& A eve %as recent y "ound in the to!b o" Se!oteus' a Eing o" the ;<th dynasty& ,7nitiation' Apri ' -.<G' p& G.&/ 7n the natura aspect' "o o%ed by 4 utarch' the a egory represents tropica heat and the "erti isation o" the and by cana s "or the distribution o" the Ni e' %hich they represented by the sun' %ith a strea! o" %ater issuing "ro! the !outh& 7n the second p ace Osiris is the sun' 7sis the !oon' Typhon is night' Nepthys t%i ight& Thus the sun sets in the %est pursued by the !oon' ost in

the darkness o" night' to rise again as Horus in the ne%born sun& 7n another and higher aspect' Osiris and 7sis sy!bo ise spirit and !atter' CSy!bo 3 ?enusD' or the t%o "orces& 7sis is usua y represented as a !other nursing her son Horus' and this si!i e is used by #recian phi osophers' %ho %ere a %ays ess reticent than the Copt' to sy!bo ise pri!a !atter* thus Osce us ter!s it 5!other nurse5* 4 ato' 5the reception o" a generation as its nurse5* and Aristot e' 5a !other&5 The 5Aureus5 attributed to Her!es !akes use o" this sy!bo is! to revea ' and yet hide' the a che!ica process& The true spiritua i!port' %e !ust seek in the 5Aook o" the $ead5' "or the 5Aooks o" Her!es5 are ost to us& Arother +a apert pro"esses to "ind the cere!ony o" 7nitiation in the 6e%e s' ritua s' and scu pture deposited in the Louvre' certain o" %hich are considered CFJD to she% that the approaching candidate' proper y prepared' is taken charge o" by his guide' and the puri"ications proceed' in regu ar order 9 and higher aspect' Osiris and 7sis sy!bo ise spirit and !atter' CSy!bo 3 ?enusD' or the t%o "orces& 7sis is usua y represented as a !other nursing her son Horus' and this si!i e is used by #recian phi osophers' %ho %ere a %ays ess reticent than the Copt' to sy!bo ise pri!a !atter* thus Osce us ter!s it 5!other nurse5* 4 ato' 5the reception o" a generation as its nurse5* and Aristot e' 5a !other&5 The 5Aureus5 attributed to Her!es !akes use o" this sy!bo is! to revea ' and yet hide' the a che!ica process& The true spiritua i!port' %e !ust seek in the 5Aook o" the $ead5' "or the 5Aooks o" Her!es5 are ost to us& Arother +a apert pro"esses to "ind the cere!ony o" 7nitiation in the 6e%e s' ritua s' and scu pture deposited in the Louvre' certain o" %hich are considered CFJD to she% that the approaching candidate' proper y prepared' is taken charge o" by his guide' and the puri"ications proceed' in regu ar order 9unti the Neophyte is brought be"ore the hierophant' %ho is seated upon his throne %ith the sca es o" 6ustice be"ore hi!& 7t is a +ystery o" the cross as an e!b e! o" eterna i"e' e:ua y a Cabiric sy!bo ' or sti !ore ancient& The Rev& +r& C& (& Leadbeater has so!e very interesting re!arks in regard to the ancient sacerdota initiations' "or the priests had their o%n 7nitiations to %hich they a one %ere ad!issib e& He c ai!s that the cross %as the e!b e! o" the descent into !atter' and that' to represent this' the candidate %as aid upon a cruci"or! bier' ho o%ed to suit the body o" the candidate' %earied a"ter a ong pre i!inary ritua & His ar!s %ere oose y bound %ith cords' and he %as then carried "ro! the Ha o" initiation into the Crypt' or o%er vau t o" the te!p e' and p aced upon a sarcophagus to represent actua buria & He re!ained thus "or three entire days' %hi st the tests o" earth' %ater' air' and "ire %ere app ied to the divorced sou ' as a practica e2perience o" invu nerabi ity& On the "ourth day o" the ento!b!ent he %as brought "orth and e2posed to the "irst rays o" the rising sun' and restored to natura i"e& He thus deve ops the Rubric o" the hierophant3 5Then sha the candidate be bound upon a %ooden cross' he sha die' he sha be buried' and sha descend into the under%or d* a"ter the third day he sha be brought back "ro! the dead' and sha be carried up into heaven to be the right hand o" hi! "ro! %ho! he ca!e' having earned to guide ,or ru e/ the iving and the dead&5 There is a very ancient dirge' ca ed the 5+aneros5' %hich is supposed to have been chanted over the Neophyte& There are said to be so!e ancient !ystica

+SS& %hich speak o" this tria as 5the hard couches o" those %ho are in travai in the act o" giving birth to the!se ves5* that is 5cruci"ied be"ore the sun&5 4 utarch says that 5%hen a !an dies he goes through the sa!e e2periences as those %ho have their consciousness increased in the +ysteries& CF=D Thus in the ter!s #R3tau9epsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9upsi on9tau9a pha9nu and #R3tauepsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9iota9sig!a9theta9a pha9iota %e have an e2act correspondence' %ord to %ord and "act to "act&5 7t see!s evident "ro! this' and "ro! other things that %e sha !ention in our ne2t chapter' that 4 utarch is a uding to the actua divorce o" sou "ro! the body' re ated to %hat !ay be an a egory %hich he recites' under the ta e o" a !an na!ed Aridaeus or Thespesius o" So i in Asia +inor' %ho apparent y died "ro! a "a ' and a"ter three days returned to his body' and detai ed his e2perience o" the e2:uisite sights %hich he behe d&MM5Theos& rev&'5 22ii' p& ;G;& ?ide a so 5Secret $octrine'5 ii& p& G=.&NN

7n the year -F.F an interesting discovery %as !ade o" the to!b o" A!enophis 77& 7t is entered by a steep inc ined ga ery ter!inating in a ;I"t& %e ' having passed %hich the to!b is reached& 7n the "irst cha!ber %as "ound the body o" a !an bound to a rich boat9 ike structure' his ar!s and "eet are tied %ith cords' and his !outh gagged %ith a c oth' the breast and head have !arks o" %ounds& 7n the second cha!ber %ere "ound the bodies o" a !an' %o!an' and chi d& The third is the to!b o" the king' the roo" is supported by !assive s:uare co u!ns painted deep b ue and studded %ith go den stars' the %a s covered %ith paintings& At one end is the sandstone Sarcophagus' rose co oured' %hich enc osed the !u!!y %ith chap ets o" " o%ers round the neck and "eet& To the right is a s!a cha!ber in %hich other !u!!ies o" ater kings have been p aced& The " oors o" a the cha!bers are covered %ith such artic es as statues' vases' %ooden !ode s o" ani!a s' and boats& The +ysteries o" the Latin Aacchus' %ho is $ionysos in #reece and Assyria' and Osiris in Egypt' are thus spoken o" by +acrobius3 5The i!ages or statues o" Aacchus' represent hi! so!eti!es as a young !an' at other ti!es %ith the beard o" a !ature !an' and ast y %ith the %rink es o" o d age& The di""erences re ate to the sun' a tender chi d at the %inter so stice' such as the Egyptians represent hi! on a certain day' %hen they bring "orth "ro! an obscure nook o" their Sanctuary his in"antine CFID i!age' because the sun being then at the shortest' see!s to be but a "eeb e in"ant gradua y gro%ing "ro! this !o!ent&5 The earned 0rench %riter Christian considers that the ;; sy!bo ica designs o" the Tarot cards e!body the synthesis o" the Egyptian +ysteries' and that they "or!ed the decoration o" a doub e ro% o" -- pi ars through %hich the candidate "or 7nitiation %as ed' and that these designs "urther correspond %ith the ;; characters o" a pri!itive a phabets&MM?ide 5The Tarot'5 by 4apus&NN $r& C arke "inds the traditiona characters o" the ancient +ysteries in our && !odern panto!i!e&MM?o & iv' p& J=.' :uoted in $israe is 5Curiosities o" Literature&5NN He says that Har e:uin is +ercury* Co u!bine is 4syche' or Sou * the o d !an is Charon' the "erry!an over Sty2* the c o%n is +o!us' and he engraves the sub6ect o" an ancient vase' %hich' he says' represents Har e:uin' Co u!bine' and C o%n' as %e see the! on the stage& 7n "urther evidence o" ho% such egends survive' in ne% dresses' Aaring #ou d has sho%n that the tria s o" St& #eorge are but a trans"or!ation o" the various !artyrdo!s and resurrections %hich %ere re ated to the %eeping %orshippers in the te!p es o" Aaby on and Assyria at the "ate o" Ta!!u1 and Adonis* and that the dragon story in the i"e o" St& #eorge is but that o" other dragon s ayers in Se!itic and Aryan +ytho ogy& +ai!onides !entions the %ork o" Abn (ashih as a uding to this& On the agricu tura c asses o" the +ysteries there is a curious o d Aaby onian %ork trans ated by Ch%o sohn about G= years ago& +ai!onides' %ho %as physician o" Sa adin' 5circa5 -;<< A&$&' speaks o" it as 5"u o" heathenish "oo ishness & & & preparation o" ta is!ans'5 etc& 7ts tit e 5Nabatheans5 is derived "ro! the god Nebo' and the 4ersian Ye1ids say that the

sect %ent "ro! Ausrah to Syria' and that they be ieve in seven archange s or stars& The book is a di""icu t esoteric one' by an a!anuensis na!ed Lu9ta!y' and precedes the era o" Nebuchadne11ar& (e no% co!e to %hat is !ore interesting to 0ree CFBD +asons' and to #eo!etry %hich is one o" the !ystic or esoteric keys o" !ost sacred books& #eo!etry' as app ied to and9!easuring' had its origin in Egypt' and %e :uoted the authority o" $iodorus that the sacred a phabet represented so!e o" the

i!p e!ents o" abour& 7n ear y ti!es the superintendence o" art %as a priest y o""ice& 7t is note%orthy that the to!b o" the ancient Eing Osy!andius has a cei ing o" stars upon a b ue ground the ike o" %hich is "ound in the Cathedra s o" York' Canterbury' and # oucester' tru y there is nothing ne% under the sun& The to!b o" an ancient Egyptian %as recent y opened by +& +aspero' and buried %ith the body %ere "ound the %orking too s o" a +ason& Herodotus in"or!s us that they prohibited buria in %oo "or the reason o" %hich he re"ers o""ice& 7t is note%orthy that the to!b o" the ancient Eing Osy!andius has a cei ing o" stars upon a b ue ground the ike o" %hich is "ound in the Cathedra s o" York' Canterbury' and # oucester' tru y there is nothing ne% under the sun& The to!b o" an ancient Egyptian %as recent y opened by +& +aspero' and buried %ith the body %ere "ound the %orking too s o" a +ason& Herodotus in"or!s us that they prohibited buria in %oo "or the reason o" %hich he re"ers to the rites o" Orphic and 4ythagoric initiation' thus con"ir!ing their a""inity && %ith Egypt& C eopatra s need e %as a co!parative y !odern re9erection by that Lueen' at a ti!e %hen the Ro!an bui ding "raternities !ay have in" uenced Egypt* but at its base %as "ound' %hen taken do%n "or re!ova to A!erica' various stones designed y aid in accordance %ith +asonic Sy!bo is!' and upon a b ock' in "or! o" a s:uare' %as p aced a cube' or Ash ar' a so a stone %rought "ro! the purest i!estone sy!bo ising purity&MM?ide 5Egyptian Obe isks5 ,(eisse/&NN 7n the Osirian te!p e at 4hi ae' re9erected on the site o" a !ore ancient one' about G<< A&C&' are "ound !any interesting representations' such as the death and resurrection o" Osiris' and a so a cube && opened out in the "or! o" a Latin cross' %ith a !an && s head in the upper s:uare& A %riter in the 7ndian 50ree!asons0riend5 !aintains that the Copts have preserved' "ro! their ancestors to the present day' !uch in"or!ation upon +asonry %hich !ay be gathered "ro! the Ha66ar' or stone cutters& He a so && adds that +asons+arks are "ound upon the stones o" bui dings' as o d even as the 5%e 5 o" the great pyra!id& There %as a "ine o d stone in the possession

o" Consu John #reen on %hich %as the point %ithin a circ e' trip e CFFD tau' sguare' "ive9pointed star' cru2 ansata' eve ' triang e' Csy!bo s3 circ e %ith point in center' Roya 9Arch trip e tau S ike a 5T5 striking the cross9bar o" an 5H5T' inverted 5L5' 4entagra!' Ankh' upright s edge9ha!!er shape' triang e %ith dot in centerD& Outside the Rosetta9gate are' or %ere' so!e o d granite re!ains and t%o statues o" 7sis and Osiris' on the base o" each o" %hich' as %e as on the !any stones around' are "ound the "irst' second' and "ourth o" the characters be"ore9!entioned' Csy!bo s3 circ e %ith point in center' trip e9tau' 4entagra!D& On an o d stone o" red granite bui t into the Court9house o" Rosetta a!ongst those %e have !entioned' and others' are the tau' s oping adder o" three steps' tro%e ' Csy!bo s3 5T5' s anting e ongate Ro!an nu!era 777' do%n%ard triang e %ith a hand e on topD& At He iopo is the above !arks are "ound' as %e as others o" a di""erent character' eye' crook' t%o concentric de!icirc es' Csy!bo s3 ova on side %ith t%o hori1onta ines issuing "ro! ends' shape ike a vertica ine %ith a itt e 5u5 at top right' open eye %ith eye id' shape ike a rainbo% %ith on y t%o co orsD&MM0& +& +ag&' -FI-' v' p& JFB&NN A!ongst && +asons+arks o" the -;th dynasty' say G'<<<9;'J<< A&C&' %e "ind the svastica Csy!bo 3 S%astikaD' the e:ua 9 i!bed cross COD' both p ain and in a circ e CSy!bo 3 Circu!scribed #reek crossD' our "ive9pointed star CSy!bo 3 4entagra!D' open ang es crossed ike s:uare and co!passes' de ta' etter H' Qc&' Csy!bo s3 O' circu!scribed #reek cross' 4entagra!' intersecting chevrons upright and inverted ike the sigi o" Saturn "ro! the Ea!ia' 0ire' 5H5D&MM5A&L&C&5' iii&NN #ui d +asonry te s us that se!icirc es denote an Arch #ui d& 5#reece and 7ta y&5 The $ionysian and Aacchic rites' through %hich %e !ay better co!prehend the Egyptian' %ere o" t%o c asses& 7n the "irst Ceres goes in search o" 4roserpine to Hades' as did 7shter %hen she sought her over

7sdhubar' $u1i' or Ta!1i' these rites %ere in especia o" an agricu tura nature& 7n the higher +ysteries the Neophyte represented Aacchus& 4 utarch says that Typhon revo ted against Osiris' tore his body in pieces' !ang ed his i!bs' scattered the! abroad' and "i ed the earth %ith rage and vio ence& 7n ike !anner in those o" #reece and 7ta y the rebe Titans tear in pieces the god Aacchus' and as these Titans %ere Cyc ops it appears to !ytho ogise the %ar o" races& As %e sha treat o" these +ysteries !ore "u y in our ne2t chapter' %e %i on y add here a "e% :uotations as to their teaching& The Orphic verses app y these +ysteries to the sun' as kno%n by !any na!es3 9 7n the higher +ysteries the Neophyte represented Aacchus& 4 utarch says that Typhon revo ted against Osiris' tore his body in pieces' !ang ed his i!bs' scattered the! abroad' and "i ed the earth %ith rage and vio ence& 7n ike !anner in those o" #reece and 7ta y the rebe Titans tear in pieces the god Aacchus' and as these Titans %ere Cyc ops it appears to !ytho ogise the %ar o" races& As %e sha treat o" these +ysteries !ore "u y in our ne2t chapter' %e %i on y add here a "e% :uotations as to their teaching& The Orphic verses app y these +ysteries to the sun' as kno%n by !any na!es3 9 5The sun' %ho! !en ca $ionysos' is a surna!e' One Heus' one Aides' one He ios' one $ionysos&5 CF.D The Orac e o" Apo o C arius says3 5+uch it behoves that the %ise shou d concea the unsearchab e orgies& Aut i" thy 6udg!ent is %eak' kno% that o" gods %ho e2ist' the highest o" a is Jao& He is Aides in %inter* Heus at the co!ing o" spring9ti!e* He ios in su!!er9heat* and in autu!n grace"u Jao&5 +acrobius says that it %as an invio ab e secret that the sun in the upper he!isphere is ca ed Apo o* a so that the ancients perceived a rese!b ance bet%een the sun and the %o "' "or as " ocks disappear at the sight o" the atter' so stars disappear be"ore the sun& As the Cha dean techni:ue %as used in the Cabiric +ysteries' so in these %e are said to have a trace o" Sanscrit& The %ords Eon2 Ou!pa2' %as a "or!a dis!issa ' or as %e !ight say' 5go in peace5* the origina is said to be identica %ith the %ords 5Eanska o! 4aksha'5 %ith %hich the Arah!ins conc ude so!e o" their !ore i!portant cere!onies& Le 4 ongeon "inds the e2pression !ay be interpreted in +aya anguage' 5go hence' scatter&5 (e e:ua y "ind a Theosophica and Art "raternity in the $ionysiacs o" #reece' and the 4ersians %ere near kindred o" the He enic #reeks* but according to Herodotus the descent %as Egyptian' "or he says that the Creek $ionysos and the Latin Aacchus is Osiris' and that the sa!e rites are practised in both countries' but though they are kno%n to hi! he is co!pe ed to be si ent& Yet $ionysos is the Assyrian $ionisia' the 4hoenician +e carth' and the Akkadian 71dhubar&

The art o" bui ding in " at stone b ocks in contradistinction to Cyc opean +asonry is !entioned in our ast chapter' and see!s to have been adopted about the period %hen Egypt co onised the country' and as %e kno% the per"ection !asonry had reached in Egypt ages be"ore the -Ith century A&C&' %e !ay reasonab y conc ude that they introduced the i!proved art' %ith the $ionysian +ysteries& At any rate %e "ind not on y the State +ysteries o" $ionysos' but as in other cases !entioned' %here caste He enes or Aryans had invaded the native popu ation' C.<D an Art "raternity' under the sa!e na!e' %hich above G'<<< years ago %as designated the 5$ionysian Arti"icers'5 and %hich superseded the sty e o" the Cabiri by an i!proved syste!& This body e2ecuted a eve %ork in #reece and the Asia +inor at the period' and %ere an 7ncorporated Society* there are !any inscriptions in re"erence to the!' and their e2istence is p aced beyond doubt& Their organisation %as identica %ith the ater Ro!an Co eges' %hich again have their counterpart in Eng ish #ui d 0ree +asonry& They are said to have rebui t the te!p e o" Herac es at Tyre& Herodotus states that the priests to d hi! that the te!p e

had e2isted "or ;'G<< years' and the o d author en arges upon t%o pi ars %hich it contained' the one o" go d' the other o" e!era d' %hich shone e2ceeding y at night' and %hich !ay e!b e!ise the t%o pi ars %hich Sanconiathon says %ere dedicated by !en o" the "irst ages to 0ire and (ind& %o pi ars %hich it contained' the one o" go d' the other o" e!era d' %hich shone e2ceeding y at night' and %hich !ay e!b e!ise the t%o pi ars %hich Sanconiathon says %ere dedicated by !en o" the "irst ages to 0ire and (ind& 7n -FBJ a pecu iar discovery %as !ade at 4o!peii o" a tab e in +osaic %ork' %hich is no% in the Nationa +useu! o" Nap es ,No& -<.'..F/& 7t is about a "oot s:uare and "i2ed in a strong %ooden "ra!e& The ground is o" a greyish9 green stone' in the centre is a hu!an sku in %hite' grey' and b ack& Above the sku is a eve ' o" co oured %ood' the points o" brass' and "ro! the top point' by a %hite thread' is suspended a p u!b9 ine& Ae o% the sku is a %hee %ith si2 spokes' and on the upper ri! o" the %hee is a butter" y' the %ings being edged %ith ye o% and the eyes b ue& Through the protraction o" the p u!b9 ine the sku ' %ings' and %hee ' have the appearance o" being ha ved& On the e"t is an upright spear' the botto! being o" iron' and resting on the ground' "ro! this there hangs' by a go den cord' a gar!ent o" scar et and a purp e robe& The sy!bo o" a purp e robe is %orthy o" note' as it corresponds %ith %hat C e!ens said o" the Cabiri' as :uoted in our ast chapter& The $ionysian +ysteries passed into 4hoenicia by %ay o" Aaby on' and thence entered Syria in dedication to the C.-D god Adonis' "ro! Adonai 99Lord' passing to 4ersia' Cyprus and Athens* they continued in Syria unti the "ourth century A&$& As Adonis %as the sun %ho dies to rise again' as in the other +ysteries using other na!es' so the sy!bo ic representation %as conducted by acting the death o" an individua "or %ho! a!entation %as !ade* 4roserpine and ?enus contend "or the body o" the handso!e god' and the di""icu ty is sett ed by a si2 !onths residence %ith each& 7n the dra!a the priest' a"ter an interva ' signi"ied the resuscitation o" the hero by e2c ai!ing3 5thanks be to god "or out o" pains sa vation is co!e unto us&5 The cries o" grie" %ere then changed "or hy!ns and e2c a!ations o" 6oy& 7t is the cere!ony o" the %eeping "or Osiris by 7sis' "or Ta!!u1 by Astarte' "or Ta!1i by 7shter' "or +ahadeva by Sita' and that o" %hich %e read in the prophet E2ekie %here he says3 5beho d 7 sa% %o!en %eeping "or Ta!!u1&5 The 4hrygians' %ho %ere a very ancient Ar!enian co ony' had a si!i ar cere!ony in honour o" Anach' or Annoch ,Enoch/' "or %ho! they !ourned and re6oiced at the end o" the o d year& The Apa!ean !eda s o" this race c ear y re"er to Noah and the Cabiri' and represent thereon a boat ho ding eight persons' and the %ord No& This Noachian egend appears to co!!ing e the heaven y boat o" Hea %ith the eight Cabiri' the de uge tradition' and that o" 4ersia' %hich says that their "irst king sent out co onies in pairs o" a created things& The Cabiric +ysteries o" 4hrygia %ere in honour o" Atys and Cybe e' and their priests deno!inated Corybantes& 4ro"essor Louis' a Je%' %ho ectured recent y be"ore the Society o" Aib ica

Archaeo ogy' advanced that there %ere #ui ds o" Arti1ans and Cra"ts!en a!ongst his "ore"athers& This is not surprising %hen %e re!e!ber that the e2ponents o" the a% !ade it incu!bent upon the!se ves to "o o% so!e handicra"t' and the 5+ishna5 advocates the dignity o" abour' in nu!erous passages' such as the "o o%ing3 5He %ho derives his ive ihood "ro! the abour o" his hands is as great as he %ho "ears #od&5 C.;D 7n a the countries' !entioned in this chapter' the re igious and +asonic e!b e!s' and the sy!bo s o" 7nitiation that have co!e do%n to us are o" the sa!e specia type' in a ti!e& A!ongst these !ay be na!ed' the pentagon'

the he2agon' the doub e triang es' the sa!e in a circ e and %ith a centra point' the Jain cross o" "our s:uares' the e:ua 9 i!bed cross' the engthened cross' and crosses o" other "or!s& At Chunar' near Aenares' is "ound a triang e enc osing a rose& The J. Hindu caste9!arks are carved upon the stones o" their ancient "anes* and %e have the !ystic picture o" a god cruci"ied in space& the Jain cross o" "our s:uares' the e:ua 9 i!bed cross' the engthened cross' and crosses o" other "or!s& At Chunar' near Aenares' is "ound a triang e enc osing a rose& The J. Hindu caste9!arks are carved upon the stones o" their ancient "anes* and %e have the !ystic picture o" a god cruci"ied in space& 7n the case o" #auta!a Auddha %ho re"or!ed the Auddha doctrine' or Jain re igion' and sought to abo ish caste' %e have +asonic a egory in announcing to his discip es that he had obtained "ina beatitude' and the e2tinction o" desire& He co!pares his body to a house' %hich the #reat Architect %i not re9 erect3 9 5Through various trans!igrations 7 !ust trave ' i" 7 do not discover The Auddha that 7 seek& 4ain"u are repeated trans!igrationsK 7 have seen the #reat ArchitectK Thou sha t not bui d !e another house& Thy ra"ters are broken' Thy roo"9ti!bers scattered* +y !ind is detached' 7 have obtained e2tinction o" desire&5 The !ore hu!ane %orship and !ora ity o" the Aryans e2ercised an a 9 po%er"u in" uence upon the rest o" the %or d& 7n the ti!e o" the e der Cyrus' or Ehai9Ehosru the 4ersian con:ueror o" +edia' the State syste! %as the +edian +agis! o" the "irst Haradust o" Aactria& This Cyrus %as the "ather o" Cya2arus && or Ahashuerus' o" Ca!byses' and o" Aardes& Cya2arus on his "athers death succeeded to the !oiety o" East 4ersia' and !arried Esther' or Atossa' so na!ed a"ter 7shter' the goddess %ho C.GD descended into Hades& Ca!byses or Lohrasp %as a ha " brother by the daughter o" Astyages or A"rasaib Eing o" +edia' and inherited the other !oiety* he con:uered Egypt about =;< A&C&' and having "irst s ain his brother Aardes' and then destroyed Cya2arus' !arried his %ido% Atossa' and so again united +edia and 4ersia& His son Cyrus 77& "avoured the +agi and iberated the Je%s* he con:uered Aaby on =-F A&C&' and died %ithout issue =<I A&C& The %ay %as thus paved "or $arius Hystaspes' or the son o" #ustasp' o" the Achae!enion or Roya race o" 4ersia' had been ?iceroy o" Egypt =;< A&C&' and %ho' on the death o" the cra1y Ca!byses =-F A&C&' %ou d see! to have !arried his %ido%' in %hich case she

%ou d have been the %i"e o" three kings* and the pretensions o" $arius !ight thus originate' as he %as not' by birth' entit ed to the throne& There is a egend %hich says that seven princes entered into a con"ederacy' and agreed' on their && 6ourney' that %hosoevers horse "irst neighed' at sight o" the rising sun' shou d be Eing' and the ot "e to $arius& This prince %as every%here success"u ' but the contest ended in the destruction o" the +agi' %hose gro%ing po%er had ong been o""ensive to the 4ersian +a1deans& An Ar!enian o" the na!e o" Aracus' and a Aaby onian o" the na!e o" Nadintabe us' set the!se ves "orth as descendants o" the Ancient Eings o" Aaby on' but %ere de"eated in the year J.G A&C& $arius records his nu!erous victories in !i d anguage' upon the Aehustan rock' and attributes his success to the grace o" Or!u1d' in striking contrast to the b oodthirsty and "anatica boastings o" the Eings o" Assyria' and

%e cannot doubt that %hen E1ra the Cha dean' re9edited the Je%ish Scriptures' they gained in the direction o" hu!anity by this contact %ith the Aryans& ot doubt that %hen E1ra the Cha dean' re9edited the Je%ish Scriptures' they gained in the direction o" hu!anity by this contact %ith the Aryans& The destruction o" the +agi %as co!!e!orated by a "estiva ter!ed the +agaphonia* eventua y' by care"u !anage!ent' the brotherhood !ade their %ay again to po%er' and 4 ato speaks o" the syste! as the !ost pure o" a re igious schoo s' and there is no doubt that as #nostic C.JD Christians and 7s a!ites their succession has descended to our o%n ti!es' and a "or! o" the +agaphonia !ay be represented in the +ouharren' and si!i ar "estiva s in honour o" Houssein' or A i& 7t %ou d appear that a"ter the successes o" $arius his re igious vie%s as to +a1deis! !ay have undergone so!e change in "avour o" the Judeo9+agis! o" +edia& He %as succeeded by his son Cya2arus 777&' or >er2es' he and $arius his son %ere the "irst and second iberators o" the Je%s' and hence the originators o" the second te!p e at Jerusa e!& 7n Egypt the 4ersians %ere succeeded by the #reek 4to e!ies "o o%ing upon the con:uests o" A e2ander the #reat' and these by the Ro!an E!perors and Consu s& +any sub i!e edi"ices %ere erected' inc uding the bui ding o" A e2andria GG; A&C& The te!p e o" Osiris at 4hi ae %as begun about G<< A&C&' and bui ding operations thereon continued "or about t%o centuries' and here the +ysteries o" Osiris %ere ce ebrated unti ate into Christian ti!es& Ja!es Anderson' in his 5Constitutions'5 says that Euc id the geo!etrician' and Straton the phi osopher' superintended the erection o" severa great edi"ices& (ith the "oundation o" A e2andria' and the introduction therein o" the recondite doctrines o" the #reek phi osophers' %hich they had gathered by ransacking the +ysteries o" a other nations' 4to e!y 7& reso ved to !ake it the seat o" occu t %orship' by estab ishing there the +ysteries o" Serapis' %hich united %ith the Egyptian rites o" 7sis and Osiris the earning o" the #reeks& To inaugurate this sche!e he brought "ro! Sinope in 4ontus a statue o" the god& The representations o" this deity o"ten acco!pany hi! %ith the three9headed Cerberus' co!bining a ion' a %o "' and a dog' %hi st his body is %ound round %ith a serpent& He typi"ies Osiris not on y as an earth y king' but as a 6udge o" the %or d o" spirits& 7n the %ork o" +r& C& (& Eing' %ho %rites on #nosticis!' is a sard o" about the reign o" Hadrian' %hich represents the god as seen by +acrobius' 7sis standing be"ore hi!' %ith her sistru! in her hand as i" in supp ication' %hi st C.=D in her other hand is an ear o" %heat3 the egend is HE E8RRA 7S7S A#NE' i!!acu ate is our Lady 7sis& Erastosthenes' %ho ived ;BI9-.I A&C&' ter!s her the Ce estia virgin& Other inscriptions re"erring to Serapis are e:ua y note%orthy* that on &&

Raspes No& -J.< is 99E7S HE8S SERA47S A#7ON ONO+A SEAAS EOS ANATOLE CHTHON' trans ated' The one on y Lord Serapis' the ho y na!e' g ory' ight' the dayspring' the earth' o"ten abreviated to #R3Sig!a9O!ega9 Sig!a& He is a so ca ed E7S HOOS THEOS' the on y iving #od& The 5ho y na!e5 !ay be the Arcane 79A9O' %hich C e!ens says %as %orn upon the person by 7nitiates& Apu eius co!!ents upon these +ysteries but does so very reticent y& He in"or!s us that he had been initiated into those o" the #reat goddess 7sis' as representing nature* and that though cere!onia s o" Serapis di""ered there"ro! that the doctrine %as the sa!e& $a!askios asserts that the god appeared in a visib e' but superhu!an "or!' to his %orshippers at A e2andria& The Rite' as && in other +ysteries' re:uired a nine days"ast and puri"ication& Apu eius hints

that the priests had other cere!onies' "or he states that a"ter 7nitiation into the +ysteries o" Osiris he %as !ade a 4astopheri o" the te!p e and received into the Co ege o" 4riests' e2posing his ba d head to the !u titude' as a Catho ic priest does his tonsure& 7n the 5?irgin o" tke (or d'5 by Her!es' 7sis in"or!s her son Horus that there %as a trip e set o" +ysteries& ,-/ 57nitiating the! in the arts' sciences' and the bene"its o" civi ised i"e&5 ,;/ 5Re igious representations and sacred +ysteries&5 ,G/ 54rophet 7nitiation' so that the prophet %ho i"ts his hands to the gods shou d be instructed in a things&5 Hence it is necessary to keep in !ind' both in anti:uity and even in ater and !odern ti!es' art' e2oteric rites' and esoteric 7nitiation& $ru!!ond e2presses the opinion that the Charto!i' or superior priests o" Egypt' a one possessed the "u reve ation' %hich they protected by a trip e key o" sy!bo ic e2p anation& Ain (ashih C.ID saysMM5$escent o" Sy!b& +as&5 John A!rstrong' Liverpoo ' -F.I&NN that there %ere "our c asses o" priests o" Her!es ,-/ those o" his !a e descendants' ,;/ the descendants o" his brothers' ,G/ the descendants o" his sisters or Easterns' ,J/ o" the strangers %ho !ing ed %ith the "a!i y* and he gives a very interesting account o" their a eged cere!onies& +ysteries o" Osiris he %as !ade a 4astopheri o" the te!p e and received into the Co ege o" 4riests' e2posing his ba d head to the !u titude' as a Catho ic priest does his tonsure& 7n the 5?irgin o" tke (or d'5 by Her!es' 7sis in"or!s her son Horus that there %as a trip e set o" +ysteries& ,-/ 57nitiating the! in the arts' sciences' and the bene"its o" civi ised i"e&5 ,;/ 5Re igious representations and sacred +ysteries&5 ,G/ 54rophet 7nitiation' so that the prophet %ho i"ts his hands to the gods shou d be instructed in a things&5 Hence it is necessary to keep in !ind' both in anti:uity and even in ater and !odern ti!es' art' e2oteric rites' and esoteric 7nitiation& $ru!!ond e2presses the opinion that the Charto!i' or superior priests o" Egypt' a one possessed the "u reve ation' %hich they protected by a trip e key o" sy!bo ic e2p anation& Ain (ashih C.ID saysMM5$escent o" Sy!b& +as&5 John A!rstrong' Liverpoo ' -F.I&NN that there %ere "our c asses o" priests o" Her!es ,-/ those o" his !a e descendants' ,;/ the descendants o" his brothers' ,G/ the descendants o" his sisters or Easterns' ,J/ o" the strangers %ho !ing ed %ith the "a!i y* and he gives a very interesting account o" their a eged cere!onies& The E eusinian' Serapian' and +ythraic +ysteries %ere a very popu ar in Ro!e' and spread into a countries' practising their rites side by side %ith the aborigina +ysteries' "or the ut!ost to erance e2isted a!ongst a the priests& A are kno%n to have e2isted in Aritain' " ourishing genera y unti the Jth century o" Christianity' and practised ong a"ter in secret& Aesides the State +ysteries' A e2andria beca!e the centre %hence radiated the +ystic schoo s' the Caba a' #nosticis!' Neo94 atonis!' and Arcane Christianity& The E!peror Hadrian %hen Consu reports that there %ere no bishops o" Christ' Chie"s o" Synagogues' Theurgists' $iviners' %ho %ere not a so %orshippers o" Serapis' i!p ying a genera recognition o" Serapis as the persona #od o" the %or d' and that the iving #od is the sa!e under !any na!es& The earned Cardina Henry Ne%!an asserts that the Arcane $iscip ine o" the ear y A e2andrian Church %as the introduction o" 4 atonis!

into Christianity* it %as' ho%ever' that 4 atonis! "or!ed by the union o" #reek thought %ith Egyptian Osirianis! in the +ysteries o" Serapis& +r& C& (& Eing in his 5#nostics5 says 5there can be no doubt that the head o" Serapis' !arked as the "ace is by a grave and pensive !a6esty' supp ied the "irst idea "or the conventiona portraits o" the Saviour&5 7t is e:ua y certain that the i!ages o" 7sis and Horus continued to be !anu"actured' and %ere rena!ed as those o" the ?irgin and Chi d& A!ongst the noted Christians o" this period' %ho %ere Serapians and Christians or +e!bers o" the Arcane $iscip ine' %ere Origen and A!!onius Saccus' the catechists* the atter estab ished a Schoo in %hich he ob igated his $iscip es C.BD to secrecy&MMCardina Ne%!an&NN 7t is kno%n a so that the ear y Christians used the Tau cross on their to!bs&MM5A&L&C&5' v& p& ;&NN There see!s even no doubt that the pre9Christian Rites had a +ystery o" the Cross' and there is said to be an ancient painting in Egypt o" a candidate aid upon a cruci9"or! bier& Justin +artyr observes that 5the sign o" the cross is i!pressed on a nature& There is scarce y a handicra"ts!an but uses the "igure o" it a!ongst the i!p e!ents o" his industry& 7t "or!s a part o" !an hi!se "' as !ay be seen %hen he e2tends his ar!s in prayer&5 And' apart "ro! this' the Spiritua and conso atory "aith breathed in the 5Ritua o" the $ead5 is so !uch in consonance %ith the be ie"s o" the Christian' that it !ust convince the !ost hardened sceptic o" the anti:uity o" the doctrine' i" he even discredit

the! as artic es o" be ie"' and con"ir!s the %ords o" Augustine that Christianity e2isted "ro! the beginning o" the hu!an race' unti Christ ca!e in the " esh& e2isted "ro! the beginning o" the hu!an race' unti Christ ca!e in the " esh& 7t %i "or! a "itting c ose to this chapter i" %e again point out that a ancient && bui dings contain a syste! o" +asons +arks %hich %ere cut by the +asons to she% by %ho! the %ork %as done& These are either sy!bo s' e!b e!s' or !ore or ess the a phabet preva ent %here the %ork %as done& O" great anti:uity in Egypt they are e:ua y ancient in 7ndia& (e "ind the sy!bo s o" these t%o ancient nations in use in Europe' side by side %ith #reek nu!era s' the +agica a phabet and Runic etters& That this custo! has been handed do%n "ro! re!ote ages to our o%n days as an organised "or! by %hich to ascertain the %ork o" each !e!ber o" an organised and united 0raternity' is one o" the strongest argu!ents that can be used in "avour o" the e:ua anti:uity' and "aith"u trans!ission o" the organisation and cere!onies o" !odern 0ree +asonry %hich the reader %i gather has so !any points o" rese!b ance to the ancient +ysteries* "or there is a!p e evidence to she% that the +ark %as a part o" the ac:uisition o" an accepted +ason C.FD "or centuries& Aut as there %ere various branches o" the +ysteries' there !ust at one ti!e have been various' varying Rites o" 0ree +asonry& The origin o" Ta y ,Tai e 990r&/ Sticks is very ancient and they are yet used occasiona y& The Ce tic Ogha! a phabet had a ike origin& 7t consisted o" notches cut at the corner o" a s:uare stone' or e se "ro! a ste!9 ine& The etters A' L' 0' S' N' are "or!ed by cutting strokes at right ang es to the ste!9 ine on the right hand' and the etters H' $' T' C' L' at right ang es to the e"t& Thus a sing e stroke to the right is A' and to the e"t is H' t%o to the right is L' and the sa!e nu!ber to the e"t is $& Three to one side is 0' three to the other is T& Long strokes nu!bering "ro! one to "ive' cutting the ste! diagona y' e2pressed +' #' Ng' St' R' and short strokes' nu!bering "ro! one to "ive' cutting across the ste! at right ang es give the vo%e s& The o d Runic Staves "or Ca endars %ere so!e%hat si!i ar& Strange sy!bo s %ere used to !ark the && severa "estiva s' but the days %ere indicated by notches& && As +asons !arks

the Runic character is co!!on& ,5Cha!bers Journa '5 -F.B' p& ;F=& S& Aaring #ou d&/ The evidence o" this chapter goes to prove' %ith %hat has gone be"ore' that there %as a syste! o" Art +ysteries attached to the Sacerdota +ysteries' and that they on y beca!e speci"ica y operative by the introduction o" caste a%s' by Aryan invaders' and the necessities o" the ti!es& C..D CHA4TER 7?& THE +YSTER7ES 7N RELAT7ON TO 4H7LOSO4HY& THE chie" di""icu ty in the !inds o" %riters %ho have %ritten upon the +ysteries and 0ree!asonry is o%ing to the varieties o" na!es by %hich the "or!er have been kno%n in di""erent nations' and the co!parative y !odern

designation o" the atter Society& Aut this di""icu ty disappears in a great !easure %hen %e recognise that the Rites are o" great anti:uity' derived "ro! a pri!itive source' that they had a the sa!e genera princip es and varied chie" y but in the technica ities and anguage o" the country in %hich they %ere ce ebrated& (e !ay sa"e y ad!it that the genera characteristics o" the +ysteries %ere the sa!e in a nations& esignation o" the atter Society& Aut this di""icu ty disappears in a great !easure %hen %e recognise that the Rites are o" great anti:uity' derived "ro! a pri!itive source' that they had a the sa!e genera princip es and varied chie" y but in the technica ities and anguage o" the country in %hich they %ere ce ebrated& (e !ay sa"e y ad!it that the genera characteristics o" the +ysteries %ere the sa!e in a nations& Thus in the course o" ages' by nationa divergence in the !ode o" e2pressing thought' ne% na!es "or the o d Rites arose' and trans ations !ade into ne% tongues& The Assyrian $ionisu is the #reek $ionysos' the Latin Aacchus' and the Egyptian Osiris& 7n other cases the +ysteries %ere kno%n by their p ace o" con"er!ent' or by the na!e o" the Hierophant %ho introduced the!& 7n other cases na!es varied according to the particu ar degree o" the %riter* thus it is said that Aacchus the Lord o" the Cross and the pine9cone' beco!es 7acchus in the !outh o" an epoptae addressing hi! as Lord o" the p anet& Si!i ar y %e earn "ro! 4 utarch that 7shter' $e!eter' Ceres' and 7sis are a one' and represent iving !atter' or !atter vivi"ied by spirit' %hich is a doctrine o" the +ystae' or "irst grade o" 7nitiation& The higher spiritua birth o" the t%ice9born is taught in the !artyrdo! o" these gods& C-<-D Each nation' ho%ever' gave to the +ysteries a tinge o" its o%n cu ture' precise y as Osiris' 7sis' and Horus' are counterparts o" the t%o dei"ic princip es' and created "or!s' e:ua y %ith the Christian Trinity o" Joseph' +ary and Jesus& 4ausanius gives the na!e o" Saotus or saviour to the +ystery9god' and he %as designated Liberator' and #R38psi on9Eta9Sig!a& ?arron' the !ost earned o" the Latins' in his treatise 5$e Lingun Latina'5 says' iv& p& -B3 5The principa gods are Heaven and Earth& They are the sa!e gods %hich in Egypt are na!ed Serapis' 7sis' and Harpocrates' %hich %ith 4hoenicians are Thoth and Astarte' the sa!e in Latin as Saturn and Ops ,the earth/& 7n e""ect the earth and the heavens are the sacred instruction o" Sa!othrace' treated as the #reat #ods&5 That is they are the active and passive princip es o" nature' and be ong to the ear ier and ess cu tured i"e o" the #reeks& Tertu ian says that they raised three a tars to the great gods 9that is the !a e and "e!a e princip es beca!e three in their progeny 99the o dest o" trinities& The ostensib e hero o" the +ysteries o" #reece %as the sun9god' and +artinus Cape us' in his hy!n to the sun %ritten in the "i"th century' says3 9 5Thee' the d%e ers on the Ni e' adore as Serapis' And +e!phis %orships thee as Osiris&

Thou art %orshipped as +ithra' $is' and crue Typhon* 7n the sacred rites o" 4ersia thou art +ythras' 7n 4hrygia the beauti"u Atys* And Lybia bo%s do%n to thee as A!on' 4hoenician Ayb os as Adonis* Thus the %ho e %or d adores thee under di""erent na!es&5 Ausonius has verses to the ike e""ect' adding $ionysos "or 7ndia' and Liber "or 7ta y3 9 && 5Hai K true i!age o" the gods and thy "athers "ace' Thou %hose sacred na!e' surna!e' and o!en'

&& Three etters that agree %ith the nu!ber I<F&5MM?ide 4ikes 5+ora s and $og!a'5 p& =FBNN C-<-D YHS U J<< O F O ;<< U I<F& 7n Cha dee and Hebre%' Cha! or Ha!' heat' is a so I<F& A though Cu!ber and' Aishop o" 4eterborough' in his 5Origines #entiu! Anti:uiss!ae5 has set hi!se " the i!possib e task o" deriving a !ankind "ro! Noah %ithin the period o" the Rabinica chrono ogy' he has !any va uab e :uotations %hich tend toe e ucidate the +ysteries& He :uotes Herodotus as a""ir!ing in his Euterpe' "or a kno%n truth' that Ceres or $e!eter is a so 7sis* C e!ens A e2andrinus a so a""ir!s it' and proves it out o" a book o" Leon' %ho %rote the history o" the Egyptian gods& $iodorus Sicu us is cited by Eusebius as saying that Osiris is $ionysus or Aacchus' and that 7sis is $e!eter or Ceres* $iodorus !akes 4ro!etheus the cruci"ied Cabric #od to be conte!porary %ith Osiris& 4 utarch :uotes Antic ides to prove that Osiris is the sa!e person as $ionysus or Aacchus& 4ro!etheus is said to be son o" Japhetus' or Japhet' and 7sis the %i"e o" Osiris his daughter' as is a so asserted by Antic ides& Another son o" Japhetus' according to Apo odorus' %as At as& 4ausanius a""ir!s the 4ro!etheus and his son Aetnaus p anted the Cabiric +ysteries in Aoetia' but that they received this sacred depositu! "ro! Ceres& +uch o" this is !ystica ' but it a goes to prove %hat %e began by saying' na!e y' that the +ysteries %ere a one' and varied on y in the anguage& Herodotus speaks o" the ce ebration at night' in Egypt' o" the su""erings o" a god %hose na!e is too sacred to be %ritten& The 4hoenician +ysteries' as %e earn "ro! +eursius' and 4 utarch' e2hibited the corpse o" a young !an stre%n %ith " o%ers' "or %ho! the %o!en !ourned' and "or %ho! a to!b %as erected& +acrobius says that in the +ysteries o" Adonis there %as a nine days "ast and a!entation %hich %as succeeded by hy!ns o" 6oy in honour o" the risen god& 0er!ecius in"or!s us the si!i ar rites %ere used in the +ythraic +ysteries& The Cheva ier Ra!say a""ir!s that this is the characteristic o" a the +ysteries' and that o" their traditiona history' C-<;D and is a prophesy o" the co!ing o" a su""ering +essiah' %ho is sy!bo ised by the sun&MM5Nat& and Revd& Re igion'5 ii' p& ;<<&NN According to Herodotus the +ysteries entered #reece "ro! Egypt' and "ro! #reece they entered 7ta y* and he in"or!s us in positive anguage that the Rites o" the Egyptian Osiris and Latin Aacchus are the sa!e' and %ere carried into #reece about ;'<<< years be"ore his ti!e ,J=< A&C&/ by +e a!pus' %ho either took the! direct' or derived the! "ro! Cad!us and his Tyrian co!panions& The syste! o" these %hich Orpheus propagated taught a divine trinity in unity' %hich' according to $a!askios' %as represented by a $ragon %ith three heads' that o" a bu ' a ion' and bet%een a god %ith %ings o" go d* these Rites' i" %e !ay re y on tradition' %ere devoted to !usic& $ionysius Ha icarnassus says that the priests o" Serapis chanted a hy!n o" seven vo%e s3 the sa!e had p ace in #reece' and there are representations o" these seven heads' over each o" %hich is seen one o" the vo%e s&

A the +ysteries had three principa tria s or baptis!s' na!e y' by %ater' "ire' and air* and there %ere three specia y sacred e!b e!s' the pha us' egg' and serpent' thus represented #R37ota9O!icron94hi& The t%o generative e!b e!s %ere sacred in a the +ysteries& The advantages gained by initiation into these Rites are thus set "orth by various %riters3 They di""use a spirit o" unity and hu!anity %herever introduced* puri"y the sou "ro! ignorance and po ution* secure the pecu iar

aid o" the gods* the !eans o" arriving at the per"ection o" virtue* the serene happiness o" a ho y i"e* the hope o" a peace"u death and end ess "e icity* a so a distinguished p ace in the E ysian "ie ds* %hi st those %ho have not participated in 7nitiation sha d%e a"ter death in p aces o" darkness and horror&MM5Anacharsis5 ,Abbe Aarthe e!y' %ho gives the authors/& v& p& ;-G&NN o" virtue* the serene happiness o" a ho y i"e* the hope o" a peace"u death and end ess "e icity* a so a distinguished p ace in the E ysian "ie ds* %hi st those %ho have not participated in 7nitiation sha d%e a"ter death in p aces o" darkness and horror&MM5Anacharsis5 ,Abbe Aarthe e!y' %ho gives the authors/& v& p& ;-G&NN 4orphyry gives the "o o%ing as the precepts o" the +ysteries3 ,-/ Honour parents* ,;/ ?enerate the #ods* ,I/ be Hu!ane to ani!a s& 4 utarch ,Laconic Apotheg!s C-<GD o" Lysander/ to con"ess a %icked acts& The pre9Hebre% co!!and!ents ter!ed the seven precepts o" the Noachidae are3 ,-/ Abstain "ro! 7do atry* ,;/ A asphe!e not* ,G/ $o no !urder* ,J/ Co!!it not Adu tery* ,=/ $o not stea * ,I/ Ad!inister 6ustice* ,B/ Eat not " esh cut "ro! the ive ani!a & The Rites o" E eusis in #reece are those o" %hich %e have the "u est particu ars' and %e sha there"ore take the! as the co!p e!ent o" a the others' and give as !uch as can be gathered "ro! pre6udiced and unpre6udiced sources' poets' phi osophers' and their bitter ene!ies the Christians& The Rite is said to have "o o%ed the Orphic doctrine' and to have been estab ished about -J;G A&C&' in the reign o" Erectheus Eing o" Athens' %hich city had previous y been occupied by a co ony "ro! Egypt& Though best kno%n' yet not the !ost ancient' the E eusinia %ou d see! to have constituted rather a de!ocratic society than a Sacerdota Co ege' as i" their intention %as to absorb a the popu arity o" these institutions* to be "o o%ed' at a ater period' by the appropriation' by !inor schoo s o" 4hi osophers' o" a the kno% edge to be gained in these Co eges& 7t is' ho%ever' note%orthy that the tradition o" the ancient unity o" Eing and 4riest %as preserved in the tit e o" Aasi eus or Eing given to the 4residing o""icer* and Lysias says that it %as his duty to o""er up prayers' and to preserve !ora ity& These +ysteries %ere at the sa!e ti!e essentia y secret and sacred' e!bodying a scenic representation' in %hich a c asses !ight participate e2cept bastards and s aves' %ho %ere especia y e2c uded by the action o" Euc id' the Archon' or chie"' in J<; A&C&' and a di""erent person "ro! the ater #eo!etrician& 7t is %orthy o" note that the o d Constitutiona Charges o" 0ree +asons e2c ude the sa!e persons& A though the Cabiric +ysteries' ike those o" Egypt' preserved' at east in na!e' an idea o" the %or d y sciences' the E eusinia %ou d see! to have abandoned the pretensions to these' and on y re:uired that the Neophyte shou d C-<JD in youth be ibera y and appropriate y educated& The ti!e had arrived %hen art in #reece cou d be earned outside the +ysteries %hich constituted a ho y dra!a' in" uencing the ancient theatre' and the 5+ystery p ays5 o" Christians& +r& Ja!es Christie in his %ork upon the 5#reek ?ases5 ho ds that phantas!a scenes in the +ysteries %ere she%n by transparencies'

such as are yet used by the Chinese' Javanese' and Hindus& 7n sy!bo ' he says' a ba o" %oo represents the thread o" i"e not yet spun* gutta' "ecundity* sesa!e' "erti ity* %ater' the creation o" beings "ro! that e e!ent* %ine' the i"e* an o ive ea" at the top o" a vase' spirit* and a %avy ine' %ater on %hich spirit acts& There %ere Nine Archons' o" %ho! the Chie" %as proper y so ca ed as the %ord !eans Co!!ander' he had 6urisdiction over a ecc esiastica and civi a""airs' %ith the tit e o" Epony!us& The second %as Aasi eus or Eing' %ho superintended re igious cere!onies' "estiva s' and +ysteries& The third %as the 4o e!archos' %ho had care o" strangers and conduct o" %ar& The other si2

%ere ter!ed Thes!othetae' "ro! t%o %ords 995 a%'5 and 57 estab ish5 they "or!ed a tribuna "or 6udging !inor o""ences& A %ere e ected by ot' %ere "ree o" ta2es' and on their 7nduction took an oath to ad!inister 6ustice i!partia y& 995 a%'5 and 57 estab ish5 they "or!ed a tribuna "or 6udging !inor o""ences& A %ere e ected by ot' %ere "ree o" ta2es' and on their 7nduction took an oath to ad!inister 6ustice i!partia y& Certain noted persons' o" %ho! 4ythagoras %as one o" the ear iest and !ost re!arkab e' trave ed over the %ho e kno%n %or d' in order to obtain 7nitiation in the +ysteries o" the countries that he visited& The society %hich 4ythagoras estab ished' as %e as others o" ater date' %as the resu t o" an atte!pt to co!bine in one co!!on society the kno% edge to be gained in a the +ysteries* curious y enough the sa!e princip e has been "o o%ed in 0ree!asonry& The 4ythagorean Society !ay thus be considered the "orerunner o" the various Arcane Schoo s %hich "o o%ed its decay* it has the c osest ana ogy %ith the +asonic Society' and %hether %e ook upon this Cra"t as a pri!itive syste!' an ancient i!itation o" the +ysteries' or a s ight y a tered branch o" the Cabiri' %e !ay C-<=D e:ua y e2pect to "ind that there is the sa!e doctrine' or the sa!e %isdo! re igion %hich ay at the "oundation o" a the Arcane +ysteries* and this is %hat %e sha "ind as %e proceed* and at the sa!e ti!e it is one o" the strongest proo"s %e can e2pect to have o" the anti:uity o" 0ree9!asonry& (e %i no% en:uire into the genera nature o" the cere!onia o" the E eusinia as a "air representation o" %hat %as taught in these schoo s& They consisted o" the Lesser and #reater +ysteries "or %hich there %as a genera preparation or apprenticeship in the shape o" 5a preparation "ro! youth in appropriate discip ines&5 Aet%een the con"er!ent o" these t%o sections there %as a probation e2tending "ro! one to "ive years& The dra!a %ent on para e ines %ith the Egyptian 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 %hich d%e s upon the !ora and spiritua :ua ities' %hich are necessary in this i"e' that the sou !ay obtain 6usti"ication in a "uture state& The apocrypha book ca ed the 5(isdo! o" So o!on5 ,c& -B/ %ou d see! to describe the Tartarean terrors o" the +ysteries' app ied to the p agues o" Egypt& The !agni"icent te!p e o" E eusis %as ighted by a sing e %indo% in the roo"' and i!ages o" the sun' !oon' and !ercury %ere represented therein& +acrobius says that the te!p e o" Aacchus at Thrace %as a so round and ighted a so by a round %indo% in the roo"' by %hich to introduce the resp endent i!age o" the sun& 4roc us says that the proceedings %ere begun %ith a prayer in %hich 5heaven5 and 5earth5 %ere respective y invoked& 7n respect to the signs o" the Hodiac the sa!e %riter in"or!s us that si2 %ere considered !a e' and si2 "e!a e signs* and 4orphyry assi!i ates the 6ourney o" the sun through these signs %ith the t%e ve abours o" Hercu es& The three chie" hierophants o" the +ysteries bore respective y the sy!bo s o" the sun' !oon' and !ercury* and as the Aasi eus represented the $e!iurgos %ho "ashions rude !atter or chaos into created "or!s' so it %as typi"ied that the Aasi eus %as to recreate the Neophyte or dra% hi! C-<ID "ro! i!per"ect nature

to a !ore re"ined state' or as +asons e:ua y %ou d say' %ith the phi osophers' %ork hi! "ro! the rough to the per"ect Ash ar& The Sto istes' according to C e!ens A e2andrinus regu ated the education o" the young' and bore as their e!b e! o" authority the s:uare ru e* and the prophet had suspended at the && neck an urn %ith the %ater o" regeneration&MMO ivers 5Land!arks'5 i& p& -I-&NN The cere!onia o" 7nitiation began by a so e!n proc a!ationMM5Origen Adv Ce sus'5 iii& p& =.&NN3 5Let no one enter here %hose hands are not c ean' and %hose tongue is not prudent&5

The candidate %as a so' as a pre i!inary' desired to con"ess his sins' or at east the greatest cri!e he had ever co!!itted& He %as re:uired to bathe in the pure sea in "ace o" the sun' and pour %ater on his head three ti!es& Certain "asts %ere en6oined' a"ter %hich the sacri"ice o" an ani!a %as !ade& A"ter t%o days the sho%s began %ith a procession' then "o o%ed "or three days and three nights the !ourning o" $e!eter "or her daughter& A"ter %hich a sacra!enta !ea o" cakes and i:uor %as partaken& east the greatest cri!e he had ever co!!itted& He %as re:uired to bathe in the pure sea in "ace o" the sun' and pour %ater on his head three ti!es& Certain "asts %ere en6oined' a"ter %hich the sacri"ice o" an ani!a %as !ade& A"ter t%o days the sho%s began %ith a procession' then "o o%ed "or three days and three nights the !ourning o" $e!eter "or her daughter& A"ter %hich a sacra!enta !ea o" cakes and i:uor %as partaken& 4rior to the 7nitiation there %as an opening catechis! as "o o%s3 9 The Hierophant de!ands3 5(ho are "it to be present at this cere!ony@5 To %hich the ans%er %as3 5Honest' good' and ho y !en&5 The Hierophant then ordered3 5Ho y things "or ho y persons&5 The Hera d proc ai!ed3 50ar hence the pro"ane' the i!pious' a those po uted by sin&5 0or an uninitiated person to re!ain a"ter this %as death& Stobaeus :uotes an ancient %riter %ho says' that the "irst stage o" 7nitiation 5is a rude and "ear"u !arch through night and darkness'5 but this over' 5a divine ight disp ays itse "' and shining p ains and " o%ery !eads open on a hands be"ore the!& There they are entertained %ith hy!ns and dances' %ith the sub i!e doctrines o" "aith"u kno% edge' and %ith revered and ho y visions&5 C-<BD The "irst portion %as e!b e!atica o" the %anderings o" the sou in the paths o" error and the punish!ents it %ou d thereby bring upon itse "* and the second part represented the dispersion o" the shades o" night' be"ore the bri iant sun o" the +ysteries& Justin +artyr gives the oath o" 7nitiation as "o o%s3 995So he p !e heaven' the %ork o" #od %ho is great and %ise* so he p !e the (ord o" the 0ather %hich he spake %hen he estab ished the %ho e universe in his %isdo!&5 $ion Chrysosto! speaks o" +ystic sounds and a ternations o" ight and darkness' and the per"or!ance o" +ystic dances in i!itation o" the !ove!ents o" the p anets round the sun& 4 ato in 5Euthyde!us5 speaks o" +ystic dances in the Corybantic ,or Cabiric/ +ysteries %here the crad e o" the young Aacchus %as guarded %ith +ystic dance and !usic& The "o o%ing re!arks o" a Naasene' or Ophite #nostic' on these +ysteries are given by Hippo ytus' +artyr ;G= A&$&' and con"ir!s other :uotations %e sha give "ro! ?irgi & He says that3 5The Lesser +ysteries are those o"

4roserpine be o% and the path %hich eads to the! is %ide and spacious to conduct those %ho are perishing&5 7t is the truth %hich Chrishna the Hindu god taught to Ar6una' na!e y that those %ho give the!se ves up to %or d y p easures %i be con"ined to the sphere o" the earth and be reborn in such bodies as they have !erited3 57t is easier "or a ca!e to go through the eye o" a need e than "or a rich !an to enter the kingdo! o" heaven5* 5Aroad is the %ay that eadeth to destruction and !any there be that go in thereat* but straight is the gate and narro% is the %ay %hich eadeth to i"e' and "e% there be that "ind it&5 Apu eius in his account o" his reception into the 7sisic +ysteries' a"ter being re ieved o" his brutish nature by eating roses' %hich %as a " o%er sacred to 7sis' proceeds to say that he approached the con"ines o" Hades' having been borne through the e e!ents' and that he sa% the sun at !idnight& The Latin ?irgi ' a poet' 4 atonist' astro oger' and C-<FD #eo!etrician' has so!e note%orthy passages %hich bear upon these detai s& 4ria! o" Troy sent a%ay his son 4o ydorus into Thrace' %ith a arge treasure' and in order to obtain this his attendants !urdered hi!& Aeneas' a Tro6an 7nitiate and there"ore a Cabir' happening' on reaching that part' to pu up a !yrt e gro%ing

upon a hi ock' discovered by the a!entations' %hich the p ant is represented as !agica y !aking' the !urdered body o" 4o ydorus' upon %hich his re!ains are taken up and decent y interred& The !yrt e %as a p ant sacred in the +ysteries' and ?irgi here speaks o" the 5secret rites o" Cybe e' !other o" the gods5* and Cybe e %as the na!e "or Ceres a!ongst the 4hrygian Cabiri& Again %hen Lueen $ido resorts to +agica arts to detain Aeneas "ro! sai ing3 ,Aook iv&/ as !agica y !aking' the !urdered body o" 4o ydorus' upon %hich his re!ains are taken up and decent y interred& The !yrt e %as a p ant sacred in the +ysteries' and ?irgi here speaks o" the 5secret rites o" Cybe e' !other o" the gods5* and Cybe e %as the na!e "or Ceres a!ongst the 4hrygian Cabiri& Again %hen Lueen $ido resorts to +agica arts to detain Aeneas "ro! sai ing3 ,Aook iv&/ 5A eavened cake in her devoted hands She ho ds' and ne2t the highest a tar stands* One tender "oot %as shod' the other bare' #irt %as her gathered go%n' and oose her hair&5 A !a2i! o" 4ythagoras %as3 5Sacri"ice and adore unshod&5 Ovid describes +edea as having ar!s' breast' and knees !ade bare* and Ro!an 4ostu ants "or re igious and po itica o""ices' assu!ed an air o" hu!i ity' %ith c oak and tunic ungirt' ar! and breast bare' and "eet s ipshod& The 5toga candida5 is yet used in +asonry& Another :uotation "ro! 4ythagoras is this3 5The path o" vice and virtue rese!b es the etter 5Y5* "ro! the e2ce ence o" the senti!ent it %as ter!ed the 5#o den Aranch'5 o" %hich the broad' e"t9hand ine' sy!bo ised the easy road to Tartarus' %hi st the narro% right ine represented the path to E ysiu!& $ecius +agnus Ausonius' a poet o" the "ourth century says3 5The Aough represents the dubious Y' or t%o paths o" 4ythagoras&5 The sacred branch o" the +ysteries varied in the di""erent rites3 the erica or heath %as sacred to Osiris' the rose to 7sis' the ivy to $ionysos' the !yrt e to Ceres' the ettuce to Adonis' the otus to Hindus' the !ist etoe to $ruids' the acacia to Je%s' the pa ! to Christians& C-<.D && Turn %e no% to ?irgi s interesting book' %hich contains the account o" the descent o" Aeneas into Tartarus' and %hich undoubted y e!bodies the dra!a o" the E eusinian representation o" Hades and E ysiu!& A Sybi ' or prophetess' re:uires "or the purpose to be undertaken' that Aeneas sha seek a #o den Aranch %hich shoots "ro! a s!a tree& 7t is the !ist etoe o" the $ruids %ho %ere o" this schoo ' and sty ed the p ant 5pren5

5puraur5 or the tree o" pure go d3 it cou d on y be cut by a pure' %hite9robed $ruid %ith bare "eet' and by using a go den sick e' it probab y "or!ed a part o" the 5bre% o" Cerid%en'5 %hich %as given to the 7nitiate to aid the gi"t o" intuition* the Aryo9Ce ts %ere then in 7ta y& This #o den Aranch %as to serve Aeneas as a passport' but as the Sybi in"or!s hi! o" the death o" a "riend' a "act unkno%n to hi!' the body has "irst to be "ound* this done %e have La!entations3 9 5(ith groans and cries +isenius they dep ore' O d Coryanus co!passed 5thrice5 the cre%' And dipped an 5o ive branch5 in ho y de%' (hich thrice he sprink ed round' and thrice a oud 7nvoked the dead' and then dis!issed the cro%d&5

?irgi is care"u to in"or! us that these %ere ancient Rites to the !anes o" the dead' and 5Ancient'5 or York' +asons o" the ast century' and even so!e in our day' used these Rites& dead' and 5Ancient'5 or York' +asons o" the ast century' and even so!e in our day' used these Rites& Aeneas no% "o o%s the Sybi to Tartarus' and ?irgi describes the "ear"u scenes he %itnessed by %ay o" punish!ents in" icted upon those %ho e"t this i"e in an i!pure state& Arrived at the doub e path o" the Aranch3 5Ae"ore our "urther %ay the "ates a o%' Here !ust %e "i2 on high the #o den9bough&5 and3 5These ho y rites per"or!ed' they took their %ay' (here ong e2tended p ains o" p easure ay&5 He no% reaches the E ysian "ie ds' %here he "inds his "ather Anchises' %ho proceeds to instruct hi! in divine things' %ith prophetic inti!ations as to his "uture& C--<D Such %as the nature o" the Lesser +ysteries* the #reater %ere intended to she% the "e icity o" the sou ' %hen puri"ied "ro! !orta passions' it %as reborn to the rea ities o" its spiritua nature& They are again an e2e!p i"ication o" the "urther teaching o" Crishna to Ar6una' that he %ho %orships good ange s %i go a!ongst the!' but that he' %ho in thought and deed' 6oins hi!se " to the Supre!e $eity %i en6oy an eternity o" happiness3 5Thou !ust be born again&5 An 7nitiate to the Lesser +ysteries' or those o" Ceres' had his p ace in the ?estibu e o" the Te!p e' beyond the sacred curtain %as reserved "or 7nitiates into the #reater +ysteries or those o" Aacchus& && 4reparation "or the #reater +ysteries re:uired a nine days"ast and bathing in the river 7 yssus took p ace& The +ystic !undane egg o" the Egyptians %as a part o" the sy!bo is!' "or +acrobius says3 5Consu t the 7nitiates o" the +ysteries o" Aacchus %ho honour %ith especia veneration the sacred egg&5 Seneca de"ines Aacchus as the universa i"e that supports nature& (e have !entioned the $ruid egg& Arother #eorge O iver' $&$&' :uotes the Orphic "rag!ents as "o o%s3 9957n these +ysteries a"ter the peop e had "or a ong ti!e be%ai ed the oss o" a particu ar person' he %as at ength supposed to be restored to i"e* upon this the priests used to address the peop e in these &&

!e!orab e %ords3 Co!"ort yourse ves a ye %ho have been partakers o" the +ystery o" the deity thus preserved* "or %e sha no% en6oy so!e respite "ro! &&&& our abours& To these %ere added the "o o%ing re!arkab e %ords3 && 7 have escaped a great ca a!ity and !y ot is great y !ended&5 Ju ius 0er!ecius gives this in the ines "o o%ing3 9 5Courage' ye +ystae* oK our god is sa"e' And a our troub es speedi y have end&5 Aut the sa!e %riter in"or!s us that the 7nitiate 5personated the #od'5 "or he says3 57n the so e!n ce ebrations o" the +ysteries a things had to be done %hich the youth either did' or su""ered in his death&5 The re!arks o" Hippo ytus "ro! the source previous y !entioned' are !ore C---D curious' as

they see! to proceed "ro! an 7nitiate %ho is co!paring the cere!ony %ith the Christian +ysteries& The Naasene #nostic is !ade to say3 9 g the cere!ony %ith the Christian +ysteries& The Naasene #nostic is !ade to say3 9 5Those %ho are 7nitiated into the Lesser ought to pause and be ad!itted into the #reater and heaven y ones& 7nto these no unc ean person sha enter& & & & & 0or this is the ?irgin %ho carries in her %o!b' and conceives' and brings "orth a son' not ani!a ' not corporea ' but b essed "or ever!ore&5 This 7nitiate' in the agricu tura sy!bo is! o" Ceres' represents 5an ear o" corn reaped in si ence&5 The re9birth o" the Neophyte %as represented panto!i!ica y' "or he says that the hierophant voci"erates3 5by night in E eusis beneath a huge "ire & & & & &&&& August Ari!o hath brought "orth a consecrated son Ari!us'5 %ords %hich no doubt typi"ied both the sun and the initiate& The %ord Ari!us signi"ies 4o%er"u and %as one o" the designations o" the Cabiric gods& Yet a"ter a the Lesser and #reater +ysteries %ere rather a popu ar version than a "u reve ation' %e have hinted that there %ere three9"o d interpretations o" the +ysteries and %hat a !ost approached rea death and not dra!a& Others e2isted o" a !ore spiritua nature at various centres& Sopatius says that even the Epoptae had on y a part o" the secret& Theodoritos says that 5a && do not kno% %hat the hierophants kno%' the !a6ority see on y %hat is && represented&5 5The ast ter! o" the Epoptae5 e2pressed high initiation& 7t !ay aid us to reca that these +ystics he d a nature to e!anate "ro! t%o princip es' o" %hich 4ersephone and $ionysos' or Ceres and Aacchus' are the a egory& The "irst is sou ' the second spirit& Lactantius'MM5$ivine 7nstitutions'5 vii&NN says3 995Shou d anyone dare to deny the e2istence o" sou s a"ter death' the +agician %i soon convince hi! by !aking it appear&5 7renaeus' C e!ens' Tertu ian' St& Cyprian' a a""ir! the sa!e thing& The +ysteries kne% e:ua y %e %ith the Christians' that i" the puri"ied sou re!ained attached C--;D to spiritua things it %ou d eventua y puri"y itse "' as the A che!ist puri"ies !eta s' and so attain i!!orta i"e& (e earn "ro! various %riters that the +ysteries had their secret signs o" recognition& Apu eius !entions in his 5+eta!orphosis5 that it %as pointed out to hi! 5in a drea!5 that he %ou d recognise a certain priest by his %a king as i" %ith a a!e ank e* in the 5Apo ogia5 %e read3 9957" anyone happens to be present %ho has been initiated into the sa!e Rites as !yse "' i" he %i give !e

the sign' he sha then be at iberty to hear %hat it is that 7 keep %ith so !uch care&5 4 autusMM5+i es # oriosus'5 iv' GNN has 995#ive !e the sign i" you are one o" the Aacchae&5 7a!b ichus %rites 995#ive not your right hand easi y ,that is' dra% not to%ards you i!proper and uninitiated persons by giving the! your right hand/' "or to such as have not been tried by repeated discip ines and doctrines' and have not proved the!se ves to participate in the +ysteries' by a :uin:uennia si ence and other tria s' the right hand ought not to be given&5 && Ho!er !akes Achi es to greet 4ria! thus 995The o d !an s right hand at the %rist he grasped' est he shou d be a ar!ed in !ind&5 4roc us advanced "urther and taught that there %ere +ystic pass%ords that cou d carry a person "ro! one order o" spiritua beings to another sti higher' ti reaching the abso ute y divine& The EgyptiansMM5Aook o" the $ead&5NN and #nostics he d the sa!e vie%& OrigenMM5Contra Ce sus&5NN says3 5There are na!es o" a natura virtue' such as those used by the %ise9!en in Egypt' the +agi in 4ersia' and the Arach!ans in 7ndia& +agic' as it is ca ed' is no vain and chi!erica art as the Stoics and Epicurians pretend* neither %ere the na!es o" Sabaoth and Adonai' !ade "or created beings' but appertain to a

!ysterious theo ogy concerning the Creator* hence co!es the virtue o" other na!es' %hen p aced in order' and pronounced according to the ru es&5 na!es' %hen p aced in order' and pronounced according to the ru es&5 The doctrine taught in regard to the nature o" the sou in these +ysteries !ay be gathered "ro! the 4hi osophers' but "irst %e %i see ho% they ac:uired the right to speak C--GD upon the sub6ect& The Cheva ier Ra!sayMM5Nat& and Revd& Re igion&5NN says that3 5%e !ay ook upon the 4ythagoric' the 4 atonic' and the Orphic theo ogy as the sa!e&5 4rok os' %ho %as !aster o" the Schoo at Athens about J=< A&$&' in his 5Theo ogy o" 4 ato5 says that3 54ythagoras %as "irst taught the orgies o" the gods by Ag ophe!us* 4 ato ne2t received a per"ect kno% edge o" the! "ro! the 4ythagorean and Orphic schoo s&5 The ast na!ed Rites %ere those upon %hich the E eusinia %ere estab ished& 4rok os' in speaking o" !atter says' 54 ato %as a so o" the sa!e opinion concerning !atter because he is supposed to have "o o%ed Her!es and the Egyptian phi osophers&5 The phi osophica schoo s' %hich "o o%ed the death o" 4 ato' a !ost universa y accepted hi! as their !aster' and he and 4ythagoras had ike veneration "or the Cha dean and +agian teaching' and A!!anius +arce enusMM22viii' I&NN teaches us that3 54 aton' the greatest authority upon ancient doctrines' states that the +agian re igion or +agia' kno%n by the !ystic na!e o" +ACH9A#7ST7A' is the !ost uncorrupted "or! o" %orship in things divine' to the phi osophy o" %hich' in pri!itive ti!es' Horoastres !ade !any additions' dra%n "ro! the +ysteries o" the Cha deans&5 The E!peror Ju ianMM5Oratio&5 NN see!s to have been o" a si!i ar opinion and says3 5(ere 7 to touch upon the initiations and the secret +ysteries %hich the Cha deans Aacchised respecting the seven rayed god' ighting up the sou through hi!' 7 shou d say things unkno%n to the rabb e' very unkno%n' but %e kno%n to the b essed Theurgists&5 (e have' ho%ever' given such !atters very "u y in our previous chapters* the Egyptian 7nitiation o" 4 ato is specia y a""ir!ed by severa %riters* and %e !ay add here that the !ore c ose y phi osophy approaches Cabiric rites' the !ore does it rese!b e 0ree +asonry& There %as' ho%ever' a re"ine!ent o" the coarser part o" the dra!atic& 5Aphanis!5 and 5Euresis5 99the 5concea !ent and the "inding o" the s ain god5 99thus app ied' in %hat "o o%s& C--JD As to the nature o" the recondite teaching o" the Arcane +ysteries %e %i no% :uote various %riters %ho have given us hints upon their doctrine& 4 utarch says3 5As to %hat thou hearest others say' %ho persuade the !any that the sou ' %hen once "reed "ro! the body' neither su""ers & & & & evi ' nor is conscious' 7 kno% that thou art better grounded in the doctrines received by us "ro! our ancestors' and in the sacred orgies o" $ionysos' than to be ieve the!' "or the +ystic sy!bo s are %e kno%n to us %ho be ong to the Arotherhood&5 Antoninus says3 5Sou is a inte igence and a portion o" the divinity&5 4rok os3 5Eno% the divinity that is in you' that you !ay kno%' the divine One' o" %ho! the sou is a ray&5 Herac itus says o" sou s3 5(e ive their death and die their

i"e&5 That e2traordinary !an Apo onius o" Tyana' %ho visited the 7ndians' entered the +ysteries o" various nations' and re"or!ed the #reeks' taught that both birth and death %ere e:ua y an appearance' the "irst being the con"ine!ent o" the 5Rea 5 in !atter' and the second its re ease& 4 otinus' %ho %as a pupi o" A!!onius Saccus' says3 5"or to be p unged into !atter is to descend into Hades and there "a as eep'5 and o" the doctrine itse " he te s us that it is 5%hat is taught in the +ysteries' and that iberation "ro! the bonds o"

the body is an ascent "ro! the cavern' and a progression to the inte ectua &5 +acrobiusMM5$rea! o" Scipio&5NN says that the "irst death is %hen the sou "a s into the body 5as a sepu chre'5 and that 5the second is the natura death&5MMA trans ation by Arother (& (& (estcott has been recent y printed&NN 4 ato in his 5Hippias5 says3 5The supre!e Aeauty consists in their rese!b ance to the divine sun' or ight o" a inte igence5* he a so re"ers to Orpheus as ter!ing our natura body #R3Sig!a9iota9upsi on9!u9a pha ,so!a/ or #R3Sig!a9ga!!a9!u9a pha ,se!a/' a sepu chre& Hieroc es :uotes the Cha deans to the e""ect that' 5the orac es ca ed the etheria body' the thin and subt e vehic e or chariot o" the sou '5 Suidas te s us' out o" 7sidorus' a Spanish bishop o" the si2th century' %hat is interesting to C--=D o d +asons' especia y as 7sidore is :uoted by the author o" our o d +SS& Constitutions ca ed the 5Cooke +S&'5 that' 5according to so!e phi osophers' the sou has a u!inous vehic e' ca ed 5star9 ike'5 5sun9 ike'5 and i!!orta ' %hich uci"or! body is shut up in this terrestria ,body/ as ight is in a dark antern&5 +oderns %ou d genera y use the ter!s sou 9body' and spirit' but 4 ato designates the "or!er a 5%inged chariot&5 Here the reader !ay be re!inded that a antern in "or! o" a "ive9pointed star ight' %as "or!er y used by +asons' in the !ost so e!n part o" their cere!onies& There are portions o" the 5$ivine 4oe!ander5 that !ust a ude to +ystery9rites3 5Hast thou not heard in the speeches' that "ro! one sou o" the universe are a those sou s' %hich in a the %or d are tossed up and do%n and severa y divided@ O" these sou s there are !any changes' so!e into a !ore "ortunate estate and so!e :uite contrary* "or they %hich are o" creeping things are changed into those o" %atery things' iving upon the and* and those o" things iving in the %ater to those o" things iving upon the and* and airy ones are changed into !en* and hu!an sou s that ay ho d o" i!!orta ity are changed into dae!ons&5MM5The Eey'5 iv' ;G&NN 5The ike a so happeneth to the! that go out o" the body* "or %hen the sou runs back into itse " the spirit is contracted into the b ood' and the sou into the spirit' but the !ind being !ade pure and "ree "ro! these c oathings' and being divine by nature' taking a "iery body rangeth abroad in every p ace' eaving the sou to 6udg!ent' and to the punish!ent it hath deserved&5MM57bid'5 =I&NN Again' in +acrobiusMM5$rea! o" Scipio&5NN says that the "irst death is %hen the sou "a s into the body 5as a sepu chre'5 and that 5the second is the natura death&5MMA trans ation by Arother (& (& (estcott has been recent y printed&NN 4 ato in his 5Hippias5 says3 5The supre!e Aeauty consists in their rese!b ance to the divine sun' or ight o" a inte igence5* he a so re"ers to Orpheus as ter!ing our natura body #R3Sig!a9iota9upsi on9!u9a pha ,so!a/ or #R3Sig!a9ga!!a9!u9a pha ,se!a/' a sepu chre& Hieroc es :uotes the Cha deans to the e""ect that' 5the orac es ca ed the etheria body' the thin and subt e vehic e or chariot o" the sou '5 Suidas te s us' out o" 7sidorus' a Spanish bishop o" the si2th century' %hat is interesting to C--=D o d +asons' especia y as 7sidore is :uoted by the author o" our o d +SS& Constitutions ca ed the 5Cooke +S&'5 that' 5according to so!e phi osophers' the sou has a u!inous vehic e' ca ed 5star9 ike'5 5sun9 ike'5 and i!!orta ' %hich uci"or! body is shut up in this terrestria ,body/ as ight is in a dark antern&5 +oderns %ou d genera y use the ter!s sou 9body' and spirit' but 4 ato designates the "or!er a 5%inged chariot&5 Here the reader !ay be re!inded that a antern in "or! o" a

"ive9pointed star ight' %as "or!er y used by +asons' in the !ost so e!n part o" their cere!onies& There are portions o" the 5$ivine 4oe!ander5 that !ust a ude to +ystery9rites3 5Hast thou not heard in the speeches' that "ro! one sou o" the universe are a those sou s' %hich in a the %or d are tossed up and do%n and severa y divided@ O" these sou s there are !any changes' so!e into a !ore "ortunate estate and so!e :uite contrary* "or they %hich are o" creeping things are changed into those o" %atery things' iving upon the and* and those o" things iving in the %ater to those o" things iving upon the and* and airy ones are changed into !en* and hu!an sou s that ay ho d o" i!!orta ity are changed into dae!ons&5MM5The Eey'5 iv' ;G&NN 5The ike a so happeneth to the! that go out o" the body* "or %hen the sou runs back into itse " the spirit is contracted into the b ood' and the sou into the spirit' but the !ind being !ade pure and "ree "ro! these c oathings' and being divine by nature' taking a "iery body rangeth abroad in every p ace' eaving the sou to 6udg!ent' and to the punish!ent it hath deserved&5MM57bid'5 =I&NN Again' in the dra!a o" the +ysteries3 5$ost thou not see ho% !any evi s the %icked sou su""ereth' roaring and crying out' && 7 a! burned' 7 a! consu!ed' 7 kno% not %hat to say or do' 7 a! devoured unhappy %retch' o" the evi s that co!pass and ay ho d upon !e' !iserab e that 7 a! 7 neither see nor hear && anything&5MM7bid' B<& ,Reprints by R& H& 0ryar' Aath' a so by $r& (& (& (estcott&/NN 7t necessari y "o o%s that to be ento!bed sy!bo ica y C--ID and raised there"ro!' as %as done in these +ysteries' %as e!b e!atica y' i" not actua y' to be spiritua ised or e2a ted out o" the body& Coup ed %ith this recondite teaching as regards the sou %as the theory o" RE+7N7SCENCE& According to this !ystic doctrine %hich %as advocated by 4 ato' Origen' and so!e o" the ear y Christian Aishops' as Synesius' a sou s have pre9e2istence and have descended "ro! the spiritua %or d into the earth y prison o" the body' but so!e sou s are !ore divine y advanced than others& Re!iniscence is there"ore that "acu ty o" kno% edge %hich the sou brings "ro! its heaven y source' never entire y obscured' and %hen its "acu ties are sti!u ated' by discip ine and a pious abandon!ent o" the passions' is the cause o" a civi ising in" uences and discoveries& +ore than this' but %e have said a that is necessary& Socrates'

at his tria by the Areopagus at Athens' and to the hour o" his death by he! ock' asserted the guidance o" his $ae!on' or tute ary spirit' and has the "o o%ing p aced to his credit by 4 ato in his 5Repub ic35 995The eye o" the sou ' %hich is b inded and buried by other studies' is a one natura y adapted to be resuscitated and e2cited by the !athe!atica discip ines&5 7t is a repetition o" he! ock' asserted the guidance o" his $ae!on' or tute ary spirit' and has the "o o%ing p aced to his credit by 4 ato in his 5Repub ic35 995The eye o" the sou ' %hich is b inded and buried by other studies' is a one natura y adapted to be resuscitated and e2cited by the !athe!atica discip ines&5 7t is a repetition o" &&&&&&&& the apotheg! o" the 4ersian $ervishes3 5The !an !ust die that the saint!ay be born5* it is the divine y i u!inated eye o" the Cabirian Cyc ops' and the a%akening or resuscitation o" the consciousness o" the divine i!age' i!p anted in the hu!an sou & As to the necessary Apprenticeship "or even the Lesser +ysteries' %e have so!e in"or!ation in the %ritings o" Theon o" S!yrna' %ho %as a discip e o" Euc id' and an editor o" his books& Theon is co!paring the "ive ibera sciences as necessary "or a !ystica y initiated phi osopher %ith the "ive preparations "or the +ysteries3 9 5Again it !ay be said that 4hi osophy is the 7nitiation into' and tradition o"' rea and true +ysteries* but o" 7nitiation there are "ive parts& That %hich has the precedency indeed' and is the "irst' is 4uri"ication& 0or the C--BD +ysteries are not i!parted to a %ho are %i ing to be initiated' but so!e persons are e2c uded by the voice o" the Crier' such as those %hose hands are not pure' and %hose speech is inarticu ate& 7t is a so necessary that those %ho are not e2c uded "ro! initiation shou d "irst undergo a certain puri"ication* but the second thing' a"ter puri"ication' is the 5Tradition5 o" the +ysteries& The third thing is deno!inated 57nspection&5 And the "ourth %hich is the end o" inspection' is binding the head and p acing on it 5Cro%ns*5 so that he %ho is initiated is no% ab e to de iver to others the +ysteries %hich he has received* %hether it be the +ysteries o" a Torchbearer' or the 7nterpreter o" the sacred cere!onies' or o" so!e other 4riesthood& Aut the "i"th thing %hich resu ts "ro! these is the 50e icity5 arising "ro! being dear to the divinity and the associate o" the gods& Con"or!ab y to these things ike%ise is the tradition o" the po itica doctrines' and in the "irst p ace a certain puri"ication is re:uisite' such && as the e2ercise "ro! youth in appropriate discip ines' "or E!pedoc es says' it is

necessary to be puri"ied "ro! de"i e!ents by dra%ing "ro! "ive "ountains in a &&&& vesse o" un!ing ed brass&Aut 4 aton says' that puri"ication is to be derived "ro! "ive discip ines' na!e y' Arith!etic' #eo!etry' Stereo!etry' +usic' and && Astrono!y&The tradition' ho%ever' by phi osophica ' ogica ' po itica ' and physica theories is si!i ar to 7nitiation& Aut 4 aton deno!inates the occupation about inte igib es 99true beings* and ideas Epopteia or inspection* and the abi ity "ro! %hat has been earned o" eading others to the sa!e theory !ust be considered ana ogous to binding the head' and being cro%ned* but the "i"th' and !ost per"ect thing' is the "e icity produced "ro! these' and' according to 4 aton' an assi!i ation as !uch as possib e to #od&5 So "ar Theon' and his essay is a !ost i!portant co!parison bet%een the re ative va ue o" phi osophy and the +ysteries* it !ight be %orth %hi e to ask ourse ves' %hether these 5"ive5 parts o" 7nitiation' "ive sciences' and "ive "ountains' have any re ation to the !ystic pentagon' C--FD CSy!bo 3 4entagra!D and the +asonic "ive points o" 0e o%ship' in the ancient aspect* "or in these o d ti!es the Libera arts and sciences %ere not seven' but "ive& (e are in"or!ed by $iodorus that the Egyptians had an especia veneration "or the nu!ber "ive' as they considered it to represent the 8niverse' because there %ere "ive e e!ents 99earth' %ater' air' "ire' and ether or spirit* and it is

note%orthy that it %as by these e e!ents that the %orthiness o" the Neophyte %as tested be"ore 7nitiation& 7t is re ated that %hen the e!inent Christian' Justin +artyr' app ied "or 7nitiation into the Society o" 4ythagoras' he %as asked %hether he had studied arith!etic' !usic' astrono!y' and geo!etry' as these a one %ere capab e o" abstracting the sou "ro! sensib es' and preparing it "or inte igib es3 as he cou d not rep y a""ir!ative y he %as re"used hat the %orthiness o" the Neophyte %as tested be"ore 7nitiation& 7t is re ated that %hen the e!inent Christian' Justin +artyr' app ied "or 7nitiation into the Society o" 4ythagoras' he %as asked %hether he had studied arith!etic' !usic' astrono!y' and geo!etry' as these a one %ere capab e o" abstracting the sou "ro! sensib es' and preparing it "or inte igib es3 as he cou d not rep y a""ir!ative y he %as re"used && ad!ission&MMO ivers 54ythagorean Triang e&5 ,John Hogg& London&NN (e see "ro! these e2tracts that the re:uire!ent o" the Libera arts and sciences %ere co!!on to Theosophy and 4hi osophy' as they %ere o" o d to 0ree!asonry' and is a proo"' to be added to !any others' that these three had one' and the sa!e origin' and %ere rites o" the sa!e 0e o%ship& $iscip ine %as !ade to precede 7nitiation into the +ysteries in the sa!e %ay that 0ree!asonry' having abandoned the teaching o" the arts' and especia y #eo!etry' no% re:uires a certain a!ount o" education "ro! its candidates& The Lesser +ysteries %ere intended to teach the sciences %hich the Art +ysteries trans!itted& The #reater +ysteries %ere essentia y spiritua ' && e!bracing !ans origin' rebirth or regeneration' and his "ina "e icity' and this passed to #nostics' +ystics' the Church' and the ater Rosicrucians& 7n e2p anation o" the ter!s 7nspection' and Seeing' Epoptae' %hich are "re:uent y used by %riters %ho co!!ent upon the +ysteries' %e %i give so!e :uotations to she% that the c ai! %as actua and not !etaphorica & Though not necessary to our sub6ect' %e !ay say' that 7a!b ichus in his etter upon the +ysteries' has e"t us in C--.D no doubt as to the signi"icance o" Epopteia or 7nspection' and Autopsia or Seeing' "or he repeats' over and over again in un!istakab e anguage' paragraph a"ter paragraph' the "act o" the visib e presence o" super!undane beings at the ce ebration o" the Theurgic rites&MM5On the +ysteries'5 par& ii' sec& iii to i2&NN These particu ars' %ere it necessary' are too ong "or insertion here' but he proceeds to de"ine %ith care' the appearance' "unctions' :ua ities and the good e""ects o" beho ding the gods' de"ining archange s' ange s' dae!ons or tute ary spirits' potentates or de!igods' hero9gods' and sou s' %ith a the authority o" one %ho had behe d and studied a their :ua ities& The !eans taken by these 4hi osophers "or inducing the deve op!ent o" seership' %as strict chastity and purity o" i"e' acco!panied by strict dietary' %ith "asts and prayer* princip es adopted in a the sacerdota

+ysteries "or superior 7nitiation& The "o o%ing is recorded by $a!askios as to the appearance o" the god in the +ysteries o" Serapis3 57n a !ani"estation %hich !ust not be revea ed' there is seen on the %a s o" the te!p e a !ass o" ight %hich appears at "irst at a very great distance& 7t is trans"or!ed' %hi st un"o ding itse "' into a visage evident y divine and supernatura ' by an aspect severe but %ith a touch o" s%eetness& 0o o%ing the teachings o" a !ysterious re igion' the A e2andrians honour it as Osiris or Adonis&5 This appearance corresponds' in its description' %ith %hat %as said o" Serapis in our ast chapter& 4orphyrios' circa ;B< A&$& records in his 5Li"e o" 4 otinos'5 that that 4hi osopher in order to satis"y the curiosity o" an Egyptian priest' repaired %ith hi! to the Te!p e o" 7sis in Ro!e' in order' as the !ost suitab e p ace' to invoke his tute ary $ae!on' %hich having done' a divine being !ade his appearance' apparent y so !uch above the rank o" the ordinary dae!ons as to great y astonish the Egyptian& The e!inent 4 atonist' Tho!as Tay or' trans ates a passage o" the 54haidros5 thus3 5Like%ise in conse:uence o" this

divine 7nitiation' %e beco!e spectators C-;<D o" entire' si!p e' i!!ovab e' and b essed visions' resident in a pure ight' and %ere ourse ves pure and i!!acu ate' and iberated "ro! the surrounding vest!ent %hich %e deno!inate body' and to %hich %e are bound' as an oyster to its she &5 4rok os' in his 5Co!!entary5 on the 5Repub ic o" 4 ato'5 has these %ords3 57n a 7nitiations and +ysteries' the gods e2hibit !any "or!s o" the!se ves' and appear in a variety o" shapes' so!eti!es a "or! ess ight' shining "ro! the!se ves' is thro%n "orth "or conte!p ation' so!eti!es the u!inosity is in a hu!an "igure' and so!eti!es it takes a di""erent shape'5 into a o" %hich b essed visions' resident in a pure ight' and %ere ourse ves pure and i!!acu ate' and iberated "ro! the surrounding vest!ent %hich %e deno!inate body' and to %hich %e are bound' as an oyster to its she &5 4rok os' in his 5Co!!entary5 on the 5Repub ic o" 4 ato'5 has these %ords3 57n a 7nitiations and +ysteries' the gods e2hibit !any "or!s o" the!se ves' and appear in a variety o" shapes' so!eti!es a "or! ess ight' shining "ro! the!se ves' is thro%n "orth "or conte!p ation' so!eti!es the u!inosity is in a hu!an "igure' and so!eti!es it takes a di""erent shape'5 into a o" %hich 7a!b ichus a so particu ar y enters& The %ondrous %orks o" Ho!er' 5The b ind o d !an o" Scio && s rocky is e'5 are as "u o" the appearance o" gods and ange s to !an' as the Je%ish Scriptures& 7n book iv& o" the 5Odyssey'5 in describing the descent o" 8 ysses into the Ci!!erian Cavern' eading to the abode o" sou s' he asserts that the "u!es o" the b ood o" the victi!s o""ered in sacri"ice' and s ain "or the purpose' %ere used by the shades o" the dead to reani!ate and strengthen their corporea "acu ties& +oses says' 5the b ood is the i"e&5 4ope thus %ords it' on the appearance o" the prophet or seer' Tiresias3 9 && 5Eagre he :ua"t the gore' and then e2prest $ark things to co!e' the counse s o" his breast&5 Again' %hen 8 ysses observes the %an and !e ancho y shade o" his !other' Antic ea' standing a oo"' Tiresias the Seer thus in"or!s hi!3 9 && 5Eno%' to the spectre' that thy beverages taste'

The scenes o" i"e rene%' and actions past&5 && And %hen the !other approaches her son s sacri"ice3 9 5(hen near Antic ea !oved' and drank the b ood' Straight a the !other in her sou a%akes' And o%ning her 8 ysses thus she speaks&5 St& Aasi instructs us in this' that 5the b ood being evaporated by "ire' and so attenuated' is taken into the substance o" their body&5 7t is said that in the E eusinian +ysteries the 7nitiate took the so e!n oath re:uired o" C-;-D hi!' standing upon the skins o" the ani!a s s ain in sacri"ice& The disgusting rites o" the Taurobo iu!' said to have been practised in so!e o" the +ysteries %ere o" the nature described* and it is a eged that %hen the Aspirant %as to receive this baptis! o" b ood' he %as put in a cha!ber' above %hich %as another %ith the " oor pierced %ith ho es* in this a bu %as s ain and the Aspirant received the cri!son strea! upon hi! in the o%er cha!ber& 4rudentius has the "o o%ing ines on the sub6ect3 99MM54erieteranon'5 v& p& -JI* 50rag!ents o" 7nitiation'5 Aro& 0& 0& Schnitger&NN 5A sa ute and adore hi! "ro! a"ar (ho is touched %ith this unc ean iness' And su ied %ith such recent sin9o""ering' Aecause the vi e b ood o" the dead o2

Has %ashed hi! %ho %as hid in "i thy caverns&5 thy caverns&5 The reader o" these pages %i no doubt re!ark that detai s o" such !atters have no re"erence to 0ree!asonry* that is so' but %e %ere !inded to she% o" %hat the +ysteries consisted' and %hat they actua y pro"essed and practised& Neverthe ess a arge a!ount o" a""inity %ith +asonic rites' and its sy!bo is!' %i be "ound in this chapter by the attentive observer' and considerab y !ore in the ne2t& The per"ect y !etaphysica !ind o" 4 ato e!inent y "itted hi! "or an e2ponent o" +ysteries %hich had reached hi! "ro! re!ote ages' and it !ay be said that the +ysteries %ere 4 atonis!' and that 4 atonis! %as the +ysteries' and in this sense %e !ay apt y app y the %ords o" Ra ph (a do E!erson' %ho says3 95 Out o" 4 ato co!e a things that are sti %ritten and debated a!ong !en o" thought&5 54 ato is phi osophy and phi osophy 4 ato* at once the g ory and the sha!e o" !ankind* since neither Sa2on nor Ro!an have avai ed to add any ideas to his categories&5 4 ato hi!se " ho ds that o" the = orders o" things ,o" %hich %e have 6ust %ritten/ on y J can be taught to the genera ity o" !en& C-;;D CHA4TER ?& 4H7LOSO4HY 7N RELAT7ON TO +ASON7C R7TES& (E !entioned in our ast chapter the introduction into the State +ysteries o" an inte ectua c ass %ho' as ay!en' %ere destined to e2ercise great in" uence upon succeeding generations& The !ost notab e %as 4ythagoras' %ho %as by birth a Sa!ian o" the period o" =B< A&C& He obtained initiation into the +ysteries o" various countries' and conso idated a that he had thus earned into a schoo o" his o%n' %hich he opened at Crotono in +agna #raecia& He con"erred upon hi!se " and pupi s the tit e o" 4hi osophers' or overs o" (isdo!' and 4hi osophy began to ay c ai! to a the (isdo! possessed by the +ysteries& 7t %as the "irst o" the Arcane Schoo s that sprang out o" the State +ysteries' in the sa!e %ay that private Lodges o" +asons sprang out o" the #enera Asse!b ies* and in the anguage o" +asons' the Schoo o" 4ythagoras %ou d be ter!ed a ne% Rite o" the +ysteries' but 4ythagoras %ent beyond specu ation' in a +asonic direction' by his practica vie%s upon the necessity o" studying the Libera Arts and Sciences' and though he " ourished near y t%o centuries be"ore 4 ato' and near y three centuries be"ore the ti!e o" Euc id' he !ade #eo!etry the basic p an o" a creation& The Rite o" 4ythagoras %as divided into three c asses or grades' and $r& #eorge O iver in his 5History o" 7nitiation'5 !akes the Schoo or Acade!y o" 4 ato' to consist e:ua y o" three degrees %ith 7nitiatory rites' but it is doubt"u %hether he had any better authority than %i be "ound in this section* it is "u o" +asonic doctrine C-;GD and sy!bo is! %hich !ust be e"t "or the reader to

app y& The 4ythagorean Rite %as E2oteric or pub ic in its teaching' and Esoteric or private in things intended "or his $iscip es' and a ike ru e %as "o o%ed by the Egyptian priests& The "irst step o" the Esoteric teaching %as an Apprenticeship o" "ive years o" si ence' %hich 7a!b ichus in"or!s us !ight be abridged in cases o" !erit* the Aspirants %ere ter!ed 5+athe!atici'5 because the grade e!bodied instruction in the Libera arts' and Hippo itus in"or!s us that $eity %as deno!inated 5#rand #eo!etrician*5 even as %e sa% that the Chinese ter!ed $eity the 50irst Aui der'5 and the 7ndian Art "raternity the 5#reat or $ivine Aui der&5 The brethren advanced to the second step %ere ter!ed 5Theori ici'5 and here they %ere instructed in the e e!ents o" divine %isdo!& Then "o o%ed the very se ect c ass o" 5E ecti'5 %ho %ere 4er"ect +asters& The Schoo had a series o" dark y9%orded apotheg!s' as "or instance' 5Stir not the "ire %ith a s%ord5 99be ca !& 5Abstain "ro! beans5 99be chaste& 7t had a so secret !odes o" recognition& Their brother y9 ove %as o"ten e2e!p i"ied in the !ost re!arkab e !anner' and their devotion to the Society' and its a%s' by the sacri"ice o" i"e itse "& 5The +aster has said it'5 %as an a 9 su""icient guide in their conduct& Esoteric or private in things intended "or his $iscip es' and a ike ru e %as "o o%ed by the Egyptian priests& The "irst step o" the Esoteric teaching %as an Apprenticeship o" "ive years o" si ence' %hich 7a!b ichus in"or!s us !ight be abridged in cases o" !erit* the Aspirants %ere ter!ed 5+athe!atici'5 because the grade e!bodied instruction in the Libera arts' and Hippo itus in"or!s us that $eity %as deno!inated 5#rand #eo!etrician*5 even as %e sa% that the Chinese ter!ed $eity the 50irst Aui der'5 and the 7ndian Art "raternity the 5#reat or $ivine Aui der&5 The brethren advanced to the second step %ere ter!ed 5Theori ici'5 and here they %ere instructed in the e e!ents o" divine %isdo!& Then "o o%ed the very se ect c ass o" 5E ecti'5 %ho %ere 4er"ect +asters& The Schoo had a series o" dark y9%orded apotheg!s' as "or instance' 5Stir not the "ire %ith a s%ord5 99be ca !& 5Abstain "ro! beans5 99be chaste& 7t had a so secret !odes o" recognition& Their brother y9 ove %as o"ten e2e!p i"ied in the !ost re!arkab e !anner' and their devotion to the Society' and its a%s' by the sacri"ice o" i"e itse "& 5The +aster has said it'5 %as an a 9 su""icient guide in their conduct& Ovid in his 5+eta!orphosis5 has an essay upon 4ythagoras and his doctrines3 995(hy dread such !ere visions as death and Hades@ Sou s cannot die* they on y eave one body to enter another' as 7 ,4ythagoras/ kno% by e2perience %ho %as once Eupherbus' and recognised the shie d 7' in his person bore& $eath is !ere change* the breath goes "orth "ro! one body to enter another ,be it hu!an or ani!a / but beneath di""erent shapes the sou re!ains substantia y the sa!e& Hence the horror o" ki ing creatures' it !ay be' tenanted by kindred sou s& Aut one !ay go "urther and say' that not sou s a one' but a things shi"t and pass 99night and day' the hues o" the sky and sun' and the shapes o" the !oon& The seasons' the year' changes in correspondence %ith the ages o" !an' C-;JD Spring ans%ering to youth' Su!!er to pri!e' Autu!n to !aturity' and (inter to o d age&5 4orphyrios' %ho %as a Tyrian o" the na!e o" +e ek' in"or!s us that the

nu!era s o" 4ythagoras are hierog yphic sy!bo s' by %hich he e2p ained a ideas concerning the nature o" things' and hence o" the nature o" the sy!bo s to %hich %e have previous y a uded& 7t is said that he taught the true Astrono!y' ter!ed 5+esouranios'5 as typi"ying the sun in its re ation to revo utions o" the p anetary bodies& Nor need %e "ee surprised at the kno% edge %hich this i!p ies' as the ?edas and Shastras o" the Hindus indicate a conception that the earth %as round and the p anets in revo ution' at east ;'<<< A&C&MM?ide 57sis 8nvei ed'5 i' p& -<* a so ii' p& -;F&NN 4ythagoras %as 7nitiated in Egypt a"ter severe tria s' and 4orphyrios states that he %as initiated in Aaby on by Harades' but it is doubt"u %hether this person or even Horoaster %ere na!es o" persons& Har9ades !ay be interpreted by Na91ar9ad' vo%ed or separated' and Har9ades !ay be a chie" or Rab9!ag' %hi st Horoaster !ay have been a Hara o" 7shter' and Herubabe the Horo or Na1ar o" Aaby on' a Na1arene and reco oniser o" Jerusa e!&MM?ide 57sis 8nvei ed'5 i' p& -<* a so ii' p& -;F&NN 4ythagoras c ai!ed that a things %ere created by #eo!etry and nu!bers' or as his "o o%er 4 ato e2presses it' 5#od perpetua y #eo!etrises&5 Censorinus thus deve ops his doctrine o" the 5Har!ony o" the spheres53 54ythagoras asserted that the %ho e %or d is !ade according to !usica proportion' and that the seven p anets bet%een heaven and earth have an

har!onious !otion and interva s' correspondent to the !usica diaste!es' and render various sounds according to their severa heights' so consonant that they !ake the !ost s%eet !e ody' but to us inaudib e by reason o" the greatness o" the noise' %hich the narro% passage o" our ear is not capab e to receive&5 Our o d +asonic +SS& a ege that Jaba discovered the !usica notes by istening to the sound o" the ha!!ers o" Tuba Cain' and tradition C-;=D assigns the discovery to 4ythagoras by the sa!e chance& render various sounds according to their severa heights' so consonant that they !ake the !ost s%eet !e ody' but to us inaudib e by reason o" the greatness o" the noise' %hich the narro% passage o" our ear is not capab e to receive&5 Our o d +asonic +SS& a ege that Jaba discovered the !usica notes by istening to the sound o" the ha!!ers o" Tuba Cain' and tradition C-;=D assigns the discovery to 4ythagoras by the sa!e chance& The #reeks !ention the visit o" a !an o" the na!e o" Abaris "ro! the Hyperborean regions* he appeared at Athens carrying a bo% and :uiver' girt %ith a gi ded be t' and a p aid round his body& He %as a earned !an' instructed in #reek' very 6udicious' and To and she%s hi! to have been a $ruid "ro! the Hebrides& 4ythagoras had no reserve %ith hi!' nor the $ruid %ith hi!' and they parted %ith !utua estee!& 7t is said !etaphorica y that Abaris she%ed 4ythagoras the sacred arro% %hich Apo o used against the Cyc ops by %hich %e are to understand $ruidica astrono!y' and !agic or in Ce tic 5dry'5 to %hich the Ang o9Sa2ons added cra"t' deno!inating +agic $rycra"t& 4ythagorean C ubs or Schoo s %ere estab ished at Crotona' Sybaris' +etapontu!' Tarentu!' and other p aces in +agna #raecia* and Cicero says that he died at +etapontu!& The dates assigned to his birth vary "ro! I<F and =B< A&C&' and o" his death J.B to JB; A&C& The 4hi osopher 4 ato' %ho died at a great age in the year GJB A&C& %as so !uch attached to #eo!etry' %hich the o d +asonic Constitutions te us %as the origina na!e o" +asonry' that he %rote over his study3 5Let none enter here %ho are ignorant o" #eo!etry5* in his 5Repub ic5 he says that 5#eo!etry right y treated is the kno% edge o" the eterna 5* and in 5Ti!aeus5 he says' that 4ythagoras "irst brought #eo!etry to per"ection* but Herodotus and 7a!b ichus say that #eo!etry %as per"ected in Egypt' o%ing to the necessity o" surveying their ands a"ter the over" o% o" the Ni e* that is it had to be app ied to the practica purpose o" and!easuring' and one o" the probab e derivations o" the %ord +ason !ay be deduced "ro! this use o" #eo!etry& The poet Chaucer' %ho %as a C erk o" (orks to the Eing and there"ore in constant contact %ith +asons' uses the o d %ord 5+ase5 to signi"y an artistic bui ding' and 5to !ase5 is to think out* and Erause observes that' in a !ost every tongue' !9t' !9s' !et1' !ess' !as1' is used C-;ID to de"ine the boundaries o" an ob6ect' and in genera '

invent' according to !easure& 7n Latin %e have !ansio' a day to && to !easure' to %ork s 6ourney' and +acerieo' a boundary %a ' hence our %ord !ansion& The ter! +ase has no% passed out o" use' but at the period %hen the %ord +acon arose %as %e understood& Our ancient +SS& distinct y state that in ear y Sa2on ti!es the %ord %as not in use and the Cra"t %as designated #eo!etry* %e !ay there"ore seek the origin o" the %ord in the Teutonic& 7n the 5So!neri $ictionariu! Sa2onicoLatino9 Ang icu!'5 O2on& -IF.' %e have a %ord %hich covers %hat %e seek 99 +assa' or 5+aca' par ocius' censors' con6u2' a peer' an e:ua ' a co!panion' a !ate&5 7t is there"ore a ter! e:ua y app icab e either to the Society or the trade& The bui ders %ere +asons because they %ere Sociates and 0e o%s o" Cra"t' and the trade %as the sa!e because the Sociates !ade and !ated the stones to "or! a bui ding& The %ord +assa' a tab e' a !ate' indicates "e o%ship&

Arother (!& S& Rockvi e has ha1arded a derivation "ro! the Coptic 5+ai5 to ove' and 5Son5 a brother' %hich is :uite app icab e phi o ogica y' and he points out that the hierog yphic o" the "irst %ord is a sick e' p ough' or scythe' and o" the second a chise ' or a sea is used&MM5+is& Notes and Lueries'5 2i' p& ;* a so ove' and 5Son5 a brother' %hich is :uite app icab e phi o ogica y' and he points out that the hierog yphic o" the "irst %ord is a sick e' p ough' or scythe' and o" the second a chise ' or a sea is used&MM5+is& Notes and Lueries'5 2i' p& ;* a so && 50ree!asons +ag&5 -FI=&NN #eo!etry %as the chie" :ua i"ication "or the Arcane Schoo s' as %e as "or +asonry' and the "o o%ing %hich 4 ato gives in the 54hi ebos'5 and perhaps derives "ro! an o der source' appears a so in the +asonic +SS&3 5A arts re:uire Arith!etic' +ensuration' and Statics' a o" %hich are co!prehended in the +athe!atica science' and are bounded by the princip es %hich it contains' "or the distribution o" nu!bers' the variety o" !easures' and the di""erence o" %eights are kno%n by this science&5 Aut 4rok os !akes #eo!etry to be a so the basis o" re igion' and con"ir!s %hat %as stated in our ast chapter' "or he says3 995The !athe!atica discip ines %ere invented by the 4ythagoreans' in order to be a re!iniscence o" divine C-;BD concerns' at %hich through these' as SY+AOLS' they endeavour to arrive&5 Even at the present day #eo!etry and its diagra!s are the technica anguage o" Architects by %hich they convey their ideas to each other' and %hich they have inherited %ith the Cra"t o" the ancient +asonic Society& 7t "o o%s that architecture is the best schoo in %hich to study specu ative geo!etry' and there !ust a %ays have e2isted a c ose re ationship bet%een operative +asonry and Specu ative 4hi osophy' based as the atter is' to a great e2tent' upon geo!etrica science& There !ust be a good reason %hy o d +asonic +SS& coup e a the sciences %hich go to "or! a ibera education* and though it !ay see! incongruous to coup e gra!!ar and ogic' %ith :ua i"ications necessary to bui d houses' %e can give very ancient #reek evidence to prove its necessity and bearing& A!!onius Saccus says3 50or in genera the end o" theory is the beginning o" practice* and so reciproca y the end o" practice the beginning o" theory& Thus' "or instance' an Architect' being && ordered to bui d a house' says to hi!se "' 7 a! ordered to bui d a house* that is to say a certain de"ence to protect against the rains and the heats& &&

cannot be %ithout a roo" or covering& Aut this 5 0ro! this point there"ore he begins his theory& He proceeds and says' 5Aut there can be no roo" i" there be no %a s* and there can be no %a s %ithout so!e "oundations* nor can there be aid "oundations %ithout opening the earth&5 At this point the theory is at an end& Hence' there"ore' co!!ences the practice or action& 0or' "irst' he opens the earth' then ays the "oundation' then raises the %a s' and ast y puts on the roo" %hich is the end o" the action or practice' as the beginning o" the practice %as the end o" the theory& And thus a so the phi osopher does* being %i ing to "or! a de!onstration he says to hi!se "3 57 a! %i ing to speak concerning de!onstration& Aut inas!uch as de!onstration is a scienti"ic sy ogis!' it is i!possib e to say anything concerning it %ithout "irst saying %hat is a sy ogis!* nor can C-;FD %e earn %hat is si!p y a sy ogis! %ithout having "irst earned %hat is a proposition* "or propositions are certain sentences* and it is a co ection o" such sentences that "or! a sy ogis!* so that %ithout kno%ing propositions it is i!possib e to earn %hat is a sy ogis!' because it is out o" these that a sy ogis! is co!pounded& 0urther than this' it is i!possib e to kno% a proposition %ithout kno%ing nouns and verbs out o" %hich is co!posed every species o" sentence' or to kno% nouns and verbs %ithout kno%ing sounds articu ate or si!p e %ords' inas!uch as each o" these is a

&& sound articu ate having a !eaning&5 The sa!e %riter speaks o" 5the practica and the specu ative part o" 4hi osophy&5 4 ato in his 5Repub ic'5 !akes Socrates to say3 57t is indeed no conte!ptib e !atter' though a di""icu t one' to be ieve that through these particu ar sciences ,arith!etic' !usic' geo!etry' and astrono!y/ the sou has an organ puri"ied and en ightened' %hich is destroyed and b inded by studies o" other kinds* an organ better %orth saving than a thousand eyes* inas!uch as truth beco!es visib e through this a one&5 An i!portant part o" the +ytho ogies o" various peop es %as "ounded upon T(O 47LLARS' %here the sciences %ere a eged to be %ritten* and the o d +asonic +SS& state that Her!es and 4ythagoras respective y "ound the 4i ars o" stone and brick or 5 atres5 upon %hich the antede uvian sciences had been engraved& 7a!b ichus asserts that these t%o 4i ars %ere preserved in the te!p e o" A!en at Thebes' and 4orphyrios' the 4 atonic phi osopher' having addressed a etter o" en:uiry upon the +ysteries and their doctrine' to 5Anebo the Egyptian 4rophet'5 probab y o" a "i"th order o" priests estab ished by the 4to e!ies in a Synod' is thus ans%ered by 7a!b ichus in a etter entit ed' 5The Rep y o" Ab9A!!on the +aster' to the Letter o" 4orphyrios to Anebo53 9 5Her!es' the patron o" earning' in ancient ti!es' %as right y considered to be a god in %ho! the %ho e sacerdota Order participated& The One %ho presides over C-;.D true kno% edge is one' and the sa!e' every%here& Our ancestors dedicated to hi! their %ise discoveries' and na!ed their respective treatises 5Aooks o" Her!es&5 & & & & 7t %ou d not be beco!ing that 4ythagoras' 4 aton' $e!okritos' Eudo2es' and !any other o" the o d #reeks' shou d have been ab e to receive instruction "ro! the Sacred Scribes o" their ti!e %hen you' our o%n conte!porary ho ding senti!ents ike theirs' are disappointed in your endeavour by those no% iving' and sty ed 4ub ic Teachers& & & & & Aut i" you press an en:uiry a"ter the !ethod o" the 4hi osophers' %e %i ad6udicate it according to the ancient 54i ars o" Her!es'5 %hich 4 aton and 4ythagoras have a ready recognised and co!bined %ith their o%n phi osophica !a2i!s& & & & & The kno% edge o" the gods is innate and pertains to the very substance o" our being& & & & & 0ro! the beginning it %as one %ith its o%n source' and %as coe2istent %ith the inherent i!pu se o" the sou to the supre!e goodness&5 There is a together !uch a!biguity and uncertainty as to the nature o" these 5T%o 4i ars'5 but it is evident "ro! the "oregoing' that they %ere !uch !ore than a !ere record o" the %or d y arts& They probab y stood "or t%o very ancient traditiona 4i ars' used in the pri!itive +ysteries' %hich %ere copied in the 54etro!a5 o" the te!p es o" the various +ysteries o" the %or d' "ro! %hich the sacred a%s %ere read to the 7nitiate' as in the t%o tab ets o" +oses in the Je%ish a%& There %as an ancient Aaby onian tradition that these T%o Tab ets %ere buried by >isithrus' the Cha dean Noah' beneath the "oundation stone o" the to%er o" Aorsippa' or Aabe &MMA&L&C&' v' pt& ; 995Har9!oad&5NN +any kings sought "or the! in vain' unti the ti!e o" Nabunahid' %ho

pro"essed' i" %e are to be ieve his inscription' to have discovered the!& Josephus says that one o" these 4i ars e2isted in Syria' in his days& (hat he sa% %as probab y a pi ar recording so!e Egyptian con:uest& $iodorus Sicu us repeats a tradition that the Egyptians attributed to Thoth or Her!es the discovery C-G<D o" geo!etry' arith!etic' astrono!y' astro ogy' and the sciences* and as the 5!ethod o" the phi osophers'5 re"erred to by 7a!b ichus' %as to e!p oy geo!etrica sy!bo s as a !ethod o" teaching Theosophy' the 54i ars o" Her!es5 %ou d appear to cover such re"erence in the :uotation&

+anetho' the Egyptian priest %ho co!pi ed the anna s o" his order "or the 4to e!ies' says3 5The second Her!es' ca ed Tris!egistus' trans ated' or rather transcribed into vu gar a phabetica characters' %hat the "irst Her!es had %rote in hierog yphica characters upon pi ars o" stone&5 Her!es is the #reek na!e "or the Egyptian Thoth' and this second o" the na!e is be ieved to have been a Roya scribe o" +enes the "irst Eing o" Egypt' the "irst Thoth %as a pri!itive traditiona prophet' and the na!e' as 7a!b ichus has to d us' o" a god o" Reve ation& s order "or the 4to e!ies' says3 5The second Her!es' ca ed Tris!egistus' trans ated' or rather transcribed into vu gar a phabetica characters' %hat the "irst Her!es had %rote in hierog yphica characters upon pi ars o" stone&5 Her!es is the #reek na!e "or the Egyptian Thoth' and this second o" the na!e is be ieved to have been a Roya scribe o" +enes the "irst Eing o" Egypt' the "irst Thoth %as a pri!itive traditiona prophet' and the na!e' as 7a!b ichus has to d us' o" a god o" Reve ation& The great +aster o" #eo!etry that "o o%ed 4 ato' a"ter a apse o" about a century' %as a Tyrian by birth o" the na!e o" Euc id' %ho opened an Acade!y o" the Sciences at A e2andria under the 4to e!ies& He %as beyond doubt a 4 atonist' and described as such by 4orphyrios in his 5Li"e o" 4 otinos'5 a phi osopher born at Lykopo is in Egypt' ;<= A&$& The %ords o" 4orphyrios are thus trans ated3 57n the "irst c ass o" the 4 atonists there %ere Euk ides' $e!okritos' and 4rok inos %ho ived near Troy& & & & & O" those phi osophers' there"ore' %ho %ere authors so!e produced nothing !ore than a co ection and transcription o" the re!ains o" the ancients' as Euk ides' $e!okritos' and 4rok inos&5 (e see "ro! this that Euc id did no !ore than reproduce %hat had e2isted "ro! ancient ti!es' and hence it is not %ithout so!e sho% o" authority that ater scribes o" the +asonic +SS& have substituted the na!e o" Her!es "or Euc id' as the author o" the Constitutiona Charges' and as a !atter o" "act Her!es %as' in a sense' their re!ote originator& At this distant era there %ere on y "ive ibera arts and sciences' and the assi!i ation o" these to the "ive parts o" the +ysteries %as she%n in our ast chapter& 7n the --th century o" our era these had been increased to C-G-D seven' in t%o divisions' designated the 5Triviu!5 %hich co!prised gra!!ar' rhetoric' and ogic' and the 5Luadriviu!5 %hich inc uded arith!etic' geo!etry' !usic' and astrono!y& 7n %hat has gone be"ore %e have various i ustrations o" the use o" the cross as a pre9Christian sy!bo in the re igious +ysteries' and in these !inor Arcane Schoo s o" phi osophy the sy!bo ic cross is pro!inent& Aeschy us' the author o" 54ro!etheus Aound'5 re egates this Cabiric god to a si!i ar punish!ent on Caucasus "or stea ing the "ire o" the gods %ith %hich to endo% !ankind' and he hi!se " narro% y escaped death under a suspicion that he had revea ed so!e o" the !ystic doctrine& 4 ato advances that the Logos' or second person o" his trinity' had i!pressed hi!se " upon the %or d in the shape o" an C5>5D' or &&

St& Andre% s cross' as it is no% ter!ed* as this sy!bo is one o" the "or!s used && to e2press the union o" t%o generative princip es it !ay be 4 ato s secret %ay o" e2pressing that& The 7ndian #ui ds say' as previous y !entioned' that the $ivine Aui der cruci"ied his son Surya ,the Sun/ upon his Lathe %hich is the Svastica CSy!bo 3 S%astikaD cross& A the #ui ds' both ancient and !odern' in one o" the higher degrees' has a sy!bo ic cruci"i2ion at High >77& at noon' %hich is "ounded upon the aying o" the 0oundation stone o" a Te!p e on the = 4oints' by G' J' =' ang e& Aut it goes "ar beyond this' as there %as every%here an actua sacri"ice o" hu!an i"e to ensure sa"ety to the bui ding* and the assertion' traditiona ' o" && course' is that it occurred at the erection o" So o!on s te!p e' and it certain y had p ace in our o d Eng ish churches even& The te!p e o" So o!on %as a G to - structure' I< 2 ;< cubits' the pyra!ids have a s:uare basis' and there"ore a Coptic #ui d %ou d ay do%n a per"ect s:uare& The +ysteries %ere no !ore than a #ui d' and had e:ua y the sa!e rite& ?itruvius gives the C5>5D cross as a

canon o" proportion o" the hu!an "igure' the centre o" the cross being the nave o" the body& This %as in Egypt 5%here a so our Lord %as cruci"ied5 C-G;D ,Rev& o" the body& This %as in Egypt 5%here a so our Lord %as cruci"ied5 C-G;D ,Rev& 2i& F/* a con"ession o" 7nitiation' 5cruci"ied be"ore the sun5 as the +ystics say& +inucius 0e i2' a Christian' taunts the Ro!ans the!se ves %ith the %orship o" %ooden gods' and says3 5Your victorious trophies not on y represent a cross' but a cross %ith a !an upon it&5 ?arious %riters o" the 4 atonic schoo treat o" the 54er"ect +an5 in the ight o" e!bracing a the virtues %hich ead to happiness' but %hich are never "ound co!bined in one individua & 7t is in this idea o" a per"ect y virtuous !an that %e !ust ook "or such %orks as the Egypto9#reek i"e o" 4ythagoras' the #reco9 Ro!an i"e o" Apo onius* and e2e!p i"ied to the "u in the #reco9Je%ish i"e o" Jesus o" Na1areth& The ;nd and Grd Aooks o" the 5Repub ic5 o" 4 ato teach that goodness to be apparent !ust be stripped o" a adventitious circu!stances' and that a rea y good !an %i "ind so !uch opposition in the %or d that 5he %i be scourged' tor!ented' bound' his eyes put out' and die by cruci"i2ion a"ter he has endured a these evi s&5 Again' 5a good !an %i be tor!ented' "urious y treated' have his hands cut o""' his eyes put out' %i be bound' conde!ned' and burnt&5 Lactantius :uotes Seneca as using si!i ar anguage& #rotius' "ro! %ho! %e take our trans ation' considers that 4 ato %rites prophetica y' but' a"ter the a usions !ade in previous chapters' %e !ay be pardoned i" %e ook upon the! as app ied to certain things in the +ysteries' %hich assigned a reason in the danger o" !aking the Arcane doctrines too pub ic& The ancient Sybi s' or inspired prophetesses o" the +ysteries' have si!i ar anguage& AugustineMM$e civ& $ei' ib& 2viii' c& ;G&NN thus :uotes the Erythrean Sybi 3 5He %i "a into the hosti e hands o" the %icked* %ith poisonous spitt e %i they spit upon hi!' on his sacred back they %i strike hi!* they %i cro%n hi! %ith a cro%n o" thorns* they %i give hi! ga "or "ood' and vinegar to drink 99"ive "or!s o" tria & The ?ei o" the te!p e %i be rent' and at !idday there %i be a darkness o" three hours' and he %i die' C-GGD repose in s eep' and then in 6oy"u ight he %i co!e again as at "irst&5 One o" these Sybi s had the "o o%ing Orac e to de iver3 9 5Then sudden y a sign "or !orta !en sha be' && (hen out o" Egypts and a stone !ost "air sha co!e sa"eguarded&5 Ce sus accuses the Christians o" interpo ating passages "ro! these Orac es 5%ithout understanding their !eaning'5 "ro! %hich %e gather that they had a !ystica re"erence& The vei that is rent is that o" the Sacred Curtain o" Apo o' and ?irgi has ascribed to his patron the co!ing g ories o" the age o" go d& 7n the te!p e o" 4hi ae in Egypt there is an o d9ti!e painting o" a !an aid upon a

cruci"or! bier as eep' over hi! stand t%o persons %ho are pouring upon his && head %ater in %hich appears the sacred tau9cross' %hi st the suns rays strike upon hi!* and it is evident that such an 7nitiate is represented by a cube opened out as a Latin cross' the top s:uare having a !an && s head' in the sa!e te!p e& (e !entioned this species o" cruci"i2ion in our ast chapter' %here the 7nitiate %as carried into the o%er crypt o" the te!p e& Socrates Scho asticus in re"erring to crosses "ound in the te!p e o" Serapis' %hen it %as sacked by the Christians' says3 5The Christians contended that the cross be onged to the +aster' Jesus Christ' %hich they a so %hich understood these rites

!aintained* the #enti es on the contrary !aintaining that the cross %as co!!on both to Jesus Christ and Serapis&5 An e!inent Catho ic divine says that the cross is 5the hidden +ystery' a scanda to the Je%s' and "o y to the #enti es' o" %hich 4au %rites&5 0oucart !entions a treatise by a discip e o" 4ythagoras entit ed' 5The passing into the invisib e %or d' or the $escent into Hades&5 co!!on both to Jesus Christ and Serapis&5 An e!inent Catho ic divine says that the cross is 5the hidden +ystery' a scanda to the Je%s' and "o y to the #enti es' o" %hich 4au %rites&5 0oucart !entions a treatise by a discip e o" 4ythagoras entit ed' 5The passing into the invisib e %or d' or the $escent into Hades&5 7n the ancient +ystery anguage o" pre9Christian ti!es' and %ith the #nostics' and in the Arcane $iscip ine o" the church' Chrestos !eant a $iscip e' %hi st Christos %as one anointed' puri"ied' and accepted& Aoeckhos' in 5Corpus 7nscriptione!'5 she%s that it %as an epithet app ied C-GJD to the departed' or the saved and redee!ed' o" pre9Christian ti!es' Aeschy us speaks o" the +anteu!ata 4ythocresta' or orac es o" the 4ythoness' in %hich Chrestos beco!es the e2pounder o" Orac es& Justin +artyr' in his Apo ogy' speaks o" Chrestians' and Lactantius ,iv& c& F/ says that 5it is on y through ignorance that !en ca the!se ves Christians' instead o" Chrestians&5 As the +ysteries had a sy!bo ic death so had the +inor Arcane Schoo s' but the anguage o" the atter has a very rea istic character' and %e %i see %hat has been said on this sub6ect* "irst :uoting Her!ias in his 5Co!!entary on the 4haidros35 5The %ord #R3tau9epsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9tau9upsi on ,te ete/ or 7nitiation %as so deno!inated "ro! rendering the sou per"ect* the sou %as there"ore once per"ect& Aut here it is divided' and is not ab e to energise %ho y by itse "& Aut it is necessary to kno% that Te ete' +uesis' and Epopteia' di""er "ro! each other& Te ete there"ore is ana ogous to that %hich is preparatory to puri"ications& Aut +uesis' %hich is so ca ed "ro! c osing the eyes' is !ore divine& 0or to c ose the eyes in 7nitiation is no onger to receive by sense those divine +ysteries' but %ith the pure sou itse "' and Epopteia is to be estab ished and beco!e a spectator o" the +ysteries&5 Synesius in his treatise on 54rovidence'5 as trans ated by Tho!as Tay or' says3 5You a so %ho have been initiated in those +ysteries in %hich there are t%o pairs o" eyes' and it is re:uisite that the pair %hich are beneath shou d be c osed' %hen the pair %hich are above the! perceive' and %hen the pair above are c osed' those %hich are be o% shou d be opened&5 This !eans that the spiritua eyes !ust be used "or spiritua things& Aishop (arburton' in his 5$ivine Legation'5 :uotes an ancient %riter' preserved by Stobaeus' as saying3 5The !ind is a""ected in death' 6ust as it is in the #rand +ysteries' and %ord ans%ers to %ord' as thing to thing' "or #R3tauepsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9upsi on9tau9epsi on9iota9upsi on ,te euteiu/ is to die and #R3tau9epsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9iota9sig!a9theta9a pha9iota ,te eisthai/ is to be initiated&5 Ay the %ord #rand is !eant the #reater +ysteries %hich rese!b e the +aster +ason& C-G=D 4 utarch has so!e passages %hich striking y

i ustrate the doctrines o" the +ysteries and the re ation o" these to Ceres and 4ersephone& This %riter says3 5No% o" the deaths %e die one !akes !an t%o out o" three' and the other one out o" t%o& The "or!er is in the region and 6urisdiction o" $e!eter' %hence the na!e given in the +ysteries #R3tauepsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9iota9upsi on' rese!b ing that given to death #R3tauepsi on9 a!bda9epsi on9iota9tau9a pha9epsi onC@D& The Athenians a so hereto"ore ca ed the deceased sacred to $e!eter& As to the other death it is in the +oon or region o" 4ersephone&5 The "irst separation is into %hat he ter!s 5the +eado%s o" Hades'5 situate bet%een the earth and the !oon' %here the sou %anders "or a !ore or ess period' %here it p ucks the sou vio ent y "ro!

the body' but 4ersephone !i d y and in a ong ti!e dis6oins the understanding "ro! the sou 5* that is separates the higher and o%er se " %hich is the second death' 5as i" they %ere returning "ro! a %andering pi gri!age' or ong e2i e' into their country' %here they have a taste o" 6oy' such as they principa y receive %ho are initiated into sacred +ysteries' !i2ed %ith troub e' ad!iration' "ro! the sou 5* that is separates the higher and o%er se " %hich is the second death' 5as i" they %ere returning "ro! a %andering pi gri!age' or ong e2i e' into their country' %here they have a taste o" 6oy' such as they principa y receive %ho are initiated into sacred +ysteries' !i2ed %ith troub e' ad!iration' && and each one s proper and pecu iar hope&5 This o" course re"ers to actua death' the 5three5 being body' sou ' and spirit' and the 5t%o5 sou and spirit& These :uotations a app y rather to the State +ysteries than the Arcane Schoo s o" 4hi osophy' but %e have other passages& The "o o%ing is "ound in the 5Au2i iaries5 o" 4orphyrios ,printed by 0icinus the restorer o" the 4 atonic Acade!y at Ro!e in the -=th century/3 5Hence there is a t%o9"o d death' the one universa y kno%n' by %hich the body is iberated "ro! the sou * the other pecu iar to phi osophers' by %hich the sou is iberated "ro! the body* nor does the one at a "o o% the other&5 Ce sus speaks o" a 4agan priest %ho cou d vo untari y per"or! the separation o" sou and body' 5and ay ike one dead void o" i"e and sense&5MM5Anato!y o" +e ancho y5 ,Aurton/&NN The 54hedon5 o" 4 ato has severa si!i ar passages' o" %hich' in order not to tire the reader' %e %i take but one3 5No% %e have she%n that in C-GID order to trace the truth or purity o" anything' %e shou d ay aside the body and on y e!p oy the sou to e2a!ine the ob6ects %e pursue&5 +r& Robert Aro%n' in his 5#reat $ionysiac +yth'5 says in a usion to the Ha o" Arcane rites' or the 5sekos'5 a %ord itera y !eaning sheep9"o d but %hich ca!e to signi"y the interior o" a te!p e3 5Here' deep y e2cited and agitated by a they had gone through' ready to be ieve anything' and everything' in that state o" abstinence %hich is' or is supposed to be' !ost "avourab e to the reception o" supernatura disp ays' and their !inds !ore or ess a""ected by drugs' and their %ho e being per!eated %ith the i!pression and e2pectation o" the !orethan9 !orta ' they %ere a o%ed to SEE&5 (e have here to re!e!ber that the +ysteries re:uired a ong and protracted "ast' and the passages that %e have :uoted state c ear y enough that an u tra9 natura state %as produced& (hat in these ti!es is ca ed hypnotis!' !es!eris!' trance' %as %e kno%n to the ancients& 4roc os' :uoting && C earchus5Treatise on S eep'5 !entions a %and %ith %hich the operator' upon gent y striking a boy' dre% his sou a distance "ro! his body' "or the purpose o" proving that the body is %ithout sensation %hen the sou is taken a%ay' and'

&& by !eans o" his rod' he again restored the sou to the body&MMO ivers 5Hist& Land!arks&5 ii' p& I-J&NN The %ritings o" the ear y Christian 0athers a""ord !uch testi!ony o" the pheno!ena' and the Aenedictine cere!ony o" covering the ne% y received +onk %ith a "unerea pa ' e:ua y %ith a certain +asonic cere!ony' is an e2oteric re"erence to it& 7t is re ated by Hugh' a +onk o" Sa tery in Huntingdonshire' that a so dier o" Eing Stephen o" Eng and visited 5St& 4atrick & s Ho e'5 in $onega ' and a"ter a "ast o" nine days' as in the +ysteries' %as aid in a kind o" grave' %here a vie% o" 4aradise %as she%n to hi!' the %ho e o" %hich account reads ike a paraphrase o" the descent o" Aeneas into Tartarus and E ysiu!& 7t a so rese!b es the re ation in the +eta!orphosis o" Apu eius' C-GBD o" his initiation into the +ysteries o" 7sis and Serapis' and as the atter +ystery %as introduced into the Christian Church' as the Arcane $iscip ine' and e:ua y c ai!ed supernatura appearances as a part o" the "aith' %e need be at no oss to account "or these re ations& The $ruses o" Lebanon' on the testi!ony o" 4ro"essor A& L& Ra%son' %ho is hi!se "

an 7nitiate' re:uire an interva o" "asting' o" !ore or ess ength according to circu!stances' %ith a tota "ast on the day o" 7nitiation' by %hich regi!en a species o" Epopteia is produced %hich the 4ro"essor ter!s !enta i usion or s eep9%akingMMLetter in 57sis 8nvei ed'5 ii' p& G-G&NN& The sa!e pheno!ena is "ound in the Yogi' or 5t%ice born'5 and kno%n in certain Rites o" the $ervishes& 7t is a !ost certain that certain rites o" the Egyptians have passed to the A"ricans' and Heckethorn' and other %riters' have she%n that there e2ists on that Continent' and in other p aces %here the race has carried the 7nitiation' a society ca ed the A !useri' %ith secret rites si!i ar to those o" the Orphic and Cabiric +ysteries& The reception takes p ace once a year in a %ood' and the candidate is supposed to die* at the appointed hour the 7nitiates surround the Neophyte and chant "unerea songs& He is then carried to a te!p e erected "or the purpose' and anointed %ith pa !9oi * a"ter "orty days o" this probation he is supposed to have obtained a ne% sou * and is greeted %ith hy!ns o" 6oy' and conducted ho!e&MM5Secret Societies'5 ii' p& ;FG&NN (e are in"or!ed that 0ree!asonic signs have been ans%ered by the Ea""irs& terva o" "asting' o" !ore or ess ength according to circu!stances' %ith a tota "ast on the day o" 7nitiation' by %hich regi!en a species o" Epopteia is produced %hich the 4ro"essor ter!s !enta i usion or s eep9%akingMMLetter in 57sis 8nvei ed'5 ii' p& G-G&NN& The sa!e pheno!ena is "ound in the Yogi' or 5t%ice born'5 and kno%n in certain Rites o" the $ervishes& 7t is a !ost certain that certain rites o" the Egyptians have passed to the A"ricans' and Heckethorn' and other %riters' have she%n that there e2ists on that Continent' and in other p aces %here the race has carried the 7nitiation' a society ca ed the A !useri' %ith secret rites si!i ar to those o" the Orphic and Cabiric +ysteries& The reception takes p ace once a year in a %ood' and the candidate is supposed to die* at the appointed hour the 7nitiates surround the Neophyte and chant "unerea songs& He is then carried to a te!p e erected "or the purpose' and anointed %ith pa !9oi * a"ter "orty days o" this probation he is supposed to have obtained a ne% sou * and is greeted %ith hy!ns o" 6oy' and conducted ho!e&MM5Secret Societies'5 ii' p& ;FG&NN (e are in"or!ed that 0ree!asonic signs have been ans%ered by the Ea""irs& #a enMM5$og!& Hipoc& et 4 aton'5 viii&NN !ay be :uoted here as to the e2istence o" this doctrine o" a sou %hich !ay be separated "ro! the body3 5The sou is an i!!ateria substance' %hich has a uci"or!' etheria body' "or its "irst vehic e' by %hich as a !ediu! it co!!unicates %ith the gross etheria body&5 The Cheva ier Ra!say says3 57t appears that the 4 atonists' 4ythagoreans' Egyptians' Cha deans' and a Orienta s be ieved that sou s had an etheria ' aeria ' and C-GFD terrestria vest!ent' or tabernac e* that the ast na!ed %as put o"" by natura death' the second by a supernatura death' and the other retained "or ever&5 The !athe!atica discip ine' by aiding thought concentration' %as intended to serve a si!i ar purpose to that o" the Hindu Yogis! and o" the $ervishes& 4 utarch in his Sy!posiacsMM?o & viii' ;&NN ascribes to 4 ato the %ords' 5#od is constant y a #eo!eter'5 hence to i!!erse onese " in #eo!etrica thought' is to think %ith the !ind o" #od& A the 4 atonists taught that the gradations o" the

spiritua %or d %ere arranged in #eo!etrica order' hence it is' 5a science that takes !en o"" "ro! sensib e ob6ects' and !akes the! app y the!se ves to the spiritua and eterna nature' as a vie% o" epopteia o" the Arcane o" initiation into ho y rites&5 4rok os !akes this assertion o" the 4ythagoreans3 5They perceived that the %ho e o" %hat is ca ed +uethsis is re!iniscence' not e2terna y inserted in sou s' in the sa!e !anner as phantas!s' "ro! sensib e ob6ects' are i!pressed on the i!agination* not adventitious ike the kno% edge resu ting "ro! opinion' but e2cited indeed "ro! things apparent' and in%ard y e2erted "ro! the reasoning po%er converted "ro! itse "& They ike%ise say that though re!iniscence !ight be she%n "ro! !any particu ars' yet it %as evinced in a !ost e!inent !anner' as 4 aton a so says' "ro! the +athe!atica discip ine' "or i" any one' says he' is ed to the diagra!s he %i ' "ro! the!' easi y prove that discip ine is re!iniscence&5 The science o" #eo!etry %as a so used in a sy!bo ica sense' "or Socrates in the 5#orgias'5 accusing Ea ic es o" an inte!perate i"e' says to hi!3 5You neg ect #eo!etry and #eo!etric e:ua ity&5 Henocrates re"used a candidate "or $iscip eship' saying to hi!3 5$epart' "or thou hast not the grip o" phi osophy&5 O" the nature o" the SY+AOLS used in the Arcane Schoo s there is a !ost as itt e to be gathered in its books as is to be "ound in o d +asonry' and they %ere evident y C-G.D 5c ose ty ed&5 (e !ay "air y seek %hat %e do not kno%

respecting sy!bo s' through %hat %e do kno% o" history' and to co!prehend sy!bo s %e !ust study the o d historica re igions& The +asons' Rosicrucians' Te!p ars' and #nostics' a used the sa!e c ass o" sy!bo s& The society o" $ruses in Syria' and the Su"i $ervishes o" 4ersia and Turkey' ad!it the!se ves to "o o% the 4 atonic Schoo ' %hether by inspiration "ro! its %riters or by descent "ro! the o d +ysteries' and "ro! %hich each and a ' in one "or! or another' derive their kno% edge& (e !ay a so "o o% these re igious sy!bo s in the unchanged rites o" 7ndia& sy!bo s %e !ust study the o d historica re igions& The +asons' Rosicrucians' Te!p ars' and #nostics' a used the sa!e c ass o" sy!bo s& The society o" $ruses in Syria' and the Su"i $ervishes o" 4ersia and Turkey' ad!it the!se ves to "o o% the 4 atonic Schoo ' %hether by inspiration "ro! its %riters or by descent "ro! the o d +ysteries' and "ro! %hich each and a ' in one "or! or another' derive their kno% edge& (e !ay a so "o o% these re igious sy!bo s in the unchanged rites o" 7ndia& The basis o" the +asonic Je%e o" a +aster in the Chair is an o d Egyptian sy!bo ' "or 4 utarch in"or!s us that a triang e %hose base is J' perpendicu ar G' and hypothenuse o" = parts' the s:uare o" %hich is e:ua to the s:uare o" those sides containing the right ang e' %as an i!portant e!b e! in Egypt' as a sy!bo o" nature& The base "igured Osiris' the perpendicu ar 7sis' and the hypothenuse Horus* the originating and receptive princip es' and the o""spring o" the t%o& 7t %as the standard o" their !easures o" e2tent' and %as "or !odern centuries the traditiona !ethod by the app ication o" %hich the stone!ason tested the s:uareness o" his p an ,= 2 = U ;=* J 2 J and G 2 G U ;=' the #ui ds o" both East and (est e!p oy the Rites to this day&/ 7a!b ichus ,i& i2&/ says3 5A!ongst those things %hich are every%here set "orth in the sacred dra!as' so!e have a speci"ic Arcane cause and higher !eaning* others preserve the i!age o" so!e idea beyond' as nature the genatri2 deve ops certain speci"ic "or!ations "ro! invisib e princip es* others are introduced "ro! the senti!ent o" veneration' or "or the purpose o" i ustrating so!ething or rendering it "a!i iar& So!e enc ose %hat is pro"itab e to us' or in so!e %ay puri"y us' or set us "ree "ro! our hu!an "rai ties' or turn aside so!e other o" the evi s that are ike y to be"a us&5 (e have a ready re"erred to the 4ythagorean senti!ent C-J<D that 5the path o" vice and virtue rese!b es the etter Y'5 and though the apotheg! has been "orgotten in +asonry' yet the 5#o den branch5 by %hich it %as represented is sti re!e!bered& The etter C5Y5D is e:ua y a sy!bo %hich the Chinese consecrated to the $eity& 7t has been suggested that as an e!b e! it is a s:uare Csy!bo 3 a chevron %ith a right ang eD p aced over a p u!b9ru e' Csy!bo 3 vertica ineD& Her!es Tris!egistus' or the Thrice9greatest' describes #od as 5an inte igib e sphere' %hose centre is every%here' and circu!"erence no%here'5 and this anguage tends to con"ir! the re!arks %e have ventured as to the T%o 4i ars& 4herekydes Syros' %ho had the ear y education o" 4ythagoras' in his Hy!n to Heus' cited by Eircher ,5Oed& Egyptae5/ has the "o o%ing note%orthy ines3 9

5Jove is a circ e' triang e' and s:uare' Centre' and ine' and a things' 99be"ore a &5 4 ato in his seventh 5Epist e to $ion'5 says e2press y that he never %i %rite anything e2p icit y upon these sub i!e specu ations' but that there are three things through %hich science' the "ourth' is necessari y produced' the "i"th estab ishes that %hich is kno%n and true& 5No% take each o" these desiring to earn %hat %e have ate y asserted' and think as "o o%s concerning the! a 9a circ e is ca ed so!ething %hose na!e is so e2pressed& 0or that %hich every%here is e:ua y distant "ro! the e2tre!es to the centre is the de"inition o" that %hich %e signi"y by the na!e o" a round or circu!"erence and a circ e&

Aut the third is the circ e %hich !ay be b otted out& Aut the "ourth is science' and inte ect' and true opinion about these& And the %ho e o" this again !ust be estab ished as one thing' %hich neither subsists in voice' nor in corporea "igures' but is inherent in sou &5 and inte ect' and true opinion about these& And the %ho e o" this again !ust be estab ished as one thing' %hich neither subsists in voice' nor in corporea "igures' but is inherent in sou &5 (e have here an e2a!p e o" the %ay in %hich 4 ato e!p oys #eo!etry to convey instruction' but in his second epist e to $ion' he e!p oys concentric circ es to discourse upon the divine trip icity o" Agathos' Logos' and 4syche 9%isdo!' !ind' i"e 990ather' (ord' Spirit& He says3 5You in"or! !e that the nature o" the 0irst has C-J-D not been su""icient y revea ed to you& 7 !ust %rite to you in ridd es' in order i" !y etter shou d !iscarry' either by sea or and' the reader !ay not understand it& A things are round about the king o" a things' a things e2ist "or his sake' and that is the cause o" a e2ce ent things& Around the second are the things secondary& Around the third are the third c ass o" things& The hu!an sou s endeavour to earn the nature o" these' ooking "or %hat is ho!ogeneous %ith itse "' and conse:uent y i!per"ect' but in the Eing' and in these others %hich 7 have !entioned' it is not such& & & & & The greatest precaution is to be observed not to %rite' but to earn by %ord o" !outh' "or it is hard y possib e "or %hat is %ritten not to co!e abroad& 0or %hich reason 7 have %ritten nothing upon such topics* no such books o" !ine e2ist' nor ever sha &5 4rok os in his Co!!entary upon this says3 5The $e!iurgos or creator is trip e' and the three 7nte ects are the three Eings' He %ho e2ists' He %ho possesses' He %ho beho ds&5 Severa %riters give the "o o%ing appropriate passage' the authority o" Suidas3 5Thu is Eing o" && Egypt' thus %ent to the Orac e o" Serapis3 on Thou %ho art the #od o" "ire' and governest the course o" the heavens' te !e the truth' %as there ever' or %i && there ever be' one so po%er"u as !yse "@He %as ans%ered3 && the (ord' and the Spirit' a united in one& #o hence' OK !orta ' %hose i"e is

&& a %ays uncertain&5 7n going thence the priests carried out the i!p ied threat by cutting the throat o" the egotistic Thu is& 7n the 5Ethica 5 0rag!ents o" Hieroc es' %ho %rote to%ards the end o" the second century and %as a 4ythagorean' the sy!bo o" ten concentric circ es is used to set "orth our !ora duties' and %e have seen that the Cha deans' +edes' and 4ersians' considered seven concentric circ es as a sacred sy!bo ' %hi st sti !ore ancient races that %e have !entioned are said to have used three such& Hieroc es says3 5Each o" us is' as it %ere circu!scribed by !any concentric circ es' so!e o" %hich are C-J;D ess' but others arger' and so!e co!prehend' but others are co!prehended' according to the di""erent and une:ua habitudes %ith respect to each other& 0or the "irst and !ost pro2i!ate circ e is that %hich everyone describes about his o%n !ind as a centre' in %hich circ e the body' and %hatever is assu!ed "or the sake o" the body is co!prehended& 0or this is near y the s!a est circ e' and a !ost touches the centre itse "& The second "ro! this' and %hich is at a greater distance "ro! the centre' but co!prehends the "irst circ e' is that in %hich parents' brothers' %i"e and chi dren are arranged& The third circ e "ro! the centre is that %hich contains unc es' aunts' grand"athers' grand!others' and the chi dren o" brothers and sisters&5 He then proceeds through si2 other circ es3 ,J/ re ations' ,=/ the peop e' ,I/ tribes' ,B/ citi1ens' ,F/ vi agers' ,./ provincia s' and conc udes' ,-</ 5Aut the outer!ost and greatest circ e' and %hich co!prehends a the other circ es' is that o" the %ho e hu!an race&5 7n senti!ent nothing can be !ore +asonic than this' but Augustine has a very "irst #od' then

apposite a usion to the sy!bo ic point %ithin a circ e' and he had at one ti!e been a #nostic& He says3 5As in a circ e ho%ever arge' there is a !idd e point' %hither a converge' ca ed by #eo!etricians the centre' and a though the parts o" the %ho e circu!"erence !ay be divided innu!erab y' yet is there no other point' save that one' "ro! %hich a !easure e:ua y' and %hich by a certain a% o" evenness hath the sovereignty over a & Aut i" you eave this one point' %hatever point you take' the greater nu!ber o" ines you dra%' the !ore everything is con"used& So the sou is tossed to and "ro by the very vastness o" the things' and is crushed by a rea destitution' in that its o%n nature co!pe s it every%here to seek one ob6ect' and the !u tip ication su""ers it been a #nostic& He says3 5As in a circ e ho%ever arge' there is a !idd e point' %hither a converge' ca ed by #eo!etricians the centre' and a though the parts o" the %ho e circu!"erence !ay be divided innu!erab y' yet is there no other point' save that one' "ro! %hich a !easure e:ua y' and %hich by a certain a% o" evenness hath the sovereignty over a & Aut i" you eave this one point' %hatever point you take' the greater nu!ber o" ines you dra%' the !ore everything is con"used& So the sou is tossed to and "ro by the very vastness o" the things' and is crushed by a rea destitution' in that its o%n nature co!pe s it every%here to seek one ob6ect' and the !u tip ication su""ers it && not&5MMO ivers 5Sy!b& $ic&5 99Art& 4oint& Qc&NN The curious part o" this is the invo ved verbiage' as i" Augustine had in his !ind' and sought to hide the secret !ethod o" "inding a true s:uare by the centre& C-JGD Lucian !akes Cato to say that' 5#od !akes hi!se " kno%n to a the %or d* He "i s up the %ho e circ e o" the universe' but !akes his particu ar abode in the centre' %hich is the sou o" the 6ust&5 Another !ode o" i ustrating this is used by the Rosicrucian 4arace sus' %ho says3 5A nu!bers are !u tip es o" one' a sciences converge to a co!!on point' a %isdo! co!es out o" one centre' and the nu!ber o" %isdo! is one& & & & & Those %ho ove the u!inous circ e %i be attracted to it' and their kno% edge co!es "ro! #od&5 $ionysius Thra2' an e!inent gra!!arian' is :uoted by C e!ens A e2andrinus as saying' that so!e converse' 5not on y by speech but by sy!bo s a so&5 This i!p ies that there %as an understood signi"ication attached to the sy!bo s& The sa!e %riter in"or!s us that it %as a custo! o" the Egyptians to ho d a branch in the hand %hi st in the act o" adoration& Aristot e says that' 5He %ho bears the shocks o" "ortune va iant y and de!eans hi!se " upright y' is tru y good' and o" a s:uare posture %ithout reproo"&5MM5O d York Lectures&5NN The Horoastrian Orac e dec ares' 5the !ind o" the "ather decreed that a things shou d be divided into three5* %hich 4 ato geo!etrises thus3 5#od rese!b es a triang e %hich has three e:ua sides&5 >enocrates' the "riend o" 4 ato' assigned the e:ua triang e to gods' seeing that it is every%here e:ua * the sca ene to !an seeing that it is une:ua in its sides* the isosce es to dae!ons or tute ary spirits' because it is part y e:ua ' and

part y une:ua in it properties' the dae!ons being p aced bet%een !en and gods& 4rok os says that' 5Eno% edge has three degrees 99opinion' science' and i u!ination& The !eans' or instru!ent' o" the "irst is reception' o" the second dia ectus' and o" the third9intuition&5 $iodorus o" Sici y ter!s the 5Sun5 the architect o" a nature' and thus %e sy!bo ise the +aster +ason by that e!b e!& The s:uare %as one o" the sacred e!b e!s borne by the Sto istos o" the ancient C-JJD +ysteries& 7n the rea #ui d +asonry +an is the iving stone and the too s and e!b e!s are used to bring hi! to due proportions as in the actua stone& Aut a very i!portant sy!bo ' phi osophic and +asonic' and one %hich has been co!!on to the %or d in a ti!e is the cube& 4ythagoras is said to have taught that' 5the nu!ber eight or the octad is the "irst cube' that is to say' s:uared in a cases as a die* proceeding "ro! its base the even nu!ber t%o* so is !an "our s:uare or per"ect&5 4 ato in his 54rotagorus5 causes that character to address Socrates in a :uotation "ro! Si!onides' a !an o" Scio %ho " ourished ==I A&C&' 57t is very di""icu t to beco!e tru y virtuous' and to be in

virtue as a cube* that is to say that neither our carriage' our actions' or our thoughts' sha shake us' or even dra% us "ro! that state o" !ind&5 7t is the cubica stone o" the Rosy Cross' %hich 5s%eats b ood and %ater and su""ers anguish o" sou &5 rriage' our actions' or our thoughts' sha shake us' or even dra% us "ro! that state o" !ind&5 7t is the cubica stone o" the Rosy Cross' %hich 5s%eats b ood and %ater and su""ers anguish o" sou &5 The passages that %e have :uoted are a "air e2a!p e o" the !ora geo!etry o" anti:uity& Those "ro! 4 ato' "or e2a!p e' indicate the use to be !ade o" geo!etrica diagra!s in teaching science and Theosophy* that "ro! Hieroc es the use !ade o" the! in teaching !ora s* and that "ro! Augustine !ay e2p ain %hy a +aster +ason !ay "ind his secrets by the centre& The :uotation "ro! Aristot e ought to re!ind a +ason o" the day %hen he stood at the north9east corner* and that "ro! Si!onides o" %hat is re:uired o" hi! in order to beco!e a per"ect Ash ar' and the !ore especia y as %e have she%n that this cube had the sa!e signi"ication in Egypt' Cha dea' 4ersia' and A!erica' and that it is' there"ore' one o" the !ost pri!itive sy!bo s& A 4ersian proverb is thus3 9 5OK s:uare thyse " "or use* a stone that !ay 0it in the %a is not e"t in the %ay&5 && The 5Regius5 +asonic +S& te s us' in the +asters "irst Artic e' ho% he is to regu ate his conduct as a 6udge o" %ork3 5And as a 6ugge stond upright' And then thou dost to bothe good ryght&5 Curious y enough the Egyptian C-J=D 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 :uoted in our ;nd chapter' has a ine sy!bo ica y identica & There are nu!erous re"erences to Sy!bo s %hich are both 4 atonic and +asonic in the %orks o" our earned Arother the ate #eorge O iver' $&$&' but un"ortunate y he does not o"ten give re"erences that %i enab e us to veri"y the!& A the "oregoing :uotations have been taken "ro! non9+asonic %orks' and !ay there"ore be considered %ho y unbiassed& The "o o%ing are probab y e:ua y re iab e' and are chie" y assigned by O iver to the 4ythagoreans' "ro! %hich schoo 4 ato accepted !uch o" his teachings& The 5c asped hands5 %as a 4ythagorean sy!bo & The divine essence %as represented by a 5:uadrang e5 or s:uare' %hich i!p ies order and regu arity* it is "ound in Chinese books o" great anti:uity %ith the sa!e !eaning& The 5right9ang e5 %as the sy!bo o" "e!a e deities' as Ceres' ?esta' Rhea& The 5pyra!id'5 a va ued sy!bo ' re"erred to the divine trip icity& The 5cube5 %as considered by the Her!esians as the sy!bo o" truth' as the appearance is the sa!e in every point o" vie%& The 5doub e9triang es'5 5sing e triang es'5 5"ive9pointed star'5 5cross'5 etc&' have been used by a nations' in a ti!e' and in co!!on %ith 5s:uare and co!passes'5

5p u!b'5 5s:uare'5 5triangu ar9 eve '5 etc&' have "igured as a phabetica characters& The trip e9tau Csy!bo o" Trip e9tau' ike a 5T5 striking the cross9bar o" an 5H5 "ro! aboveD is given as the !onogra! o" Her!es* and the etter 4 crossed' Csy!bo 3 545 %ith a short hori1onta ine across the o%er vertica D as the sta"" o" Osiris& Aut the !ost %ide y spread' and !ost ancient o" a sy!bo s is the Svastica' 0i "ot' or Jain cross CSy!bo 3 S%astikaD' "or!ed o" "our s:uares 6oined at the ends' derived "ro! the pri!aeva centre' and Cabiric& The "ive 4 atonic bodies are +asonic sy!bo s' and in ancient Arcane Schoo s %ere he d to teach that the %or d %as !ade by #od' 5in thought and not in ti!e'5 and o" the e e!ents thus evo ved' 5"ire5 is a pyra!id* 5earth5 a cube* 5air5 an octohedron* 5%ater5 an icosahedron* the 5sphere o" the universe5 a dodecahedron& The

5e:ui atera triang e'5 the 5s:uare'5 and the 5e:ua he2agon5 %ere considered the !ost per"ect geo!etrica diagra!s' C-JID and it %as pointed out by 4ythagoras that there e2ist no other "or!s %hose !u tip es are co!petent to occupy the %ho e space about a given centre* and %hich can on y be e""ected by si2 e:ui atera triang es' "our s:uares' and three e:ua he2agons& the !ost per"ect geo!etrica diagra!s' C-JID and it %as pointed out by 4ythagoras that there e2ist no other "or!s %hose !u tip es are co!petent to occupy the %ho e space about a given centre* and %hich can on y be e""ected by si2 e:ui atera triang es' "our s:uares' and three e:ua he2agons& There are certain ancient sy!bo s so!e o" %hich have the appearance o" Ro!an etters but are not rea y so' %hich are "ound scu ptured on stones in && Egypt and e se%here' and "ound' in ater ti!es' in this country as +asons!arks& The etter C5Y5D !ay be "ound p aced on a reversed triang e Csy!bo 3 inverted e:ui atera triang e %ith s!a 5Y5 hitting upper baseD* %e have the C>D cross* the reversed tau or eve C5T5 invertedD* and doub ed it !ay "or! a cross COD& There are the !ascu ine and "e!inine sy!bo s C5?5D and C5?5 invertedD' %hich united !ay "or! the CND sy!bo ' so o"ten "ound as a +ason && s !ark' the sa!e sy!bo is "ound on pre9Christian coins o" 4ersia' in various ang es* the C5?5 invertedD and C(D' the atter a doub e sy!bo * the C7D is pha ic* the C5?5 invertedD and C?D crossed or inter aced' as in the +asonic s:uare and co!passes& Another very ancient sy!bo ic !ark is t%o triang es Csy!bo 3 T%o e:ui atera triang es' top inverted' o%er upright and 6oined at vertices in center ike an 5>5 %ith c osed top an botto!D 6oined at the ape2' %hich is sti a sacred sy!bo in Thibet' Turkey' and 7ndia& Our readers' %ho have care"u y noted the sy!bo s !entioned in our previous chapters' %i have perceived that %hi st !any o" the Arcane e!b e!s have been continued in 0ree +asonry' throughout the centuries' others have been ost in the specu ative syste!' but %ere preserved by the #ui d and a so && as +asons!arks* they !ust at one ti!e have enc osed a recondite doctrine' %hich %as co!!on to both the sacerdota ' and art Co eges* and !arks o" this c ass' %hich go beyond !ere !onogra!s' ad!it o" a !ystic interpretation'

%hich indicates a cu te co!!on to Theosophia and phi osophic #eo!etry or +asonry* it happens that so!e o" these sy!bo s !ay be interpreted to contain the doctrine o" the pre9e2istence o" sou s* the union o" the spiritua and !ateria nature in !an' %hich enab es hi! to ive t%o ives 99the sensua and the spiritua ' the 0a o" +an as the Caba ists pretend being "igured in the predo!inance C-JBD o" the "or!er over the atter& Other e!b e!s have re"erence to the divinity' and an e2a!p e o" the +asonic !anner in %hich these !ay be !ade to convey instruction !ay be i ustrated by the e:ui atera triang e& 7t has three points* a point has position on y* a ine has ength on y and ter!inates in t%o points* three ines o" e:ua ength at e:ua ang es "or! an e:ui atera triang e' or the pri!ary "igure in geo!etry' and represents the trinity in unity' or $eity pervading a space' creator o" a things ani!ate and inani!ate* doub ed it represents the per"ect godhead' and the !a e and "e!a e energies o" nature& Or again' a 5point5 is the beginning o" any active duty' the " o%ing o" %hich point generates a 5 ine*5 a ine is there"ore either re%ard' duty' p easure' or pro"it& A 5right ine5 is a duty per"or!ed and pursued %ith constancy& The e2tension o" a right ine to generate a 5sur"ace5 is there"ore per"ect duty& Aetter sti is a passage "ro! +acrobius in his 5Co!!entary on && Scipios $rea!53 5And as a ine is generated "ro! a point' and proceeds into ength "ro! an indivisab e' so the sou ' "ro! its o%n point %hich is a !onad' passes into the duad' %hich is its "ina e2tension&5 Aut the !ost re!arkab e o" a the Arcane and architectura sy!bo s is the vesica9pisces Csy!bo 3 an e ipse %ith !a6or a2is vertica ' t%o vertica ines

issuing at top and botto!D' it %as in use unti our days' and Arother Conder ,a && !e!ber o" the +asonsCo!pany/ says that its "or!ation %as the diagra! by %hich o d operative +asons tested their s:uares& 4rok os repeated y re"ers to this "igure' %hich he had seen in Egypt' and heard interpreted there* it o"ten appears on te!p es' as %e as !odern churches' and is "ound especia y on the throne o" Osiris& 7n the 4 atonic syste! it is said to have constituted the sign o" Epopts' the open hand being united at the "inger9ends and the %rists touching each other& (e !entioned in our third chapter the a""inity o" 4hi osophy %ith the +ysteries o" Serapis' and the Arcane $iscip ine o" the Christians& The 4to e!ies' %ho had the Je%ish Scriptures trans ated in the Septuagint' see! to have "ound a !ode' or thought C-J.D they had' in the estab ish!ent o" a "i"th order o" prophets' o" har!onising a "aiths in the !ysteries o" Serapis' and C e!ent' o" A e2andria' in"or!s us that the initiates o" these +ysteries %ore on their persons the !ystic na!e 79ha9ho' the origina o" %hich appears to be 7AO' %hich e!bodies the sy!bo s o" the t%o generative princip es& 7t is "urther asserted that the be"ore9!entioned sign o" Epopts constituted that o" the Arcane $iscip ine' coup ed %ith the ettering o" the %ord && 7CHTH8S' a "ish' and the 4opes ring is that o" the 0isher!an& O iver' :uoting Eerrich' says that the vesica9pisces is the great secret o" church architecture' and the deter!inator o" a di!ensions&MM54ythagorean Triang e5 ,Hogg/&NN 7t continues an e:ua y i!portant sy!bo a!ongst the $ervish sects& (e %i no% pass on to the use in the 4 atonic syste! o" other sy!bo s in %hich +asons are interested& 4 ato in his 4hi ebos has a triad under the na!es o" Aound' 7n"inite' and +i2ed' and ike%ise a triad sti !ore +asonic o" Sy!!etry' Truth' and Aeauty' %hich' he says' 5are seated in the ?estibu e o" the good&5 The +asonic pi ars o" (isdo!' Strength' and Aeauty' are an ana ogy' and the divine triad o" Agathos' Logos' and 4syche' i" itera y trans ated are a c ose appro2i!ation& He ike%ise prescribes the "o o%ing !ora :ua ities as essentia in a student o" 4hi osophy3 995He !ust have a good !e!ory' earn %ith "aci ity' be !agni"icent' !agnani!ous' and be the "riend and a y o" Truth' Justice' 0ortitude' and Te!perance* :ua ities %hich are e:ua y !ade the essentia points in a 0ree!ason& Again' in the 4hedon' %hich is a dia ogue on the i!!orta ity o" the sou ' %e "ind the "o o%ing i!portant passage' %hich he adduces on the authority o" the !ost ancient +ysteries3 95 (isdo! is the on y true and una oyed coin' "or %hich a others !ust be given in e2change' %ith that piece o" !oney %e purchase& & & & Te!perance' Justice' 0ortitude' and 4rudence' or %isdo! itse "' are not e2changed "or passions but c eanse us o" the!& And it is pretty evident C-J.D that those %ho instituted the 4uri"ications ca ed by us Te etes' i&e&' per"ect e2piations' %ere persons o" no conte!ptib e rank' but !en o" great genius' %ho' in the "irst ages' !eant by such ridd es to give us to kno%' that %hoever enters the other %or d' %ithout

being 7nitiated and 4uri"ied' sha be hur ed head ong into the vast abyss* and that %hoever arrives there a"ter due purgation and e2piation sha be odged in the apart!ents o" the gods& 0or as the dispensors o" these e2piations say 9 && There are !any %ho bear the Thyrsus' but "e% that are possessed o" the spirit && o" #od& No% those %ho are possessed' as 7 take it' are the true 4hi osophers&5 So "ar 4 ato' and he !ay be put into other %ords 995+any are ca ed but "e% are chosen&5 The Thyrsus here a uded to' as a badge o" o""ice in these +ysteries' %as carried by the so diers o" Aacchus' Saba1ios' or $ionysos* the Cheva ier Ra!say says that it %as t%ined %ith ivy' and very o"ten had upon it a

cross' and he co!pares the #reek conception o" Aacchus' as god o" the vintage' %ith the description o" +essiah as given in 7saiah and the Apoca ypse& %ith the description o" +essiah as given in 7saiah and the Apoca ypse& 4orphyrios has a ong description o" the advantage o" the "our Cardina virtues' but a"ter the i ustration o" the +aster 4 ato %e !ay o!it this& Stobaeus says o" the! pretty !uch %hat +asonry te s us&MM5Ecc & Ethio'5 p& -IB&NN The pagan E!peror Aure ius Antoninus' 5circa5 -J= A&$&' has severa passages on these virtues* in one he says3 57" any !an shou d conceive certain things as being rea y good' such as 4rudence' Te!perance' Justice' 0ortitude' he %ou d not a"ter endure to isten to anything %hich %as not in har!ony %ith %hat is rea y good&5 (e %onder ho% !any +asons have this "ee ing& The doctrine o" e:ua ity and brother y ove' %hich "or!s the base o" the +asonic 7nstitution' !ay be para e ed in the Arcane Schoo s %ith such passages as the "o o%ing3 995A ypios'5 5Te !e' OK 4hi osopher' is the rich !an un6ust' or the heir o" the un6ustK 57a!b ichus'5 C-=<D 5That is not our !ethod o" disputing' OK i ustrious !an* no one is considered rich by us' even i" he does possess e2terna riches' un ess he ike%ise has the virtues characteristic o" a true phi osopher&5 That is the virtues %hich have been a ready !entioned* and brother y9 ove is o"ten en"orced' but in the 5Regius +S&5 o" the o d +asonic Constitutions there is a passage %hich states that the Ste%ards o" the Ha are && to serve one another' 5 ike sister and brother'5 "or %hich senti!ent 4 atons 5Sy!posio!'5 or Aan:uet o" Li"e' !ay be consu ted& $e!okritus e2presses the gist o" this %ork in a "e% ad!irab e %ords3 5He %ho oves the goods o" the sou %i ove things !ore divine' but he %ho oves the goods o" its transient habitation %i ove things hu!an&5 (e !ay c ose this chapter %ith a "e% hints as to the changes %hich Christianity "orced upon the ancient schoo s& 7a!b ichus phrases a 4ythagorean dog!a thus3 5As the Lesser +ysteries are to be de ivered be"ore the #reater' thus a so !ust discip ine precede phi osophy&5 7" the Lesser gave the tit e o" +ystae' the #reater gave that o" Epoptae' and i" the passage !eans anything it !ust be this' that science and art' represented by #eo!etry' is the counterpart o" the "or!er' %hi st phi osophy is in re ationship %ith Epoptae& Hence a"ter the break9up o" the State9+ysteries' %e see a succession o" t%o schoo s' c ose y re ated to each other 99the Cra"ts!en' or art schoo ' and the #nostics %ho kno%& RagonMM5Orthodo2ie +aconi:ue'5 p& JJ&NN says3 5$o %e not kno% that the ancient 7nitiated 4oets' %hen speaking o" the "oundation o" a 5City5 !eant thereby the estab ish!ent o" a doctrine@ Thus Neptune the god o" reasoning' and Apo o the god o" hidden things' presented the!se ves be"ore Lao!edon the "ather o" 4ria! to he p hi! to bui d the city o" Troy' that is to say' to estab ish the Tro6an re igion&5 7n other %ords to 5bui d a city5 is to estab ish a pub ic cu te' to 5bui d a te!p e5 is to "ound an Arcane Schoo & The +ystae' or vei ed' are they %ho see things as they appear* the Epoptae' or set

C-=-D apart' see things as they rea y are' that is they are #nostics or kno%ing ones& There is a passage in the 54ro!etheus5 o" Aeschy us' %hich see!s to correspond %ith the adventures o" Aeneas that %e have re ated* and to advise the god that he %as to ook "or an 7nitiate %ho %ou d give peace to hu!anity3 5To such abours ook thou "or no ter!ination to thy pangs ti a god sha appear' as thy substitute' %i ing to go do%n to g oo!y Hades and to the !urky depths around Tartarus&5 A avatsky observes' and %e see no reason to disagree %ith her vie%s' that %hen the Hierophants o" the +ysteries sa% that it %as necessary to rebui d the sinking specu ative edi"ice' the 5+ystae5 had

co!!itted to the! the rebui ding o" the 58pper9te!p e'5 or e2oteric part* %hi st the 5Epoptae5 had the 5Lo%er9te!p e'5 the crypt or the esoteric portion* 5"or such %ere their respective appe ations in anti:uity' and are to this day&5 7nitiation %as spoken o" as a 5%a king into the te!p e'5 and the 5c eaning5 or rebui ding o" it re"erred to the body o" an 7nitiate on his supre!e tria & 9te!p e'5 or e2oteric part* %hi st the 5Epoptae5 had the 5Lo%er9te!p e'5 the crypt or the esoteric portion* 5"or such %ere their respective appe ations in anti:uity' and are to this day&5 7nitiation %as spoken o" as a 5%a king into the te!p e'5 and the 5c eaning5 or rebui ding o" it re"erred to the body o" an 7nitiate on his supre!e tria & The !is"ortunes %hich be"e the estab ish!ent o" 4ythagoras at Crotono !ay possib y have had their origin in the 6ea ousy o" the State +ysteries' though the destruction o" its bui ding and its !e!bers is usua y attributed to the anger o" one Cy on %ho had been re"used ad!ittance& 7t is evident' ho%ever' that t%o centuries ater the State +ysteries !ust have ost !uch o" their e2c usive po%er over the !ind' %hen the Arcane Schoo s o" 4hi osophy %ere per!itted %ithout check to assu!e the entire ro e o" their doctrines& The E!peror #a en' at a sti ater period' gave per!ission to 4 otinos' to bui d a city by the na!e o" 4 atonopo is' %here the 4hi osophica syste! %as to be taught' but this does not appear to have been carried out& 7t is' ho%ever' :uite c ear that the State +ysteries and the Arcane Schoo s taught the sa!e truths' i" in so!e%hat varied "or!s' and that these truths are e:ua y represented in +asonry' %hich is as "ar as %e desire to go in this C-=;D chapter& 7t is :uite possib e that there are so!e tri" ing rese!b ances bet%een 4 atonis! and +asonry' %hich !ay have been introduced at a !odern date' but it is utter y i!possib e that this can app y to the great !ass o" things %hich are in co!!on' and %e sha see !ore o" this a""inity' and in the ancient ti!es o" +asonry' as %e proceed& Ae"ore the reader advances to the ne2t chapter he %i be p eased to note' and to re!e!ber in regard to a %hich "o o%s' that these "ive chapters a""ord a!p e evidence that the origina 5+ysteries5 had no% cu !inated in 5three5 c asses' but varying on y in pro"ession and techni:ue' in the severa syste!s vi1&3 -' 5The Sacerdota &5 The dra!a re"ined into a te!porary trance death& ;' 5The +i itary&5 The origina dra!a o" a !urdered god& These t%o c asses %ere suppressed by the Christian E!perors o" Ro!e' but continued to be secret y practised by %hat one %riter ter!s 5stro ing priests&5 The third c ass earned to 5c ose the ips'5 %hich in the #reek is the e:uiva ent o" +ystery' and as Art %as necessary to the Church they received protection& G' 5The Arti1an&5 A version o" the ast9na!ed* entering 7ndia' China' and Aaby on "ro! the North' and #reece' 4hoenicia' and 4a estine by %ay o" Egypt' at ti!es' in 7ndia' i!parting the Yogis! o" the "irst c ass& Our Sa2on ancestors "or these adopted the ter! #ui d' %hich i!p ies contribution o" !oney& C-=GD CHA4TER ?7&

THE +YST7C AN$ HER+ET7C SCHOOLS 7N CHR7ST7AN T7+ES& (7TH the c ose o" our ast chapter 4hi osophy had begun to p ay an i!portant part upon the stage o" ancient +ystery' and the o d spiritua "aith o" 7sis' Osiris and Horus' %as beco!ing sti !ore subti ised by the rest ess #reek at A e2andria' under the ru e o" the 4to e!ies& Here %as estab ished a ne%' or "i"th order o" priests %ith the tit e o" 4rophets' and the +ysteries o" 7sis' Serapis' and Anubis beca!e the "avourite Arcani& 4to e!y 4hi ade phus asse!b ed a Counci o" Je%s' a eged to be B< in nu!ber' "or the purpose o" trans ating their scriptures into #reek' %hich

version is yet kno%n as the Septuagint& He a so treated %ith Asoka in regard to the doctrine and progress o" Auddhis!&MMErest de Aunsen&NN A %ide ec ectic schoo %as to be estab ished' under %hich the e2isting "aiths !ight be assi!i ated' and the secret and sub i!e +ysteries o" the Schoo %ere those o" Serapis& Ho% this succeeded !ay be gathered "ro! a etter o" Hadrian' E!peror --F A&$&' to the Consu Servianus' preserved by ?opiscusMM5?ita Saturnine&5NN' in %hich %e "ind the "o o%ing' o" the Egyptians3 5They %ho %orship Serapis are Christians' and such as are devoted to Serapis ca the!se ves Aishops o" Christ5 & & & & ,5another trans ation has it5/3 5those %ho ca the!se ves Aishops o" Christ are vo%ed to Serapis* there is no ru er o" the Je%ish Synagogue' no Sa!aritan' no priest o" Christians' %ho is not an astro oger' a diviner' and a char atan& Their 4atriarch hi!se " %hen he co!es to Egypt is by so!e "orced to adore C-=JD Serapis' and by others Christ& & & & & ard to the doctrine and progress o" Auddhis!&MMErest de Aunsen&NN A %ide ec ectic schoo %as to be estab ished' under %hich the e2isting "aiths !ight be assi!i ated' and the secret and sub i!e +ysteries o" the Schoo %ere those o" Serapis& Ho% this succeeded !ay be gathered "ro! a etter o" Hadrian' E!peror --F A&$&' to the Consu Servianus' preserved by ?opiscusMM5?ita Saturnine&5NN' in %hich %e "ind the "o o%ing' o" the Egyptians3 5They %ho %orship Serapis are Christians' and such as are devoted to Serapis ca the!se ves Aishops o" Christ5 & & & & ,5another trans ation has it5/3 5those %ho ca the!se ves Aishops o" Christ are vo%ed to Serapis* there is no ru er o" the Je%ish Synagogue' no Sa!aritan' no priest o" Christians' %ho is not an astro oger' a diviner' and a char atan& Their 4atriarch hi!se " %hen he co!es to Egypt is by so!e "orced to adore C-=JD Serapis' and by others Christ& & & & & They have a but one #od' Hi! the Christians %orship' Hi! the Je%s' Hi! a the Egyptians' and those o" a other nations&5MM5Herodian && s History5 ,J& Hart' -BJ./& p& -FJ&NN Aet%een the years G<< A&C& and G<< A&$& A e2andria %as the seething cau dron %hence !ystic earning spread over the %or d3 99+ysteries' Caba a' Theurgy' #nosticis!' A che!y' Astro ogy' and even Christianity' "or it is said that 5out o" Egypt 7 have ca ed !y son&5 The phi osophers ter!ed the!se ves 4hi a ethians' or Lovers o" Truth* and the nu!erous societies %hich %e sha !ention in this chapter have !uch interest' but %e !ust !ention the! in the brie"est possib e !anner3 in !any cases successions e2ist to this day& CAAAL7S+& 7t is :uite probab e that this syste! o" interpreting the Je%ish Scriptures %as a part o" the instruction o" the Aeni9Hanabii!' or sons o" the 4rophets' a uded to in 5Sa!ue &5 According to C e!ens A e2andrinus these Co eges consisted o" c asses designated Sons and +asters' and he observes

that there %ere Novices a!ongst the Levites' and that Converts %ere divided into E2otericii or prose ytes o" the gate' and Trinisecti or prose ytes o" the covenant 994er"ecti& (e are in"or!ed by the 5Aook o" Esdras'5MM5Esdras ii'5 c& 2iv' FNN that E1ra the Scribe dictated to "ive !en' during a period o" "orty days' books to the nu!ber o" ;<J' o" %hich B< ast %ritten' %ere to be hidden' or Apocrypha ' and con"ined to the 5%ise a!ongst the peop e&5 The gist o" the Caba a is e2pressed in the %ords o" 4hi o' %ho says that3 5The a% o" +oses is ike to a iving creature %hose body is the itera sense' but the sou is the !ore in%ard and hidden !eaning' covered under the sense o" the etter&5 The +ystery is divided into 5three vei s'5 and is said to have been de ivered by +oses ora y to the Levites and E ders' "ro! %ho! it descended to the Rabbis& The t%o grand 4i ars o" the te!p e o" So o!on %ere i!portant sy!bo s' and 0ranck says that upon entering the "irst vei %e are in the ?estibu e* in the second the Ho y9p ace* and in the C-==D third the Sanctu! Sanctoru!& The ten Sephiroths' %hich represent the descent o" creation "ro! the $ivine' are a so divided into three c asses %hich re!ain an indivisib e trinity& The "irst three e2press the inte igib e "irst !ani"estations* the second triad the virtues or sensib e %or d* the third' nature in its essence and active princip es& As a syste! it ad!its o" a per"ect assi!i ation %ith the %isdo!9re igion o" the o d nations& 7t %as prescribed in the 5+ercaba'5 and the Cha dean 5Aook o" Nu!bers'5 that the Neophyte %as to be ed to a sec uded spot by an Ancient %ho %hispered in his ear the great secret& The 5Sepher Je1irah'5 %hich it is argued "ro! astro ogica a usions therein to be as o d as Abraha!' says3 5C ose

thy !outh est thou shou d speak o" this' and thy heart est thou shou d think a oud* and i" thy heart has escaped thee bring it back to its p ace' "or such is the ob6ect o" our a iance&5 The European Je%s had an association ca ed the 5Order o" E i6ah'5 %hich is said to be !entioned in the 5+ishna5 and 5#e!ara'5 it had pass%ords' signs' and countersigns' and is be ieved to have been in e2istence in 4o and and Sa2ony at a very ear y period&MM5The Eneph5 ,+acken1ie/' i' p& ;F&NN The +asonic Roya Arch $egree has dra%n on the Caba a and Ta !ud' but periodica revisions have taken p ace& a oud* and i" thy heart has escaped thee bring it back to its p ace' "or such is the ob6ect o" our a iance&5 The European Je%s had an association ca ed the 5Order o" E i6ah'5 %hich is said to be !entioned in the 5+ishna5 and 5#e!ara'5 it had pass%ords' signs' and countersigns' and is be ieved to have been in e2istence in 4o and and Sa2ony at a very ear y period&MM5The Eneph5 ,+acken1ie/' i' p& ;F&NN The +asonic Roya Arch $egree has dra%n on the Caba a and Ta !ud' but periodica revisions have taken p ace& ESSENES& This i!portant !ystic sect a!ongst the Je%s has pu11 ed historians& 7t !ay have struck out a ne% path "ro! the Caba istic road' but the e2tre!e veneration o" its !e!bers "or the sun is !ore characteristic o" Cha dea' and o" the e2isting Ye1ids& Je%ish critics be ieve that they are the Assideans' Chasdi!' or o d be ievers a ied %ith the +accabees* they a"ter%ards divided into t%o sects' or the practica ' and conte!p ative !e!bers& Other %riters consider that they %ere Egyptian priests' driven into Syria by the con:uests o" Ca!byses o" 4ersia' and A e2ander the #reat' and it is very probab e that this !ay be part y correct' and that they !ay have inc uded Jesus ben 4anther' a nephe% o" Lueen Sa o!e' %ho a"ter studying Egyptian Theurgy' and preaching to the peop e' C-=ID %as proc ai!ed "or J< days' and then stoned to death' and hung on a tree at Lyda' about the year -<< A&C& The Essenes are said to have recognised eight ,so!e say ten/ spiritua stages o" ascent to beatitude* and they had' ike the 4ythagoreans' a syste! o" degrees %ith a probationary period bet%een each& Their doctrines %ere de ivered ora y and they took an oath o" Secrecy' Chastity' and Justice in a their dea ings& (hen addressing their Chie"s they stood %ith their right hand be o% their chin' and the e"t et do%n by the side& As the 4ythagoreans asse!b ed in co!panies o" ten' so a so the Essenes considered that ten !ade a a%"u asse!b y "or divine %orship' but this rese!b ance !ay derive "ro! sti o der societies& The Ro!an Co egia and Eng ish #ui d +asonry %ere ru ed by tens and hundreds& Ernest de Aunsen' %ho! %e !entioned in our second chapter' ho ds that a!ongst the Egyptian and Je%ish #nostics there %as a t%o"o d tradition %hich passed into Christianity' and that it had the doctrine o" a spiritua deve op!ent %hich trans"or!ed the! into 5 iving stones'5 hence deno!inated 5Aanai!'5 or bui ders' that is o" a bodi y te!p e' and there"ore they neg ected the !ateria te!p e o" Jerusa e!& A se ect c ass o" the Essenes %ere ter!ed 5Therapeutae5 %ho %ere hea ers' and d%e t in s!a cottages %herein %as an inner shrine used "or conte!p ative purposes& They kept the Sabbath' and' every seventh ti!e

seven' they had a specia service %ith +ystic dances' such as %e have re"erred to in the +ysteries& 4hi o says3 5They have i!pu ses o" heaven y ove by %hich they kind e' in a ' the enthusias! o" the Corybantes' and the Aacchana ians' and are raised to that state o" conte!p ation a"ter %hich they aspire& This sect had its rise in A e2andria' be"ore the Je%s %ere very nu!erous' and spread e2ceeding y throughout Egypt&5 Eusebius' the Christian historian' has so!e curious re!arks on the sect& He says3 5Their doctrines are to be "ound a!ong none but in the re igion o" Christians' according to the #ospe & Their !eetings and the separate C-=BD p aces o" the !en and %o!en at their !eetings' and the e2ercises per"or!ed by the!' are sti in use a!ongst us at the present day' e:ua y at the "estiva o" our Saviour & s passion & & & & it is high y probab e that the ancient

Co!!entaries %hich they have are the very %ritings o" the Apost es' and probab y so!e e2positions o" the ancient 4rophets' such as are contained in && the Epist e to the Hebre%s' and !any others o" St& 4au s Epist es&5 Josephus had persona kno% edge o" the sect' and !akes !ention o" Aooks %hich %ere kept secret' re"erring to the 5na!es o" the Ange s'5 %hich !ay !ean po%ers or attributes' and reappearing in the Arcane $iscip ine& (e !ust re!e!ber a so &&&& in connection %ith Eusebius!ention o" the Saviour s passion that the %eeping "or Adonis continued in Syria do%n to the "ourth century A&$& There can be no doubt that a Christianised "or! o" the +ysteries %as continued by the +onks' and %e have the testi!ony o" the 0athers to this e""ect' but %e !ight e2pect that these %ou d vary in the country %here they %ere practised* thus %e !ight e2pect to "ind the in" uence o" Adonis in Syria' o" Serapis in Egypt' $ionysos and Aacchus in #reece and Ro!e' and throughout the Ro!an E!pire the in" uence o" the rites o" +ythras %ith the be"ore na!ed& 7t %ou d appear' ho%ever' that there %ere branches o" the Essenes' and Therapeutae' %ho beca!e actua Christians 99as Na1arenes' Ebionites' and Nabatheans' and the "irst ter! is yet in use in the East to designate Christians' %ho "irst took that na!e at Antioch& Theodoret says3 5The Na1areens are Je%s' honouring the anointed as a 6ust !an'5 and using the Evange according to 4eter' portions o" %hich %ere discovered a short ti!e ago in Egypt' and a it e ater "rag!ents o" the 5Logia o" the Lord&5 The Ebionites %ere a portion o" the sect' and had a!ongst the! re atives o" Jesus' and used the #ospe o" +atthe%' derived' it is be ieved' "ro! the 5Logia*5 they d%e t in a region near the seat o" the Adonisian +ysteries* they ooked upon Jesus as assu!ing his apost eship at the C-=FD descent o" the Ho y Spirit' and that his +essiahship %ou d begin %ith his second co!ing& The Nabatheans %ere "o o%ers o" the Aaptist in Lebanon' and the Aooks o" this Sect yet e2ist in Syria& +arcion' %ho e"t Ro!e' about -J< A&$&' %ou d see! to have "o o%ed the #ospe o" Luke& Eusebius' St& Jero!e' and Epiphanius have asserted that these sects %ere branches o" the Essenes' and there is no doubt that severa o" the sects' %hich %ere eventua y c assed as #nostic by the Church o" Ro!e' proceeded "ro! && the!&MMJones

5Ecc& History&5NN (e %i ' "or convenience' be"ore proceeding %ith the #nostics' take the secret syste! o" 4 atonists %ho Christianised the!se ves& ARCANE $7SC74L7NE& This syste! %as in vogue in the church o" Christ bet%een the "irst and "ourth centuries o" our era& 0or a c earer co!prehension o" the sub6ect %e !ust consider %hat has a ready been %ritten in regard to the assi!i ation o" 4hi osophy and the +ysteries' !ore especia y the Serapian' and these to esoteric Christianity* that there is a great identity bet%een these cannot be doubted* nor that Arcane Christianity %as the essentia adoption o" Serapian rites& Tertu ian' Origen' Cyri ' Theodoret' #regory' Chrysosto!' and others' a a ude to these Arcane things' in the precise ter!s in %hich the 4hi osophers spoke o" the +ysteries& Aasi eus says that they kept their doctrines secret' their preaching %as pub ic* that is' it %as esoteric' and e2oteric' as the 4hi osophers he d the +ysteries to be& Cardina J& H& Ne%!an ho ds that the Arcanu! %as the introduction o" 4 atonis! into the church o" Egypt' and he !entions that A!!onius Saccus and Origen %ere Catechists o" the $iscip ine' and that %hen the "or!er estab ished an ec ectic schoo o" his o%n he s%ore his discip es to secrecy& The historians are in doubt %hether

A!!onius "orsook Christianity' or not' upon "ounding his Schoo * but' in any case' such a !an %ou d give !ore than he received& case' such a !an %ou d give !ore than he received& The grades o" the Syste! are given by so!e %riters as "o o%s3 99 Cateco!onoi or earners* 4istoi or "aith"u * C-=.D 4hoto1o!enoi' i u!inated or baptised* +e!ue!enoi or initiated* and Te eiou!enoi or per"ected& Aut Aishop (arburton' :uoting Casaubon in his -Ith e2ercise on the Anna s o" Aaronius' gives the degrees as "o o%s3 99Catharsis or puri"ied* +yestis or initiated* and Te eosis or the end* but re!e!ber the re ationship o" 5te ete5 to death& Casaubon says' 5that %hich is ca ed a sy!bo o" "aith is various in its kinds' and they serve as tokens or tests' by %hich the "aith"u !ay recognise each other&5 +inucius 0e i2 says that the Christians %ere kno%n to each other by signs and tokens' %hich %ere a ready pass9port to "riendship&MM5+ora s and $og!a5 ,4ike/' p& =JB&NN Ru"inus co!pared the use o" pass9%ords to those given by a genera to his ar!y& C e!ens says3 5Let the engraving upon your ring be either a dove' e!b e! o" the Ho y9spirit* a pa !9branch' peace* an anchor' hope* or a ship running' the church* or a "ish&5 A 0rench %riter on +asonry' stated ast century that a copy o" the Secret Constitutions %as in the possession o" so!e +onks on +ount Athos' as ate as -B=-' and that they %ere as o d as G;B A&$&MM5+ac& Adonira!ite'5 i' p& I.&NN The church itse " %as divided into three portions* the Nave "or the Catechu!ens' as %as the ?estibu e "or initiates o" the Lesser +ysteries* the Ais es "or the 0aith"u * the Chance "or the 4er"ected& (hen the Catechu!en had co!p eted his probation' %hich %as usua y o" t%o years' he %as apparent y a 4istos or probationer' and had to "ast "or ;days' as usua in the +ysteries* his shoes %ere re!oved and a his c othing %ith the e2ception o" an undergar!ent' and %ith a ighted taper in his hand he %as ed into a roo! ad6oining the church& 4rior to Aaptis!' the aspirant' %ith his hand raised a o"t' and "ace to the %est' or p ace o" darkness' thrice renounced the devi and a his %orks* then %ith his "ace to the east' or p ace o" ight' he thrice dec ared his be ie" in the doctrines he had been taught' and his intention to re!ain a so dier o" Christ& The E2orcist thrice breathed upon hi!' in the na!e o" 0ather' C-I<D Son' and Ho y9spirit' re:uiring a unc ean spirits to depart "ro! hi!& A prayer %as o""ered that the e e!ent o" %ater !ight be sancti"ied* and the operator breathed upon hi!' in e2pression o" the Ho y9 spirit& A"ter this he %as anointed %ith oi as a %rest er in the "aith* his "orehead %as signed %ith the cross' and sa t tendered as e!b e! o" divine %isdo!* his ears %ere touched %ith the %ord Ephphatha 995be opened'5 his eyes anointed %ith c ay& He %as p unged three ti!es in the %ater' in the na!e o" each person o" the Trinity& He assu!ed a ne% na!e' and %as c othed in a pure %hite gar!ent' and ed a!ongst the 0aith"u * "ro! %ho! he received the kiss o" peace* but "or seven days he had to go vei ed& He cou d no% attend service in the ais es as one o" the 4hoto1o!enoi and %as instructed in the "u &&

!ystica !eaning o" the Lords prayer' %hich he %as en6oined to repeat thrice every night' as %e he %as instructed in the esoteric doctrines* this probab y !ade hi! one o" the +e!ue!enoi' that is those %ho are in the ight& The High9!ass o" the Eucharist %as usua y ce ebrated at Easter' or the "estiva o" darkness and resurrection& 7n the Je%ish e:uiva ent %hi st the "u y initiated pronounced !enta y the sacred na!e %ith the priest' the !asses kne% on y the substituted %ord Adonai' chanted by the assistants& 7n the Church' the $eacons brought %ater "or the +inisters to %ash their hands' and

the kiss o" peace %as passed round "ro! the priest' the !en and %o!en to each other respective y& The priest o""ered thanks "or the ove represented by the death' resurrection' and ascension o" Christ& Ae"ore entering the chance the priest e2c ai!ed3 5Ho y things "or ho y persons' ye Catechu!ens go "orth&5 Aread and %ine %ere presented& 4 iny states that in the Agapae' or Love "easts' a took a sacred oath to be "aith"u ' revea no secrets' do no %rong' nor stea ' rob' vio ate a trust' nor co!!it any act o" unchastity& The co!!unicant %as no% one o" the Te eiou!enoi or 4er"ected& There are severa points in C-I-D this account that %e have a ready re ated as ancient custo!s o" the +ysteries& each other respective y& The priest o""ered thanks "or the ove represented by the death' resurrection' and ascension o" Christ& Ae"ore entering the chance the priest e2c ai!ed3 5Ho y things "or ho y persons' ye Catechu!ens go "orth&5 Aread and %ine %ere presented& 4 iny states that in the Agapae' or Love "easts' a took a sacred oath to be "aith"u ' revea no secrets' do no %rong' nor stea ' rob' vio ate a trust' nor co!!it any act o" unchastity& The co!!unicant %as no% one o" the Te eiou!enoi or 4er"ected& There are severa points in C-I-D this account that %e have a ready re ated as ancient custo!s o" the +ysteries& No e2p anation is given o" the reason "or a ong "ast' and as this account is but a !ystic "or! o" the present e2oteric cere!ony' %e !ay "ee a strong doubt %hether it covers a that %as done' in the various grades o" beco!ing a Christian& The Ne% Testa!ent repeated y ad!its that Jesus had a secret or +ystica teaching' and so!ething !ay be gathered "ro! the 0athers& C e!ens A e2andrinus' %ho %rote a century a"ter Aposto ic ti!es' says3 5Aut it %i be an i!age to reca the architype o" hi! %ho %as struck %ith the Thyrsus & & & but %e pro"ess not to e2p ain secret things su""icient y* "ar "ro! it' but on y to reca the! to !e!ory&5 Again he says3 5And %as it not this %hich the prophet !eant' %hen he ordered un eavened cakes to be !ade' inti!ating that the tru y sacred !ystic %ord' respecting the unbegotten and his po%ers' ought to be concea ed&5 Origen' %ho! Socrates in his 5Ecc esiastica History5 ter!s the 5E2positor o" the !ystica tradition o" the Church'5 and " ourished -F=9;=; A&$&' taught the pre9e2istence o" sou s' and on the evo ution o" !an in his ascent to the divine source' he says3MM5Contra Ce sus'5 A& i' ch& B&NN 5Aut that there shou d be certain doctrines not !ade kno%n to the !u titude' %hich are ,revea ed/ a"ter the e2oteric ones have been taught' is not a pecu iarity o" Christianity a one' but a so o" phi osophic syste!s' in %hich certain truths are e2oteric and others esoteric& So!e o" the hearers o" 4ythagoras %ere content %ith his 5ipse di2it'5 %hi st others %ere taught in secret those doctrines %hich %ere not dee!ed "it to be co!!unicated to pro"ane and insu""icient y prepared ears& +oreover a the +ysteries that are ce ebrated every%here' throughout #reece' and barbarous countries' a though he d in secret' have no discredit thro%n upon the!' so that it is in vain that he endeavours to ca u!niate the secret doctrine o" Christianity' seeing he does not correct y understand its nature&5 AgainMM57bid&5 A& viii' c& F&NN 5He %ou d have us be ieve that %e and the C-I;D interpreters o" the +ysteries e:ua y teach the doctrine o" eterna punish!ents&5 Again'MM57bid'5 A& iii' c& I<&NN 5(hoever is pure & & & & et hi! be bo d y initiated into the +ysteries o" Jesus' %hich proper y are !ade kno%n

on y to the ho y and pure& & & & & He %ho acts as 7nitiator according to the precepts o" Jesus' %i say to those %ho have been puri"ied in heart' && he %hose sou has "or a ong ti!e been conscious o" no evi ' and especia y since he yie ded hi!se " to the hea ing o" the (ord' et such an one hear the doctrines && %hich %ere spoken in private to his genuine $iscip es&5 Again'MM54re"& #os& John&5NN 5To the itera !inded %e teach the #ospe in the historic %ay' preaching Christ Jesus and hi! cruci"ied* but to the pro"icient' "ired %ith ove o" the divine %isdo! %e i!part the Logos&5 Synesius' Aishop o" 4to e!ais' says that3 5the truth !ust be kept secret' and the !asses need a teaching proportioned to their i!per"ect reason&5 Aoth the +ysteries and Arcane Christianity %ere c ear y o" opinion that !ore shou d not be given than the inte ect cou d understand&

7t is a !oot point ho% "ar architectura sy!bo is! %as in use by this Schoo ' so!e %riters !aintain that a these sects used bui ding sy!bo is!' and Christianity %as strong in the Ro!an Co eges o" Arti"icers& O iver asserts that in the Cataco!bs o" Ro!e' a cross %as constructed o" a s:uare' eve ' and p u!b9ru e' in such !anner that' i" touched' it "e to pieces' and the detected "raternity %ere supposed to be studying architecture& A representation o" the te!p e o" So o!on %as "ound in these subterraneans& That the earned o" these ti!es did not ignore the use o" +asonic sy!bo is! is very certain' and St& 4au ter!s hi!se " a 5+aster Aui der'5 %ho %as engaged in erecting the ne% church' nu!erous passages o" the sa!e character occur' hints at initiation' %hich %ou d ead us to be ieve that there %as a +asonic character in the secret syste! o" the Church& The apocrypha book ca ed 5The ?ision o" Her!as5 co!pares the "aith"u to 4er"ect ash ars' 5o" a true die or s:uare'5 and the ess so!e %riters !aintain that a these sects used bui ding sy!bo is!' and Christianity %as strong in the Ro!an Co eges o" Arti"icers& O iver asserts that in the Cataco!bs o" Ro!e' a cross %as constructed o" a s:uare' eve ' and p u!b9ru e' in such !anner that' i" touched' it "e to pieces' and the detected "raternity %ere supposed to be studying architecture& A representation o" the te!p e o" So o!on %as "ound in these subterraneans& That the earned o" these ti!es did not ignore the use o" +asonic sy!bo is! is very certain' and St& 4au ter!s hi!se " a 5+aster Aui der'5 %ho %as engaged in erecting the ne% church' nu!erous passages o" the sa!e character occur' hints at initiation' %hich %ou d ead us to be ieve that there %as a +asonic character in the secret syste! o" the Church& The apocrypha book ca ed 5The ?ision o" Her!as5 co!pares the "aith"u to 4er"ect ash ars' 5o" a true die or s:uare'5 and the ess C-IGD ho y to i!per"ect stones' and rough ash ars& 7n the so9ca ed Aposto ica Constitution' the church is co!pared to a ship' as it is in the Egyptian 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 99the +inister is Captain' the $eacons +ariners' the congregation are passengers& The Nave o" the church is e:ua y an a usion to the ark o" the +ysteries& (e have so!e in"or!ation upon the organisation o" the Arcane Church in the 5Stro!ata5 o" C e!ens' in 5$egrees o" # ory in Heaven corresponding %ith the dignities o" the church be o%5* but %hich is !ore "u y e2p ained by $ionysius the Areopagite* e:ua y based upon heaven y and ecc esiastica hierarchies& 7n each it is G 2 G U . c asses& 7n the "irst division %e have Seraphi!' Cherubi!' and Thrones* in the second' $o!inions' ?irtues' and 4o%ers* in the third' 4rincipa ities' Archange s' and Ange s& 7n the earth y counterpart Jesus stands in re ation to it as does the heaven y 0ather to the ce estia Hierarchy& The "irst trip et is baptis!' co!!union' and consecration o" the chris!' representing puri"ication' en ightening' and per"ecting& Second' the orders o" $eacon' 4riest' and Aishop& Third' +onks' +e!bers' and Catechu!ens& Here %e have the E2oteric' Esoteric' and $ivine church& The Lectures o" the Order o" Harodi! 9Rosy Cross' %hich c ai! a Cu dee +asonic origin' speak o" these !atters* and the Christian +ysteries' e:ua y %ith the 4 atonists' speak o" hy ics' sepu chres' and the dead' as app ying to those %ho are buried in %or d y !atters and things o" sense& (e have been !ore di""use on this sub6ect' "or the reason that Christian churches cou d on y have been bui t by +asons %ho

possessed its arcanu!& There are t%o accounts %hich indicate in this country that either the history o" the Arcane $iscip ine is not "u y kno%n' or in the other case that the Cu dees had inherited a specia Rite "ro! their $ruidica ancestors' a Rite %hich rese!b ed that o" the +ysteries o" the 4hi osophers' and they shou d be considered together& The "irst Cu dees had been $ruids and St& 4atrick is said to C-IJD have been born at $u!barton' and to have gone to 7re and in JG; A&$& St& Co u!ba e"t 7re and %ith -; co!panions in the Ith century' intending to "ound a +onastery at 7co !ki on an 7s and in the Hebrides& 7t %as thought necessary' the egend says' "o o%ing a %ide y9spread be ie"' that the structure shou d be sancti"ied by a iving sacri"ice' and Odrian o""ered hi!se " "or that purpose' and %as buried a ive* a"ter a apse o" 5three days5 Co u!ba thought he %ou d ike to have a ook at his o d "riend' and uncovered hi!* upon %hich Odrian started up a ive' and began his e2perience3 he had earned the truth in the other %or d' there %as no "a o" !an' no persona Christ' no persona devi '

and no he & The scanda ised Co u!ba ordered his "riend to be covered up again' 5that he b ab no !ore&5 This ta e enshrines so!e o" the a eged heresies o" the Cu dees "or there %ere !any others& 7t is "urther e2p ained by the Co u!ba ordered his "riend to be covered up again' 5that he b ab no !ore&5 This ta e enshrines so!e o" the a eged heresies o" the Cu dees "or there %ere !any others& 7t is "urther e2p ained by the && "o o%ing account %hich %e copy "ro! 0roissart' and #oughs additions to Ca!den&MM5Aritannia'5 iii' p& IJ-&NN One O%en' or Tinda ' a so dier o" Stephen' Eing o" Eng and' repaired to the o d +onastery o" St& 4atrick in $onega ' %here %as his 54urgatory&5 He %as prepared "or his initiation by a && nine days"ast on bread and %ater' but %hich +atthe% 4aris says %as origina y a "ast o" ;- days' and as this "ast is reported both o" the +ysteries and the Arcane $iscip ine' it serves to connect the three accounts& Each day a procession %as !ade round the p ace' three ti!es the "irst seven days' and si2 ti!es on the eighth' bathing each night in the ake' such processions and bathings being a so a part o" the ancient +ysteries& On the ninth day he observes a co!p ete "ast o" ;J hours' %ith the e2ception o" a itt e %ater' and %as then conducted to the Chape ' 5out o" %hich a %ho enter do not return*5 there %as a deep %e at one end& He then aid do%n in a sort o" grave arge enough to ho d the body* the on y ight being "ro! a sing e %indo% o" s!a di!ensions' %hich ooked out upon a "ie d and a C-I=D ha & Here O%en %as visited during the night by -= persons' c othed in %hite' %ho %arned hi! o" the tria s he %ou d undergo& To these succeeded a troop o" de!ons' %ho see!ed to p ace hi! upon a burning pi e' %hich he e2tinguished in the na!e o" Christ& They then dragged hi! through scenes o" tor!ent' %here the %icked su""er a variety o" tortures' such as ?irgi gives as co!!on to Tartarus& Standing proo" against these horrors O%en is taken in hand by t%o venerab e persons' %ho "avour hi! %ith a "u vie% and description o" 4aradise' corresponding %ith that sho%n to Aeneas& A"ter this O%en proceeds on a pi gri!age to Jerusa e!' and a"ter visiting the Ho y Sepu chre' returns to 7re and and abours at erecting the Abbey o" Aes!agoveisth& Tria s %ere !ade o" this cavern as ate as the -=th century' as 0roissart records that he had intervie%ed t%o so diers' %ho had spent a night in the cave' but "orgot their visions a"ter eaving the p ace& #NOST7CS& These sects are ancient' and Christian #nosticis! sprang out o" sects !ore ancient than the!se ves& The %ord !eans 5to kno%'5 in opposition to !ere theory' and has deep signi"icance' e:ua y %ith ?eda' (i1ard' (itch' a !eaning a c ass 5%ho kno%&5 An e2traordinary !an' o" the "irst ages o" the Church' %as Apo onius o" Tyana* Theurgic po%ers' and !any %onder"u things are recorded o" hi!3 he %as an initiate o" various Rites' and visited the 7ndian #y!nosophists' a"ter %hich he %ent about #reece re"or!ing the +ysteries& As the Catho ic Church uses the ter! #nostic he can scarce y be considered one

o" the!' but he %as born about the sa!e date as the #ospe Jesus and ived to be -<< years o" age& The "irst #nostic 5o" the Church5 %as Si!on +agus' a conte!porary o" the Christian Apost es' %ho passed at Ro!e as 5a great po%er o" #od'5 that is an Aeon or Sephiroth' in the anguage o" the #nosis and Caba a& He %as born at #itta' in Sa!aria' and his #nosis is couched in the sy!bo ica anguage o" the period& He %as persona y kno%n to the Apost es' %ho C-IID c ear y considered hi! a person to be reckoned %ith' a though he %ou d see! to have ooked upon the! "avourab y' and !i d y asked Cephas 95 4ray "or !e&5 So!e o" his ene!ies ad!it his honesty and sing e9!indedness& He had nu!erous discip es' and %as deep y earned in Orienta ' #reek' and Je%ish cu ture' as %e as Theurgy& As an anato!ist' he %rote upon the circu ation o" the b ood' and the physica syste! o" the "e!a e& The hand e

%hich he gave to his ene!ies consisted chie" y in this' that he re"or!ed and !arried a beauti"u har ot' %ho repaid hi! %ith her devotion' and %ho! he be ieved' %hether right y or %rong y' to be a reincarnation o" He en o" Troy' doo!ed to such rebirth "or her ancient sin %ith 4ria!& 7renaeus' %ho " ourished in the second century' and %as born --I A&$&' says that the Si!onians had a priesthood o" the +ysteries' and that such 57nitiated priests5 practised !agic arts' and e2orcis!s& Si!on had as discip es +enander' and Cerinthus' a Je%ish Caba ist' and $ositheus %as a conte!porary* they ooked upon the Creation in #enesis as consonant to the gestation o" the "oetus' and the te!ptation o" Eve had a ike characer' as %e as the #arden o" Eden& A"ter this "o o%ed Saturninus o" Antioch* 4rodicus' -;< A&$&* ?a entinian' an Egyptian' -G< A&$&* 4to e!y' and +arcion' -GI A&$& A "e% detai s "o o%& ted chie" y in this' that he re"or!ed and !arried a beauti"u har ot' %ho repaid hi! %ith her devotion' and %ho! he be ieved' %hether right y or %rong y' to be a reincarnation o" He en o" Troy' doo!ed to such rebirth "or her ancient sin %ith 4ria!& 7renaeus' %ho " ourished in the second century' and %as born --I A&$&' says that the Si!onians had a priesthood o" the +ysteries' and that such 57nitiated priests5 practised !agic arts' and e2orcis!s& Si!on had as discip es +enander' and Cerinthus' a Je%ish Caba ist' and $ositheus %as a conte!porary* they ooked upon the Creation in #enesis as consonant to the gestation o" the "oetus' and the te!ptation o" Eve had a ike characer' as %e as the #arden o" Eden& A"ter this "o o%ed Saturninus o" Antioch* 4rodicus' -;< A&$&* ?a entinian' an Egyptian' -G< A&$&* 4to e!y' and +arcion' -GI A&$& A "e% detai s "o o%& 5Carpocratians&5 The "ounder o" this Sect %as Carpocrates o" A e2andria& He %ou d see! to have been a $iscip e o" Jehoshua ben 4anther' previous y !entioned' rather than the #ospe Jesus& 7t is not i!probab e that the o der portions o" the Je%ish 5Sepher To doth Jeshu5 %as a #ospe o" Caba istic Sects' and that Jesus ben 4anther %as an Essenian eader& The syste! o" Carpocrates taught that Jesus derived the +ysteries o" his re igion "ro! the te!p e o" 7sis in Egypt' %here he had studied "or si2 years' and that he taught the! to his Apost es' %ho trans!itted the! to Carpocrates& The sect used Theurgic incantations' and had grips' signs' and %ords* sy!bo s and degrees& && His son Epiphanes %rote C-IBD a %ork on his "athers syste!' but died young& The sect is be ieved to have endured "or so!e centuries& The Co!te de Tro!e in' in the 4aris 57nitiation5 ,Oct&' -.<;/' says3 995Her!es has as seat a cross bet%een the "our branches o" %hich are %ritten the "our etters 7&N&R&7&' in that order& 7s it not the grand Her!etic prediction o" the +ages attendant on the +essiah@5 5Cerenthians&5 These %ere apparent y Essenian #nostics' and !ade a distinction bet%een the earth y Jesus and the Ange +essiah that united %ith the !orta !an& So!e eading #er!an Savants are no% agreed that the Apoca ypse' "ro! the Jth to ;-st chapter' %as the #ospe o" the Sect' the

re!ainder being o" ater date* in this they agree %ith the 4resbyter Ca6us o" Ro!e' and Aishop $ionysius o" A e2andria' %ho' according to Eusebius' attributed the book to Cerinthus& 5+arcians&5 7renaeus gives an account o" their cere!ony o" 7nitiation' but %hich the sect repudiated' but the nature o" these detai s have so!e agree!ent %ith the !odern $ervish sects* there is "irst a baptis!a 7nvocation' a second to ight' spirit' and i"e* "o o%ed by one to 5ange ic rede!ption'5 by %hich the Neophyte beca!e united to his Ange ' "ina y a "or!u a o" 5restitution'5 or unity to the super9ce estia po%er' to %hich the Neophyte responds in dec aring his rede!ption by the na!e 7AO& They gave nu!bers to the Aeons& 5Aasi ideans&5 This sect %as "ounded by Aasi ides o" A e2andria' %ho %as a discip e o" +enander' a pupi o" Si!on +agus* but C e!ens says that he c ai!ed to have received his esoteric doctrines "ro! # aucus' a discip e o" the Apost e 4eter& The syste! had three grades 99the !ateria ' inte ectua ' and spiritua * and they had t%o a egorica statues' the one !a e and the other "e!a e& A :uin:uennia si ence' as in the +ysteries' %as e2acted "ro! the $iscip es* and the doctrine see!s to have !any points o" rese!b ance to that o" the Ophites& 7t ran on the ines o" Je%ish Caba is! %ith a succession o" Aeons' E!anations' and Sephiroth' over %hich an C-IFD Archon' or Ange ic

prince presided& They taught that Si!on o" Cyrene took the p ace o" Jesus at the Cruci"i2ion& Aasi ides %as succeeded by his son 7sidorus' and they say that +atthias co!!unicated to the! secret discourse' %hich being specia y instructed' he heard "ro! the Saviour&MMHippo ytus' Re"utation o" a Heresies&5NN the Cruci"i2ion& Aasi ides %as succeeded by his son 7sidorus' and they say that +atthias co!!unicated to the! secret discourse' %hich being specia y instructed' he heard "ro! the Saviour&MMHippo ytus' Re"utation o" a Heresies&5NN 5Ophites&5 The Ophites %ere an organised "raternity ear y in the ;nd century as it is said to have nu!bered ?a entinian a!ongst its supporters' but C e!ens attributes its "oundation to Eucrates at the beginning o" our era& 7t %as very Osirian or Serapian' %ith Se!itic na!es "or the Coptic ones& 7n the 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 %hich is o" inca cu ab e anti:uity' there are certain chapters %hich re"er to secrets o" 7nitiation' %hich the trans ators have not !astered' and %hich have re"erence to the pass%ords re:uired by the #uards o" the heaven y te!p e or A!enti' "ro! the aspiring sou ' these are i ustrated in the Ophite Ritua & To so!e e2tent the doctrine corresponds %ith that o" the +endaens' or "o o%ers o" John the Aaptist& Sy!bo s to represent purity' i"e' spirit' "ire have to be she%n to the #uards& (e !ay i!agine such to be the cube' tau9cross' pentagon' or other sy!bo s& && saying3 5The sou greets the "irst po%er && 7 co!e "ro! thence pure' a portion o" the ight o" the son and "ather& To prove this' the sign !ust be she%n' as %e to every Archon' that the sou && passes& To the principa Archon' 7 dabaoth' is said' #reatest and seventh Archon o" the Logos' sub9Archon o" the Spirit' the through9"ather9and son' 7 && o""er to thee per"ect %ork in this "igure' the sign o" i"e&The address to Jao is' &&&&

9To thee 7 no% o""er 6ust the sa!e sign "igured in the spirit& && Sabaoth' Then going to the Archon o" the "i"th per!ission' Lord Sabaoth' proc ai!er o" the a% o" the creation' per"ected by thy kindness' by the po%er o" the !ost !ighty "i"th nu!ber' et !e pass& See here the cri!e9c ear sign o" thy art' %hich has been passed by a the previous Archons' in the "or! o" this sign' a body abso ved by && A"ter the sou has C-I.D she%n this "igure thrice it needs no "urther sign && "ire& "or the succeeding Archon' Aristophanes' but addresses hi! con"ident y' && Let !e pass' thou seest one 7nitiated&5MM5Originis Opera5 99de a Rue' i' p& =J&NN These Seven Archons %ere represented in this Syste! by ani!a s 99+ichae by a ion* Surie by a bu * Raphae by a serpent* #abrie by an eag e* Thoutabaoth by a bear* Eratsaoth by a dog* Ourie by an ass* these na!es being Caba istic e:uiva ents o" the Archons' Origen na!es the ru ers thus3 Adonai ,sun/* Jao ,!oon/* E oi* ,Jupiter/* Sabao ,+ars/* Orai ,?enus/* Astapohi ,+ercury/* 7 dabaoth ,Saturn/& Ophite' or serpent sy!bo is!' is ancient as the %or d' and one o" the sacred a phabets represented the %rithing curves o" serpents& 5Naasene&5 The Naasene %ere a branch o" the Ophites' the na!e being derived "ro! the Hebre% Naas' a serpent' and %e have :uoted the %ords o" one o" the sect in the ast chapter&MM?ide 5A&L&C&'5 iii' p& I<&NN 5?a entinians&5 The "ive #nostic %ords #R3Heta9A pha9+u9A pha O!ega Heta9Heta9A pha Rho9A pha9Chi A pha9+u9A pha O!ega Heta9A pha97ota' are trans ated3 5The robe' the g orious robe o" !y strength'5 and are said to have been on the shining gar!ent o" Jesus at his g ori"ication* they are said to represent the "ive !ystic po%ers o" the reborn %hich beco!e seven upon bodi y death& Herac ian %as a "o o%er o" this schoo ' and %rote about -B< A&$& a &&

Co!!entary upon the gospe o" St& Johns opening %ords& 5Aardisanians&5 The "ounder o" this sect %as Aardaisan' a !an o" nob e descent born at Edessa -== A&$&' and died ;GG A&$& He %as author o" an Ar!enian history* a book on the 7ndian re igions* a book o" Hy!ns* another on

the +arcionites* Aook o" a%s o" the Countries' concerning "ate' "ree%i ' and nature& A !ost beauti"u hy!n o" his sy!bo ises the #nostic 7nitiation& 4ro"essor A& Aevan ter!s it a 5Hy!n o" the Sou '5 but the 5Theosophica Revie%'5 to %hich %e are indebted "or !any hints on #nosticis!' ter!s it the 5Hy!n o" the Robe o" # ory&5 His antagonists brought these charges against hi!3 99,-/ he denied the resurrection o" the body* ,;/ he C-B<D he d the theory o" a 5divine +other'5 and a 50ather o" i"e'5 as the origin o" the 5Son o" the iving5* in other %ords the #nostic doctrine o" the concea ed Logoi* ,J/ he be ieved in a nu!ber o" esser gods' such as the seven %ho are said to surround the throne& The sub6ects appear in the poe! !entioned as the 5Eing o" Eings'5 the 5Lueen o" the East'5 and the 5Arother ne2t in rank5* "ina y the esser gods are the 5Eings %ho obey the Eing o" Eings&5 nature& A !ost beauti"u hy!n o" his sy!bo ises the #nostic 7nitiation& 4ro"essor A& Aevan ter!s it a 5Hy!n o" the Sou '5 but the 5Theosophica Revie%'5 to %hich %e are indebted "or !any hints on #nosticis!' ter!s it the 5Hy!n o" the Robe o" # ory&5 His antagonists brought these charges against hi!3 99,-/ he denied the resurrection o" the body* ,;/ he C-B<D he d the theory o" a 5divine +other'5 and a 50ather o" i"e'5 as the origin o" the 5Son o" the iving5* in other %ords the #nostic doctrine o" the concea ed Logoi* ,J/ he be ieved in a nu!ber o" esser gods' such as the seven %ho are said to surround the throne& The sub6ects appear in the poe! !entioned as the 5Eing o" Eings'5 the 5Lueen o" the East'5 and the 5Arother ne2t in rank5* "ina y the esser gods are the 5Eings %ho obey the Eing o" Eings&5 5+anicheans&5 The !ost noted o" the #nostic sects %as the +anichees' %ho! Herder ranks as a sect o" the 4ersian +agi& The "ounder is said to have been a pupi o" Scythianus' an Arab o" the purest !ora ity' %ho %as conte!porary %ith the Christian Apost es* he studied the Egyptian 4hi osophy and co!posed "our books designated Chapters' +ysteries' Treasures' and #ospe & A discip e o" this !an' na!ed 0erbu io' assu!ed the na!e o" Auddha' it !ay be to i!p y reincarnation' and dying by accident' a %ido% %ith %ho! 0erbu io odged' had a s ave o" the na!e o" Cubricus educated' and gave hi! the "our books' %hich he took into 4ersia' %here he asu!ed the na!e o" +ani' %hich !eans conversation* it is said that the Eing o" 4ersia had hi! " ayed a ive %ith reeds&MM?ide 5+e!oirs o" Jacobinis!5 99Aarrue &NN The entire ta e ooks ike a "ab e o" the ene!ies o" the sect& 7n addition to the c ass o" $iscip es' the sect had that o" Auditors' %ho %ere per!itted to hear the %ritings o" +ani read and interpreted in a !ystica "or!* a custo! %e sa% "o o%ed by the Arah!ins in dea ing %ith the (arriors& The third grade %as the 4er"ect' or E ect' %ho %ere the priest y order o" the sect& 0ro! these ast %ere chosen the +agistri' or Counci ' %ho %ere -; in nu!ber' as in the Cu dee syste!' %ith a -Gth as 4resident& (hen a +anichee passed over to orthodo2y in Ro!e' he %as re:uired to curse his ate associates in the "o o%ing ter!s' %hich i!p ies a re"erence to the Sun9god o" the +ysteries3 57 curse those persons %ho say that Harades' and Audas' C-B-D and Christ' and +anichaes' and the Sun are a one and the sa!e&5 The Sun' 8ri!' and +ani' being the saviour sy!bo ' and the o d +ystery9god' under various na!es' a

Sunday "estiva %as observed in +arch' %hen "unerea rites %ere ce ebrated& On this occasion the a tar %as adorned %ith great !agni"icence' and a sp endid y decorated pu pit' ascended by "ive steps' %as erected' be"ore %hich a prostrated the!se ves& This sect' in co!!on %ith a the other #nostics' had secret "or!s o" recognition* Augustin says3 5signa' oris' !anu! et "inus'5 %hich Aarrue trans ates3 5three' that o" the %ord' the gripe' and o" the breast&5 Epiphanius' %ho had been a !e!ber' pro"esses to give the !ode by %hich they tested strangers 99tick ing the pa ! o" the hand %ith the "inger& Augustine %as at one ti!e o" his i"e a +anichee' but "ai ing' "or so!e reason' to obtain advance!ent' %ithdre% "ro! the sect& Synesius' Aishop o" Cyrene' and a pupi and i"e9 ong "riend o" the un"ortunate Hypatia' %ho %as torn to pieces by a Christian !ob be"ore the very a tar' continued a 4 atonist to the ast* and he bitter y reproaches one o" his "riends "or having ight y betrayed to uninitiated Auditors a part o" the Secret

doctrines o" the 4hi osophers& The contest bet%een the Ro!an Church and the #nostics' broad y speaking' reso ves itse " into this3 "irst' the historica Jesus' the Christ o" the Church* and second' the ancient Crestos o" the Serapian Cu te' the good god' %ith a Spiritua Cristos to be deve oped %ithin each 4er"ected #nostic& The "or!er vie% %as that o" 4eter and the Judaising Christians* the atter that o" 4au ' Origen' and the Aritish Cu dees& The Arcane $iscip ine %as the union o" the t%o' in %hich the itera history %as taught E2oterica y' and the spiritua version Esoterica y* in the end the Church sought to teach both E2oterica y& #nostics' broad y speaking' reso ves itse " into this3 "irst' the historica Jesus' the Christ o" the Church* and second' the ancient Crestos o" the Serapian Cu te' the good god' %ith a Spiritua Cristos to be deve oped %ithin each 4er"ected #nostic& The "or!er vie% %as that o" 4eter and the Judaising Christians* the atter that o" 4au ' Origen' and the Aritish Cu dees& The Arcane $iscip ine %as the union o" the t%o' in %hich the itera history %as taught E2oterica y' and the spiritua version Esoterica y* in the end the Church sought to teach both E2oterica y& 5Arcane Sy!bo s&5 A nu!ber o" the pecu iar sy!bo s o" the various sects have co!e do%n to us' but have not yet been proper y c assi"ied by any %riter& -& Those %ith C-B;D a cock && s head upon the top' and the na!e Abra2as upon so!e o" the!3 these !ay be +ythraic and Aasi idean' as the cock %as a +ythraic sy!bo * Abra2as is Aasi idean& ;& Those %ith the head' or body o" a ion' co!!on y inscribed 5+ythras&5 G& Those %ith the "igure or na!e o" the Egyptian 5Serapis&5 J& Those %hich have "igures o" sphyn2' ape' scarib' asp' ibis' goat' crocodi e' vu ture' etc&' a Egyptian sy!bo s& =& Those %hich have hu!an "igures and the na!es Jao' Sabaoth' Adonai' E oi' Aasi idean' Ophite' and Je%ish sects& I& Those %ith a cost y !onu!ent' and the %ord 5Abra2as'5 Aasi idean and perhaps +anichean& B& One represented in the %ork o" Chi""a et' %hich has upon it B stars' and a arger one above the!' together %ith a pair o" co!passes' a s:uare' and other geo!etrica e!b e!s' perhaps Cabiric& F& One in the Aritish +useu! engraved by Arother (!& Hutchinson in his 5Spirit o" +asonry*5 it is in the shape o" an egg* on one side is a head %hich he interprets as the Ancient o" $ays or #reat9%ork!an* on the other side' sun' !oon' "ive9pointed star' and a serpent* it has an inscription %hich he interprets3 5The earth sha praise Thee' -G<=&5 .& Representations o" the eterna 0ather' %ith ar!s crossed on breast& -<& To these !ay be added nu!erous e!b e!s "ro! ancient ge!s' chie" y o" #reek %ork!anship' so!e o" %hich e!brace +asonic signs' so!e %ith 4e icans' crosses o" a shapes' s:uares' triang es' circ es' point %ithin a circ e' etc& The #nostics had great respect "or the nu!ber seven Csy!bo ' upright e:ui atera triang e " oating above s:uareD because it resu ts "ro! adding the side vie% o" a s:uare to those

o" a triang e' or the three princip es and "our e e!ents' app ied spiritua y& 7n regard to the nu!ber seven %e !ay :uote +r& T& Subba Ro%'MM50ive Years o" Theosophy&5NN %ho says3 995A gebraica y the nu!ber o" entities evo ved "ro! three pri!ary causes is ; cubed 9- is F9-UB& Thus the seven rays are evo ved out o" three pri!ary co oured rays' and the three pri!ary co ours e2ist %ith the "our secondary co ours& Si!i ar y the three pri!ary entities' %hich brought !an into e2istence' C-BGD e2ist in hi! %ith the "our secondary arising "ro! di""erent co!binations o" the three pri!ary entities&5 The rea cause o" the veneration o" the +anichees "or the reed' upon !ats o" %hich they a""ected to ie' is not very apparent' but it %as every%here a sacred sy!bo & 7n the ancient 0innish poe! o" the 5Ea eva a5 the 5virgin +other o" the north9 and5 conceives a heaven y chi d %ho is 5hidden in the reeds and rushes&5 The Hindu goddess Eartikeya %as nourished a!id reeds& +oses %as saved in an ark o" bu rushes* and a reed %as put into the hand o" Jesus' as a sceptre& As the p ant gro%s upright out o" %ater it !ay sy!bo ise truth springing "ro! sacred doctrine* but as the virgin !other is pri!a !atter' that re:uires another key o" interpretation&

The #nostics adopted the Apost e John as their 4atron* his sy!bo %as the && Eag e' or bird o" the sun' %hich %as the Sectarianssacred e!b e!* it is "ound in Egypt at the "oot o" the tau cross' and no% on the 6e%e o" a Rosy9cross +ason& The #nostic tokens %ere a sectarian version o" the o der pagan 5Tesserae hospita is'5 on %hich %as the head o" Heus' and under the Ro!an E!pire there %as the 5tesserae "ru!entaria'5 %hich entit ed to a pub ic distribution o" grain&MM5Notes and Lueries5 ,London' -J +ch&' -FBJ/&NN There %as the %hite stone presented on +ythraic 7nitiation* and C e!ens in his 5Hortatory Address to the Heathen'5 appears to a ude to both sign and pass' and !ateria token 995na! e:uide! nu o un:ua! pericu o co!pe ar' 5:uae reticenda accepi hac ad pro"anos enuntiare&5 Again' 5?e unius Liberi patris sy!!ystae :ui adestis' 5scitis :uid dani conditu! ce etis et & & &5 tacite venera!ini&5 There can be no doubt that the Arcane $iscip ine had the! as tokens o" preparation "or the Supper o" the Lord* !any' i" not a ' the Catho ic con"raternities present a token %hich is genera y %orn under the c othes "ro! a ribbon& So!e o" the tokens yet preserved be onged to the Te!p ars' and there are a :uantity o" Abbey tokens' %hich are struck in ead or C-BJD pe%ter %ith the cross on one side' and on the obverse a variety o" designs& 5Esoteric Audhis!&5 This iving syste! has every appearance o" great anti:uity* its sy!bo s are ideographs' interpretab e in any anguage' and touch the +ysteries& 7t has t%o divisions' theory and practice' or the active and conte!p ative o" the Essenes& The doctrine o" the 5heart'5 as opposed to the 5eye5* the secret path as opposed to the 5open'5 and is the sea o" truth'5 %hich eads to the gro%th o" 5the tree o" kno% edge'5 or the 5dragon tree'5 %hich is the deve op!ent o" the 5higher se "&5 The 5Secret heart5 has three ha s' "ro! %hich ead t%o 4aths "or the 5Listener5 and the 5E2erciser&5 The "irst is the "our9"o d $hyana* the second is the seven nob e gates o" virtue opened by the 5go den keys5 o" charity' har!ony' patience' %or d y indi""erence' persistence' unti "ina y the initiate arrives at the attain!ent o" supre!e %isdo!' by trave ing the paths o" hearing and seeing& These paths !ay be co!pared %ith the seven Ha s and Staircases o" the Egyptian 5Ritua o" the $ead&5 Si!i ar y %e have the 5seven stepped Ladder5 o" the 5#o den 4recepts'5 each step being an advance to%ards union %ith the divine' its rungs are o" su""ering and pain' its sides o" ove& To hear and see reaches the second stage o" ascent' %hen the "our senses b end' and pass into the inner sense* the "i"th and si2th carry per"ect renunciation and concentration o" the 5higher se "5* on the seventh' 5thyse " and !ind are ike t%ins upon a ine'5 the 5star5 %hich is thy goa burns over head&MM5?oice o" the Si ence'5 trans & by H& 4& A avatsky&NN Thibet ike Thebes denotes Sacred Ark' and points to the high tab e9 and o" Thibet as a centre o" the +ysteries& 5Arcane Schoo s&5 The #nostic Sects' Neo94 atonists' and the +ysteries' descended do%n the strea! o" ti!e' %ith !utua "orbearance and good%i ' unti ate on in the "ourth century' %hen evi ti!es co!e upon the!& The

Church %as beco!ing po%er"u and into erant' and there %as no roo! e"t "or the +ysteries o" +ythras' C-B=D Serapis' Aacchus' the Cabirs' Hirtha' $ruids' or #nostics* and the Church considered itse " capab e to absorb their teachings& The E!perors ?a entinian' GB;* Theodosius' GF-* Theodosius 77&' J=<' a "orbade the asse!b ies o" #nostics' 4 atonists' and a other re igious +ysteries' but this but ed to greater secrecy and disguise' "or 4se us te s us

that the E eusinian +ysteries continued to be practised at Athens in the Fth century' and %ere never entire y suppressed& century' and %ere never entire y suppressed& 7n the si2th century the #nostics %ere put to the s%ord in 4ersia' but so!e e!braced 7s a!' and trans!itted their syste! a!ongst the $ervish sects& 7n I=B the +anichees had assu!ed the na!e o" 54au icians'5 and it is said that in the course o" three centuries one hundred thousand %ere put to death by the Ro!ish Church' or at its instigation& The na!e o" 5Cathari5 succeeded and i!p ies' as in the $iscip ine' purity& So!e took the na!e o" 5Euckites'5 others 5Aogo!i es'5 5A bigensis'5 and ater 5Lo ards'5 trave ed over Europe' seeking prose ytes' and continuing' either open y or secret y' unti !odern ti!es& There %as nothing o""ensive in the %ord #nostic' it !eans kno%ing as opposed to be ieving& C e!ens' in his 5Stro!ata'5 uses the %ord in orthdo2y thus3 5Happy are they %ho have entered into #nostic ho iness&5 Heckethorn says that in -<;; the Canons o" Or eans %ere burnt "or +anichaeis! by Eing Robert* as Cathari they %ere persecuted in 7ta y --=<9-;;J' and %ere co!pe ed to per"or! their Rites in %oods and "orests' ike the Carbonari' and it is not i!probab e that the atter %hose +ysteries represent the passion o" Christ' is one o" their branches& 5A "urther i!pregnab e evidence o" the derivation o" Catharis! "ro! +anichaeis! is "urnished by the sacred thread and the gar!ent %hich %as %orn by a the 54er"ect5 a!ong the Cathari& This custo! is too pecu iar to have had an independent origin' and is !ani"est y the 5Eosti5 and 5Saddarah'5 the sacred thread and shirt the %earing o" %hich %as essentia to a be ievers' and the use o" %hich by both Hends and Arah!ins sho%s that its origin is to C-BID be traced to the prehistoric period' anterior to the separation o" those branches o" the Aryan "a!i y& A!ong Cathari the %earing o" the thread and vest!ent' %as %hat %as kno%n a!ongst the 7n:uisitors as the 5haereticus indutus5 or 5vestitus'5 initiated into a the !ysteries o" the heresy&5MMH& C& Lea' 5Hist& o" 7n:uisition o" the +idd e Ages5 ,i' p& .;/& London' -FFF&NN This !ay be the origin o" that consecrated #ird e' %hich %as one o" the charges brought against the Te!p ars during their tria s' -G--9-G& 5+ete!psychosis' and the pre9e2istence o" the Sou %as an integra part o" the syste!&5MMJ& H& A unt' 5$ict& o" Sects and Heresies'5 London' -F.-&NN This state!ent is con"ir!ed in nu!erous %ays' and is even !ystica y stated in the #raa 4oe! o" (o "ra! von Eisenbach& The 0rench %riter Arou2 :uotes 4ierre Cardina the Troubadour' as to the vei ed anguage o" the #raa egend' %hich %as o" a nature o" the Cu dee secret sy!bo is!& He says3 5The ungent %hich hea s a kinds o" %ounds' even the bites o" the 5vene!ous repti es'5 is in "act none other but the %ord o" the gospe ' so a so the 5go den vesse 5 in %hich it ,the graa / is contained' adorned %ith !ost precious stones' is none other than the ho y grai itse "' or the book o" the #ospe s' as the A bigensis had adopted and trans ated it* the #o den book' the vesse containing the true ight' visib e on y to the 7nitiated' to the 4ro"essors o" the #ay Science&5 (e sha add ater so!e account o" these sects&

Ear y in the -;th century the ce ebrated St& Aernard' Abbot o" C airvau2 says o" the #nostics3 57" you ask the! o" their "aith nothing can be !ore Christian ike* i" you observe their conversation nothing can be !ore b a!e ess' and %hat they speak they !ake good by their actions& & & & & As to i"e and !anners' he circu!vents no !an' overreaches no !an' does vio ence to no !an' he "asts !uch' eats not the bread o" id eness' but %orks %ith his hands&5 Another

Ro!an %riter says that the 54er"ected5 %ere divided into Aishops' +a6or' and +inor brothers' and $eacons' and that these abstained "ro! C-BBD ani!a "ood' and "ro! %o!en& 7t is re ated o" the (a denses' %ho %ere a branch o" the A bigensis %ho !ay have preserved the Arcane +ysteries "ro! their "irst reception o" Christianity' that the 7nitiated assu!ed ne% na!es' and that %hen the Ae iever %as on the point o" death he %as per"ected thus3 5They asse!b ed in a dark roo!' c osed on a sides' but i u!inated by a great nu!ber o" ights a""i2ed to the %a s* then the ne% Candidate %as p aced in the centre' %hen the +inor brothers' and $eacons' and that these abstained "ro! C-BBD ani!a "ood' and "ro! %o!en& 7t is re ated o" the (a denses' %ho %ere a branch o" the A bigensis %ho !ay have preserved the Arcane +ysteries "ro! their "irst reception o" Christianity' that the 7nitiated assu!ed ne% na!es' and that %hen the Ae iever %as on the point o" death he %as per"ected thus3 5They asse!b ed in a dark roo!' c osed on a sides' but i u!inated by a great nu!ber o" ights a""i2ed to the %a s* then the ne% Candidate %as p aced in the centre' %hen the && presiding o""icer o" the sect aid a book ,probab y St& Johns #ospe / on his head' and gave hi! the i!position o" hands' at the sa!e ti!e reciting the &&&&&& Lords prayer* saying a so3 Have pity on this i!prisoned spirit& 5 The ast a very 4 atonic "or!u a& Saccho says' in speaking o" the -Gth century3 57n !any o" the sects their secrets are by no !eans revea ed&5 Li!borchi says3 5They had a so a pecu iar !anner o" sa uting each other' by e!bracing' putting their hands to both sides' and turning their heads three ti!es to each shou der' && saying every ti!e' && 4raise the Lord& 5 O" the (a denses' %ho "o o%ed 4eter (a do' %ho %as probab y a (a dense' it is said that 5those %ho are 4er"ect put in the upper part o" the shoe' a Habbata' a sort o" escutcheon' as a sign' "ro!

%hich they are ca ed 7n1abbata&5 This state!ent' re"erring as it does to the -Gth century' see!s to a!ount on y to this' that they %ore sanda s or %ooden shoes& The Rev& Henry Stebbing ,-FGJ/ says that in the -Jth century 4ope Honorius 777& 5conde!ned to perpetua in"a!y the Cathari' 4atarines' the Leonists' the Speronists' and the Arno dists&5 ?EH+ #ER7CHTE& According to Abbe Trithe!ius' %ho %rote his 54o agraphia5 about the year -=<<' the E!peror Char e!agne instituted in BB< "or Sa2ons o" (estpha ia' or the red earth' a Secret Tribuna ' "or the suppression o" paganis! and bad !ora s' 5%ith secret a%s' private signs' and a "or! o" oath& & & & & using a!ongst the!se ves certain cyphers and a phabets %hich are no% ost&5 The origina society %as no doubt attached to the o d pagan %orship& A society very si!i ar to the Ho y ?eh!e %as C-BFD estab ished at Casti e and Leon' in Spain' in the year -;J=' and designated the HER+AN$A$& 7n the -.<I vo u!e o" Ars Luat& Cor& ,page G-/ 7 printed a paper on the Ritua o" the ?eh! Court o" the year -J.<& 7n this Ritua the 0ree Count is supposed to occupy the throne o" Char e!agne' in the sa!e %ay that the +aster +ason is supposed to occupy the throne o" So o!on' but the curious point is that' %ith a :uite di""erent ob6ect in vie%' it has a the "or!u a o" #ui d +asonry& Aro& 0& 0& Schnitger in"or!s !e that the three sides o" his && "athers house over ooked "ive o" the o d 0riestu es' or p aces o" 6udg!ent' and that he has kno%n peop e %ho participated in so!e o" the ast !eetings o" the ?eh!* and his opinion is that Char e!agne' o" %ho! herea"ter %e %i say so!ething as a bui der' adapted the e2isting triba 6urisdiction to his ends' and that the Secret Tribuna is the 6urisdiction o" the ancient priests& The Association possesed t%o Courts 99an open one ,o""enes ding/ and a secret one ,#eheines #erichte/' and to the atter the 0ree or 7nitiated %ere on y ad!itted& Their a%s and signs are partia y kno%n' their %ords abso ute y' and their Oath e2ists in a do1en docu!ents& ALCHE+7STS& The A che!ica Art is doubt ess as o d as other branches o" science and is traceab e in Egypt' China' and 7ndia' in the ear iest ti!es& +odern %riters on Che!istry assert that it %as practised by the Essenes and Caba istic Je%s& (hen it %as suppressed in Egypt it sti ived on in China'

%here the ter!s used correspond %ith those o" the European A che!ists& 7n a countries it had three interpretations and three ob6ects3 the 5A kahest5 or universa so vent* the 5Lapis'5 or stone or po%der o" trans!utation* and the 5E i2ir'5 or universa !edicine& As a secret +ystery in %hich art and re igion are co!bined it no doubt originated a!ongst a !eta urgic peop e& Thus it is 5physica '5 as %e have said* and 5psycho ogica 5 in its interpretation and as such a ied to #nosticis!* and it is 5!ora 5 in its re ation to hu!anity& 7t ai!ed' in this sense' at converting the 5 ead5 o" the body' and the 5si ver5 C-B.D o" the sou ' into the 5go d5 o" the spirit' and it is this !eaning that Aristot e e!p oys it %hen he says that a !en have the Stone %ithin the!' and that its conversion is the abour o" %ise !en& The +ystic +arriage o" the Sun and +oon' in its spiritua and inoperative sense' is the 8nion o" Sou and Spirit to "or! the #nostic Crestos& The Her!etic syste! united a nature inas!uch as 5that %hich is above is the sa!e as that %hich is be o%&5 (hen it descends to the !inera kingdo!' and the vegetab e' it "inds in these the sa!e three princip es as in !an' na!e y a visib e body' a virtue or sou ' and a spark o" the spirit' ter!ed sa t' su phur' and !ercury' a divine triad CSy!bo 3 0ireD* %hi st the "our o%er princip es are earth' air' "ire' %ater' Csy!bo 3 a s:uareD' but %hich in another phase represents the physica ' psychic' !enta ' and spiritua p ains o" e2istence* %hich are again the "i2ed' unstab e' and vo ati e& 4ro"essor Roberts Austin' C&A&' 0&R&S&' in a Lecture on +eta s' says that the A che!ists 5recognised in !eta s the possession o" attributes %hich c ose y rese!b e those o" organis!s & & &5 and that' 5the "irst A che!ists %ere #nostics' and the o d be ie"s o" Egypt are b ended %ith those o" Cha dea in the second and third centuries&5 A che!y and +asonry %ere ear y subsidiary schoo s o" the +ysteries& European A che!ists& 7n a countries it had three interpretations and three ob6ects3 the 5A kahest5 or universa so vent* the 5Lapis'5 or stone or po%der o" trans!utation* and the 5E i2ir'5 or universa !edicine& As a secret +ystery in %hich art and re igion are co!bined it no doubt originated a!ongst a !eta urgic peop e& Thus it is 5physica '5 as %e have said* and 5psycho ogica 5 in its interpretation and as such a ied to #nosticis!* and it is 5!ora 5 in its re ation to hu!anity& 7t ai!ed' in this sense' at converting the 5 ead5 o" the body' and the 5si ver5 C-B.D o" the sou ' into the 5go d5 o" the spirit' and it is this !eaning that Aristot e e!p oys it %hen he says that a !en have the Stone %ithin the!' and that its conversion is the abour o" %ise !en& The +ystic +arriage o" the Sun and +oon' in its spiritua and inoperative sense' is the 8nion o" Sou and Spirit to "or! the #nostic Crestos& The Her!etic syste! united a nature inas!uch as 5that %hich is above is the sa!e as that %hich is be o%&5 (hen it descends to the !inera kingdo!' and the vegetab e' it "inds in these the sa!e three princip es as in !an' na!e y a visib e body' a virtue or sou ' and a spark o" the spirit' ter!ed sa t' su phur' and !ercury' a divine triad CSy!bo 3 0ireD* %hi st the "our o%er princip es are earth' air' "ire' %ater' Csy!bo 3 a s:uareD' but %hich in another phase represents the physica ' psychic' !enta ' and spiritua p ains o" e2istence* %hich are again the "i2ed' unstab e' and vo ati e& 4ro"essor Roberts Austin' C&A&' 0&R&S&' in a Lecture on +eta s' says that the A che!ists 5recognised in !eta s the possession o" attributes %hich c ose y rese!b e those

o" organis!s & & &5 and that' 5the "irst A che!ists %ere #nostics' and the o d be ie"s o" Egypt are b ended %ith those o" Cha dea in the second and third centuries&5 A che!y and +asonry %ere ear y subsidiary schoo s o" the +ysteries& 7n its operations the Society he d that as 5a things proceed "ro! the (i o" one'5 so a %ere again reso veab e to "irst princip es' and that !eta s !ight be separated' re"ined' and reunited* and they c ai!ed that +oses %as an Adept because he possessed the di""icu t process o" reducing the go den ca " to a po%der& The 5Aurea'5 attributed to Her!es Tris!egistus' is one o" the o dest Arcane %orks on the sub6ect' and couched in Egyptian Sy!bo is!& The %ritings o" Athenagoras have tracers o" A che!y and the E!peror Ca igu a is said to have e2peri!ented %ith red arsenick& Thoe den says3 5Our ancestors united the!se ves again in the ti!e o" ?a erius $ioc etian in the year ;FJ A&$&5 Ho%ever that !ay be' this %orthy in the year ;.I %as engaged in burning Christians' C-F<D #nostics and A che!ists %ith 1ea ous indiscri!ination' and e:ua y a %orks on A che!y and the Secret Sciences on %hich he cou d ay his vi e hands& Co in +acEen1ieMM54rocesses in +anu"actures'5 London' -F;=&NN says that' %e "ind A che!ists a!ongst the Essenes' Caba ists' +anichaeans' the Her!its o" Thebes' and the #y!nosophists o" 7ndia& The E!peror Ju ian' %ho' though ter!ed the apostate' %as one o" the purest E!perors Ro!e ever had' and apostate "ro! the vices o" !en ike Constantine' restored these Sciences& Hosi!us the 4anopo ite has an e2press treatise on the 5divine art o" !aking go d and si ver&5 Cedrinus' J.-' gives an e2a!p e o" a +agician %ho pro"essed A che!y& +orienus' %ho %as a Her!it at Ro!e' earned the art o" Trans!utation and the E i2ir' "ro! Adsar' %ho %as an A e2andrian and a Christian' and a"ter%ards taught it to Ca id' the son o" #e1id the Second' %ho %as Su tan o" Egypt about the year B;= A&$&* the %orks o" +orienus %ere trans ated "ro! Arabic into Latin in --F; A&$& Successors

continued the Science* #eber' %hose rea na!e %as Abou +oussa $6a"ar :ua i"ied as 5a So"i5 the (ise' devoted his i"e' about BG< to A che!y* he %as born at Houran in +esopota!ia* and %e o%e to hi! the "irst !ention o" corrosive sub i!ate' red9o2ide o" !ercury' nitric acid' and nitrate o" si ver& A +arcus #raecus is !entioned in the -Gth century' nothing is kno%n o" hi!' though erroneous y asserted' he is !entioned by the Arabian physician +esue' :ua i"ied as 5a So"i5 the (ise' devoted his i"e' about BG< to A che!y* he %as born at Houran in +esopota!ia* and %e o%e to hi! the "irst !ention o" corrosive sub i!ate' red9o2ide o" !ercury' nitric acid' and nitrate o" si ver& A +arcus #raecus is !entioned in the -Gth century' nothing is kno%n o" hi!' though erroneous y asserted' he is !entioned by the Arabian physician +esue' &&PP and his +&S& contains the secret o" gunpo%der&MM5Eph& Cha!bersnc&5NN A "arabi " ourished ater' at the beginning o" the tenth century' and %as considered the !ost earned !an o" the age& Avicenna' %hose rea na!e %as Abu Cenna' another great A che!ist' %as born at Aokara in .FJ and died in -<GI& A"ter this ti!e but "e% phi osophers o" note are !entioned by na!e in Arabia' and it no% began to attract attention in Spain' into %hich country the +oors and Je%s had introduced it& Schoo s o" the Arts' Sciences' and +agic %ere estab ished at To edo' Sa a!anca' Aarce ona' and e se%here' and to these dre% #erhard o" C-F-D Cre!ona' circa --G<* Arno d de ?i anova' -;JG* Roger Aacon' -;-=* A bertus +agnus' -;B<* Ray!ond Lu i' -G;<' etc&MM5Aureus'5 pre"ace ,0ryar' Aath/&NN (e %i divide this notice "or convenience' and continue it under the head o" 5Rosicrucianis!'5 it is an appropriate division because %e have better and "u er evidence o" its sy!bo is!' !uch o" it being identica %ith +asonry and #nosticis!' and doubt ess derived' through Spain' "ro! the House o" (isdo! at Cairo& $uring the do!inion o" the +oors in Spain' the Je%s en6oyed consideration' and nu!bered !any o" the !ost earned !en o" the ti!e a!ongst their race* and proportionate y he d in esti!ation& A"ter the "a o" the +oorish po%er the Je%s %ere persecuted' and in the -Jth and -=th centuries under the na!e o" 5+aranos'5 they !et in great secrecy at 7nns' disguised' using grips' signs' and pass%ords* the te!p e o" So o!on %as bound to have its pro!inent p ace' but it is un ike y un ess in the Arch ritua that the Society cou d have any connection %ith +asonry %hose broad and ibera p at"or! is opposed to the e2c usive nature o" Judais!&MM?ide 50ree!& +ag&5' -FI<' iii' p& J-I&NN 7SLA+7TE +YST7CS& (e have !entioned that 7s a!ite #nostics arose in 4ersia at an ear y period* and they c ai! to be as o d as the ti!e o" the 4rophet& 7t is said that their origin is the 5A i A ahis'5 a continuation o" the o d sect o" +edo94ersian +agi& The Sects are ter!ed 5Tariks5 or 4aths' "or they are 4i gri!s or trave ers on the 5urug5 Or ascent' in %hich there are three 5ourouens5 99the road' the stages' the goa & At this ti!e %e have nu!erous sects o" these +ystics' and it is c ai!ed that A i' %ho according to the 4ersian sect %as the a%"u successor o" +oha!ed'

"ounded the! by besto%ing so!e artic e o" his c othing %hen he estab ished their orders* thus one sect c ai!s to have received his 5Tai 6i5 or cap* another his 5Ehirka5 or +ant e* another his 5Ee!ei5 or gird e* thus "i2ing a succession& 5Aenai 7braha!&5 Every reading +ason is a%are that C-F;D "ro! the ti!e o" the origina o" the 5Cooke5 +S& Constitutions' say A&$& -J<<' it has been handed do%n that the hunter Eing' Ni!rod' %as a #rand +aster' and that Abraha!' %ho is said to have " ed "ro! hi!' taught the Egyptians geo!etry& 7t is not %orth %hi e to atte!pt to re"ute the atter state!ent' as according to Aib ica chrono ogy Abraha! %as not in Egypt unti about -.;= A&C&' but it %ou d be %orth %hi e to ascertain' i" %e cou d' %hat ancient %riter' probab y Orienta ' is responsib e "or the Abraha!ic origin o" geo!etry in Egypt& 7 a! a%are' o" %hat 7 have never yet seen !entioned by any +asonic %riter' that

a!ongst the +os e!s' throughout the %or d' there is a very ancient Secret Society %hich c ai!s to derive "ro! the Eoreish' or #uardians o" the Eaaba' %ho %ere a superior Arab race and the descendants o" 7sh!ae ' and o" %hich +oha!!ed %as a scion& 7n the -st and ;nd degrees o" this syste! precise y the sa!e assertions are !ade as in the +S& Constitutions o" +asonry' %hi st the Grd degree is devoted to the erection o" the Eaaba by 7braha!' 7s!ae ' and 7sa:ue' as the three presiding #&+&+& Sa e' in his 54re i!inary Observations5 to Society %hich c ai!s to derive "ro! the Eoreish' or #uardians o" the Eaaba' %ho %ere a superior Arab race and the descendants o" 7sh!ae ' and o" %hich +oha!!ed %as a scion& 7n the -st and ;nd degrees o" this syste! precise y the sa!e assertions are !ade as in the +S& Constitutions o" +asonry' %hi st the Grd degree is devoted to the erection o" the Eaaba by 7braha!' 7s!ae ' and 7sa:ue' as the three presiding #&+&+& Sa e' in his 54re i!inary Observations5 to && his trans ation o" 5A Eoran5 gives a "u account o" the egend as to Abraha!s erection o" a s:uare te!p e si!i ar to one destroyed in the de uge' the p ans o" %hich %ere etheria y et do%n "ro! Heaven on the prayer o" Ada!& 7 a! inc ined to give credit to the a eged great anti:uity o" these three degrees o" the Sons o" 7braha!' "or t%o reasons' or rather three& 7n the "irst p ace +oha!!ed hi!se " con"ir!s the basis o" the egend in treating o" Abraha!* in the second p ace the thirteenth century account o" the erection on 5Sa vation +ount5 o" the s:uare te!p e o" San #raa ' the p ans being si!i ar y heaven designed' is ad!itted y' by the %riter hi!se "' taken "ro! +os e! sources* and' in the third p ace' 7 be ieve' %ith Ash!o e' that the present syste! o" +asonry %as a thirteenth century re"or! o" an o der syste!& 7n -FB; the ate Aro& +acken1ie organised the 5Order o" 7sh!ae '5 o" GIth $egree' the basis o" %hich' he in"or!ed !e' C-FGD he had "ro! an Arab in 4aris' and in -FFJ 7 %as !yse " in re ation %ith 4rince +ousta"a ben 7s!ae ' e294ri!e +inister o" Tunis' then in && 4aris& Aut +acken1ies idea see!s to have been that our Aib ica egends %ere the trans!ission o" the 5Order o" 7sh!ae '5 o" %hich the 5Sons o" 7braha!5 %ere a very ancient branch' or' as he ter!s it' the o dest secret society in the %or d& +& Ed!ond $e!ou ins in his %ork 5Ang o9Sa2on Superiority'5 %hich has created an i!!ense sensation in 0rance' says that in a the Oases' or $eserts' under +os e! ru e Secret Arotherhoods ,Ha ouahs/ e2ist' and he :uotes' in con"ir!ation' +& L& 4onsard on ancient Egypt and Cha dea in prehistoric ti!es& He says3 5They have their pass%ords' their signs o" recognition' and are ru ed by an o""icia hierarchy %hich starts "ro! the #rand +aster' or Eha i"' and ends %ith such suba tern agents as the !essengers' banner9bearers' guards' etc& There are genera asse!b ies "or the purpose o" receiving instructions "ro! the Eha i"' or "or the initiation o" "resh !e!bers' or again to pro!ote the rising o" the popu ation against so!e interior' or e2terior "oe& This variety o" patriotis! inspired the societies %hich "or!er y occupied the t%o arge Oases o" Assyria

and Egypt' at east' during the "irst part o" their history' %hich e2tends over the ti!e %hen' recent y issued "ro! the $esert' they sti %ere under the !ore or ess do!ination o" the Arotherhoods and priests o" A!!on& +aho!et and his votaries a so partook o" this species o" patriotis!' and so did a the Societies started under the inspiration o" 7s a!' %hether in the Arabian $esert and the Sahara' or at their t%o e2tre!ities "ro! Asia +inor to Spain&5 5Arothers o" 4urity&5 This %as an association o" Arab phi osophers seated at Aosra in the -<th century& They had "or!s o" 7nitiation' and they %rote !any %orks' %hich %ere a"ter%ards !uch studied by the Spanish Je%s&MM5Roya +as& Cyc o&'5 E& R& H& +acken1ie&NN 5House o" (isdo!&5 The Tarik o" the House o" (isdo! %as "ounded at Cairo and had seven 7nitiatory C-FJD degrees& According to von Ha!!er' %ho gives his Arabian authorities' Abda ah a 4ersian' iving in the .th century o" the Christian era' accepted' %hat %as the #nostic doctrine' o" the Aeons' or Sephiroths' or e!anations o" divinity' and app ied the syste! to the successors

o" the 4rophet o" Arabia' upho ding 7s!ae as the "ounder o" his 54ath'5 and one o" his descendants as the Seventh 7!au!& This !an created 5$ais'5 or +issionaries' "or the propagation o" the syste!' and %as succeeded by his son and grandson& One o" the na!e o" Ear!ath brought the 54ath5 into repute& The Secret 7nstitution %as no% seated at Cairo and ter!ed the 5$ar9a 9hic!et'5 trans ated Tent o" Ski ' or House o" (isdo!' and Asse!b ies %ere he d t%ice a %eek' %hen a the !e!bers appeared c othed in %hite& The !e!bers %ere advanced gradua y through a series o" Seven degrees' over %hich presided a 5$ai9a 9doat'5 or +issionary o" +issionaries& Their then Chie"' Hake!9bi9e!ir9 7 ah increased these degrees to nine and erected' in -<<J A&$&' a state y bui ding %hich he abundant y "urnished %ith !athe!atica instru!ents& 7n --;G the ?i1ier A"dha destroyed this bui ding' but !eetings continued e se%here& Corresponding %ith the seven ,or nine/ grades o" the Society %as a seven9"o d gradation o" o""icers3 99Sheik' or #rand +aster* $ai9e 9Eeber' or $eputy* $ai' or +aster* Re"ik' or 0e o%* 0edavie' or Agent* Lassik' or Aspirant* +ue!ini' or Ae iever& The 7nitiate %as successive y taught that there had been B ho y 7!au!s* that #od had sent B La%givers' %ho in the interva o" their appearance had each B He pers' and that each o" these had -; Apost es& 7t %ou d appear that in --=< the Su tan o" Egypt recognised the grades o" the Society' "or %hen a specia rank %as created "or the earned Je%ish physician +ai!onides' it is added that 5the en ightened !en o" the kingdo! %ere divided into seven grades' each occupying a corresponding position near the throne5*MM5The Ta !ud'5 4o ani' p& ;;I&NN it is a so a s ight con"ir!ation o" %hat %e have said respecting the Spanish a""inity %ith the Egyptian& C-F=D Sir John +aundevi e' o" St& A bans' served %ith the Su tan about -G;< and %ou d see! to have been ha " converted to 7s a!* he re ates that they denied the cruci"i2ion o" Jesus' and asserted that Judas %as substituted in his p ace& o" his descendants as the Seventh 7!au!& This !an created 5$ais'5 or +issionaries' "or the propagation o" the syste!' and %as succeeded by his son and grandson& One o" the na!e o" Ear!ath brought the 54ath5 into repute& The Secret 7nstitution %as no% seated at Cairo and ter!ed the 5$ar9a 9hic!et'5 trans ated Tent o" Ski ' or House o" (isdo!' and Asse!b ies %ere he d t%ice a %eek' %hen a the !e!bers appeared c othed in %hite& The !e!bers %ere advanced gradua y through a series o" Seven degrees' over %hich presided a 5$ai9a 9doat'5 or +issionary o" +issionaries& Their then Chie"' Hake!9bi9e!ir9 7 ah increased these degrees to nine and erected' in -<<J A&$&' a state y bui ding %hich he abundant y "urnished %ith !athe!atica instru!ents& 7n --;G the ?i1ier A"dha destroyed this bui ding' but !eetings continued e se%here& Corresponding %ith the seven ,or nine/ grades o" the Society %as a seven9"o d gradation o" o""icers3 99Sheik' or #rand +aster* $ai9e 9Eeber' or $eputy* $ai' or +aster* Re"ik' or 0e o%* 0edavie' or Agent* Lassik' or Aspirant* +ue!ini' or Ae iever& The 7nitiate %as successive y taught that there had been B ho y 7!au!s* that #od had sent B La%givers' %ho in the interva o" their appearance had each B He pers' and that each o" these had -; Apost es& 7t %ou d appear that in --=< the Su tan o" Egypt recognised the grades o" the Society' "or %hen a specia rank %as created "or the earned Je%ish physician +ai!onides' it is added that 5the en ightened !en o" the kingdo! %ere divided into seven grades' each occupying a corresponding position near the

throne5*MM5The Ta !ud'5 4o ani' p& ;;I&NN it is a so a s ight con"ir!ation o" %hat %e have said respecting the Spanish a""inity %ith the Egyptian& C-F=D Sir John +aundevi e' o" St& A bans' served %ith the Su tan about -G;< and %ou d see! to have been ha " converted to 7s a!* he re ates that they denied the cruci"i2ion o" Jesus' and asserted that Judas %as substituted in his p ace& 5Assassins&5 Ae"ore the year -<.<' one o" the $ais o" the House o" (isdo! ad!itted an Aspirant o" the na!e o" Hassan Sabah' %ho thus detai s his conversion3 57 had been reared' ike !y "athers' in the doctrine o" the -; 7!au!s' but 7 !ade the ac:uaintance o" an 7sh!ae ite Ra"eek na!ed E!ir $hareb' %ith %ho! 7 knit "ast the bonds o" "riendship& +y opinion %as that the tenets o" the 7sh!ae ites rese!b ed those o" the 4hi osophers and that the Ru er o" Egypt %as a !an %ho had been initiated into the!&5 Hassan goes on to re ate that he "ina y gave his "ea ty to a $ai na!ed +oo!en' set out "or Egypt' and %as !et on the "rontier by the $ai9a 9$oat& Hassan sa% that the "ai ure o" the 5House5 as a po itica Society arose "ro! the ack o" a "ortress' and set about to re!edy this de"ect& He obtained by a cunning strategica purchase in the year -<.< the Cast e o" A a!oot& Here he "ounded the Society o" 5Assassins5 in seven degrees' the C ass o" 0edavees being those devoted to the !ain ob6ect' the ki ing o" the ene!ies o" the order& At a ater period the Society %as dispersed' but yet e2ists in its seven degrees in 7ndia and other countries' under its o d designation o" 57sh!ae ites&5 $R8HES& About the sa!e period as the "oundation o" the 5Assassins5 a $ai o" the na!e o" Ha!sa prevai ed upon the $ru1es o" Lebanon to accept the 7nitiatory Syste! o" the House o" (isdo!& These Syrian +ountaineers are a pecu iar race %ho are probab y o" 4hoenician descent* it is kno%n that be"ore the ti!e o" Ha!sa they possessed secret Rites' $egrees' and !odes o" recognition&MM5?ide Ars Luat& Cor&'5 iv' S!ith&NN 7t %as probab y a phase o" the Assyrian cu te' such as is possessed by the Ye1ids' %ho %orship sun'

!oon' and bu ' and have signs o" recognition&MM7bid' iv' Yarker&NN 0ro! the ti!e o" C-FID Ha!sa they have re!ained "aith"u conservators o" the organisation received "ro! hi!& The Sect recognises si2 degrees o" %hich the three "irst are typi"ied by the 5three "eet o" the cand estick o" the 7nner Sanctuary %hich ho ds the "ive e e!ents'5 and these 5three "eet5 are 5the ho y ti!e o" C-FID Ha!sa they have re!ained "aith"u conservators o" the organisation received "ro! hi!& The Sect recognises si2 degrees o" %hich the three "irst are typi"ied by the 5three "eet o" the cand estick o" the 7nner Sanctuary %hich ho ds the "ive e e!ents'5 and these 5three "eet5 are 5the ho y && app ication' the opening' the phanto!'5 re"erring to !an s inner and outer sou ' and the body o" !atter& The 7gnorant are presided over by the Akka s or %ise' and these are o" three higher grades' %hich represent !ore advanced princip es and deve op!ents& The !e!bers are s%orn to abso ute secrecy' and strict y observe their oath& They are kno%n to have signs o" recognition %hich They a so pro"ess to have && tradition re ative to assistance rendered at the bui ding o" So o!on are co!!on to 0ree!asonry&MM7bid' iii&NN so!e s te!p e' but this !ay on y be one o" their !odes o" hood%inking the Co%an& A avatsky' %ho %as an 7nitiate o" the Sect' in"or!s us that the "unda!enta princip es o" Ha!sa are chastity' honesty' !eekness' and !ercy* and that its basis is the o d Ophite #nosticis!' %hich' in the !ost ancient ti!es' c ai!ed i!!ense anti:uity as the bui ders o" the $raconian stone enc osures' scattered over the o d %or d' and even A!erica& The Society ad!its' ike other 7sh!ae ite +ystics' an a""inity %ith the 4 atonic phi osophy' and "estiva s are he d at %hich raisins and "igs are eaten* %hich it is thought is one o" the tests o" !e!bership* it re!inds us that priest Cyri o" Jerusa e!MM5Catech& Lec&'5 vi' ;G&NN speaks o" the 5detestab e cere!ony o" the "ig&5 The Aspirant be"ore ad!ission has to undergo a ong "ast' %hich is entire on the ast day' and a species o" trance vision is induced be"ore the cere!ony c oses& 5Ainsarii&5 The 7sh!ae ite Sect continued to e2ist a"ter the destruction o" the strongho d o" the O d +an o" the +ountain' as the Chie" o" the Assassins %as ter!ed& The !ost pro!inent o" these is na!ed the Ainsarii* they ho d secret

!eetings "or receptions and have signs' %ords' and a Catechis!& Lyde' %ho has investigated this Sect' C-FBD c asses the! %ith ancient Te!p ars' and +odern 0ree!asons&MM5The Asian +ystery'5 Rev& C& L& Lyde&NN 5$ervishes&5 The various 54aths5 o" the $ervishes are very ancient and spread "ro! branches in 4ersia and Egypt& Though their rites and doctrines vary "ro! one another' the ob6ect o" a is si!i ar to each other and to +agian and 7ndian Yogis!' na!e y' 8nion %ith the $eity& (e %i take the 5Aektash5 as typica o" the others& 7n the -=th century' Aektash o" Aokhara' received his 5+ant e5 "ro! Ah!ed Yesevee' %ho c ai!ed descent "ro! the "ather9in9 a% o" +oha!ed& On this he proceeded to estab ish a 54ath'5 consisting o" seven no!ina ' but "our essentia degrees& These are !agica in their nature' inas!uch as they ai! at estab ishing an a""inity bet%een the Aspirant and the Sheik' "ro! %ho! he is ed' through the "ounder' and the 4rophet' to A ah& && Their 7nitiatory cere!ony is short y as "o o%s& A"ter a year s probation' during %hich the Aspirant is tested %ith "a se secrets a a!b is ki ed "ro! %hich a cord is !ade "or his neck' and a gird e o" 7nitiation "or his oins* he is ed into a s:uare cha!ber' and bet%een t%o ar!ed attendants' %ho present hi! as a s ave %ho desires to kno% truth& He is ed by the cord round his neck' and one && o" the a2es used' or carried by these god"athers is in the %riters possession' bearing on one side the na!e o" A i and the other that o" +oha!ed& He is then p aced be"ore a stone a tar on %hich are t%e ve esca ops& The Sheik' %ho is attended by e even others' grips the hand o" the Aspirant in a pecu iar %ay' and ad!inisters the oath o" the order' %hich is e:uiva ent to the +onkish vo%

o" poverty' chastity' and obedience& He is then in"or!ed that death a%aits hi! i" he betrays his order* and he !akes his pro"ession in&the "o o%ing "or!u a3 5+oha!ed is !y Rheper ,guide/* A i is !y +urchid ,director/&5 The Sheik then asks3 5$o you accept !e as your +urchid@5 and upon an a""ir!ative rep y adds3 5Then 7 accept you as !y son&5 C-FFD He is invested %ith a gird e' on %hich are three knots' and receives an a abaster stone as token& The sign o" recognition is that o" the "irst degree in +asonry& Their grace is ca ed the 5#u bend'5 or 5rose o" "raterna ove&5 A!ongst their i!portant sy!bo s are the doub e triang es CSy!bo 3 He2agra!D and t%o triang es 6oined at the ape2 Csy!bo ' ike an 5>5 but %ith the top and botto! chevrons c osed to e:ui atera triang esD& One o" their !a2i!s is' 5the !an !ust die that the saint !ay be born&5MM5The $ervishes'5 J& 4& Aro%n&NN As a Je%e they !ake use o" a s!a !arb e cube %ith red spots to typi"y the b ood o" the !artyred A i& The Sects are not popu ar %ith the orthodo2 Turkish +ussu !ans' but a branches s%ear to devote the!se ves to the interests o" their order or 4ath %ith body and sou & The Je%e o" another branch' in possession o" the %riter' has at the top a s!a green stone' and suspended "ro! this by three si ver chains' is a arge si1ed b oodstone' ova * and "ro! this again is suspended three other chains3 the "irst three chains has t%o s!a si ver discs' the second three has each a si ver disc and t%o are doub e' in a !aking seven& The +ant e o" the order has on each shou der a representation o" the S%ord o" A i& rty' chastity' and obedience& He is then in"or!ed that death a%aits hi! i" he betrays his order* and he !akes his pro"ession in&the "o o%ing "or!u a3 5+oha!ed is !y Rheper ,guide/* A i is !y +urchid ,director/&5 The Sheik then asks3 5$o you accept !e as your +urchid@5 and upon an a""ir!ative rep y adds3 5Then 7 accept you as !y son&5 C-FFD He is invested %ith a gird e' on %hich are three knots' and receives an a abaster stone as token& The sign o" recognition is that o" the "irst degree in +asonry& Their grace is ca ed the 5#u bend'5 or 5rose o" "raterna ove&5 A!ongst their i!portant sy!bo s are the doub e triang es CSy!bo 3 He2agra!D and t%o triang es 6oined at the ape2 Csy!bo ' ike an 5>5 but %ith the top and botto! chevrons c osed to e:ui atera triang esD& One o" their !a2i!s is' 5the !an !ust die that the saint !ay be born&5MM5The $ervishes'5 J& 4& Aro%n&NN As a Je%e they !ake use o" a s!a !arb e cube %ith red spots to typi"y the b ood o" the !artyred A i& The Sects are not popu ar %ith the orthodo2 Turkish +ussu !ans' but a branches s%ear to devote the!se ves to the interests o" their order or 4ath %ith body and sou & The Je%e o" another branch' in possession o" the %riter' has at the top a s!a green stone' and suspended "ro! this by three si ver chains' is a arge si1ed b oodstone' ova * and "ro! this again is suspended three other chains3 the "irst three chains has t%o s!a si ver discs' the second three has each a si ver disc and t%o are doub e' in a !aking seven& The +ant e o" the order has on each shou der a representation o" the S%ord o" A i& A!ongst the i!!ense nu!ber o" operative +asons e!p oyed by the Saracens' there !ust have been a arge nu!ber o" such 7nitiates' but it is not intended by these detai s to abso ute y identi"y 0ree!asonry %ith the Societies using the "or!u a* but to she% the e2istence o" certain ancient "eatures in co!!on %ith the Arcane Schoo s in various channe s& Yet it is :uite possib e

that the origina Ro!an ritua o" the #ui d !ay have been !odi"ied by the addition o" So o!onic egends preserved in the East' or on the other hand taken 5en b oc5 "ro! the Je%ish #ui ds o" Syria and Egypt' and the probabi ity is that the Je%s o" Spain %ere in a position to hand on the #ui d syste!' but %e sha enter into this ater& TE+4LARS& The ru e o" the Te!p ars rese!b ed that o" the Aenedictines and Cistercians' and %as dra%n up by C-F.D Aernard' Abbot o" C airvau2' so!e short ti!e a"ter their estab ish!ent in ---F& 7n it the pre ate ter!s the! 5?a iant +accabees5* they %ere to %ear on their c othing and horses neither go d nor si ver* not to have !ore than three horses each' because' as he says' they cou d not riva 5the %or d reno%ned te!p e o" So o!on'5 on the site o" %hich they had ac:uired a residence& The reception %as a strict y secret one' %hich gave rise in -G-< to a sha!e"u persecution& Ae"ore ad!ission to the Chapter the Aspirant %as thrice cautioned as to the rigorous tria s that he %ou d have in beco!ing a !e!ber' and asked i" he "ir! y persisted in his de!ands to proceed' and i" he responded in the a""ir!ative he %as ad!itted to the Reception& && 7n an o d nu!ber o" 5A ack%oods +aga1ine5 appears %hat pro"esses to be the buria service o" a Te!p ar' no authority is given' but %e kno% no reasons to deny its authenticity& 7t is a high y sy!bo ica cere!ony' at %hich the c asses o" 4receptors' Enights' and Servitors %ere present* and the #rand +aster presided %ith an iron ha!!er in his hand' %ith %hich three knocks %ere struck upon an iron cross& The three c asses had each an active part in the cere!ony* and in ans%er to a :uestion o" the #rand +aster3 5Eno% ye "or a

truth that our brother is dead' and ripe "or the ong s eep o" the grave@5 A Serving9brother takes the hand o" the corpse and ans%ers3 5The " esh c eaves not to the bone' nor the skin unto the " esh' he is dead&5 A"ter other :uestions seven knights advance to the corpse' and p ace their hands upon the head' eyes' "ace' !outh' heart' hand' and "eet %ith a "ervent b essing' and the corpse is then o%ered into the grave&MM5?ide 0re& +ag&'5 -FIJ p& ;<=* 5Rosicrucian'5 -FBI& p& B=* A& L& C&' vi& The ate Aro& A bert 4ike revised the cere!ony "or the Eadosh buria service o" the A& Q A& Rite&NN Serving9brother takes the hand o" the corpse and ans%ers3 5The " esh c eaves not to the bone' nor the skin unto the " esh' he is dead&5 A"ter other :uestions seven knights advance to the corpse' and p ace their hands upon the head' eyes' "ace' !outh' heart' hand' and "eet %ith a "ervent b essing' and the corpse is then o%ered into the grave&MM5?ide 0re& +ag&'5 -FIJ p& ;<=* 5Rosicrucian'5 -FBI& p& B=* A& L& C&' vi& The ate Aro& A bert 4ike revised the cere!ony "or the Eadosh buria service o" the A& Q A& Rite&NN 7t has been !aintained by von Ha!!er' that the !e!bers o" the Order %ere 7nitiates o" the Cairo House o" (isdo!' and the rese!b ance is pecu iar' both had C-.<D secret receptions' a si!i ar govern!ent' and both used %hite and red in their c othing& That they had a secret reception is beyond doubt' and one o" their !a2i!s %as that 5secrecy is the sou o" the order&5 Authorities di""er very !uch as to this secret reception* those %ho be ieve in the #nostic heresy o" the order' assert that such 7nitiation %as adopted "ro! the Saracens about years -;=<9B<' and %hich added to their o d Reception' a degree o" 4ro"essed %herein the cross %as trodden under"oot* a gird e %as given to the 7nitiated* he %as taught an En ightened $eis!' and !ade a discip e o" John the Aaptist& 7" there %as such a cere!ony as indicated it %ou d be as a test o" obedience& The third grade' it is said' %as "or high O""icers* a sy!bo ic #nostic cord %as consecrated by the head o" Aapho!etis' and presented to be %orn under the c othes& A avatsky says that the Na1arians o" 4ersia have a tradition that they initiated the Te!p ars&MM57sis 8nvei ed'5 p& ;G;&NN The head here !entioned !ay a ude to t%o %ords 99Aaphe !etios' or Aaptis! o" (isdo!' and represent the head o" John the Aaptist* but de Luincey suggests that it is caba istica y co!posed in substituting A "or 4 to re"er to the 4ope and +aho!et' %hose tenets the ater Rosicrucians designated 5b asphe!ies o" the East and (est&5 On the other hand the Secret +ysteries o" the Te!p ars are said to have been the Arcane $iscip ine' and to have re"erred to the "aith o" Christ& 4hi ip e Ae ' Eing o" 0rance' and 4ope C e!ent ?& co!bined in -G<. to suppress the!' and in -G-G the atter disso ved the! on the p ea o" #nosticis!' %hich %ou d app y to any o" these suppositions& There %as in the ti!e o" the p enitude o" the Te!p ars a pecu iar Cu dee egend trave ing around ter!ed the 5Luest o" the Sangrae *5 it %as supposed that there %as a ost cup' %hich had contained the b ood o" the Saviour' that cou d on y be "ound by a chaste Enight %ho 6ourneyed in search o" it& 7t had' i" "ound' various !agica properties' oracu ar ans%ers to en:uiries cou d be C-.-D read thereon& ?on Ha!!er pro"esses to read the 5#raa 5 upon certain o d o""ertory dishes %hich he considers to have been Te!p ar property' but his

vie%s have not been genera y credited& There are yet certain cere!onies practised a uding to Joseph' Jesus' and +ary' said to have been o" Cu dee origin' that have a sober rese!b ance to the Luest& The +ystic tradition !ay hide the o d b ood baptis! o" the +ysteries& Eugene Arou2 speaks very positive y o" an A bigensian and Te!p ar connection %ith the egend' %hich is supposed to have so!e basis in the #ospe o" Nicode!us& San +arte takes the && sa!e vie% and ays stress upon the use by the Te!p ars' at the Lords Supper && o" the opening %ords o" St& Johns #ospe & The Rev& Aaring #ou d gives credit to a Te!p ar connection %ith the +ythos& ?on Ha!!er says the poe! o" Titure is nothing but an a egory o" the Society o" Te!p ars and its doctrine

and one %ith the #nostic and Ophite sy!bo s& This egend is a engthy sub6ect to %rite upon' but it is necessary to say so!ething upon it& to %rite upon' but it is necessary to say so!ething upon it& The origin o" the #raa egend is curious' ro!antic' and ancient& The 4ersians have a egend o" a go den cup discovered in !aking the "oundations o" 4ersepo is %hich they na!ed the 5#ob et o" the Sun5* %e have a so the Her!esian cup in the 4oe!ander& There is a so the (e sh egend o" 4eridur' %hich !eans 5Co!panion o" the Ao% &5 4eridur enters a cast e' and t%o young !en enter a roo!' %here he is seated' %ith a ance "ro! %hich "a s three gouts o" b ood' %hich the co!pany seeing set up a a!entation* then enter t%o da!se s' %ith a charger in %hich is a head s%i!!ing in b ood' and the co!pany utter a piercing %ai & The bo% here is the Cau dron o" Cerid%en' and the b ood is the three drops o" her bre% that con"erred intuition& 7n Hanover there is so!e Te!p ar connection %ith a charger and the head o" John the && Aaptist' to be !entioned ater& Ta iesens poe! o" Aran the b essed !entions the bo% o" 4heredur' %hich cou d restore the dead to i"e' 5but those %ho %ere restored to i"e by it %ere not to speak est they shou d C-.;D divu ge the !ysteries o" the vesse &5 Aran sai s to the 57s and o" Joy'5 %ith G. Co!panions& +& 4au ine de 4aris !entions the 5Liber #rada is5 o" a Aritish priest about G< years a"ter the death o" Cad%a ader& About the year B-B the priest had a vision o" Christ' and o" Joseph o" Ari!ethea' %ho brought the cup to this country' %ith the b ood o" Christ& These egends ad!it their indebtedness to the +os e! egends' and there can be no doubt as to %hat that egend is* it re"ers to the erection by Abraha! o" the Te!p e o" Seth' %hich %e re"er to e se%here' in %hich on the petition o" Ada! an etheria te!p e %as et do%n in appearance to %hich Ada! cou d direct his prayers& The !ore !odern version o" the egend %as co!pi ed about --F.' under the tit e o" 5Sir Cou es de #rai '5 by Chretien de Troies& Saniber' prince o" Cappadocia in the days o" ?espasian' had three sons' %ho %ent eventua y to Ro!e* and his great9great grandson Titur9e %as the #raa Eing' and the pure and nob e Enight& (hen dying the #raa Eing instructed his chi dren in the !ystery' and the Enights had e2p ained to the! the sy!bo s' cere!onies' and the po%ers o" the -; precious stones& Short y a"ter %e have the version o" #uyot de 4rovens' %ho had been a !onk %ith Aernard o" C airvau2' and visited Jerusa e! about the year --B<* it %as an e aborated version o" the preceding' %hich the author as %e as #uy de 4rovens attributed to the Arabian astro oger and phi osopher 0 egantan& This %as trans ated into #er!an about the year -;<B by (o "ra! von Eschenbach' and %ou d be kno%n in -;JF %hen Conrad von Hochstetten aid the "oundation stone o" Co ogne Cathedra & Later on another version %as co!p eted by A "red von Schar"enberg& 7n the o dest account Titure bui ds the #raa te!p e' but in this ast version it is 4arsi"a '

grandson o" Titure ' %ho is se ected to bui d a !agni"icent te!p e upon a design !iracu ous y sho%n on curtains o" ight' and upon a !ount ca ed && 5Saviours +ount5 p aced in the !idst o" a 5s:uare5 %ood' the te!p e C-.GD itse " %as to be 5round'5 as are the Te!p ar churches& The p an appears !iracu ous y upon a stone' and indicated an inner Sanctuary to ho d the #raa ' %hich %as to be guarded by chaste Te!p e' or Te!p ar Enights' "or both these "or!s are used in di""erent +SS& The groining o" the roo" %as to she% a a!b ho ding a red cross banner in its c a%s ,a Te!p ar standard/& The Lecterns %ere to have carved Apost es' +artyrs' 4rophets' and their 5%ise

sa%s5* and in one o" these +SS& Eng and is na!ed in connection %ith "our cro%ns' "our virgin !artyrs' and their egends&MM50ree!& Luart& +ag&'5 -F=G* a so 5Canadian Cra"ts!an'5 -F.;&NN Aesides the # astonbury egend o" this cup and the account o" the Ro!ances o" Eing Arthur' another c ai! is !ade "or a Sapphire cup in the !onastery o" Richeneau' Lake Constance' "ounded by Char es +arte in B;=* there is a so a third c ai! "or a cup said to have been brought "ro! the East by the Crusaders' and odged at #enoa* it is no% be ieved to be !ade o" green g ass& cro%ns' "our virgin !artyrs' and their egends&MM50ree!& Luart& +ag&'5 -F=G* a so 5Canadian Cra"ts!an'5 -F.;&NN Aesides the # astonbury egend o" this cup and the account o" the Ro!ances o" Eing Arthur' another c ai! is !ade "or a Sapphire cup in the !onastery o" Richeneau' Lake Constance' "ounded by Char es +arte in B;=* there is a so a third c ai! "or a cup said to have been brought "ro! the East by the Crusaders' and odged at #enoa* it is no% be ieved to be !ade o" green g ass& A Aenedictine +onk o" St& (erburgh in Chester' %here the 4o ychronicon %as co!pi ed' o"ten :uoted in #ui d +SS&' Hy& Aradsha%' %ho died in -=-G' has so!e very si!i ar ideas %herein he is describing the "east o" Eing 8 pha given at the Abbey o" E y' %hen his daughter (erburge took the vei & The ta e a so runs on the ine o" the o d +asonic Constitutions& The tapestry o" c oth o" go d and arras& The story o" Ada!' o" his %i"e Eve' and ho% they %ere deceived %as 5good y %rought&5 Cain and Abe !aking their o""ering& Tuba and Tuba Cain %ere pourtrayed' 5the inventours o" +usike and Cra"te&5 5Noe and his shyppe %as !ade there curyous y' Sendying "orthe a raven %hich never ca!e again' And ho% the dove returned %ith a branch hasti y&5 Abraha! %as there on a !ount to o""er up 7saac& The -; Sons o" Jacob* Joseph so d into Egypt& +oses 5%yse and bo de&5 Our Lorde appearing in a bush on "ire& The -< p agues o" Egypt e!bossed& The t%o tab es given to +oses& $athan and Abyro! 5"u youre&5 $uke Josue eading the 7srae ites to the and o" pro!ise& C-.JD 4haraoh and the Red Sea& Eing Sau and $avid and prudent So o!on& Rehobo!' He1ekiah' and his generacion& 5And so to the +achabees and dyvers other nacyons&5 Aut over the highest dais' %here three kings sat cro%ned' %as represented the 7> Ange ica orders divided into 777 hierarchies& Ho yK Ho yK Lord #od o" Sabaoth& Three persons in one deity& Then "o o%ed representatives o" the ?irgin' the -; Apost es' and the J Evange ists teaching and preaching 5the "aythe o" ho y chyrche&5 +artyrs "o o%ed' the 7nnocents' St& Stephen' St& Laurence' St& ?incent& ?irgins cro%ned' so!e %ith the i y' others %ith roses "or their great victory& On the other side o" the Ha %ere nob e' ancient stories' Sa!pson' Hector o" Troy' Nob e Anthony' %ith !any others& At the "east %hich "o o%ed each spake "ree y3 9

5Enyghtes o" theyr chiva ry' o" Cra"ts the co!!on&5 The evidence o" Titure speaks %e "or the Te!p ars' yet it is possib e that so!e o" the 4receptories !ay have introduced Orienta Rites and Sy!bo s& ?on Ha!!er' con"ir!ed by Ha a! and other %riters' states that in various 4receptories their !ost secret p ace ,crypt/ contains indecent e!b e!s scu ptured' %ithout particu ar y describing these& 7t !ay be said that one o" these is a "e!a e "igure ho ding in each hand a sta""' at the head o" one o" %hich is the sun' and on the other the !oon' %hi st at her "eet is the "ive9 pointed star and other sy!bo s& This is Aasi idean in its character and there are re"erences to the Te!p ars con"ir!ing a state!ent 5by Sun and +oon&5 Addison !entions a copper !eda ion' intended to be %orn around the neck by

a chain' and %hich %as "ound in 0rance* it consists o" the doub e e:ui atera triang es inter aced' and enc osed %ithin t%o circ es' and in the centre is the a!b and banner o" the Te!p e& C ave ' :uoted by O iver'MM5Hist& Land&'5 ii' p& G==&NN says that in the -Bth century there %as discovered in the grave o" a Te!p ar in #er!any' %ho died be"ore the disso ution o" the order' C-.=D 5a stone cube inscribed %ith the s:uare and co!passes' the penta pha' the ce estia sphere' a star o" "ive points' and severa other stars&5 E iphas Levi says that' 5a bo2 %as "ound in the ruins o" an o d Co!!andery in %hich %as a triang es inter aced' and enc osed %ithin t%o circ es' and in the centre is the a!b and banner o" the Te!p e& C ave ' :uoted by O iver'MM5Hist& Land&'5 ii' p& G==&NN says that in the -Bth century there %as discovered in the grave o" a Te!p ar in #er!any' %ho died be"ore the disso ution o" the order' C-.=D 5a stone cube inscribed %ith the s:uare and co!passes' the penta pha' the ce estia sphere' a star o" "ive points' and severa other stars&5 E iphas Levi says that' 5a bo2 %as "ound in the ruins o" an o d Co!!andery in %hich %as a && Aapho!etic "igure& 7t had a bearded "ace %ith a %o!ans body& 7n one hand it && he d the sun' in the other the !oon' by chains&5 ,#ou ds N& Q L& 2i& p& -FF&/ ?on Ha!!er !entions Te!p ar churches at Er"urt' Schoengraben' and 4rague' as containing such e!b e!s 99the s:uare' eve ' triang e' co!passes' co!passes %ith :uadrant' inter aced triang es' the " a!ing star' the Tau cross o" Egypt& A such !atter con"ir!s the charge o" #nosticis!' but such decoration !ay be due to the +asons %ho erected the Churches* and the sy!bo is! e:ua y %ith the Reception o" a Te!p ar have points o" a""inity& The Te!p ars %ere arge bui ders' and Jac:ues de +o ay a eged the 1ea o" his order in decorating churches on the process against hi!' -G-<' hence the a eged connection o" Te!p ary and 0ree!asonry is bound to have a substratu! o" truth& A 0rench version o" the Co!pagnnonage asserts that' during a dispute' a section p aced the!se ves under the patronage o" Jac:ues de +o ay' the +aster %ho %as roasted to death on an is and in the Seine in -G-J by the vicious scoundre 4hi ip e Ae & Nico ai' :uoted in 5Acta Lata!oru!'5 asserts that in 7ta y are severa churches "or!er y be onging to && the Te!p ars' %hich have preserved the na!e 5 eg ise de a +ason'5 as derived "ro! the tab e +asa' a c ub' that is ty ed by a +ace or c ub* but 4aciandi considers the derivation to be "ro! +agione' as the p aces %ere used "or residences* there are so!e such in 0rance as %e as 7ta y& Aesides the sy!bo s a ready !entioned an o d %riter o" the na!e o" Asse!ani !entions a shie d' on %hich is the a!b' the cup' and t%o crossed torches& The ast %as a +ythraic sy!bo ' and the cha ice or cup %as a co!!on sy!bo o" the order& They used the cross patee' the e:ui i!bed cross' the Latin cross' the

patriarcha cross* in ater ti!es they adopted the Eag e as a sy!bo & Recent y a Lecture by Arother 0& 0& Schnitger has sho%n that !ost C-.ID o" the Charges o" -G-< are e2p icab e' by an evi construction being p aced on cere!onies in use by the +asonic branch o" the order ast century& There is a body in 0rance o" %hich 4hi ip o" Or eans %as the #rand +aster in -B<=' %hich c ai!s to have continued the order*MM?ide Ars Luat& Cor&' iv' Yarker&NN in 4ortuga it changed its na!e to Enights o" Christ* in Scot and it preserved its na!e' o%ing to the %ars that Aruce %as conducting against Eng and' and in Hungary it continued to e2ist in na!e& 0rater Ladis as de +a c1ovich' o" Audapesth' has !ade a study o" Te!p ar history' tracing the! in their Standards' Aadges' and Sea s' and divides these into three periods3 9 -& The 5Aeauseant'5 o" b ack and %hite' %as the standard o" the Hospita ers o" St& John be"ore the institution o" the Te!p e Order' and are !oreover their co ours& Aut on the grant o" a Red Cross they assu!ed the 5?e2i u! Ae i'5 a %hite standard charged %ith a red cross* and they then attached a secret +ystery to the o d b ack and %hite standard' %ith a p ain cross& 7n the third period they used the cross 5patee'5 in p ace o" the p ain cross&

There %ere a so three periods in the Sea s& The "irst %as t%o Enights on one horse& This is superseded by the head o" Christ cro%ned %ith thorns' and it st %as t%o Enights on one horse& This is superseded by the head o" Christ cro%ned %ith thorns' and it && has three stars p aced triangu ar%ise& The ast Sea is "ound near the Orders disso ution' and is a sing e9headed eag e %ith %ings e2panded' upon a high rock' and ooking heaven9%ards* at the top is a s!a cross 5patee5 and t%o stars& O" their crosses %e "ind the "o o%ing in use3 99the 5patee*5 the e ongated cross* the patriarcha cross* a so a p ain e:ua 9 i!bed cross %ith a a!b in the centre ho ding the red cross banner& Ar!oria y' they used the crossed torches' a cha ice' and the Agnus $ei upon a shie d& There are various instances in Scu pture %hich prove the i!portance o" the Cha ice sy!bo * in so!e cases Enights are represented as ho ding it a o"t' and there is a so a representation o" t%o serving C-.BD brethren %ith one ar! round each other' %hi st the right hand' in one "igure' ho ds the cha ice' and the other has a book under the ar!' %hich is considered to a ude to it' and to be one %ith the Cha ice o" the #raa & -st 4eriod3 5Aeauseant'5 A ack and (hite& 5Sea 53 T%o Enights on one horse& 7!p ying' death to in"ide s' "riendship to Christians& ;nd 4eriod3 5?e2i u! Ae i'5 (hite %ith p ain red cross& 5Sea 53 Head o" Christ& 7!p ying' So diers o" Christ "ighting "or the cross& Grd 4eriod3 Standard' (hite %ith red cross patee& 5Sea 53 An Eag e& The independent and high " ying po icy o" the Order& The 0rench Te!p ars adopted a #ospe ca ed the 5Leviticon'5 %hich they a eged %as discovered in the Te!p e at 4aris' %ith other things* and Heckethorn states that it %as co!posed in the -=th century by a #reek +onk Nicephorus' %ho sought to co!bine +os e! tenets %ith Christianity& 4OET7CAL #NOST7C7S+' TRO8AA$O8RS' #AY SC7ENCE& The persecution o" the en ightened by the Church o" Ro!e necessitated various disguises by the Sectarians 994oetica ' Artistic' Theosophic and Her!etic 99and it cou d not be other%ise* hu!anity' in the abstract' se do! abandons that %hich it 5kno%s5 to be true and takes steps to trans!it it through the centuries3 truth never dies& One o" the !odes e!p oyed %as to speak' or %rite' in a anguage that %i bear a doub e interpretation' the one intended "or the ordinary hearer' and the other "or the 7nitiate %ho had the Eey o" interpretation& +asonic +SS& ter! it the arts o" Logic and Rhetoric& This

custo! %as undoubted y preva ent in the !ost ancient ti!es and +ytho ogy' Caba is!' etc&' are e2a!p es o" it& Heckethorn !entions certain 5Enights o" the S%an'5 %ho sang in this speech in the ear y part o" the -;th century' and the sa!e %riter observes that the +instre s and Troubadours o" 0rance %ere divided into "our degrees& 7t is C-.FD very probab e that !any o" our o%n northern !instre s trans!itted "ro! the ti!e o" the Cu dees' %ho e2isted unti the Te!p ar persecutions' an anti9papa progra!!e' and %ere in the secrets o" the Continenta +instre s in the ti!e o" (yc i""e' and ater& The artistic participation in this propaganda is she%n in the %ay that the vices o" c erics and !onks are satirised by stone and %ood carvers* as in the representation o" an ape carrying the Host* a nun in the e%d e!brace o" a !onk* or a pope a!ongst the da!ned&MM0inde ' 5Hist& 0ree!&5 NN

#abrie RossettiMM5$is:& on the anti9papa spirit %hich produced the Re"or!ation&5NN she%s that the species o" %riting %hich %e have na!ed %as introduced "ro! the East by the +anichees' %ho passed it on to the Cathari' A bigensis' #hibe ines' and Te!p ars' through %ho! it spread over Europe& Logic %as considered by the! the science o" e2pressing thought in a subt e !anner& +any persecutions arose "ro! this species o" %riting' but the 4apa Conc ave at ength deter!ined to c ose its eyes' rather than !ake the a egory apparent to a the %or d& The re"or!ation iberated to the %or d various +ystic Societies& (ith the ob6ect o" proving his vie%s he :uotes arge y "ro! $ante' 4etrarch' Aoccacio' and other poets and %riters o" the !idd e ages' and arrives at the conc usion that there e2isted three princip e branches o" Sectaries' %hich indoctrinated their $iscip es by a secret 7nitiation o" seven or nine degrees' according to the Rite or Sect& The a egory used %as o"ten that o" a 6ourney' and to go on a 4i gri!age to the te!p e o" St& John signi"ied to beco!e :& on the anti9papa spirit %hich produced the Re"or!ation&5NN she%s that the species o" %riting %hich %e have na!ed %as introduced "ro! the East by the +anichees' %ho passed it on to the Cathari' A bigensis' #hibe ines' and Te!p ars' through %ho! it spread over Europe& Logic %as considered by the! the science o" e2pressing thought in a subt e !anner& +any persecutions arose "ro! this species o" %riting' but the 4apa Conc ave at ength deter!ined to c ose its eyes' rather than !ake the a egory apparent to a the %or d& The re"or!ation iberated to the %or d various +ystic Societies& (ith the ob6ect o" proving his vie%s he :uotes arge y "ro! $ante' 4etrarch' Aoccacio' and other poets and %riters o" the !idd e ages' and arrives at the conc usion that there e2isted three princip e branches o" Sectaries' %hich indoctrinated their $iscip es by a secret 7nitiation o" seven or nine degrees' according to the Rite or Sect& The a egory used %as o"ten that o" a 6ourney' and to go on a 4i gri!age to the te!p e o" St& John signi"ied to beco!e a prose yte o" the Te!p ars* to go to St& Ja!es in #a icia %as to be o" the & A bigensis* and St& 4eter s at Ro!e o" the #hibe ines* the A bigensis' in a uding to the "irst na!ed' e2pressed 0aith* to the second Hope' and to the && ast Charity& (e have an Orienta pi gri!age in Aoccacios 50i ocopo'5 %hich !eans a young %ork!an* seven Co!panions "igure in this account* the na!es o" "our are a ready kno%n to the 4i gri! and represent the Cardina C-..D virtues* the other three are unkno%n unti he has acco!p ished his 6ourney' or initiation' upon %hich it appears that they are 0aith' Hope' and Charity* in a usion thus to the ancient adder o" the +ysteries o" G' B' or -; steps& The

ob6ect %as to "ound a Christian Jerusa e! to riva Ro!e* and the a egory "re:uent y a udes to the rebui ding o" Jerusa e! and the return o" its peop e* the ater Re"or!ers dre% upon the sa!e idea as %e %i sho%& The %riter has' ho%ever' gone over this !ore at ength in an ear ier book' and space does not ad!it o" it here&MM5Notes on Sc& and Re g& +ysteries'5 -FB;&NN An acute and earned historianMM54hi osophy o" History'5 0redk& von Sch ege ' p& J=INN takes a si!i ar vie%' on the spirit o" the age' and has the "o o%ing' in %hich he is a uding to 0ree!asonry3 5As to the origin o" this esoteric in" uence' the i!partia historica en:uirer cannot doubt' %hatever !otives or vie%s so!e !ay have to deny the "act' or thro% doubt on its authenticity' that the Order o" Te!p ars %as the channe by %hich this society' in its ancient and ong preserved "or!' %as introduced into the (est& The re igious +asonic sy!bo s !ay be accounted "or by the So o!onian traditions connected %ith the very "oundation o" the Te!p ars' and indeed the occasion o" these sy!bo s !ay be traced in other passages o" ho y %rit' and in other parts o" sacred history' and they !ay very %e ad!it o" a Christian interpretation& Traces o" these sy!bo s !ay be "ound in the !onu!ents o" the o d #er!an architecture o" the !idd e ages&5MM54hi osophy o" History'5 0redk& von Sch ege ' p& J=INN Rossetti ho ds a so that Aarbarossa' Henry ?77& and 0rederick 77&' are the && eading characters re"erred to in the doub e anguage o" $ante s %orks& The atter %as the grandson o" 0rederick Aarbarosso ,Red Aeard/ %ho died in Syria at the head o" -=<'<<< Crusaders& The 4opes thrice e2co!!unicated the grandson' %ho! +atthe% 4aris ter!s the 5%onder o" the %or d5 ,5Stupor +undi et i!!utator +iraba is5/' and tru y he %as 99he %as suspected as a heretic even a +os e!' hereditary Eing o" Sici y' he %as the ast Christian Eing o" Jerusa e!' the ast %ho ru ed C;<<D the ho y and' or %ore a cro%n in the ho y city* the !ost success"u o" the Crusaders since #od"rey de Aoui on' and

gained Jerusa e! by po icy* %as e2co!!unicated "or going there* e2co!!unicated "or co!ing back* e2co!!unicated as a Sectarian' o" %hich the 4ope distinct y accuses hi!' and there is a "ab e o" -GBF by John o" e2co!!unicated "or going there* e2co!!unicated "or co!ing back* e2co!!unicated as a Sectarian' o" %hich the 4ope distinct y accuses hi!' and there is a "ab e o" -GBF by John o" &&&& 0 orence' in %hich he is na!ed as a !an 5"ond o" the gent e anguage&5 There is no doubt it is this !an %ho! in -BIB +orin !istook "or 0rederick 77& o" 4russia in the Rite o" Heredo!' %hich see ater& (e have said that the art o" e2pressing things to bear a doub e !eaning %as taught as part o" the 5Triviu!'5 and $ante' %ho is thought to have been a ay Arother o" the Te!p ars hi!se " te s Con #rande that the 5$ivine Co!edy5 ad!its o" "our keys o" interpretation 99 itera ' a egorica ' !ora ' and !ystica & He speaks o" Christ as 5Hi! our 4e ican'5 an Egyptian Sy!bo o" the Sothic cyc e' the bird being !ystica y said to " y every -;I< years to the a tar o" the Sun at He iopo is' %here it %as consu!ed by "ire' and out o" its o%n ashes restored to i"e& O1ana!' a Ro!an Catho ic' considers the 5$ivine Co!edy5 to "o o% the sa!e ines as an 7nitiation into the +ysteries o" Egypt& ?ecchioni' president o" the Supre!e Court at Nap es' took the sa!e vie%' and sought unsuccess"u y' to print a book thereon' to prove that such 7nitiation had been handed do%n by phi osophers and poets' and that the 5$ivine Co!edy5 %as arranged a"ter the p an o" a 5Te etes'5 ending in an 5Eposis'5 or divine vision& Loise eur' a 0rench %riter' considers the teachings o" the Sects as c ose y connected %ith the Euchites' and both Cathari and Te!p ars gird ed the!se ves %ith a %hite thread ike the Hindu and 4ersian +ystics& They !ade use a so o" Sy!bo ic ages' as is done to de"ine degrees& Reghe ini o" Scio treats $ante as a Caba ist and Rosicrucian& EingMM5The #nostics and their Re!ains&5NN :uotes the -Fth canto o" the 54urgatory5 as 5rep ete %ith the pro"oundest sy!bo is! %hich the 0ree!asons c ai! "or their o%n'5 to %it' the i!peria C;<-D eag e* the !ystic adder* the rose and cross* pe ican* supper o" the a!b* pi ars o" 0aith' Hope' and Charity* sy!bo ic co ours* etters and geo!etric "igures' as point' circ e' triang e' s:uare* the tra!p ing o" cro%n and !itre under "oot* the 5?ito Nuovo'5 and the 5Convito5 or Aan:uet being e:ua y !ystica & To these !ay be added the 7nvocation o" $ivine vengeance upon the destroyers o" the Te!p ars' and the choice o" St& Aernard as the High priest&MM?ide 5Theos& Rev&'5 viii' Cath& Hi ard&NN 7t is not' ho%ever' the +asonry o" the #ui d' but that %hich has been added thereto& +rs& Cooper9Oak ey has so!e pregnant re!arks upon the TRO8AA$O8RS' && %ho %ere the undoubted poets o" the A bigensian heresy* and :uotes Aarets 4aris %ork o" -FIB as to the "o o%ing Schoo s' a o" %hich %ere again

subdivided into groups3 99That o" A:uitaine* o" Auvergne* o" Rode1* o" Languedoc* o" 4rovence& Again c assi"ied as3 99The #a ant* the Historica * the $idactic* the Satirica * and the pure y Theo ogica & Again o" the +ystica * the Her!etic& Arou2 de!onstrates that their 5Ce estia Chiva ry5 %as derived "ro! the 5A bigensian #ospe '5 %hose Evange %as again derived "ro! the +anichaean9+arcion tradition& These A bigensis %ere identica %ith the Cathari' and the Troubadours %ere the inks bearing the secret teaching "ro! one body to another& 5Thus one sees the! taking every "or! by turns' arti1ans' co porteurs' pi gri!s' %eavers' co iers & & & & deprived o" the right to speak they took to singing&5 A!ongst the !ost i ustrious o" the Troubadours %as A phonso the Second' Eing o" Arragon' --I;9.I& 4eter the Second o" Arragon %as the principa a y o" the A bigensis and Troubadours' and in -;-G perished nob y in their cause at

the Aatt e o" +uret& Escaping "ro! their burnt and b oody ho!es' not a "e% o" the! hastened to the Court o" Arragon' %here they %ere sure o" protection& Says Ticknor' in his 5Hist& Spanish Literature'5 London' -FJ.3 5Re igious the! hastened to the Court o" Arragon' %here they %ere sure o" protection& Says Ticknor' in his 5Hist& Spanish Literature'5 London' -FJ.3 5Re igious && ro!ances %ere %ritten&&&&in the C;<;D "or! o" A egories' ike the Ce estia &&&&&&&&PP&& Chiva ry'the Christian Chiva ry'the night o" the Aright Star* and the &&&& Ce estia Chiva ry'o" Hieroni!o de San 4edro ,?a encia' -==J/ uses such tit es &&&&&&&& as ,-/ The Root o" the "ragrant Rose'and ,;/ The Leaves o" the Rose&5 7n the paths o" the $ervishes the candidate is said to 5take the rose5 o" the path& The basis o" the Christian egend o" the #raa is said to be "ound in apocrypha gospe o" Nicode!us' %hich %as trans ated into 4rovenca verse' 5a +ystica #ospe 5 in every sense' says 4au in 4aris' %ho in re"erring to the +S& in the ?atican ,o" the #raa /' "urther %rites3 5This atter te2t %as o" great anti:uity and evident y !ystica ' sho%ing a pro"ound kno% edge o" the Apocrypha #ospe concerning the secret teachings o" the Eucharist&5 Eugene Arou2 thus speaks o" the grades o" the Troubadours3 5Like the other Aspirants to the Sectarian priesthood they %ent into se!inaries or odges to receive instruction* then having beco!e deacons or s:uires' having undergone tests and given re:uired p edges' they %ere ad!itted to the rank o" 4er"ect Enights' or 4er"ect Troubadours& Having thus graduated they started in the character o" +issionaries or o" 4i gri!s o" Love' as $ante says' so!eti!es undertaking ong and dangerous 6ourneys 5 995i&e&'5 as (i d or Errant Enights& ,Arou2/& ROS7CR8C7AN7S+& 7n the -Gth century %e have traces o" an organised body o" !en pro"essed y Christian' %ho had organised the!se ves a"ter the !anner o" the Orienta Societies& The na!e %ith %hich %e head this artic e had not then beco!e pro!inent' but at a ater period it beca!e the generic tit e by %hich everything o" the nature o" Caba is!' Theosophy' A che!y' Astro ogy' and +ysticis! %as designated& 7t is stated in a Rosicrucian +S&' ying at Co ogne under the no!9de9p u!e o" O!nis +oriar' that a Society ter!ed the +agica 8nion %as estab ished at this

city in the year ---=& 0& C& E& (eise !entions itMM5Rosenkreut1er in seiner A osse'5 99A!dsterda!' -BFI&NN and gives C;<GD the conditions "or entering this body o" 5(ise +en'5 the ast and youngest possessors o" the secrets o" the ancients* the 7nitiates %ore a triang e as sy!bo ising po%er' %isdo!' and ove& They had secret sciences' kno%n on y to the highest a!ong the!' ca ed +u9 a pha9ga!!a9o!icron9sig!a' +age' or (ise +asters' ab e to do things that see!ed supernatura & Traces o" an organised body are to be "ound in the 5Rosary5 o" Arno d de ?i anova' 5circa5 -;G<' inas!uch as the Caba istic ter! o" 5Sons o" the Order5 is used& 7n the 5Theoria5 o" Ray!ond Lu i 5circa5 -G;; there is a passage in %hich !ention is !ade o" a 5Societas 4hysicoru!'5 and a so o" a 5Re2 4hysicoru!&5 A so in the 5Theatru! Che!icu! Argentoratu!'5 -I;F' a Count von 0a kenstein' 4rince Aishop o" Treves in the -Jth century' is ter!ed 5+ost 7 ustrious and Serene 4rince and "ather o" 4hi osophers&5 Hence it %ou d see! that besides the +oorish Schoo s %hich e2isted in Spain' there %ere si!i ar associations a!ongst Christians& 7t is not di""icu t to account "or the trans!ission o" such Arotherhoods "ro! ancient ti!es' since the Caba ists and #nostics studied the secret arts' and it is :uite probab e that the persecutions to %hich these %ere sub6ected %ere pro!pted rather by a ar! than any rea abhorrence o" their pretended heretica doctrine& A "e% o" the !ore curious and i!portant %orks !ay be !entioned here&

The 5Ro!ance o" the Rose5 is an 7nitiative syste! in the A egory o" the #ay Science' in %hich the ter! Love is used Theosophica y& E iphas Levi says3 57t is the !ost curious iterary and scienti"ic %ork o" the !idd e ages' it carries on the chain o" the tradition o" 7nitiation&5 Heckethorn ho ds that' 5it divides the degrees into "our and three' producing again the +ystic nu!ber seven & & & & it describes a cast e surrounded by a seven"o d %a ' %hich is covered %ith e!b e!atica "igures' and no one %as ad!itted into the cast e %ho cou d not e2p ain their !ysterious !eaning&5 A!ant is ad!itted into this beauti"u garden' %hich is surrounded by %a s on %hich is painted "igures o" . vices' such as hatred' envy' avarice' C;<JD etc& $iscourses take p ace bet%een the adies and gent es asse!b ed' and at the c ose A!ant appears as an ar!ed 4i gri!' %earing a scar" and bearing on his shou ders the usua burthen' %ith description o" ho% he succeeded in introducing it through the %icket o" the To%er' and 5gathers the roses'5 upon %hich he returns thanks to ?enus' her son' and the nob es asse!b ed& The %ork %as begun by (i ia! de Lorris' about -;F;' as the Te!p ars and other Orders are !entioned' and the ear y use o" the %ord +acon appears in it& 7t %as co!p eted by Jean de +eung' and #eo""rey Chaucer trans ated it& +eung %rote a so' 5The Treasure5 or seven artic es o" the "aith' 5The Testa!ent' the Codica '5 on i"e and +ora s' a so t%o poe!s' entit ed' 5The Re!onstrance o" Nature to the %andering A che!ist'5 and 5The Rep y o" the A che!ist to Nature&5 5 is an 7nitiative syste! in the A egory o" the #ay Science' in %hich the ter! Love is used Theosophica y& E iphas Levi says3 57t is the !ost curious iterary and scienti"ic %ork o" the !idd e ages' it carries on the chain o" the tradition o" 7nitiation&5 Heckethorn ho ds that' 5it divides the degrees into "our and three' producing again the +ystic nu!ber seven & & & & it describes a cast e surrounded by a seven"o d %a ' %hich is covered %ith e!b e!atica "igures' and no one %as ad!itted into the cast e %ho cou d not e2p ain their !ysterious !eaning&5 A!ant is ad!itted into this beauti"u garden' %hich is surrounded by %a s on %hich is painted "igures o" . vices' such as hatred' envy' avarice' C;<JD etc& $iscourses take p ace bet%een the adies and gent es asse!b ed' and at the c ose A!ant appears as an ar!ed 4i gri!' %earing a scar" and bearing on his shou ders the usua burthen' %ith description o" ho% he succeeded in introducing it through the %icket o" the To%er' and 5gathers the roses'5 upon %hich he returns thanks to ?enus' her son' and the nob es asse!b ed& The %ork %as begun by (i ia! de Lorris' about -;F;' as the Te!p ars and other Orders are !entioned' and the ear y use o" the %ord +acon appears in it& 7t %as co!p eted by Jean de +eung' and #eo""rey Chaucer trans ated it& +eung %rote a so' 5The Treasure5 or seven artic es o" the "aith' 5The Testa!ent' the Codica '5 on i"e and +ora s' a so t%o poe!s' entit ed' 5The Re!onstrance o" Nature to the %andering A che!ist'5 and 5The Rep y o" the A che!ist to Nature&5 Other Societies %ou d see! to have abandoned art' and con"ined the!se ves' ike the $ervish sects' to a +ysticis! %hich ai!ed at 5uniting its !e!bers to #od&5 Arother R& 0& #ou d re ates that the "a!ous $o!inican John Tau er' %ho %as born in -;.< and died in -GI-' estab ished a 0raternity the !e!bers o" %hich concea ed their p ace o" buria and recognised each other by secret

signs& He %as "o o%ed by Nicho as o" Aas e' %ho had "our co!panions' sty ing the!se ves 50riends o" #od'5 in %ho! they sought to be 5%rapped up5* these a so had secret signs o" recognition& The !ost noted A che!ist o" this century %as Nicho as 0 a!e ' a poor scrivener o" 4aris' %ho' by the art' beca!e enor!ous y rich& He purchased "or ; " orins in -G=B an ancient book bound in brass' %hich appeared to be %ritten on eaves !ade "ro! the bark o" trees' perhaps the papyrus* it %as subscribed by 5Abraha! the Je%' 4rince' 4riest' Levite' Astro oger' and 4hi osopher&5 7t had thrice B eaves' and every seventh ea" %as a picture' sy!bo ising the #reat (ork& 0 a!e trave ed about in search o" so!e one %ho cou d aid hi! in interpreting the contents' and a"ter !uch oss o" ti!e' troub e' and C;<=D e2peri!ents' he succeeded in !aking go d& According to his o%n account he besto%ed the riches thus ac:uired in erecting and endo%ing -< churches' G chape s' and -J hospita s in 4aris a one' and others in t%o other cities' besides aiding indigent "a!i ies& He re ates ho% in the Church o" the 7nnocents' Rue St& $enis' 4aris' he caused to be erected 5Hierog yphica Couvertures'5 o" the art o" trans!utation' under vei s o" the 5+ysteries o" our Sa vation&5 (e earn "ro! a recent reprint that the Count de Cabrines to d Aore ' that the actua book o" Abraha! the Je% passed into the possession o" the ce ebrated Cardina Riche ieu&MM5Nic& 0 a!e '5 4re"& $r& (& (& (estcott ,0ryar' Aath/&NN 7n the possession o" a #er!an gent e!an' to %ho! %e %i re"er ater' there is a copy o" an o d +S& %hich c ai!s to be o" the year -GBJ' that !entions the 50raternitas Rosae Crucis'5 and it %as in the year -GBF that the beginning o" the 0raternity %as attributed to Christian Rosenkreut1& 8p to this period there

is a ack o" the nature o" A che!ica Sy!bo is!' but the "o o%ing is beyond doubt& Aore describes the house erected at +ontpe ier' about the year -J=< by the ce ebrated 0rench trave er and "inancier Jac:ues Cuer or Coeur& 7t %as na!ed 5La Loge'5 and Coeur is represented on the "rie1e %ith a 5tro%e in his hand&5 5Three porches !ay there be seen in the "or! o" a "urnace* si!i ar to those o" Nicho as 0 a!e & On one there is' on one side' a 5sun5 a over " eurdoubt& Aore describes the house erected at +ontpe ier' about the year -J=< by the ce ebrated 0rench trave er and "inancier Jac:ues Cuer or Coeur& 7t %as na!ed 5La Loge'5 and Coeur is represented on the "rie1e %ith a 5tro%e in his hand&5 5Three porches !ay there be seen in the "or! o" a "urnace* si!i ar to those o" Nicho as 0 a!e & On one there is' on one side' a 5sun5 a over " eurde9 is' and on the other a "u 5!oon5 a so covered %ith " eur9de9 is' and surrounded by a hedge or cro%n as it %ere o" thorns' %hich see! to denote the so ar and unar stone arrived at per"ection& On another porta is seen' on one side' a "ruit9tree %ith branches o" roses at its "oot' and on the tree the ar!s o" Jac:ues Coeur& On the other is an escutcheon' and %ithin it %hat %ou d appear to represent the che!ic character o" the sun& On the third porta ' %hich is in the !idst' there is on one side a stag bearing a banner' and having a co ar o" " eur9de9 is environed %ith a branch o" a tree' to represent +ercury' C;<ID or the phi osophica !atter' %hich at the co!!ence!ent is vo ati e and ight as in the stag* on the other side is a shie d o" 0rance supported by t%o gri""ins&5 This sy!bo is! has nothing in co!!on %ith that o" 0 a!e ' %ho does not pro"ess to have been an 7nitiate' but one %ho having ac:uired so!e ora in"or!ation o" the "irst agent o" the %ork' ac:uired the art by e2peri!ents conducted by hi!se " %ith the aid o" his %i"e* but on the other hand it is !uch in keeping %ith that o" Abraha! the Je%' and there"ore argues a great anti:uity& The %ho e sy!bo is! is so e:ua y +asonic and A che!ica that it %ou d be di""icu t to say de"inite y to %hich Society it be ongs* both Societies see! to have a co!!on trans!ission' the one as a bui ding' the other as a +ystic 0raternity* the natura in"erence here' on this evidence' is that Coeur %as a !e!ber o" both Societies' and that he co!bined the sy!bo s& A che!ica y the Sun and +oon signi"y go d and si ver* the che!ic character o" the sun is a point %ithin a circ e* the branch o" a tree' said to represent +ercury' has nothing to de"ine the species& 7t !ay be !entioned here that the Syrian +ysteries o" Adonis represented the s ain #od as changed by ?enus into a red rose* and Theodoratus' Aishop o" Cyrus in Syria' asserts that the #nostics dee!ed 5Ros5 to be a sy!bo o" the Saviour* the Egyptians considered the rose as a sy!bo o" regeneration and ove' and as the Latin %ord Rosa is derived "ro! Ros' the de%' it has a re ation %ith baptis!* hence the rose9tree in Christian sy!bo is! is the i!age o" the regenerated' %hi st de% is the sy!bo o" regeneration& 7n the Crypt o" St& Siba d &&

s in Nure!berg' is a doub e triang e' inter aced %ith a circ e' %ithin %hich is a rose& Aasi ?a entine' %ho " ourished at the sa!e ti!e as Jac:ues Coeur' in his 5A1oth 4hi osophoru!'5 has a "igure %hich is thus described3 it represents a %inged9g obe on %hich is a triang e inside a s:uare' upon %hich reposes a dragon* on the atter stands a hu!an "igure %ith t%o heads' and t%o hands* surrounding the heads' one o" C;<BD %hich is !a e and the other "e!a e' are the sun' !oon* and "ive stars* the hand on the !a e side ho ds a co!pass' that on the other a s:uare& The sy!bo is! here c ear y a udes to the dua se2ua nature o" a !eta s& 7n 5The Triu!phant Chariot o" Anti!ony5 it is asserted that the Adept shou d be capab e o" bui ding his o%n "urnaces& The !ost noted o" the A che!ists a"ter this date %as 4hi ippus Aureo us Theophrastus Ao!bast o" Hohenhei!' %ho %as born in -J.G' and died in -=J-' and there is a strong suspicion that it %as "ro! in6uries in" icted by his

ene!ies& (hi st trave ing in the East he %as taken prisoner by the Tartars' %ho treated hi! kind y' and the Ehan sent hi! %ith his son to Constantinop e* it is probab e that he studied +agic in these regions& He had studied +agnetis! and initiated !edica treat!ent by !ercury and opiu!& 0ran1 Hart!an' +&$&' has she%n the identity o" his teaching %ith the Eastern Adepts o" the Secret $octrine& His phi osophy divides !an into seven princip es o" the outer and inner body* ,-/ the visib e body* ,;/ the !u!ia' archaeus' or vita "orce* ,G/ the sidera body' %hich gradua y disso ves* ,J/ the ani!a sou ' co!!on to a things* ,=/ the rationa sou * ,I/ the a uech' or spiritua sou * ,B/ ne% o y!pus' or divine spirit' %hich !ust be caught and bound to the other princip es i" !an is to beco!e i!!orta & He "i s the e e!ents %ith spirits o" !any kinds' and !entions the 0 agae' %ho act as our guides and "a!i iars' and instruct us in the sciences& He designates hi!se " 5+onarch o" 4hi osophers'5 and the 5Co!te de #aba is'5 a %ork o" -IB=9F< de"inite y states that he %as e ected 5+onarch5 o" the Rosicrucian Society& %ho treated hi! kind y' and the Ehan sent hi! %ith his son to Constantinop e* it is probab e that he studied +agic in these regions& He had studied +agnetis! and initiated !edica treat!ent by !ercury and opiu!& 0ran1 Hart!an' +&$&' has she%n the identity o" his teaching %ith the Eastern Adepts o" the Secret $octrine& His phi osophy divides !an into seven princip es o" the outer and inner body* ,-/ the visib e body* ,;/ the !u!ia' archaeus' or vita "orce* ,G/ the sidera body' %hich gradua y disso ves* ,J/ the ani!a sou ' co!!on to a things* ,=/ the rationa sou * ,I/ the a uech' or spiritua sou * ,B/ ne% o y!pus' or divine spirit' %hich !ust be caught and bound to the other princip es i" !an is to beco!e i!!orta & He "i s the e e!ents %ith spirits o" !any kinds' and !entions the 0 agae' %ho act as our guides and "a!i iars' and instruct us in the sciences& He designates hi!se " 5+onarch o" 4hi osophers'5 and the 5Co!te de #aba is'5 a %ork o" -IB=9F< de"inite y states that he %as e ected 5+onarch5 o" the Rosicrucian Society& (e %i no% re"er to a "e% Societies %hich see! to have been Caba istic or Specu ative rather than A che!ica ' but %ith a tinge o" the Sciences& Aet%een the years -J<< to 5circa5 -B.< there e2isted at Lubeck a #ui d ca ed the 5Co!pass Arothers5 %hich !et t%ice a year* their badge %as a co!pass and sector suspended "ro! a cro%ned etter 5C'5 over %hich %as a radiated triangu ar p ate* in C;<FD -JF= they adopted chains co!posed o" these e!b e!s && united by eag estai s&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&' iii' p& -;<&NN About the year -JF< a Society %as estab ished at Ro!e under the na!e o" the 54 atonic Acade!y*5 it %as a reviva o" the Schoo o" 4 ato' and the Ha in %hich they !et is said to contain +asonic e!b e!s& Another Society' %hich !ay have sprung out o" it' %as the 5Arotherhood o" the Tro%e '5 at 0 orence& 7t %as co!posed o" e!inent architects' scu ptors' and painters' and continued unti ast century& There are so!e o d dra%ings in 4aris %hich represent its !e!bers as Labourers' Assistants' and +asters* the atter appear %ith a tro%e in their hands and a ha!!er in their gird e* to the Labourers are assigned pai s' hods o" !ortar' the

%ind ass' !a et' chise ' and rough ash ar& Their patron %as St& Andre%' %hose "estiva %as co!!e!orated annua y by pecu iar cere!onies a ied to the o d +ysteries' such as the descent into Hades through the 6a%s o" a serpent&MM50ree!& +ag&'5 -FIF' 2vii' p& -G-&NN The ce ebrated 7nigo Jones' to %ho! Anderson attributes :uarter y !eetings on the !ode o" the 7ta ian Schoo s' !ay possib y have kno%n so!ething o" this Society& 4ico de +irando a and Reuch in gave the!se ves to the study o" Caba is! and Theurgy' as did the Abbe Trithe!ius %ho %as the "riend' instructor' and co abourer o" Corne ius Agrippa& 8se %as !ade at this period o" a "or! o" the +asonic cypher in . cha!bers' %ith a Eey %hich being dissected and trip y dotted gave ;B etters& Trithe!ius attributes this to the ancients' and he gives && nu!erous cyphers&MM?ide Aarretts 5+agus&5NN Agrippa estab ished in 4aris and e se%here a secret 5Theosophica Society5 %ith pecu iar Rites o" ad!ission' and signs o" recognition' and %hen he %as in London in -=-< as the guest o" $ean Co et he estab ished a branch in that city& There is a etter o" Landu ph & s to Agrippa introducing a native o" Nure!berg %ho %as d%e ing at Lyons' and %ho! he 5hopes !ay be "ound %orthy to beco!e one o" the Arotherhood&5 Agrippa says' as to A che!y' that he C;<.D cou d te !any things %ere he not 5as one 7nitiated s%orn to secrecy&5 Eirenaes 4hi a ethes' %hose rea na!e is not certain y kno%n' and %ho %as author o" severa Rosicrucian %orks' -IIB

BF' ter!s Agrippa 57!perator5 o" the Order& Agrippa distinct y states that outside operative A che!y' %hich is vain and "ictitious %hen practised itera y' outside operative A che!y' %hich is vain and "ictitious %hen practised itera y' && there is another to be sought %ithin !ans o%n se " in the operation o" the && interna spirit&MM?ide Aarretts 5+agus'5 p& -B.&NN There is a possibi ity that the %e 9kno%n 5Charter o" Co ogne5 !ay have re"erence to these Arotherhoods* it pro"esses to be signed in -=G=' by the representatives o" -. odges' asse!b ed at Co ogne on the Rhine' and a!ongst these signatories are those o" Co igny and +e ancthon* these so!e%hat doubt"u Lodges do not pro"ess in the docu!ent to be operative' but to have sprung out o" the +asonry dedicated to John' about the year -JJ<& An A!erican %riter attributes to John Aunyan the && a egory o" 7nitiation in his 54i gri!s 4rogress*5MM5A!erican 0ree!n&'5 -FI=&NN &&&& it is not very satis"actory but Aunyans 5So o!ons Te!p e Spiritua ised5 %as probab y used in the -Fth century' "or Cra"t and Arch Lectures& 5Rosy Cross&5 There are traces in -JFJ o" a Rosicrucian Order at S es%ick' in $en!ark3 50raternitatus Rosarii S es%icii condito' anno' -JFJ&5MM5A&L&C&'5 v' p& IB&NN Ear y in the -Bth century there are traces that the Eing %as head o" such an order&MM4rivate Letter&NN Again' ast century' such an order unconnected %ith 0ree!asonry %as patronised by the Eing and see!s to have consisted o" degrees' according to the state!ent o" physician to Co one (& J& A& + seven && an aged $anish Leod +oore' %ho connects it %ith the Arcane

$iscip ine* though its i!!ediate source %i be the Order o" Rosy Cross* and it %i be so!eti!e "ound that the pecu iar aspect o" S%edish +asonry is due to this o d $anish Syste!& A Society ter!ed 5+i itia Cruci"era Evange ica5 he d a !eeting at Lunenberg in -=B-* and one Si!on Studion C;-<D %rote a book in -I<J entit ed 5Nao!etria'5 or Te!p e +easuring' or the Te!p e opened by the key o" $avid' re"erring !ystica y to the inner and outer !an carried to the te!p e o" the Ne% Jerusa e!* the +S& re"ers to the Rose and Cross' and to the 5+i itia Cruci"era&5 A Society ca ed the 50riends o" the Cross'5 e2isting in Ho and' is said to have 6oined an operative Lodge o" 0ree!asons be"ore the year -B;I' %hen Count Spork' %ho had been initiated therein' according to Arother +a c1ovich' estab ished a Lodge in Austria in that year' and a !eda %as struck' o" %hich one side represents the Ne% Jerusa e!&MM?ide 5A&L&C&5NN 7n the year -I-J appeared anony!ous y a %ork entit ed the 50a!e and Con"ession o" the Rosy Cross&5 7t re ates the Eastern trave s o" a certain Christian Rosenkreut1' at the end o" the -Jth century' %ho %as 7nitiated at $a!ascus into the Secret (isdo! o" the Arabians' Cha deans' and #y!nosophists* then a"ter visiting Egypt and +orocco' he returned to #er!any' %here he estab ished a s!a "raternity' %hich %as to be continued secret y "or -;< years' each brother' be"ore he died' to appoint his successor& At the c ose o" -;< years' that is about -I<J' so!e a terations %ere !ade in their te!p e o" the Ho y Spirit' %hen his re!ains %ere "ound intact %ith the book T in his hand& A the parapherna ia and instru!ents %ere there necessary to constitute the Order& The %ork in"or!s us that they had received the Order 5"ro! the Arabians& & & & The Eastern countries have been a %ays "a!ous "or +agica and Secret Societies&5 Here the "ounder trans ated the book + ,+argina ' 5Liber +undi5/ into good Latin& The 50a!e5 %as to be trans ated into "ive anguages' that even the un earned !ight hope to be ong to the 0raternity' 5the %hich shou d be divided and parted into certain degrees&5 They e2acted

5vo%s o" si ence and secrecy'5 and 5though they he d out the Rose as a re!ote pri1e' they i!posed the Cross on those %ho are entering&5 The !ention o" a book %hich contains a that has yet been %ritten in other books is supposed pri1e' they i!posed the Cross on those %ho are entering&5 The !ention o" a book %hich contains a that has yet been %ritten in other books is supposed C;--D by so!e %riters ,perhaps unnecessari y/ to re"er to the Tarot& Another %ork' entit ed' 5The Echo o" the $ivine y 7 u!inated 0raternity o" the R&C&'5 -I-=' asks the :uestion %hether the #ospe put an end to the secret tradition and ans%ers it thus3 5Ay no !eans* Christ estab ished a ne% Co ege o" +agic a!ongst his discip es' and the #reater +ysteries %ere revea ed to St& John and St& 4au &5 This' Arother 0inde points out' %as a c ai! o" the Carpocratian #nostics& There e2ists in the ibrary o" the 8niversity o" Leyden a +S& by +ichae +aier %hich sets "orth that in -=B< the Society o" the o d +agica brethren or (ise +en %as revived under the na!e o" the Arethren o" the #o den Rosy Cross& The 50a!e and Con"ession5 is usua y attributed to J& ?& Andrea' but Arother $r& (& (ynn (estcott points out that though the t%o tracts !ay have been edited by this author they are apparent y o" di""erent eras& The 50a!e5 she%s no evidence o" a divided Christianity' but ranks on y against +oha!!edanis!' %hi st the 5Con"ession5 is Lutheran' and i!p ies a post9re"or!ation date& Andrea is ad!itted y author o" 5Christian +ytho ogy'5 Strasburg' -I-.* and 5Ehrenreich Hohen"e der von Aister Hai!b'5 -I;G' in %hich are the "o o%ing ines' trans ated by Arother 0& 0& Schnitger3 9 5And i" %e here be o% %ou d earn' Ay co!pass' need e' s:uare' and p u!b& && (e never !ust oer ook the !eet' (here%ith our #od has !easured us&5 Andrea e!p oyed hi!se " in spreading a Society ca ed the 5Christian 0raternity'5 no doubt a branch o" the o der Societies o" the Cross' and ists o" !e!bers are preserved beyond the date o" his death in -I=J&MMde Luincey&NN The 8niversities had their Scho astic oaths' Luther and 0 udd !entions the!' and they %ou d see! to have had "or!a Rites' "or the atter in his 5+osaica 4hi osophy'5 -I=. ,p& G-/ C;-;D repudiates 5any a egiance %hich 7 have by a cere!onia rite vo%ed unto Aristot e in !y youth&5 +ichae +aier' %ho pub ished his 5Si entia post C a!ores'5 -I-B' says' 5Like the 4ythagoreans and Egyptians the Rosicrucians e2act vo%s o" si ence and secrecy& 7gnorant !en &&

have treated the %ho e as a "iction* but this has arisen "ro! the "ive yearsprobation to %hich they sub6ect even %e :ua i"ied Novices be"ore they are ad!itted to the higher +ysteries* %ithin this period they are to earn ho% to govern their tongues&5 +aier pub ished in the sa!e year as this the 5de ?ita +orte et Resurectione5 o" his "riend Robert 0 udd& There e2isted at the Hague in -I;; a Rosicrucian Society %ith branches in A!sterda!' Nure!berg' Ha!burg' $an1ig' +antua' ?enice' and Er"urt& 5The Arothers %ore a b ack si k cord in the top button ho e* a +S& o" ast century says that this cord %as given to the! a"ter they had pro!ised' under oath' to be strang ed %ith such a cord rather than break the si ence i!posed upon the!& Their other sign is' that %hen they go into co!pany they a %ear a b ue ribbon' to %hich is attached a go den cross %ith a rose on it' and this they are given on being received into the Society& This they %ear round their necks under their coats' so that not !uch o" it is visib e* the go den cross hangs

do%n on the e"t side& The third sign is that on the top o" the head they have a & The third sign is that on the top o" the head they have a && shaven p ace' about the si1e o" a ouis dor' as you !ay see on !yse "* hence !ost o" the! %ear a %ig in order not to be recognised* they are !oreover very devout and ive very :uiet y& The "ourth sign is that on a high "estiva s' very ear y at sunrise' they eave their residence by the sa!e door ,5i&e&'5 the East/' and %ave a s!a green " ag& (hen another o" the! appears at a p ace %here one ives' he goes to this sa!e p ace' and there they enter into conversation' in order to recognise one another* "or at the beginning they do not trust one another& Thus they have a certain 5#reeting'5 a!ong the!se ves' %hich is as &&&& Ave "rater && "o o%s& The Stranger says to the !an he is visiting' C;-GD &&PP&& && K to %hich the other ans%ers' osae et AureaeK Then the "irst says' && Crucis K They then' && both together' say Aenedictus $eus $o!inus Noster' :ui Nobis dedit signu!& Then they have a arge docu!ent to %hich the 7!perator has a""i2ed the secret sea &5 The +&S& "ro! %hich this is taken is a part o" the docu!ents in possession o" +r& Ear 5Eise%etter'5 %ho is a grandson o" the ast 7!perator and %ho says that the sea %hich the ast 7!perator used in o""ice bet%een -BIJ-F<; is o" brass about the si1e o" a !ark& 7t consisted o" a shie d %ithin a circ e' on %hich %as a cross' at the base o" %hich %as a conventiona rose %ith

"ive peta s* at the top' botto!' and sides %as the etter 5C5 signi"ying' Cru2 && Christi Corona Christianoru! ,the cross o" Christ is the Christians Cro%n/&MM5The Sphyn2'5 Leip1ig&NN The Eng ish eader o" the Rosicrucians %as $r& Robert 0 udd' a deep student o" the Caba a' Astro ogy' A che!y' and +agic& He pub ished at Leyden' in -I-I' his Rosicrucian 5Apo ogia'5 a"ter a visit that +aier paid to Eng and& 7n -I;. appeared his 5Su!!u! Aonu!'5 and 5Sophia Cu! +oria Certa!en'5 in %hich' in ans%er to 0ather +ersenne as to %here the Rosicrucians resided' he rep ies' 9957n the house o" #od' %here Christ is the Corner stone'5 a spiritua %ork' in %hich !en are the 5 iving stones&5 He speaks in -IGG 5o" the "or!er y so9ca ed Rosicrucians %ho are no% kno%n as Sapientes' Sophoi' or (ise !en'5 and i!presses on the reader that it is 5under the type o" an Architect they erect their House o" (isdo!&5 There %as a +r& 0 ood %ho presented a copy o" the && Co!pany o" London' and as Robert 0 udd && +asonic +S& Charges to the +asons died Fth Septe!ber' -IGB' and resided "or a ong ti!e near +asons Ha he %as probab y a +asonMM?ide 5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 viii' p& J<9JG&NN +aier ,as :uoted in 7nitiation/ says that nu!erous societies o" Rosicrucians had arisen by the various interpretations p aced upon their ancient sy!bo s' and that the Society consisted o" an outer and inner circ e to %hich ast the !ost C;-JD esoteric part %as con"ined' and there is !uch %hich %ou d cause us to think && that 0 udd0raternity' kno%n & && s Society o" the na!e %as the +asonic +asters as the Harodi!' and a Continenta tradition o" the High9grades' or +astersgrades' support this&

$r& John $ee' John Aooker' (i ia! Li y' and 0ather Aackhouse are %e kno%n Occu tists' but as +asons %e are !ore interested in t%o !en %ho %ere not on y given to those pursuits' but %ere a so %e kno%n +asons' Sir Robert +oray' %ho %as !ade a +ason at Ne%cast e9on9Tyne in -IJ-* and E ias Ash!o e' %ho %as !ade at (arrington in -IJI& 7t is con6ectured that Tho!as ?aughan' the author o" !any Rosicrucian %orks under the assu!ed na!e o" Eugenius 4hi a ethes' !ay have been accepted in -IJ-' or thereabouts* he %as a "riend o" Ash!o e' and the anguage o" so!e parts o" his %orks corresponds %ith our Ritua * +oray a so patronised hi!&

E ias Ash!o e in his $iary !akes severa !entions o" the 50easts o" the +athe!aticians and Astro ogers'5 and under -I=G says that 0ather Aackhouse' %hen at the point o" death' 5instructed hi! in sy ab es o" the +athe!aticians and Astro ogers'5 and under -I=G says that 0ather Aackhouse' %hen at the point o" death' 5instructed hi! in sy ab es o" the && !atter o" the 4hi osophers Stone&5 7n 5Theatru! Che!icu! Aritannicu!'5 -I=;' he gives "ro! the 5Areviary o" 4hi osophy'5 the Oath o" the A che!ists' %hich Society he says %as divided into Sons' and 0athers3 5(i you %ith !e to9!orro% be content' 0aith"u y to receive the A essed Sacra!ent' 8pon the Oath that 7 ba heere you give' 0or ne go d' ne si ver' so ong as you ive* Neither "or ove you beare to%ards your kinne' Nor yet to no great !an' pre"er!ent to %ynne' That you disc ose the seacret 7 sha you teach' Neither by %riting' nor by s%i"t speech' Aut on y to hi!' %hich you be sure' Hath ever searched a"ter the seacrets o" nature' To hi! you !ay revea the seacrets o" this art' 8nder the cover o" 4hi osophie' be"ore the %or d you depart&5 The sy!bo ic tracing o" the Rosicrucians %as a S:uare C;-=D Te!p e approached by seven steps' o" %hich the "our "irst represented the "our e e!ents' and the re!aining three sa t' su phur' and !ercury' the three great princip es* here a so %e "ind the t%o 4i ars o" Her!es' the "ive9pointed star' sun and !oon' co!passes' s:uare' and triang e& 7LL8+7NAT7& This Society %as "ounded -st +ay' -BBI' by 4ro"essor (eishaupt' o" 7ngo dstadt %ith the ob6ect o" arriving at po itica po%er' and revo utionise re igion and govern!ents& 7t is on y re ated to other Societies in so "ar as this that (eishaupt' Enigge' and Aode dre% upon ancient !ysticis! "or their Ritua ' and induced their o%n !e!bers to spread the!se ves into the +asonic Lodges to in" uence the Society& 7ts grades %ere3 99-st $egree Novice* ;nd $egree' +inerva * Grd $egree' +inor 7 u!inee* Jth $egree' +a6or 7 u!inee* =th $egree' $irecting 7 u!inee 99Scottish Enight* Ith $egree' Epopt' or 4riest& These %ere entit ed the Lesser +ysteries' and had their 57nsinuators'5 and 5Scrutators'5 %hose duties %ere to co ect in"or!ation "ro! the !e!bers& Bth $egree' Regent* Fth $egree' +age' or 4hi osopher* .th $egree' Eing +an& These %ere the #reater +ysteries& The order used the 4ersian era o" I;< A&$& Each 7nitiate had a characteristic na!e assigned' usua y taken "ro! c assica iterature* and very !uch o" their Ritua appears in the Abbe Aarrue

&& s 5+e!oirs o" Jacobinis!&5 So!e o" their Chapters studied A che!y' and the +asonic Lodges e:ua y dabb ed in this Art' but %e sha a ude to it in our Chapter on the High #rades& 7nnu!erab e Societies o" +ystics e2ist in A!erica' but %e have no space even "or their na!es' and !ust there"ore re"er the reader to ?o & 77& o" 5The Rosicrucian'5 -.<F' by S& C& #ou d' +anchester' N&H&' 8&S&A&' under the head o" 5Arcane Societies&5 SOC7ET7ES O0 CH7NA& There e2ists a!ongst the Chinese certain Secret Societies %hich pro"ess' in so!e !easure' to continue a syste! o" Arotherhood derived "ro! ancient custo!s' and %hich !ay have arisen out o" their ancient #ui d i"e& The !e!bers are s%orn to support C;-ID each other* to be o" good

!ora s' and they have secret signs o" recognition& The 7nitiation is couched in Sy!bo ic +ystery and divided into degrees* its ai! corresponds %ith other Societies o" %hich %e have a ready given particu ars& Sy!bo ic +ystery and divided into degrees* its ai! corresponds %ith other Societies o" %hich %e have a ready given particu ars& 5The Thian9ti9H%ii'5 or Heaven9earth9 eague is ancient' and said to be traceab e in -IBJ& The Candidate be"ore reception has to ans%er GGG :uestions& 5The Triad Society&5 The Candidate' scanti y c othed' is introduced into a darkened roo!' bet%een t%o !e!bers' %ho ead hi! to the 4resident' be"ore %ho! he knee s& A kni"e is p aced in his right hand' and a iving cock in his e"t& 7n this position he takes a very engthy oath to aid his brethren even at the risk o" his i"e* he is then directed to cut o"" the head o" the cock* the b ood being co ected in a bo% ' by a s ight puncture it is !ing ed %ith his o%n b ood' and that o" the three chie"s %ho o""iciate at the cere!ony& He is then %arned that death %i be his o%n "ate i" he shou d betray the Order& A"ter this he is intrusted %ith the signs and tokens o" recognition' %hich run in threes* as' to take up anything %ith three "ingers& #enera y speaking these Societies ai! to continue an ancient Sy!bo ica Syste!' but have added po itica ai!s' and are there"ore discouraged& Scattered over the %or d are nu!erous societies %hich are be ieved to continue the +ysteries o" the Ancients' but %e need not burthen our pages "urther %ith the!& Heckethorne && s 5Secret Societies o" a Ages and Countries5 !ay be consu ted* and the sub6ect %i be partia y re"erred to in our ater chapters& 5Conc usion&5 7n c osing this chapter %e !ay point out that there %as an undoubted connection bet%een the Her!etic Societies and 0ree!asonry' apart "ro! the si!i arity o" the sy!bo s e!p oyed by both& Aasi ?a entine is :uoted as saying that a !an cannot be ca ed an Adept un ess he can bui d his o%n reverberatory "urnaces' in %hich is re:uired the ski o" a +ason and C;-BD an && e2pert geo!etrician&MM5Ariscoes Constitution'5 -B-=&NN Tho!as Norton' -JBB' states that +asons %ere students o" the Her!etic art* 4arace sus ter!s hi!se " &

a #rand +aster o" +echanica Secrets* 5The (ise +ans Cro%n'5 o" -IIJ' e:ua y asserts that the +asons %ere students o" the Secret Sciences' but %e sha have to a ude to these again& On the %ho e it %ou d rather see! that +asons %ho desired to e2tend their earning sought Her!etic 7nitiations' but at a ater period these atter !ade use o" the #ui d syste! o" the "or!er' as a convenient basis "or their o%n vie%s' and %ants& Aut the !ain issue o" this chapter is that %hi st +asonry is a synony! o" the Art branch o" the +ysteries' the Arcane' +ystic' and Her!etic Schoo s trans!itted the rites and doctrines o" the #reater +ysteries though shorn o" o d sp endour' unti such ti!es as 0ree!asonry reunited the t%o divisions' in %hat %as technica y ter!ed Ancient +asonry though itse " o" !odern organisation& C;-FD OR7#7N AN$ ANT7L87TY O0

0REE +ASONRY EE +ASONRY CHA4TER ?77& RECA47T8LATE$ 4ROO0S O0 ANC7ENT +ASONRY& THE in"or!ation e!bodied in the "oregoing pages !ight have been e2tended to a great ength* and in giving so condensed an account the tastes o" the genera reader have been consu ted& So!e recapitu ation o" the sa ient points !ay be advisab e as a short preparation "or the chapters upon +asonry %hich "o o%* by %ay o" aying the "oundation "or the introduction o" the Association o" #eo!etry' Cra"t and Art' or %hat is no% ca ed 0ree!asonry' into Eng and& Though 0ree +asonry' using this ter! to indicate a Arotherhood e!bracing re igion' !ora ity' sy!bo s' and art' has passed under various na!es according to the anguage o" the country in %hich it has e2isted' yet the !ost casua reader !ust have observed that the various Schoo s %hich %e have described' as derived "ro! a pri!itive syste!' had a the sa!e essentia Rites' and are in agree!ent %ith the +asonic Syste!& The !ere "act o" the use o" an organised syste! o" esoteric +arks in architecture' in a ti!e and in a countries' is itse " proo" o" e:ua continuance o" degrees' and cere!onia rites' in a""inity %ith the!* but %e are not so e y dependent upon this' and though the proo"s o" a continuation o" a secret Society is natura y ess pro!inent than in the case o" a Church or a Sect' they are strong enough to re!ove a reasonab e doubt on the sub6ect& C;-.D The evidence %hich %e have a ready adduced goes to she% that the "irst #reat +ysteries %ere' at the very east' a union o" the traditions o" re igion and art& The various pheno!ena o" i"e' the revo utions o" the heaven y bodies' their e""ect on vegetab e and ani!a i"e %ere care"u y studied* astrono!y and a those arts %hich are so arge y indebted to !athe!atics and geo!etry' %ere co!bined %ith Theosophia in the ancient +ysteries* and a the "acts o" physica science and art %ere e!braced in their instruction& A %idespread 8gro90innic' or proto9Aryan' civi isation preceded the Aryan and Se!itic deve op!ents' and it is even a!ongst the ear iest o" these peop e that %e can trace a syste! %hich co!bined tuition in re igion and science and %hich corresponds in its essentia "eatures %ith 0ree!asonry& The +ongo ian races o" Thibet and China a""ord us proo" o" this' e:ua y %ith the 5+asters o" Secrets'5 %ho e"t us above F'<<< years ago the ruins o" Erech' Serpa ' Eridu' and Aabe on the p ains o" Shinar& 5China&5 The pri!itive 7ndian +anu' %hose era is so re!ote that no date can be assigned' speaks o" a %ritten character co!posed o" geo!etrica Sy!bo s& (e "ind in China a!ongst a peop e %ho spread "ro! Thibet at a re!ote period' and %ere conte!porary %ith pri!itive Aaby on' a syste! o" operative and specu ative +asonry o" %hich the Eings' as %as the case upon the p ains o" Shinar' %ere the #rand +asters& One o" the o dest %ords in the Chinese

anguage is itera y 5s:uare and co!passes*5 and the 5Skirret5 is an hierog yphic* the a tar %as a 5cube&5 5Aprons5 %ith 5e!b e!s5 o" o""ice %ere %orn* and one o" the !ost ancient books contains the 5s:uare5 and 5p u!b5 as 6e%e s o" o""ice' %hich had to be returned on the death o" a +onarch9ru er' %hose e!b e! %as the 5ha!!er&5 The $iety %as designated 50irst Aui der'5

and the +agistrates Leve !en& At a ater period' but sti G'<<< years ago' the then E!peror has the 5circ e5 and 5ru e5 as his attributes' as the Egyptian Osiris had the 5Cubit&5 Coup ed %ith this %e have the doctrine o" 8niversa s Leve !en& At a ater period' but sti G'<<< years ago' the then E!peror has the 5circ e5 and 5ru e5 as his attributes' as the Egyptian Osiris had the 5Cubit&5 Coup ed %ith this %e have the doctrine o" 8niversa C;;<D Arotherhood' and the use o" North9east' and South9%est to indicate the beginning and end o" any ob6ect in vie%& Con"ucius' +encius' and other phi osophers' e:ua y app y the use o" +asonic too s in their %ritings& 7n every sense o" the %ord this syste! is 0ree!asonry %ithout its na!e' and traditiona Je%ish egend& Sir John +andevi e' in -G=I' !entions a coincidence %ith the Societies o" the Essenes' 4ythagoreans' and Ancient +asons& He says that the Ehan o" a Tartary be"ore the eruption into China' decreed that a !en shou d be governed by +asters o" tens' hundreds' and thousands& +oorcra"tMMLuoted by $r& Eenea y&NN says that %hen he entered Thibet he %as !et by an o""icer o" the #overn!ent na!ed the 5Nerba5 and 5on the back o" his habit' and on the right shou der %ere se%n the sa%' ad1e' chise ' ru e' and a the insignia o" 0ree!asonry in 7ron' the Sy!bo s o" a "raternity o" %hich he said he %as a !e!ber&5 Japan ;'=<< years ago had the Chinese #ui ds introduced by %ay o" Eorea& 5Egypt&5 The !ost ancient +e!phis o" Egypt has traces o" this syste!* in the use according to $iodorus o" too s in the hieratic %riting* in the use o" the cubit9ru e as an e!b e! o" truth* in the bui ding sy!bo is! o" the 5Ritua o" the $ead'5 a book so o d that J'=<< years ago' it cou d not be understood %ithout a co!!entary added to an o der co!!entary' that had beco!e uninte igib e& The architect at this period' and I'<<< years ago' %as a 5Roya Co!panion'5 and so!e o" the! !ated %ith 4rincesses& The ?ery Rev& C& (& Aarnett' $ean o" Capeto%n' says in a recent address' that he had hi!se " seen' on bui dings G'<<< years o d' the s:uare' triang e' circ e' sun' !oon' pentac e' and that the evidences o" +asonry are "ound at Thebes Lu2or' 4hi ae' Abu Si!be ' Osioot' $endera' Carnac' and on other noted archaic ruins' as %e as in the pitch dark recesses o" the great pyra!id* and that the Sphyn2 ho ds in && its co ossa pa%s an e2:uisite s!a te!p e' %hich has +asons!arks indented into the so id %a s' roo"' and !ono ithic co u!ns& C;;-D 5Aaby on&5 Ancient Aaby on %as a ied in b ood and re igion %ith the t%o races that %e have 6ust !entioned& (hat %e have not yet to record in Sy!bo s %e "ind represented in their anguage& The ear iest +onarchs %ere ter!ed 4at9 te9shi' %hich is interpreted itera y to strike or anoint the "oundation stone' and %ith the addition o" tsi9ri is trans ated Sub i!e +aster& Again the seven Cabiric gods' or eight %ith one s ain by his brother9gods' are na!ed 4atecei' "ro! 4atasso' a ha!!er' and though %e need not go to Asgard' %hich is be ieved to be near the Caspian' the #od Thor has the ha!!er "or his %eapon and the Svastica CSy!bo 3 S%astikaD "or his e!b e!& There is si!i ar proo" that

the "irst Eings and ?iceroys %ere +asters o" the bui ders' and probab y the designers' or at east superintended the erection* and such edi"ices %ere consecrated %ith the Rites o" +odern +asonry& The Eings are represented %ith a +a tese Cross %orn "ro! the neck& (e see! to ose the Akkadian Sy!bo s o" the +ason in the con:uests o" the Tent9d%e ing Se!ites& The highest cha!ber o" the to%er o" Aorsippa or Aabe %as a per"ect cube& Arother #& (& Speth' the ate e!inent Secretary o" Lodge ;<BI' has pointed out so!e interesting bearings %hich Cabiric e!b e!s have upon !odern 0ree!asonry& (e have she%n that the !ost ancient sty e o" bui ding %as ter!ed Cyc opean' o" %hich the Cabiric 7nitiates %ere the +asters' and that it is a prehistoric sty e e2isting

in a countries' running in ater ti!es into eve %ork and o"ten cruci"or! in its p an& The Cabiri recognised seven ancient gods' o" %hich three %ere Chie"s' and an eighth %as s ain by the others& 7n +asonry %hi st three ru e a odge' seven !ake it per"ect' and the eighth' or 7nitiated Candidate' is represented by the s ain god& There is a so the co!!on sy!bo is! o" a cube %ith F corners' %hich the #reek Cabiri ter!ed Esh!on' and the 4hoenicians app ied to Ouranos' or heaven' and as Esh is eight it e:ua y represents the Ash ar&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 v' pt& ;&NN These Cabiri aid c ai! to be the inventors o" C;;;D a the arts o" i"e' inc uding the s!e ting o" !eta s' and %ere ter!ed Technites or Arti"icers& Aeschy us introduces 4ro!etheus as a Cabiric god' inas!uch as a!ongst the arts that he taught !ankind are the erection o" houses o" brick' the construction o" ships' the invention o" etters' and the art o" digging go d and si ver "ro! the pro i"ic earth' and o" "abricating instru!ents "or orna!ent and use* he is the Tuba 9Cain o" the Se!ites' and #reek +ytho ogy conde!ns hi! to a crue punish!ent on Caucasus' "or stea ing the "ire o" heaven to aid !ankind& p an& The Cabiri recognised seven ancient gods' o" %hich three %ere Chie"s' and an eighth %as s ain by the others& 7n +asonry %hi st three ru e a odge' seven !ake it per"ect' and the eighth' or 7nitiated Candidate' is represented by the s ain god& There is a so the co!!on sy!bo is! o" a cube %ith F corners' %hich the #reek Cabiri ter!ed Esh!on' and the 4hoenicians app ied to Ouranos' or heaven' and as Esh is eight it e:ua y represents the Ash ar&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 v' pt& ;&NN These Cabiri aid c ai! to be the inventors o" C;;;D a the arts o" i"e' inc uding the s!e ting o" !eta s' and %ere ter!ed Technites or Arti"icers& Aeschy us introduces 4ro!etheus as a Cabiric god' inas!uch as a!ongst the arts that he taught !ankind are the erection o" houses o" brick' the construction o" ships' the invention o" etters' and the art o" digging go d and si ver "ro! the pro i"ic earth' and o" "abricating instru!ents "or orna!ent and use* he is the Tuba 9Cain o" the Se!ites' and #reek +ytho ogy conde!ns hi! to a crue punish!ent on Caucasus' "or stea ing the "ire o" heaven to aid !ankind& 5#reece&5 4ri!itive #reece %as a ied in its cu te %ith the races a ready !entioned* and its ear y gods %ere those o" the Cabiri' and their bui dings Cyc opean* ear y #reek cu ture is "ound in to!bs and pa aces G'<<< A&C& e2cavated by $r& Sch ie!ann' and the contents o" these to!bs appear to a y the occupants %ith the Scythians& A ong period o" barbarous %ars succeeded' attendant upon the invasion o" the country by the He enes' an Aryan or Ce to9 7ranian peop e' spreading genera devastation& 7n He enic +ytho ogy it is "igured to us in %ars %ith a race o" giants' Titans %ho! Jupiter at ength con:uered and conde!ned to servi e e!p oy!ent in the "orges o" ?u can& Reduced to p ain !atter o" "act' it is the %ar bet%een the Aryan invaders' %ho invented the !ytho ogy' and the pri!itive inhabitants %ho %orshipped the Cabiric gods' and %ere reduced to artistic abour "or their con:uerors& Ay this invasion the Cabiric +ytho ogy beca!e He enised* in one direction the con:uerors Aryanised the o d !yths that had gro%n up in the country' and in another direction they appear to have #recianised the egends o" Egypt and 4hoenicia&MM?ide 5Origin o" the Aryans'5 7saac Tay or' +&A&' LL&$&NN

0or so!e centuries #reece sank into se!i9barbarous deso ation* its true civi isation %as that o" Egypt' %hence cu ture passed through the Ro!ans to Europe& Egyptian co onists %ith their re igious !ysteries sett ed at Argo is' the ancient seat o" those Cyc ops or Cabiri %ho bui t the enor!ous %a s o" Tyrenes' and +ycenae' at a period too C;;GD re!ote to be de"ined* their chie" 7nachas it is said ived -.BI A&C&' and %as succeeded by his son 4horoneus' %hi st the de uge o" Ogyges' in Aoetia' occurred -B.I A&C&' but it is probab e that itt e re iance can be p aced on these dates& To the ne% race is attributed the destruction o" the o der Cyc opean to%ns& At dates "ro! three to "our centuries ater there entered #reece "resh co onies o" Egyptians and 4hoenicians3 Cecrops arrived in Attica "ro! Sais' in Egypt' -IFB A&C&* asse!b ed the %e 9disposed inhabitants' aid the "oundation o" Athens' and o" that pecu iar tribuna ter!ed the Areopagus& Cad!us sett ed %ith his co onies in Aoetia -=.J A&C&' and "ounded Thebes* he brought %ith hi! into #reece the 4hoenician a phabet' %hich' originating in Egypt' "or!s the basis o" our o%n a phabet& $anaus sett ed a ne% co ony in Argo is -=FI A&C&' %hich had previous y been sett ed by Egyptians' and to this year is a so credited the de uge o" $euca ion&

57ndia and +edia&5 4ri!itive 7ndia and 4roto9+edia shared the sa!e "ate as ancient #reece* Aryans e:ua y invaded these countries and reduced the ancient inhabitants& Egypt a so received Co onies o" the sa!e race' and the great pyra!id is constructed upon the +ystic design o" the te!p e o" the rea !s o" Osiris& The Aryan invaders o" 7ndia estab ished bounds beyond %hich the arti1an' as a third caste' %as not a o%ed to proceed& According y this third c ass' %hich %as arge y the prehistoric inhabitants o" the country' continued Rites o" their o%n' in %hich as %e have seen' they used art Sy!bo s and !easure!ents to typi"y the truths o" a re igion' %hich di""ered on y "ro! that o" the Arah!ins and +ahara6ahs in the use o" art instead o" nature Sy!bo s& The priests o" Aenares say that this 0raternity constructed a the !arve ous %orks that are spread over the and& As in China' it %as a Society o" the Leve and 4 u!b& 9+edia shared the sa!e "ate as ancient #reece* Aryans e:ua y invaded these countries and reduced the ancient inhabitants& Egypt a so received Co onies o" the sa!e race' and the great pyra!id is constructed upon the +ystic design o" the te!p e o" the rea !s o" Osiris& The Aryan invaders o" 7ndia estab ished bounds beyond %hich the arti1an' as a third caste' %as not a o%ed to proceed& According y this third c ass' %hich %as arge y the prehistoric inhabitants o" the country' continued Rites o" their o%n' in %hich as %e have seen' they used art Sy!bo s and !easure!ents to typi"y the truths o" a re igion' %hich di""ered on y "ro! that o" the Arah!ins and +ahara6ahs in the use o" art instead o" nature Sy!bo s& The priests o" Aenares say that this 0raternity constructed a the !arve ous %orks that are spread over the and& As in China' it %as a Society o" the Leve and 4 u!b& 54ersia&5 The ancient 4ersians say that their ru er Je!schid erected the Arti1ans into a c ass' though the country never accepted strict caste a%s& This idea king C;;JD gave the! a%s %hich he superintended' and a o%ed the! to appoint a Chie" or #rand +aster to oversee the!& Hence in strict y Aryan countries' governed by "ir! caste a%s' %e have a trip e set o" +ysteries' those o" the Arah!ins' or 4riests' %ith an intangib e $iety* in the %arrior Caste such +ysteries as those o" +ythras' Aacchus and Serapis* and a!ongst the Arti1ans the Art' or Cabiric gods& (hen an apprentice has co!p eted his ti!e he app ies to his #ui d "or his 0reedo! and !akes the custo!ary pay!ent& A priest is ca ed in and a"ter prayers he receives the 5aco ade5 "ro! the +aster o" the #ui d& The Rev& 4& J& O iver +inos says that he has traced ;< +asonic Land!arks to Hindu Rites* and that in 4ersian +a1an is a Sorcerer' 99a Scientist' and that 50ree5 !ay be the Sanscrit 54ri5 to ove as brethren' as distinct "ro! s aves' the root 5vri5 or 5var5 to choose& +a1andun is and o" sorcerers' scientists& As the caste syste! e2tended itse " in 7ndia to di""erent trades' a #ui d syste! arose' such as %e had in o d ti!es in Eng and& 7n 7ndia at this day' each caste "or!s such a #ui d' e!bracing the %ho e o" that c ass' e2ercising an in" uence "or the genera advantage& So!e o" these ay c ai! to the 5t%ice born

thread5 o" the Arah!ins& The deserving !e!bers are re%arded by tit es and o""ices' the undeserving are punished by "ines' or conde!ned to "urnish a "east* the re"ractory su""er by te!porary or per!anent caste deprivation& 5Aryan #reece&5 The origin o" C assica #reek is Aryan' and %as "irst introduced into Thessa y by the "o o%ers o" the +ythica $euca ion' in three great tribes designated He enes& The $orians are said to take their na!e "ro! $oris' son o" He en* the Aeo ians "ro! another son Aeo us* and 7onians "ro! a grandson 7on& 7t is note%orthy that it is a"ter the recivi isation o" #reece and the introduction o" the Egyptian +ysteries that the !ethod o" bui ding edi"ices o" s:uared and eve b ocks in contradistinction to the po ygona and irregu ar sty e C;;=D o" the Cyc ops' arises in that country* hence it %ou d appear that either the $ionysian arti"icers !ust have superseded the Cabiri or instructed the!& There are traces in 7ndia' #reece' 4a estine' and other countries' o" a gradua i!prove!ent' as e2e!p i"ied by the use o" both sty es in the sa!e bui ding' and there can scarce y be a doubt that the i!prove!ent ca!e "ro! the Aryan race& Ancient #reek %riters identi"y the 4e asgi %ith the o der sty e and attribute it to Assyrian introduction& The Etrurians %ere o" the 4e asgic race' and their bui dings are o" the Cyc opean sty e' and "ro! the! %e derive

the Tuscan sty e o" co u!n* ?arro !entions a tradition that they con:uered North 7ta y -<JJ A&C& To the Aryan #reeks the so idity o" Cyc opean +asonry' %hich %ent beyond their ear y Eings 7nachides and the Oenostratus' cou d on y be the %ork o" giants' and si!i ar vie%s %ere he d in other countries& 7t is "ro! the tribes o" $orians and 7onians that %e derive the $oric and 7onic sty es' a"ter "o o% the Corinthian and the Co!posite' as the deve op!ents o" the three origina #reek sty es' %ith the Tuscan& Aut 7socrates 6ust y says that the #reeks borro%ed their ideas' and the "or!s o" their te!p es' "ro! the Egyptians& 7t is kno%n that the 4hoenicians o"ten e!p oyed Egyptian architects* and it %as "ro! the "or!er that So o!on obtained his chie" %ork!en "or the erection o" the te!p e o" Jerusa e!' and the sty e had points in co!!on %ith that o" Etruria' "ro! %hich Ro!e derived !uch o" its art& on that they con:uered North 7ta y -<JJ A&C& To the Aryan #reeks the so idity o" Cyc opean +asonry' %hich %ent beyond their ear y Eings 7nachides and the Oenostratus' cou d on y be the %ork o" giants' and si!i ar vie%s %ere he d in other countries& 7t is "ro! the tribes o" $orians and 7onians that %e derive the $oric and 7onic sty es' a"ter "o o% the Corinthian and the Co!posite' as the deve op!ents o" the three origina #reek sty es' %ith the Tuscan& Aut 7socrates 6ust y says that the #reeks borro%ed their ideas' and the "or!s o" their te!p es' "ro! the Egyptians& 7t is kno%n that the 4hoenicians o"ten e!p oyed Egyptian architects* and it %as "ro! the "or!er that So o!on obtained his chie" %ork!en "or the erection o" the te!p e o" Jerusa e!' and the sty e had points in co!!on %ith that o" Etruria' "ro! %hich Ro!e derived !uch o" its art& 5The $ionysiacs&5 There are three :uestions to be considered in re"erence to the app ication o" the na!e $ionysius to the s ain and resurrected sun9god o" #reece& 7n the "irst p ace' Herodotus positive y asserts that these +ysteries %ere derived "ro! Egypt' it is certain y not the Cabiric version& Aut Assyria had its #od $ionisu' and the Aryan #reeks in so!e cases He enised the o der +ytho ogy& 7t there"ore see!s to be pretty evident that the Hierophants' %ho "irst organised the syste!' "ound it po itic and e2pedient to use the Assyrian na!e in p ace o" the C;;ID Egyptian& 7t is so!e%hat doubt"u %hether the #reat +ysteries o" $ionysos %ere practica +asons' as %e as teachers o" secret truths o" a spiritua nature& The usua y accepted state!ent is that the bui ders %ere 7nitiates into the +ysteries o" $ionysos* but as these +ysteries' according to the savant Heeren' %ere a ied %ith those o" the %arrior c ass o" 4ersia and 7ndia' it is possib e that there %as a separate c ass o" bui ders' as in 7ndia' under the designation o" 5$ionysian Arti"icers'5 "or though neither Egypt nor #reece %ere caste ridden' and the atter e"t the Aryan ho!e be"ore caste a%s %ere pro!u gated' yet both in Egypt and #reece there %as a custo! o" hereditary trans!ission o" Art' as honourab e in itse "& The probabi ity o" the evidence is that the $ionysiacs %ere an operative body %ho had their 7nitiated +asters or Chie"s appointed by the Hierophants o" the +ysteries' and %ho taught the! and superintended their abours* and that they deve oped in #reece the !ethod o" bui ding %ith " at' s:uared b ocks& As the priests o" the +ysteries in ear y ti!es had the superintendence o" the

erection o" their te!p es' they !ay have reserved the right o" 7nitiating +asters* and the echo o" this !ay be "ound in the o d +SS&' %hich caused Eing Athe stan to grant a +aster && s Charter in (itenage!ote' %hich ne% body then proceeded to add 5points5 "or the governance o" subordinate %ork!en& (e read that in the year -;IG A&C& the Counci o" A!phictyons bui t the te!p e o" Apo o' a co!bination o" Architects t%o centuries be"ore the ti!e o" So o!on& These $ionysiacs e2isted in #reece above G'<<< years ago* hence Cabiric art "e into abeyance' and beca!e a tradition& On the 7onic e!igration they carried their art into Asia' and the erection o" the Te!p e o" Herac es at Tyre has been attributed to the!' and %hich had t%o 4i ars' one o" go d' the other o" e!era d& They %ere divided into Lodges under +asters' had e!b e!atica Je%e s' degrees' cere!onies' and tokens o" recognition* C;;BD they a so ad!itted a!ateurs as Honorary !e!bers& They beca!e a po%er"u body %hich e2ercised !uch po itica in" uence' and %ere incorporated as a Society o" Architects by the Eings o" 4erga!os& At one ti!e they %ere ter!ed $aeda idae' "ro! $eda us' the architect o" Crete' and the Labyrinth' respecting

%ho! there is a !yth %hich has so!e ana ogy to +asonic egend* he is o"ten represented %ith the s:uare and co!passes in his hand' hence the #reeks "ab ed that he invented these %orking too s and that he %as "ather o" architecture in genera * and %as banished "or !urdering a 0e o% out o" 6ea ousy& Lord Aacon' in his 5(isdo! o" the Ancients'5 a egorises the egend as to $aeda us' coup ed %ith the death o" his son 7carus by "a ing "ro! a " ying !achine %hich his "ather had invented* by the Labyrinth' he says' is typi"ied Art in genera & 7t is ad!itted that the $ionysiacs %ere attached to the Osirian egend* and one o" the %a s o" Thebes has a representation o" the Ark o" Osiris' %ith a sprig o" "ive branches' and the egend 5Osiris sprouts "orth'5 being an ana ogue o" the Je%ish Ark' and the Rod %hich budded& A sy!bo ic adder had its p ace in the #reek Te!p es' and Ae ian says that 4ittacus o" +ity ene introduced a adder into the te!p es o" his country to i!p y 5the rise and "a in the vicissitudes o" "ortune' according to %hich the prosperous !ight be said to c i!b up%ards* the un"ortunate to descend&5 This is but the e2oteric e2p anation o" an esoteric spiritua +ystery& (e !entioned in our third chapter a +osaic tab e o" a +asonic character "ound at 4o!peii& There can be no doubt that %e have in the 5Aook o" Chronic es5 the Hebre% e:uiva ents o" the divisions o" abour in the great bui ding operations o" other nations' these cannot be a Hebre% invention' but e:ua y represent the organisations o" Cha dea' Egypt' and 7ndia& (e read ,-/ o" 7sh Chot1eb' or !en %ho he% at the :uarries* ,;/ #hib i!' stone cutters or artists* ,G/ 7sh Sabba ' or !en o" burdens* ,J/ Aonai' the bui ders or setters* ,=/ +enat1chi!' the co!"orters or "ore!en* ,I/ Harodi!' ru ers or princes' %ho C;;FD superintended the %ho e represented %ith the s:uare and co!passes in his hand' hence the #reeks "ab ed that he invented these %orking too s and that he %as "ather o" architecture in genera * and %as banished "or !urdering a 0e o% out o" 6ea ousy& Lord Aacon' in his 5(isdo! o" the Ancients'5 a egorises the egend as to $aeda us' coup ed %ith the death o" his son 7carus by "a ing "ro! a " ying !achine %hich his "ather had invented* by the Labyrinth' he says' is typi"ied Art in genera & 7t is ad!itted that the $ionysiacs %ere attached to the Osirian egend* and one o" the %a s o" Thebes has a representation o" the Ark o" Osiris' %ith a sprig o" "ive branches' and the egend 5Osiris sprouts "orth'5 being an ana ogue o" the Je%ish Ark' and the Rod %hich budded& A sy!bo ic adder had its p ace in the #reek Te!p es' and Ae ian says that 4ittacus o" +ity ene introduced a adder into the te!p es o" his country to i!p y 5the rise and "a in the vicissitudes o" "ortune' according to %hich the prosperous !ight be said to c i!b up%ards* the un"ortunate to descend&5 This is but the e2oteric e2p anation o" an esoteric spiritua +ystery& (e !entioned in our third chapter a +osaic tab e o" a +asonic character "ound at 4o!peii& There can be no doubt that %e have in the 5Aook o" Chronic es5 the Hebre% e:uiva ents o" the divisions o" abour in the great bui ding operations o" other nations' these cannot be a Hebre% invention' but e:ua y represent the organisations o" Cha dea' Egypt' and 7ndia& (e read ,-/ o" 7sh Chot1eb' or !en %ho he% at the :uarries* ,;/ #hib i!' stone cutters or artists* ,G/ 7sh Sabba ' or !en o" burdens* ,J/ Aonai' the bui ders or setters* ,=/ +enat1chi!' the co!"orters or "ore!en* ,I/ Harodi!' ru ers or princes' %ho C;;FD superintended the %ho e

&& evy& 7t !ay be noted that #eba ' %here So o!ons +asons %rought' %as a seat o" the Adonisian +ysteries' and that he %as said to have been s ain in Lebanon& Even the !ore ancient Job' according to our !odern trans ators' && though said to be incorrect' !ay have had a kno% edge o" +asons+arks' "or he says3 57n the hands o" a !en he ,#od/ putteth a +ark' that every !an !ay && kno% His %ork&5 So o!ons Te!p e %as co!p eted in the year -<<J A&C& and the o d York ectures taught that its erection occupied B years' B !onths and B days& Josephus' in his treatise against Apion in"or!s us on the testi!ony o" +enander' that Hira! rebui t the te!p e o" +e cart 99the City Eing' %hich' i" Herodotus is correct in his data' !ust then have e2isted "or over seventeen centuries& Hira! then abandoned o d Tyre and took up his residence on the ad6acent is and' and enco!passed the City s:uare %ith high %a s o" cut stone& Hence the te!p e %hich Herodotus sa% %as that o" Hira! then near si2 centuries o d& The Ta !ud has a egend that Hira! %as granted I<< years o" 4aradise "or re%ard' "or the Cedars o" Lebanon %hich he supp ied to the bui ders o" the te!p e o" Jerusa e!' and the book 5Ya kutt5 %hich is a co!pi ation "ro! the 5+idrash'5 a %ord %hich !eans 5to gather together'5 says that Hira! bui t hi!se "' in the !idst o" the sea' a paradise o" seven heavens ,as %as Aabe /' and that' "or his great pride' Yod sent Nebuchadne11er against hi! %ho destroyed his 4aradise and cut hi! to pieces %hen he %as about I<< years o d& 5Ro!an Co egia&5 7n Ro!e the Arts %ere erected into Co eges by charter o" Nu!a 4o!pi ius' B<G A&C& The ear y architecture o" 7ta y %as 4e asgic' but #reece contributed !uch to its advance' and their Co eges o" Arti1ans have such a c ose rese!b ance to the $ionysic syste! that the ru e o" one !ust have been the ru e o" the other& 7n point o" "act Latin historians assert

&& distinct y that the "ounders o" Nu!as Co eges %ere #reeks' %hich C;;.D %ou d ead us to suppose that $ionysian arti"icers %ere brought to reconstitute o der schoo s& Hosi!us in"or!s us that Nu!a %as created 4onti"e2 +a2i!us' and a his successors' and he derives the origin o" the tit e' %hich !ay be trans ated Aridge9+aster9#enera ' "ro! Thessa ian #reeks %ho' be"ore statues and te!p es began to be bui t by the!' had i!ages p aced on a Aridge over the 4eneus "ro! %hich the Sacri"icers %ere ter!ed Aridge9priests& 7t is curious that the civi govern!ent had a si!i ar constitution to the +asonic Co eges& At the birth o" the repub ic there %ere G tribes 99Sabines' A bines' and Strangers& Each %as divided into ten Curies' these into $ecuries' at the head o" %hich %ere p aced Curions' or $ecurions' and above these -<< Centurie& #radua y' ho%ever' this gave %ay to an en arge!ent' the 8!brians %ere the !ost ancient popu ation and the $acians' Thracians' and 7ta ian Ce ts %ere Aryans' but not c ose y re ated to the He enes o" #reece& 7t is be ieved that Nu!a %as an 7nitiate o" the Etruscan priests' and Sa verte ho ds that he %as ac:uainted %ith e ectricity and used it in his rites& Herodian says that the Ro!ans obtained "ro! the 4hrygians a statue o" the 5+other goddess'5 by representing that they %ere o" the sa!e b ood through the co onies o" Aeneas' -;B< A&C&' %hen Troy %as destroyed by the con"ederate #reeks& The Ro!an "or!u a %as that 5three "or! a Co ege'5 but %hen "or!ed one !ight continue it& According to the La%s o" the 5T%e ve Tab es'5 the Co egia had the right to !ake their o%n a%s' and %ere a so per!itted to "or! a iances a!ongst the!se ves& They %ere divided into 5Co!!unities5* had a co!!on Arca or chest* e ected their o""icers annua y* accepted Honorary !e!bers as 54atrons5* had priests' as there is !ention o" a 54riest o" the bui ders or arti"icers&5 They had e!b e!s o" o""ice* signs o" recognition* !any o" the sy!bo s used by 0ree!asons' as' says Schauberg' the rough and per"ect cube' and they cou d distinguish a C;G;D brother by day as %e as by night& Their (ardens ru ed ten !en' a custo! %hich Sir C& (ren says %as in use a!ongst the o d 0ree9!asons& The Co!!unities or 5+aceriae5 %ere he d secret y and in sec uded roo!s* genera y !et !onth y* each !e!ber %as bound by oath to assist another* so!e o" the Registers o" +e!bers are yet e2tant& Their o""icers %ere' a +agister' %ho presided over a hundred !en and %as e ected "or "ive years* $ecurions or (ardens' each o" %ho! presided over -<* Seniores or E ders* Scribe or Secretaries* Sacerdotes or priests* Tabu arii or archivists* Erratoris or +essengers* ?iatores or Serving brethren* Signi"eri or 0 agbearers& One inscription in"or!s us that the Co egiu! he d a year y "east in anniversary o" its "oundation& Throughout the %ho e Ro!an E!pire the Co egia %ere in active operation' and the 5Corpus Juris5 !entions a!ongst the Arts ega y e2isting' and "ree "ro! ta2ation' the architects' !asons' stone cutters' painters' scu ptors' carpenters' and ship and !achine bui ders& (e kno% the Co egia %ere estab ished in Aritain' as ast century an inscription %as "ound in Chichester %hich says that the 5Co egiu! 0abroru!5 had erected

a te!p e to Neptune and +inerva and the sa"ety o" the "a!i y o" C audius Caesar' 5circa5 =; A&$& The great architect ?itruvius de"ined the art o" +asonry' ;'<<< years ago' as 5a science arising out o" !any other sciences' and adorned %ith !uch and varied earning5* he a so she%s us that the Ro!ans had a canon o" proportion' %hich being a secret goes "ar to she% that he %as an 7nitiated te!p e architect' and %hich canon is sti represented in

our +asonic Lodges by a tesse ated pave!ent&MM5Ars Luat Cor&'5 viii' p& ..&NN Aristophanes' in one o" his Co!edies' introduces +eton' the astrono!er' %ith ru e and co!passes in his hands' preparing to ay out the p an o" a ne% city& 8pon the to!bs o" Ro!an !e!bers o" these Co eges are "ound e!b e!s identica %ith those o" !odern 0ree!asonry' and %e "ind upon tesse ated " oors' and !ura paintings' the C;G-D triang e' doub e triang es' s:uare and co!passes' gave ' p u!bru e' "ive9pointed star' the branch& There has recent y been dug up at Ro!e' near the Triano' a g ass bo% ' upon %hich' on one side' is a s:uare and above that the b a1ing star or sun' and the etters J& N& 8nderneath the s:uare are t%o pi ars' standing upon a +osaic pave!ent&MM5Libera 0ree!nson'5 -FFF&NN se ated pave!ent&MM5Ars Luat Cor&'5 viii' p& ..&NN Aristophanes' in one o" his Co!edies' introduces +eton' the astrono!er' %ith ru e and co!passes in his hands' preparing to ay out the p an o" a ne% city& 8pon the to!bs o" Ro!an !e!bers o" these Co eges are "ound e!b e!s identica %ith those o" !odern 0ree!asonry' and %e "ind upon tesse ated " oors' and !ura paintings' the C;G-D triang e' doub e triang es' s:uare and co!passes' gave ' p u!bru e' "ive9pointed star' the branch& There has recent y been dug up at Ro!e' near the Triano' a g ass bo% ' upon %hich' on one side' is a s:uare and above that the b a1ing star or sun' and the etters J& N& 8nderneath the s:uare are t%o pi ars' standing upon a +osaic pave!ent&MM5Libera 0ree!nson'5 -FFF&NN +r& Tou !ain S!ith points out that conte!porary %ith the Ro!an Co egia %ere the #reek 5Eranoi'5 or 5Thiasoi'5 nu!erous at Rhodes and 4iraeus' and other parts& Their organisations had even a c oser rese!b ance to 0ree!asonry than the Co egia& A though the Ce tic races o" Aritain had in ear y ti!es !any "ine cities' and though the York Lectures state that Ebrank' A adud' and Croseus %ere e!inent as +asons' yet it is considered that the Latin ter! 5+arus5 indicates that %e had stone bui ding "ro! the Latins& This Ebrank is Ebroc' the great "ounder o" York* A adud "ounded Aath' and brought "ro! Athens "our phi osophers %ho! he ocated at Sta!"ord* he is said to have been a great +athe!atician' and having invented a " ying !achine "e "ro! the te!p e o" Apo o on the site o" St& 4au & s' London' and %as ki ed* Croseus %i be Carausieus' once E!peror o" Aritain' and 4atron o" the Co egia& (e !entioned in our ast chapter the Aenedictine +onk Henry Aradsha%' o" St& (erberg +onastery' Chester' be"ore -=-G& Speaking o" that city he has the "o o%ing ines3 9

5The "ounder o" this citie' as saith 4o ychronicon' (as Leon #aur' a !yghte strong gyaunt' (hich bui ded caves and dongeons !any a one' No good ie bui dyng' ne proper' ne p easant' Aut Eing Leir a Aritain "ine and va iaunt' (as "ounder o" Chester by p eausant bui dyng' And %as na!ed #uar Leir by the Eing&5 5Syria&5 7t is not i!probab e that a +asonic Schoo C;G;D continued to e2ist in 4a estine during the centuries3 the +acabees %ere considerab e bui ders& Recent discoveries in Jerusa e! she% that stones o" a re!ote' but uncertain' anti:uity bear +asonic +arks' so!e o" %hich are cut in the stone and others painted thereon in red* so!e o" these !arks are assu!ed to be 4hoenician characters& 7n the Ta !ud' in 5Sabbath'5 --J' it is said that 5the %ise9!en are ca ed bui ders because they are a %ays engaged in the upbui ding o" the %or d&5 The Essenes %ere ca ed Aonai! or bui ders because it %as their duty to edi"y or bui d up the spiritua te!p e in the body& Chie" Rabbi Henry Ad er says that the Je%ish Sages "o o%ed a pro"essions' inc uding +asoning' and that Sha!!ai is' on one occasion' represented %ith the cubit ru e in his hand& The Sages %ere ter!ed Chaberi!' associates' "riends' brethren& There is "ound represented the triang e' s:uare' and circ e' as constructive ru es' as' "or

instance' in the erection o" the Succuth' or Aooths' at the "east o" Tabernac es&MM5?ide Ars Luat& Cor&'5 -F.F' Yarker&NN 7n the Aook o" +accabeesMM;nd ch& ii' ;.9GJ&NN there is a very interesting paragraph %hich says3 50or as the +aster Aui der o" a ne% house !ust care "or the %ho e bui ding* but he that undertaketh to set it out and paint it' !ust seek out "it things "or the adorning o" it' even so 7 think it is %ith us& To stand upon every point' and go over things at arge' and to be curious in particu ars' be ongeth to the "irst authors o" the story* but to use brevity' and avoid !uch abouring o" the %ork' is to be granted to hi! %ho %i !ake an abridge!ent&5 No% a though such passages as these' %hich are "air y co!!on a!ongst Je%ish and Christian %riters' !ay not prove that the authors %ere +asons' as the ter! is no% understood' it con"ir!s the be ie" o" those %riters %ho assert that the Arcane Schoo s o" Christians did !ake use o" bui ding sy!bo is!* and indicates !oreover that the art o" bui ding' or !asoning' %as one %hich the earned thought to be sy!bo ica y use"u ' and ho% !uch !ore then by the Tabernac es&MM5?ide Ars Luat& Cor&'5 -F.F' Yarker&NN 7n the Aook o" +accabeesMM;nd ch& ii' ;.9GJ&NN there is a very interesting paragraph %hich says3 50or as the +aster Aui der o" a ne% house !ust care "or the %ho e bui ding* but he that undertaketh to set it out and paint it' !ust seek out "it things "or the adorning o" it' even so 7 think it is %ith us& To stand upon every point' and go over things at arge' and to be curious in particu ars' be ongeth to the "irst authors o" the story* but to use brevity' and avoid !uch abouring o" the %ork' is to be granted to hi! %ho %i !ake an abridge!ent&5 No% a though such passages as these' %hich are "air y co!!on a!ongst Je%ish and Christian %riters' !ay not prove that the authors %ere +asons' as the ter! is no% understood' it con"ir!s the be ie" o" those %riters %ho assert that the Arcane Schoo s o" Christians did !ake use o" bui ding sy!bo is!* and indicates !oreover that the art o" bui ding' or !asoning' %as one %hich the earned thought to be sy!bo ica y use"u ' and ho% !uch !ore then by the C;GGD bui ders the!se ves' to %ho! it %ou d reco!!end itse " so apt y& There e2ists to9day a Je%ish #ui d at Assuan in Egypt %hich c ai!s great anti:uity' and practises Je%ish Rites connected %ith the bui ding o" the t%o "irst te!p es' and "or that purpose !eet annua y at sunrise and abour ti sunset& An Architect %ho is no% out there' and received initiation in $erbyshire' -FII9B=' says that they practise the very sa!e cere!onies %hich he there received& O" course in a Je%ish #ui d circu!cision is necessary "or reception& The native Copts have si!i ar #ui ds' but their ground diagra!s are designed "or the s:uare pyra!id and not "or a G to 7 te!p e ike that at Jerusa e!' but they assert that So o!on had his initiation "ro! 4haraoh' to %ho! he paid a great price& The trip icity o" a pyra!id is one o" their sy!bo s' as it is e:ua y in the ancient #ui ds o" this country and in the !odern Roya Arch degree o" 0ree!asonry& O" course in the bui ding o" the -st te!p e Yah %as the #od o" Jedediah* Aaa o" the Eing o" Tyre* and On ,%hich is both Egyptian and #reek' i" not a so Hindu/ the god o" Hira! the Abiv& 4 ato has a ine %hich says 5Te !e o" the #od On' %hich %as' is' and sha be'5 it is there"ore the e:uiva ent o" the tetragra!!aton& O iver :uotes in the ike sense' Rev& i& J3 #R3O!icron O!icron O!ega Ea9a pha9iota O!icron eta nu' Eappaa pha9

iota O!icron epsi on9rho9kappa9o!icron9!u92i9upsi on9o!icron9sig!a 9,5 #od ,On/ is' and %as' and is to co!e&5/ (e are to d that Herod' Eing o" Judea' e!p oyed -<'<<< +asons besides Labourers' in rebui ding the te!p e o" Herrubabe * and it is :uite certain that reco ections o" the te!p e o" So o!on had not died out& 7t is even be ieved that' "ro! the ti!e o" A e2ander the #reat' arge nu!bers o" Je%s e!igrated into Spain and %ere the "ounders and bui ders o" To edo' Sevi e' and Aarce ona' besides other bui dings in Aohe!ia* and the best ti!e o" their race %as during the +oorish ru e' %hen Orienta and Secret Societies %ere preva ent& The Journa 57srae ite5 o" -FI< contained a paper in re"erence to the e2istence in Spain o" certain o d egends C;GJD in proo" that the Je%s e!igrated thither in the days o" the tyrannica Rheoboa! and o" Adonira! & s 6ourney thither to gather ta2es and %as s ain& The %riter says3 57t is a "act that there are nu!erous to!bstones %ith o d Hebre% or Sa!aritan inscriptions in Sevi e or To edo 99%e cannot positive y say %hich o" these t%o p aces 99and a!ong the! is one %hich bears the na!e o" Adonira! the Co ector o" So o!on and his son

Rheoboa!& & & & The Je%s %ere the "ounders and bui ders o" !ost o" the ancient cities o" Spain 99To edo' Sevi e' Aarce ona' and others* and a so that the Je%s %ere the inhabitants o" these p aces at the ti!e %hen the Ostragoths invaded the peninsu a& A Tanai Synagogue is o" great anti:uity' neither #reek or #othic& The !ost ancient chronic e o" Aohe!ia says that this bui ding %as "ound there %hen the "ounder o" the city o" 4rague aid the "irst corner stone o" it&5 There is an ancient Hebre% book' certain y -'=<< years o d' entit ed the 5Testa!ent o" So o!on'5 %hich gives a "u account o" the egions o" dae!ons e!p oyed by So o!on in the construction o" the Te!p e' and the positions assigned the!' but it is !ore than probab e that these Ta !udic egends origina y re"erred to the B; Su ie!en o" pre9hu!an ti!es' and %ere engra"ted in Aaby on upon the persona ity o" the 7srae ite Eing& Sir Char es Le!on in"or!ed his 4&#& Lodge in -FJI' that %hen visiting 4o and he sa% an ancient Je%ish Synagogue %hich %as bui t I<< years A&C&' %here he "ound +asonic e!b e!s no% used by the 0raternity& ,See 50ree!ason'5 -F-J page -BI&/ ancient cities o" Spain 99To edo' Sevi e' Aarce ona' and others* and a so that the Je%s %ere the inhabitants o" these p aces at the ti!e %hen the Ostragoths invaded the peninsu a& A Tanai Synagogue is o" great anti:uity' neither #reek or #othic& The !ost ancient chronic e o" Aohe!ia says that this bui ding %as "ound there %hen the "ounder o" the city o" 4rague aid the "irst corner stone o" it&5 There is an ancient Hebre% book' certain y -'=<< years o d' entit ed the 5Testa!ent o" So o!on'5 %hich gives a "u account o" the egions o" dae!ons e!p oyed by So o!on in the construction o" the Te!p e' and the positions assigned the!' but it is !ore than probab e that these Ta !udic egends origina y re"erred to the B; Su ie!en o" pre9hu!an ti!es' and %ere engra"ted in Aaby on upon the persona ity o" the 7srae ite Eing& Sir Char es Le!on in"or!ed his 4&#& Lodge in -FJI' that %hen visiting 4o and he sa% an ancient Je%ish Synagogue %hich %as bui t I<< years A&C&' %here he "ound +asonic e!b e!s no% used by the 0raternity& ,See 50ree!ason'5 -F-J page -BI&/ The 5+ishna'5 or o dest portion o" the Je%ish 5Ta !ud'5 preserves the !easure!ents' and detai s' o" the "irst te!p e' %ith its utensi s' and' very recent y' a representation o" it %as "ound in the Ro!an Cataco!bs& According to Josephus' C e!ens' and Eusebius' each and a its detai s' %ere sy!bo ica o" the 8niverse& The third te!p e' or that o" Herod' %as destroyed in the year B<' and the E!peror Hadrian erected in -GI a "ourth te!p e upon its site %hich he dedicated to Jupiter C;G=D Capito inus' and co!pe ed the Je%s to pay ta2es "or && its !aintenance& 7t is said in Hadrians ti!e that there %as a te!p e erected to Astarte %hich %as destroyed at the instigation o" He ena' the !other o" Constantine& 7n the Jth century !any churches %ere erected in 4a estine' and the E!peror Justinian bui t a great nu!ber in that country&

&& The E!peror Ju ian atte!pted to rebui d on the site o" So o!on s te!p e' and there is a very curious account' %hich con"ir!s in a re!arkab e !anner the Rites o" the #ui d o" 0ree +asons' na!e y 99that a Reed be o% the " oor ,about -< "eet/ there %as a vau t %hich contained a pedesta ' %ith the p ans' and the centre diagra!s' and %hich is dra%n upon to "or! the Arch degree in !odern 0ree!asonry' and that this centre had to be discovered on the erection && o" the ;nd te!p e& An o d %riter re ates that %hen the E!perors abourers %ere set to c ear a%ay the rubbish they ca!e upon a vau ted cha!ber into %hich one o" the %ork!en %as et do%n %ith a rope* he returned and reported that in the centre %as a s:uare pedesta surrounded %ith %ater' and produced a scro %hich Nicephorus re ates %as a verse o" the Aib e& The #ui ds say that this %as and is the "irst ines o" #enesis' and that it %as carved over the Eastern entrance o" the -st te!p e& Ju ian %as ob iged to desist "ro! his intentions as Nicephorus says that "ire broke out %hich destroyed his %ork!en& An o der %riter 4hi ostorgius circa F=G A&$& has the sa!e account& 7t !ay be convenient to !ention here the Ho y9sepu chre at Jerusa e! %hich ed to the introduction o" round churches into Eng and* though the te!p es o" the #reeks and Ro!ans %ere o"ten circu ar' as %as that o" ?enus in Cyprus !entioned by Ho!er* that o" ?esta and the 4arthenon& The Christian Church o" the Ho y Sepu chre %as consecrated in GG=& 7ts round part represents the Sepu chre o" Christ' and eading "ro! it is a broad ais e' at the end o" %hich is a rectangu ar church on the site o" #o gotha& This %as partia y destroyed by C;GID Chosroes' Eing o" 4ersia' in I-J' and restored -J years ater by Aishop

Herac ius' to "a in IGI into the hands o" the 7s a!ite Ca iph O!ar& On the death o" Haroun a Raschid his three sons contended "or the throne' and the churches %ere burnt' but short y a"ter restored by Aishop Tho!as& 7n -<-< the Ca iph Hake! destroyed the!' but they %ere again rebui t ne2t year& 7n -<JF the three churches %ere reconstructed by Constantine +ono!achus* the origina rectangu ar church %ou d see! to have perished by the year --<;' and !any changes %ere !ade in the re!aining portionsMM5The Ho y Sepu chre'5 Northa!pton' -F.B& (!& +ark&NN $uring a the period o" their occupation the Saracens erected nu!erous bui dings' and the bui ding art %as not e2tinguished do%n to the ti!e o" the Crusaders' %ho added arge y to the structures e2isting& On the death o" Haroun a Raschid his three sons contended "or the throne' and the churches %ere burnt' but short y a"ter restored by Aishop Tho!as& 7n -<-< the Ca iph Hake! destroyed the!' but they %ere again rebui t ne2t year& 7n -<JF the three churches %ere reconstructed by Constantine +ono!achus* the origina rectangu ar church %ou d see! to have perished by the year --<;' and !any changes %ere !ade in the re!aining portionsMM5The Ho y Sepu chre'5 Northa!pton' -F.B& (!& +ark&NN $uring a the period o" their occupation the Saracens erected nu!erous bui dings' and the bui ding art %as not e2tinguished do%n to the ti!e o" the Crusaders' %ho added arge y to the structures e2isting& 5#reco9Egyptian&5 A though %e do not kno% !uch about the re!ote organisation o" the bui ding "raternities in Egypt' yet +& +aspero opened the to!b o" an architect' bui der' and carver o" inscriptions at Thebes' and %ith the !u!!y %as "ound a s:uare' eve ' co!passes' and other i!p e!ents& At Te e 9 A!arna' -=<< A&C&' Aek the hereditary successor o" a ine o" Architects' ter!s hi!se " the teacher o" the Eing* and' as %e have seen' the sy!bo s and representations' ho%ever ancient' are !ore +asonic than in any other country& 7t is not' ho%ever' an unreasonab e supposition to suppose that "ro! =<< A&C& %hen the 4ersians had con:uered the country' to be succeeded by the #reeks and Ro!ans' gradua changes took p ace' under this "oreign in" uence' in the !ore ancient Corporations o" +asons& The Ro!an Co egia !ay have !odi"ied #ui d i"e o" the !ore ancient native "raternity' and it is this e2p anation %hich !ust be p aced upon the Eng ish tradition o" the 5Charges o" Euc id&5 $raper !entions the con:uests o" A e2ander the #reat as eading to the estab ish!ent o" 5the !athe!atica and practica Schoo s o" A e2andria' the true origin o" science&5 (hen the 5Need e5 C;GBD %hich C eopatra had re9erected ;; A&C& ca!e to be re!oved in -FF<' there %as "ound at the base a pecu iar arrange!ent o" stones' %hich %as he d to sy!bo ise a +asonic Lodge as no% kno%n* thus a portion %as aid so as to "or! a s:uare' on %hich rested a rough Ash ar' and a per"ect Cube' a so an ob ong o" the purest i!estone care"u y po ished and %ithout spot or " a%& (e have e2pressed a decided opinion that the origin o" 0ree +asonry is to be "ound in the pri!itive syste! o" a secret Schoo %hich deve oped a +ystery in

%hich natura re igion %as taught in union %ith science and art' and that' be"ore the divorce o" the t%o' the great State +ysteries organised a better sty e o" bui ding %ith s:uared b ocks' in other %ords the Osirian' $ionysian' or Aacchic +ysteries' %hich %ere a high y spiritua ised "aith' sti !ore subti ised and spread by #reek phi osophers as the +ysteries o" Serapis' a #nostic pre9 Christian syste!' %hich used the cross' and had a the characteristics essentia "or the "aith 5be"ore Christ ca!e in the " esh&5 7t is id e to suppose that the Cere!onia Rites o" +asons %ere then abso ute y uni"or!* those o" a Cabiric or 4e asgian civi isation cou d not be entire y uni"or! %ith those o" the Aryanised $ionysiacs' yet such cere!onia rites e2isted beyond doubt' and each had their s ain9god i" the !ode o" his death %as not :uite uni"or!' and 7nitiates on y had acted a part in the cere!ony' nor need %e have any doubt o" the possibi ity o" the trans!ission o" such Rites' "ro! the ear iest period' though %e cannot produce year y !inutes "or it& (hat right have %e to e2pect this@ 7t !eans the vio ation o" so e!n oaths' perhaps death& Take the universa ity o" aying a "oundation stone' and %e see that the !odern cere!ony

%as e2act y para e ed in ancient Aaby on and Egypt& Even Job !ust have && kno%n so!ething o" it in his desert ho!e' "or he says3 5(here %ast thou %hen 7 aid the "oundation o" the earth@ (ho aid the corner stone thereo"3 %hen the !orning stars sang together and a the Sons o" #od shouted "or 6oy&5 && %hich pro"essed to date C;GFD "ro! So o!on 7" a Rite s te!p e e2isted in ear y ti!es' as it probab y did' it %ou d be a!ongst a s!a nu!ber o" Je%ish +asons' and a !odi"ication o" the 4hoenician Cabiric +ysteries' but %e can eave this "or the present& The Legend o" the Origin o" Eng ish +asonry %hich has been handed do%n to us "ro! the ti!es o" Ed%in and Athe stan repeats a tradition %hich traces the Society to Egypt' and particu arises its derivation and organisation& 7t is c ear y a egend %hich e2isted at the ti!e' and there is no probab e basis %hich %ou d 6usti"y us in e2pressing a doubt that' as a egend' it had actua e2istence in && s ti!e' nor in going beyond it to invent a theory that the "orerunners && Athe stan o" the Society %ere at the bui ding o" So o!on s te!p e' an assertion %hich is not there' and never intended to be there* and the absence o" %hich is a good proo" o" the anti:uity o" the account re ated& The Legend to %hich %e re"er !ay be inaccurate in so!e o" its detai s* the na!e o" Euc id' the e!inent #eo!etrician' !ay have been inserted "or Thoth or Her!es as the #reeks ter!ed the god o" art* and %e !ay be sure' that in the centuries through %hich the egend had passed' be"ore it reached the "or! o" our o dest +SS&' it %ou d be !odi"ied in !inor particu ars* but %e !ay be %e persuaded that it contains a basis o" truth' as it %ou d be a ike y Legend to be

&& handed do%n by Ro!ans and Ro!anised Aritons %ho %orked by Euc ids traditions' and on%ard through Cu dee !onks %ho taught the ru es o" handicra"t to the peop e at York' and other p aces' practised the teaching o" the +ysteries o" Serapis in the Arcane $iscip ine o" the Church' and even superintended' bui t' and aboured %ith their o%n hands at the erection o" their churches and !onasteries& This tradition a eges that Egypt "inding her peop e to be generating a too nu!erous popu ation o" %e 9born youths' "or %ho! it %as di""icu t to "ind suitab e e!p oy!ent' sought an2ious y "or a re!edy& A proc a!ation %as !ade' and Euc id an 7nitiate o" Serapis' o" the 4 atonic Acade!y' and it !ay even be o" the Co eges C;G.D o" Aui ders' undertook to provide a re!edy& 0or && this purpose he accepted these Lordssons' and taught the! #eo!etry 5as the !ost honest art o" a '5 and %hen they %ere capab e proceeded to organise the! into a Arotherhood' and give the! a 5Charge'5 %hich e2a!ination %i she% to agree in a essentia points %ith the Ro!an Co egia& There !ay be && so!ething in the a eged #rand +astership o" Euc id' %ho is said in Andersons 5Constitutions5 o" +asonry to have acted as the architect o" so!e nob e edi"ices in Egypt' but it is !ore probab e that he o%es the rank assigned to hi! "ro! his e!inence as a #eo!etrician' about ;BI A&C&' and it is note%orthy that in the o d +asonic +SS& it is not c ai!ed "or +asonry that it %as e2c usive y a society o" Scu ptors and Stone9cutters but e!braced a arts that %ork by the ru es o" #eo!etry& There is good reason to accept 6udicious y this a eged A e2andrian descent o" +asonry into Eng and& && bui ders o" St& +ark (e are to d that the origina s at ?enice %ere A e2andrian re"ugees' and' it !ay be' the sty e o" the pa ace o" the $oge' %hich is ca ed +oorish but is not so& The Ay1antine sty e %as probab y A e2andrian' and %hen the Saracens took Egypt the Artists %ere dispersed over 4ersia' #reece' and Europe&

7n the ight o" %hat has preceded' the traditiona egend reso ves itse " broad y into this3 that besides the great State +ysteries' but derived "ro! the!' there %ere !inor schoo s o" 4hi osophers' and Co eges o" the Arts and Sciences' a %ith specia ' but si!i ar' cere!onies o" their o%n' and that Euc id he d a pro!inent position in a these& 0urther that the +asonic association %as o" #reco9Ro!an introduction into Eng and' a genea ogy %hich attaches itse " to the divine 0ather' +other' and Son o" o d Egypt& es itse " broad y into this3 that besides the great State +ysteries' but derived "ro! the!' there %ere !inor schoo s o" 4hi osophers' and Co eges o" the Arts and Sciences' a %ith specia ' but si!i ar' cere!onies o" their o%n' and that Euc id he d a pro!inent position in a these& 0urther that the +asonic association %as o" #reco9Ro!an introduction into Eng and' a genea ogy %hich attaches itse " to the divine 0ather' +other' and Son o" o d Egypt& Nor %as Art itse " in Egypt con"ined' in its practice to !ere Artisans' "or there %ere sacred i!ages %hich cou d on y be %rought by the priests o" the +ysteries& Synesius' Aishop o" 4to e!ais' has a pecu iar passage ,5Ca vit&5/' in %hich he %rites3 5The prophets or hierophants' C;J<D %ho had been 7nitiated into the +ysteries' did not per!it the co!!on %ork!en to "or! ido s or i!ages o" the gods' but they descended the!se ves into the sacred caves' %here they have concea ed co""ers' containing certain spheres' upon %hich they construct their i!age secret y' and %ithout the kno% edge o" the peop e' %ho despise si!p e and natura things' and %ish "or prodigies and "ab es&5 (e see "ro!9this that there %as a Cra"t secret and sy!bo is! kno%n on y to the priests' and that ike the 50our cro%ned +artyrs'5 o" Christian +asonry' they %ere capab e o" practica scu pture& The 5sacred caves5 %ere the Crypts o" their te!p es* and the %ord trans ated 5sphere5 is inde"inite' "or there are yet dra%ings to be "ound in Egypt %hich she% that the 5Canon o" proportion5 %as a che:uered tracing even "ro! the ti!e o" the very ancient =th dynasty& The pri!itive canon divided the hu!an "igure into -. s:uares' o" %hich the head occupied G s:uares' the pubis began at . -R;' and the knee96oint at Ith s:uare "ro! the botto! one& A seated "igure occupied -= s:uares* but the proportions varied in the course o" ages&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5 ,(& H& Ry ands/& vi&NN The earned $r& Stuke ey %as o" opinion that the 7saic Tab et o" Cardina Ae!boMM4ub& by $r& (& (& (estcott&NN %as a tracing9board o" the Egyptian +ysteries' a te!p e spread out in p ane' and that it cou d be divided into 4orch' Sanctu!' and Sanctoru!& 7n the ti!e o" Euc id one o" the !ost beauti"u bui dings in a Egypt %as in progress and dedicated to the divine Triad' na!e y' the re9erection' on its ancient site' o" the te!p e o" 4hi ae' %hich %as begun about G<< A&C& and continued "or t%o centuries& +r& Ja!es 0erguson thus eu ogises it3 5No #othic architect' in his %i dest !o!ents' ever p ayed so "ree y %ith his ines and di!ensions' and none' it !ust be added' ever produced anything so beauti"u y pictures:ue as this& 7t co!bines a the variety o" #othic art' %ith the !assiveness and grandeur o" the Egyptian sty e&5 7n it are nine scu ptured tab ets C;J-D on the %a %hich pourtray the death' resurrection' ascension'

and dei"ication o" the god to %hose honour it %as erected& The !ost sacred oath a Copt cou d s%ear %as' 5Ay Hi! that s eeps at 4hi ae' and by Hi! that sitteth upon the throne&5 The +ysteries o" the god continued to be ce ebrated in this te!p e unti about J=< A&$&' a"ter %hich it %as probab y used "or Christian %orship&MM5Egypt'5 (!& O2 ey&NN Another bui ding o" great e2tent %as erected by 4to e!y 4hi ade phus as a te!p e o" Serapis' the #reco9Egyptian triad in an Ec ectic "or!& 7t %as the !ost !agni"icent te!p e then in e2istence' and had nu!erous subterraneous passages and caverns' arti"icia y constructed "or the Rites o" the +ysteries& 7t contained a ibrary said to consist o" a kno%n books in B<<'<<< vo u!es* a ibrary destroyed by the +os e!s in IGF A&$& 7t %as partia y destroyed

previous y by the Christians %hen e!b e!s o" a cruci"or! character %ere e2posed& The steady advance o" Christianity' deve oping into a "erocious into erance' necessitated even greater secrecy in the ce ebration o" the +ysteries' "o o%ed by persecutions o" the 7nitiates by the ater E!perors' !ade it essentia to reorganise the! under other na!es' %ith the assu!ption o" a hu!b e disguise& 7t is in this %ay that %e rene% our ac:uaintance %ith the! in the Co eges o" Art' and in the #nostic and Occu t "raternities& e2posed& The steady advance o" Christianity' deve oping into a "erocious into erance' necessitated even greater secrecy in the ce ebration o" the +ysteries' "o o%ed by persecutions o" the 7nitiates by the ater E!perors' !ade it essentia to reorganise the! under other na!es' %ith the assu!ption o" a hu!b e disguise& 7t is in this %ay that %e rene% our ac:uaintance %ith the! in the Co eges o" Art' and in the #nostic and Occu t "raternities& So "ar as this country is concerned %e kno% nothing "ro! docu!ents o" a && +asonry dating "ro! So o!on s te!p e unti a"ter the Crusades' %hen the Constitution be ieved to have been sanctioned by Eing Athe stan gradua y under%ent a change& To advance an opinion a!ongst %e read peop e' that a && Cra"t +asonry !ust necessari y date "ro! So o!on s te!p e' can on y raise a s!i e& The bui ding %as erected by 4hoenicians and part y o" %ood' and its !agni"icence is no doubt great y e2aggerated in the Ta !ud* and the Je%s' %ith a specia #od "or their o%n race' %ere unpopu ar %ith a other nations* and "ar !ore e2tensive and !agni"icent bui dings' C;J;D o" %hich the ruins e2ist to this day' are "ound in Egypt' 7ndia' and the A!ericas& 7t is' ho%ever' a curious thing' in regard to So o!onian egends' that there see!s to have e2isted a!ongst the o dest proto9Aryan races' %e have kno% edge o"' a dynasty o" So y!i' or Su ie!an' entit ed Eings* and it has a so been discovered a!ongst the ruins o" Aaby on as the na!e o" a #od o" these ancient peop e' %hi st the rea na!e o" Eing So o!on %as Jedediah' or the be oved o" Jah& 7t is there"ore possib e that the tit e !ay have been prehistorica y kno%n in so!e Cabiric Rites' and that Ouranos' 8r' 8ri!' has been corrupted to Huri!' or Hira! Abi"' and perpetuated "ro! the bui ding o" the ;nd Te!p e* "or %e !ay assu!e that the graphic "or! o" the egend has been the gradua gro%th o" centuries' though perpetuated as a dra!a in the +ediaeva #ui ds' and %hen the Ta !ud and the Eoran te s us that So o!on e!p oyed troops o" dae!ons to erect the

te!p e %e !ay "ee sure that the Ta !ud is dra%ing upon the pre9hu!an Su ie!en' or Eings o" the Jins or A"reets& There can be no doubt that the ear y Christian +onks "ound a!ongst their ski ed +asons certain "or!s o" reception' or +ysteries' si!i ar to' i" not identica ' %ith those %hich had descended to the!se ves as heirs o" the Epoptia o" these +ysteries& 7t suited so!e o" these +onks to trans"or! the Serapian Sun9god into Jesus' in obedience to the prevai ing po icy o" the church* %hi st it p eased others' %hether Je%s' Christians' or +os e!s' !atters itt e' to substitute Hira!* these Rites %ou d a so vary in di""erent countries' and at di""erent eras* hence sects o" +asons arose' and' as %e sha see ater' have co!e do%n to our o%n days& (hen %e "irst began to e2a!ine the ancient +SS& o" the +asonic Cra"t' o" %hich the resu t %i be "ound in these pages' %e scarce y e2pected to "ind !ore than chance coincidence bet%een +asonry and the Arcane Co eges' but the rese!b ances %hich %e have be"ore us in Rites' Sy!bo s' and Organisation' %i ad!it o" no such genera C;JGD e2p anation& 7t !ust be c ear to the !ost super"icia thinker that there is "ar !ore in the +asonic +SS& and the Rites than they have yet been credited %ith' "or their %ho e tenor proves the inti!ate a""inity %hich e2isted' even in the !ost ancient ti!es' bet%een a the Arcane Schoo s o" kno% edge& This is e:ua y apparent %hether %e seek it in the Egyptian Constitution o" Athe stan' %hich in"or!s us it %as origina y a Cra"t "or the study o" #eo!etry' and %hich there"ore i!p ies a Society e:ua y

specu ative and operative* or in the Se!itic Constitution %hich ca!e into Eng and ater* "or such a distinction on y she%s the trans!ission o" certain rites' %ith the sa!e ai!' through t%o di""erent channe s* the one a continuous type o" that Specu ative +asonry %hich erected the great 4yra!id to represent r in the Se!itic Constitution %hich ca!e into Eng and ater* "or such a distinction on y she%s the trans!ission o" certain rites' %ith the sa!e ai!' through t%o di""erent channe s* the one a continuous type o" that Specu ative +asonry %hich erected the great 4yra!id to represent &&&& the Egyptians "aith in the sou s "uture destiny* the other o" that Cha dean "aith sy!bo ised in the to%er o" Aorsippa* so!e%hat opposed as Rites' but one in genera ai!* t%o syste!s pointing respective y to Egypt and Aaby on& 7n this chapter %e have eant rather to the #reco9Egyptian than the Se!itic vie%' but %hen %e reach Ang o9Nor!an ti!es o" the +asonic #ui ds %e sha see !uch change in this respect and that a c ose connection %ith 4a estine introduced ne% egends and their conco!itant Rites& C;JJD CHA4TER ?777& +ASONRY 7N SA>ON EN#LAN$& $8R7N# the period e!braced in this heading' %hich inc udes Aritish ti!es' a the !anua arts %ere C erica pro"essions in so "ar as this' that the +onks acted as teachers and directors o" ay associations' !ore or ess attached to the +onasteries& Architecture %as e2ercised under the shado% o" the church' and +& A an:ui in %riting o" the 0rench +onasteries observes that 5they %ere the true origin o" industria Corporations* their birth con"ounds itse " %ith the Convents %here the %ork %as arranged* it is thence that serving %ith the 0ranks iberty and industry' ong ens aved by the Ro!ans' goes out "ree to estab ish itse " in the boso! o" the to%ns o" the !idd e ages&5 Nor is this a ' "ro! the ear iest ti!es o" Christianity a co!!unity o" interests' and o" kno% edge and art' %as !aintained by !eans o" Couriers 6ourneying to and "ro throughout the %or d' a!ongst the %ho e Christian 0raternity' %hich !ay account "or the sudden and %idespread adoption' o" particu ar sty es' in countries distant "ro! each other& There is no doubt that' even in $ruidica ti!es' the Ro!ans organised in the chie" cities o" this country Co eges o" Arti"icers on the Latin !ode ' a though the Aritons %ere the!se ves' at the ti!e' nob e architects& These Co eges %ere continued by Ro!anised Aritons a"ter the %ithdra%a o" the Ro!an troops near the !idd e period o" the "i"th century' and though the %ars %ith the Sa2ons !ust have great y retarded the abours o" the societies' the Sa2ons inter"ered but itt e %ith city i"e' C;J=D contenting the!se ves %ith rura a""airs& (e !ay there"ore conc ude that the Art9"raternities %ere continued' even i" in" uenced by the C ergy and by such #ui d i"e as the Sa2ons !ay have brought over %ith

the!& Arran!ore has so!e ancient "ortresses& One o" these' bui t ;'<<< years ago' had %a s ;;< "eet ong' ;< "eet high' and -F to ;< "eet thick' and is bui t on a c i"" hundreds o" "eet sheer to the sea* three sets o" !assive %a s surround the argest "ort&

As %e have re!arked the 5Artic es and 4oints5 o" the +asonic +SS& are in agree!ent %ith the 5Corpus Juris5 o" the Co egia' %hich again are "ound in an Egypto9#reek source& agree!ent %ith the 5Corpus Juris5 o" the Co egia' %hich again are "ound in an Egypto9#reek source& As the C ergy %ere the bui ders o" their Churches' the chie" +onks and Aishops "igure in the Constitutions o" the #rand Lodge' prepared in -B;G' as #rand +asters o" the 0raternity* and it !ust at east be ad!itted that Anderson %as ha " correct' and there is itt e o" any other !ode by %hich the !atter can be treated in this chapter* "or Art %as an Oath9bound Society the property o" those %ho had earned Art by an Apprenticeship& There are nu!erous Ro!an re!ains in this country o" bui dings %hich %ere erected during the occupation o" the is and by the Latin troops* and a!ongst these are to be "ound !any interesting particu ars in York' London' Chichester' St& A bans' but scattered over the %ho e is and& Ne%cast e %as in ancient ti!es a p ace o" great i!portance' and the Ro!ans had a !i itary station in the p ace by A&$& BF' and a bridge %as bui t over the river to connect it and #ateshead and na!ed the 54ons5 Ae ii& The Ro!an "oundations %ere eventua y occupied by +onks' "or %e earn that %hen A d%in' %ith t%o +onks' trave ed "ro! # oucester in --.J to restore the re igious "oundations' the p ace %as kno%n as +onkchester* and the !other church o" St& Nicho as is said to && have been erected upon a Ro!an te!p e* and St& +ary s Church at #ateshead is said to be as o d' i" not o der& C;JID 4andon' no% a part o" Ne%cast e' %as peop ed by Sa2ons' and %as a Roya residence be"ore I=J A&$& $idronMM57chnography'5 i' p& J=I&NN gives a Latin scu pture' o" the "irst ages' on %hich is represented a pair o" ca ipers' co!passes' s:uare' skirret' eve ' !au ' chise ' and pen or sty us* an ordinary set9s:uare is o"ten "ound as an a!u et on Egyptian !u!!ies& (ith the e2ception o" the "irst and ast these co!prise the sy!bo ic too s o" a 0ree9!ason' and though the p u!b ru e' ;J inch gauge' %hich is an o d Egyptian e!b e! o" Truth and o" Thoth' the per"ect Ash ar' a sy!bo every%here as ancient as +an' are acking' these are "ound on && other Ro!an re!ains' %ith !any other e!b e!s' and +asons +arks o" %hich

!ention has a ready been !ade& 7n +asonic history specia !ention is !ade o" ?eru a!' out o" the Ro!an re!ains o" %hich St& A bans %as bui t' and' it is said that the to%n %as %a ed round by A ban the +artyr& 7t is a egend %hich !ay have been taken "ro! so!e +onastic history by a +asonic odge o" the -Gth century in that p ace& Chichester had a Co ege o" Ro!an Artisans that erected a te!p e circa JI9=; && A&$&' and +asons +arks are "ound in the re!ains o" the city& 7n the year --J +arius the Aritish 4endragon' so na!ed as the !i itary chie" o" the great go den $ragon9standard o" Aritain' e2ecuted a treaty %ith Tacitus by %hich Ro!an a% %as to be recognised in such to%ns as !ight beco!e +unicipia or co onies* and the garrisons o" York' Chester' and Aangor %ere to be recruited "ro! Aritish ?o unteers* as Ro!e strengthened herse " Christianity %as to erated' but $ruidis! %as prohibited& A :uantity o" Ro!an coins %as "ound in the South9basin at Chichester in -F-.' and three %ith the "o o%ing e!b e!s3 Nerva .I A'$&' t%o 6oined hands' and 5concordia e2ecretus'5 encirc ing& Hadrian' --B A&$&' !oon and seven stars& Antonius 4ius' -GF A&$&' t%o 6oined hands' t%o ears o" corn' 5Cos 777&5MM50ree!asonry in Havant'5 F.;a' Thos& 0rancis&NN (e !ight assu!e that C;JBD Chichester in Susse2 %as the && centre o" the Ro!an "raternity' and ?eru a! a branch& 8pon St& Rooks hi is the re!ains o" an ancient bui ding %ith entrench!ents %hich during the ast

and the previous century %as used as a p ace o" +asonic Asse!b y' and near this' at Lavant' are caves %ith a series o" cha!bers %here a very curious copper eve ' intended to be %orn' %as discovered&MM5A&L&C&'5 -F.F' (& H& Ry ands&NN this' at Lavant' are caves %ith a series o" cha!bers %here a very curious copper eve ' intended to be %orn' %as discovered&MM5A&L&C&'5 -F.F' (& H& Ry ands&NN York has a !u titude o" Ro!an re!ains dating "ro! the ti!e o" Adrian and Severus' -GJ9;-- A&$&' and ater under Constantius& There %as discovered at To"t #reen in -BB< beneath the "oundation o" a Ro!an te!p e o" brick%ork a stone %ith this inscription' 5$eo sancto Serapi Te!p v! aso o "ecit C & Hierony!ianus eg& vi& vic&5 995This te!p e' sacred to the god Serapis' %as erected' "ro! the ground' by C audius Hierony!ianus' Lieutenant o" the si2th con:uering egion&5 On each side o" the inscription are t%o identica orna!ents %hich it is di""icu t to describe' each is o" three circ es %ith a rod' or straight ine dra%n through the!* the other is a pecu iar trisu a having in its centre a star o" si2 points* at the botto! is a circ e %ith an eight9pointed star in the centre' and in that a point& There %as a so "ound in +ick egate in -BJB a piece o" scu pture said to represent +ythras sacri"icing a bu * and in -IGF %as "ound an a tar erected to Jupiter by the 4re"ect +arcianus& A se!i9 subterranean te!p e o" +ythras %as discovered in -F;; at Housesteads in Northu!ber and' containing an A tar dedicated in ;G= A&$&' and there are other re!ains in Chesterho ! and Rutchester in the sa!e county* at the atter && p ace is a recess he%n out o" the so id rock' ca ed the giants grave' !easuring -; > J -R; by ; "eet deep& At one end is a ho e* this see!s to rese!b e 5St& && 4atricks ho e'5 in $onega & Severa a tars have been "ound in Cu!ber and and (est!or and dedicated to Aaa cadris& 5Acta Lata!oru!5 and Rebo d give a very probab e e2p anation o" the +asonic Legend o" ?eru a!& Carausius caused hi!se " to be e ected and proc ai!ed E!peror o" Aritain by the C;JFD Channe 0 eet in ;FJ A&$&' and braved a the e""orts o" $ioc etian to dethrone hi!& He rene%ed the privi eges o" the Co egia in their entirety as these had been !uch curtai ed in the course o" centuries' and is there"ore supposed to have appointed A banus as his 7nspector& An inscription to Carausius %as "ound at Car is e in -F.J' and his coins are nu!erous& He %as assassinated at York in ;.= A&$&' and Constantius Ch orus took up his residence there' and con"ir!ed the privi eges o" the #ui ds or Co egia& Arother #i es 0& Yates states that an o d +S& o" the i"e o" St& A ban' the proto9!artyr' in Aritish characters %as "ound in the tenth century' and +atthe% 4aris re"ers to a book o" great anti:uity as e2isting in the +onastery o" St& A bans&

Aritain had c ear y attained architectura distinction in the ti!e o" Carausius and %as ab e to send co!petent !en to instruct the #au s' "or Eu!enius' the panegyrist o" +a2i!iu!' congratu ates the E!peror on beha " o" the city o" Autin' %hich he in"or!s us %as renovated by architects "ro! this country' in the "o o%ing %ords3 57t has been %e stored %ith Arti"icers since your victories over the Aritains' 5%hose provinces abound %ith the!'5 and no% by their %ork!anship the city o" Autin rises in sp endour by rebui ding their ancient houses' the erection o" pub ic %orks' and the instauration o" te!p es& The ancient na!e o" a Ro!an brotherhood %hich they ong since en6oyed is again restored by having your 7!peria +a6esty as their second "ounder&5MM54aneg& && +a2i!ian Aug& dict&5 99O ivers 5Re!ains'5 iii' and v* a so 5+asonic +irror'5 -F==' p& G;&NN

Christian architecture' ho%ever' is not !uch in evidence unti Sa2on ti!es' though the 5ne% superstition'5 as the Ro!ans ter!ed it' is said to have entered # astonbury in the Apost eship o" Joseph o" Ari!athea& (e sh historians assert that Christianity %as accepted in a Nationa Counci he d by Eing Lucius though the 5ne% superstition'5 as the Ro!ans ter!ed it' is said to have entered # astonbury in the Apost eship o" Joseph o" Ari!athea& (e sh historians assert that Christianity %as accepted in a Nationa Counci he d by Eing Lucius A&$& -==' %hen the Archdruids o" Evroc' Lud' and Leon' beca!e Archbishops and the Chie" $ruids o" ;F cities beca!e bishops& 7t is C;J.D "urther asserted that o" the Aritish captives carried to Ro!e' C audia and 4udens are addressed by na!e in the #ospe & Eing Lucius is said to have been educated at Ro!e by St& Ti!otheus' the son o" C audia' to have been proc ai!ed Eing in the year -;=' and to have been baptised by Ti!otheus -== A&$&* a"ter && s' London* and %hich he proceeded to erect churches at (inchester* L anda""* St& 4eter && St& +artin s' Canterbury* the "aith %as then sty ed Regius $o!us' or Roya house& Aritish history says that at this ti!e there %ere in e2istence =. !agni"icent cities' and nu!ber ess handso!e residences& O" +onasteries the Triads say3 There are three perpetua Choirs in the 7s e o" Aritain 99#reat Aangor' Caer9Sa og ,Sa isbury/' Avi on ,# astonbury/* the "irst na!ed %as !uni"icent y endo%ed by Eing Lucius* it covered a s:uare o" "ive !i es' had -<'<<< teachers' and every graduate had to earn so!e pro"ession' art' or business& +inucius 0e i2 co!!ents upon the absence o" te!p es and a tars a!ongst the Christians o" the Grd century' and o" the use essness o" such %orks in honour o" an a e!bracing $eity' and then says3 57s it not "ar better to consecrate to the $eity a te!p e in our heart and spirit@5 7t %as not unti about the year ;B< that Christians %ere a o%ed to asse!b e in bui dings o" their o%n at Ro!e' and these appear to have been "irst erected in i!itation o" the 5Scho ae5 or Lodge roo!s' o" the arti1ans' but in Aritain there %as but one && year s persecution o" the Christians' %hen Socrates' Archbishop o" York' the

Aishop o" St& A bans' and others ost their ives& About the year G<< church %as erected at ?eru a! over the !artyred body o" St& A ban' %hich Aede says %as a handso!e structure* and Tanner says that there %as a church at (inchester' dedicated to A!phiba us %ho converted hi!& There %as an Archbishop o" York at this ti!e' "or Eborius in the year G7J attended the Counci o" Ar es in #au and is described as 5Episcopus de civitate Eboracu! 4rovincia Arit&5 The sa!e Counci %as attended by Restitus o" C;=<D London' and Adi"ius o" Caer eon on 8sk' %hich is Linco n& These Christian Aritains 99!onks' priests' and bishops' %ere kno%n as Cu dees' servants o" #od* they estab ished +onasteries and Churches in various parts o" Eng and' (a es' Scot and' and 7re and' and there is no doubt that !any o" the! %ere converts "ro! the $ruidica "aith* in these countries they opened Co eges' and Schoo s %here handicra"ts' arts' sciences' and re igion %ere taught to the peop e& Their "aith %as heretica according to the standard %hich the Church o" Ro!e had adopted a"ter the succession o" Constantine' and they %ere %hat Cardina J& H& Ne%!an ter!s 4 atonising Christians' or o" the esoteric Arcane $iscip ine& They be ieved in the i!!orta ity o" the sou ' but not in the Je%ish doctrine o" a resurrection o" the !ateria body' %hich %as the teaching o" Judaising Christians& They are a so accused o" denying the e2istence o" a persona devi ' and the persona ity o" Jesus' in %hich case they %ere #nostics' but the reader !ay re"er back to the sub6ect in Chapter ?7& St& 4atrick is said to have been born a $ruid and to have e"t $u!barton "or 7re and in the year JG;& Aoth ancients and !oderns charge the! %ith possessing a secret doctrine' and %hen in =F. Co u!ban

%ent to Aurgundy %ith -; co!panions "ro! 7re and ,as Co u!ba had previous y done in =I- to 7co !ki i' the Arcane +ystery gave o""ence* the Eing de!anded o" hi!' %hy' as in his o%n country' 5access to their secret enc osures %as not granted to a Christians'5 upon %hich the Cu dee stern y rep ied' that i" he sought to destroy the Cenobia o" #od his kingdo! %ou d assured y perish& This !ission "ounded the Abbey o" Lu2evi e' and others in 0rance and 7ta y& 7n Eng and their principa seat %as York' in (a es Aangor' in 7re and $onega ' in Scot and the Hebrides& Those +asons %ho possess intuition' and the "acu ty o" reading bet%een the ines o" such %riters as %e have :uoted' %i perceive that 4hi osophy "ound it essentia ' and sa"e' to open y e!brace Christianity' %hi st secret y con"or!ing C;=-D to their o d idea s' had it been necessary %e cou d have given p ain proo" o" this& Even Eusebius says3 57n order to render Christianity !ore acceptab e to the #enti es' the priests adopted the e2terior vest!ents and orna!ents used in the 4agan cu te&5 4hi osophy thus secured the surviva o" its secrets' hence %e "ind the -; sons o" Jacob assi!i ated to the Hodiaca signs* and !uch #nostic sy!bo is! is "ound in church architecture 99 ions' serpents' and things to be na!ed in due course& previous y done in =I- to 7co !ki i' the Arcane +ystery gave o""ence* the Eing de!anded o" hi!' %hy' as in his o%n country' 5access to their secret enc osures %as not granted to a Christians'5 upon %hich the Cu dee stern y rep ied' that i" he sought to destroy the Cenobia o" #od his kingdo! %ou d assured y perish& This !ission "ounded the Abbey o" Lu2evi e' and others in 0rance and 7ta y& 7n Eng and their principa seat %as York' in (a es Aangor' in 7re and $onega ' in Scot and the Hebrides& Those +asons %ho possess intuition' and the "acu ty o" reading bet%een the ines o" such %riters as %e have :uoted' %i perceive that 4hi osophy "ound it essentia ' and sa"e' to open y e!brace Christianity' %hi st secret y con"or!ing C;=-D to their o d idea s' had it been necessary %e cou d have given p ain proo" o" this& Even Eusebius says3 57n order to render Christianity !ore acceptab e to the #enti es' the priests adopted the e2terior vest!ents and orna!ents used in the 4agan cu te&5 4hi osophy thus secured the surviva o" its secrets' hence %e "ind the -; sons o" Jacob assi!i ated to the Hodiaca signs* and !uch #nostic sy!bo is! is "ound in church architecture 99 ions' serpents' and things to be na!ed in due course& The Rev& (& L& A e2ander in %riting upon 57ona5 says that %hi st the Ro!an ar!ies %ere harrying the $ruids at Ang esea there %as a Co ege o" the! in the && Scottish is ands situated =I $egrees =. N&L& designated 5 nnis9nan9$ruidneach5 99the 7s e o" the $ruids 99and that that priesthood prevai ed over a the other is ands unti the year =IG9J %hen Co u! or Co u!ba arrived %ith -; co!panions %ho %ere continued in that nu!ber ti a"ter ages& 7t is said that

there e2isted there certain $ruidica priests %ho pro"essed to be Christians in the hope o" inducing Co u!b to %ithdra%' and a"ter the sett e!ent o" Co u!b and his "riends' the is and began to he kno%n as 5 i9cho u!9chi e5 99the is and && o" Co u!bus Ce ' corrupted to 7co !ki ' and %e have a so 5 i9shona5 99the ho y is and' corrupted to 7ona& (e !ay no% say so!ething in re"erence to the construction o" their churches& 4rior to the =th century' a Christian churches %ere a"ter the !ode o" the ancient te!p es o" Egypt divided into three parts' and %hich corresponded %ith the secret or esoteric doctrine* and %e need have no doubt that the e!b e!atica signi"icance o" the architecture %as a 5c ose ty ed5 +ystery o" the 7nitiated bui ders' and that as in the ancient te!p es' they %ere bui t to sy!bo ise a spiritua doctrine' %hich ordinary Christians %ere unac:uainted %ith& The "irst part' or 5Ante9te!p e'5 %as "or the Catechu!ens' discip es' and penitents* the second part or Nave %as "or the ay !e!bers and the "aith"u * the third part or 5Sanctuary5 %as a se!i9circu ar recess %ith an arched roo"' raised above C;=;D the " oor by steps* it represents the Sanctuary o" the ancient gods' open on y to the priests* %ithin it %as the throne o" the Aishop %hich %as usua y vei ed' and p aced besides it %ere s!a er thrones "or the C ergy* in the centre o" this !ost ho y p ace %as the a tar& 7n #othic bui dings' o" a ater date' this part is ca ed the 5Chance 5 and %as separated by a 5Rood9screen5 o" carved %ood or other !ateria * and it is re!arkab e that the carvers' at ti!es' took great iberties %ith the +onks and priests' in the representation o" their vices& There is even !uch recondite sy!bo is! to be "ound on the outer %a s o" such bui dings& The Secret $iscip ine' at these ear y dates' regu ated the sy!bo ogy o" the edi"ices' and the 5?esica9piscis'5 so o"ten "ound on ancient te!p es' and churches o" a eras' is he d to be the great

secret o" constructive !easure!ents' and' as has been stated' the Sign o" the Epopts both in 4hi osophy and Christianity& easure!ents' and' as has been stated' the Sign o" the Epopts both in 4hi osophy and Christianity& 7n regard to ear y erections' a s!a church o" rough stone %as raised at 4eran1abu ae in Corn%a about the year J<< by the Cu dee 4irau an 7rish saint' over %hose to!b %as "ound an e:ui i!bed cross o" the #reek "or!' %hen the bui ding %as disinterred in -FG=' a"ter having been covered over "or ten centuries& Thong Cast e in Linco nshire %as erected "or the Sa2ons about the year J=<' it !ust have been a Aritish abour& A church o" stone %as erected at Candida Casa' by the Cu dee bishop Ninian JFF A&$&* and +atthe% o" (est!inster te s us that the Aritish Eing Aure ius A!brosius' %ho s e% the Sa2on Hengist at Conisborough in JII' repaired the churches' trave ing to and "ro "or that purpose' and sent "or Ce!entarii or +asons' and Lignarii' or Carpenters& Legends state that he erected Stonehenge %ith b ocks brought "ro! 7re and by the engineering ski o" +er in' and that both hi!se " and his brother 8ther the 4endragon %ere buried %ithin its circ e ,but Nor!an Lockyer e2a!ining it as a 4 anetariu!' dates it' by the Sun' at -IF< A&C&/* he de"eated && Hengists sons at York in J.<& 7n =;J Arthur son o" 8ther' de"eated the Sa2ons' and at C;=GD Christ!as o" that year he he d a Counci at York to consider ecc esiastica a""airs' and !ethods %ere taken to restore the churches and the ruined p aces at York' %hich had been occasioned by his %ars to e2pe the Sa2ons& Though Arthur the 4endragon is a eged to have been buried at # astonbury the egends o" the 4rince see! to be ong chie" y to Cu!ber and and the ad6acent parts' %hich "or!ed the Eingdo! o" the Strathc yde Aritains* the na!es used in the Ro!ances o" his Round Tab e and in the connected ta es' are Ca!brian' and A ase o" Northu!ber and is said to have registered his && doings& $enton says that near St& Cuthberts Church' Car is e' in Cu!ber and' && 5stood an ancient bui ding ca ed Arthur s cha!ber' taken to be part o" the !ansion house o" Arthur' the son o" 8ter 4endragon' o" !e!orab e note "or his %orthiness in the ti!e o" antient Eings&5MMLuoted in 5Hist& Cu!b&5 by (!& Hutchinson' -B.J& ii' p& I<I&NN The 4rince %as no doubt a Ro!anised Ariton' though his na!e does not be ong to the Ce tic anguage' and that he %as a rea person %ho strove to unite the Aritish Christians against the Sa2ons is beyond

&& serious :uestion& The a egorica history o" the Round9tab e' and the Enights5Luest o" the Sangrae '5 or cup o" the b ood o" Christ' is supposed to re"er' in !ystic ter!s' to Cu dee rites* and in spite o" the e""orts o" Ro!e the Cu dee cu te continued to e2ist in Eng and' (a es' Scot and' and 7re and do%n to the Nor!an con:uest' and' in p aces' unti ong a"ter%ards& At Caer eon on 8sk %ere t%o churches' and an i!portant Cu dee 5Co ege o" t%o hundred 4hi osophers earned in Astrono!y' and in a the sciences and the arts&5 7t is !ore than probab e that the pecu iarities o" the Cu dee syste! arose "ro! the engra"tation o" $ruidica be ie"s upon the Christian "aith& +any earned %riters have sought to derive 0ree +asonry both "ro! a $ruidica and Cu dee estab ish!ent& The atter is not at a i!probab e "or one o" the branches& The "o o%ing !ay be pointed out at rando!3 99The custo! o" sy!bo ising Cra"t o""icers by the sun and !oon* "or the Arch C;=JD $ruid bore the sun and crescent !oon on his head dress' %hi st the Aard %as designated by the crescent !oon' e:ua y the tonsure o" a Cu dee +onk %ent "ro! ear to ear' in crescent' as opposed to the coronia tonsure o" the Ro!ans& A Cu dee origin has a so been c ai!ed "or the Te!p ars' and the !odern cere!onies o" that body co!!e!orate the -G o" 7ona&

&& St& Cibis' as asserted by Sir John Stan ey' %as "ounded in ==< on a Ro!an te!p e at Ho yhead& 7t %as' ho%ever' rebui t 5te!p&5 Ed%ard 777&' and again in the reign o" Henry ?77& To and says that the $ruidica Co ege o" $erry %as converted into a Cu dee +onastery& About the year =I- Co u!ba and t%e ve co!panions e"t 7re and to bui d the +onastery o" 7co !ki ' and +asonic egend assigns the ectures o" the +astership o" Harodi! to this +onastery* they "ounded Co eges at #ovan and Ei %inning* and Aidan' one o" the t%e ve' estab ished the origina Abbey o" +e rose& The "raternity had other estab ish!ents in Scot and* at Abernethy* St& Ser" in Loch even* $unke d* St& Andre%s* +oney!usk in Aberdeenshire* $unb ane* $un"er! ine* and Aberdeen& Their estab ish!ent at Arechin has e"t a cy inder or Round To%er o" unkno%n date& At each side o" the %estern entrance' near an ancient gate%ay' is carved in re ie" an e ephant having the "eet o" a ion and a horse& Arother R& Tyt er' +&$&' in a paper read be"ore the Anti:uarian Society o" Scot and'MM?ide 50ree!& Luart&'5 -FGJ&NN !akes a precise co!parison bet%een this and an astrono!ica a egory' in ike situation' in various Hindu te!p es& Above this carving is an apparent y ater cruci"i2ion scene %ith t%o +onks& 7t is said that during the i"e o" Co u!ba -<< !onasteries %ere erected' and the 7rish c ai! to have sent architects to Aritain so!e centuries be"ore this ti!e& The voyage o" Aran' son o" 0eba ,a +S& o" --<</' to the 7s and o" Joy' or the Land o" the Living' is attributed to Ada!nan' Abbot o" 7onia' %ho died in B<G* it !entions C;==D nine grades o" heaven in three steps' and that a "iery circ e surrounds the and o" the b essed& The throne is a canopied chair %ith "our co u!ns o" precious stones' and beneath it are seven g assen %a s& The sect in Eng and had seats at Lindis"arne' York' and Ripon& +r& #rant A en in his Ang o9Sa2on Aritain ,-FFJ/ says3 57t is possib e that the "a!i ies o" Cra"ts!en !ay at "irst have been Ro!anised (e sh inhabitants o" the cities' "or a the o der to%ns 99London' Canterbury' York' Linco n' and Rochester 99%ere a !ost certain y inhabited %ithout interruption "ro! the Ro!an period on%ard&5 The Ro!an a%' and there"ore the #ui ds or Co egia' never beca!e e2tinct in any p ace %here the Ro!ans had once had a "ooting& They entered #er!any %ith the sack o" Ro!e by the #oths' a country uncon:uered by ar!s& A aric 77& o" the (isegoths' JFJ9=<B' co!!issioned Ro!an Jurists to co!pi e a code on the basis o" the Le2 Theodosii %hich %as adopted by a #au & Theodrich the Ostragoth in the year =<< pro!u gated a si!i ar code' %hich ai!ed at "using Ro!an and #oth into one peop e& A third co!pi ation o" Ro!an a% ca ed the Aurgundian 5Le2 Ro!ano5 %as pro!u gated about the year =;< by Sig!und&MM5Ar!inius'5 Thos& S!ith' 0&S&A&& London' -FI-&NN 7t "o o%s "ro! this that' so "ar "ro! the Ro!an Co egia being e2tinguished %ith the E!pire' they spread throughout #er!any& S!ith "urther says3 5These Co eges are

evident y the #ui ds o" the +idd e ages* in the Ro!an $iscip e %e !ay detect the !odern Apprentice' and in the hereditary ob igation to "o o% a particu ar trade' %e !ay discern the origin o" "reedo! by birth' or by servitude' in Corporate to%ns& The eading idea in Ro!an institutions %as +unicipa & Every "ranchise %as the resu t o" be onging to so!e Co ege' and %e thus in"er that the "ranchise o" Cities o%e their origin to Ro!e& Thus to the +unicipia o" Ro!e' not to #er!an institutions' are to be ascribed the origin and "or! o" the

+unicipa Corporations o" the !idd e ages&5MM5Ar!inius'5 Thos& S!ith' 0&S&A&& London' -FI-&NN London' -FI-&NN Apropos o" this :uotation is the e2istence o" the +agistri C;=ID Co!acenes' sett ed near the ake o" Co!o' %ho hired the!se ves out to bui d "or the Lo!bards and are !entioned by the Rev& Char es Eings ey&MM5Ro!an and Teuton'5 -F.-' Lec& 2& p& ;=G&NN They are supposed to have " ed to a s!a is and on Lake Co!o' on the sack o" Ro!e by the #oths' %here they kept a ive the ancient ru es o" their art' %hence %as deve oped the various 7ta ian Sty es' the Nor!an' and the Sa2on& Not on y %as their organisation that o" the Co egia but the orna!entation o" their architectura %ork& They venerated the 0our cro%ned +artyrs' and %ere divided into Sco ia or Apprentices* Laboreriu!' operii or those %ho did the actua %ork* the Opera or 0abbrica' or the +agistri %ho designed and taught the others& Leader Scott :uotes an Edict o" the Lo!bard Eing Rotharis' dated ;;nd Nov&' IJG' con"erring privi eges on the +agistri Co!acini' and the Co igantes' and this %hen they had been ong estab ished& She a so :uotes an inscribed stone o" B-; to she% that they had then +agistri and $iscipu a under a #asta do or #rand +aster and that the sa!e ter!s %ere kept up in Lo!bardy' a!ongst 0ree +asons' unti the -=th century' and it is kno%n that St& (i ia!' Abbot o" Aenigne in $i6on' a Lo!bard by birth' brought in his country!en to bui d his !onastery' and that Richard 77&' $uke o" Nor!andy' e!p oyed this architect "or ;< years in ike %ork&MMThe 5Cathedra Aui ders'5 Leader Scott' -F..' London&NN 7t is not so di""icu t to connect 0ree!asonry %ith the Co egia' the di""icu ty ies in attributing Je%ish traditions to the Co egia' and %e say on the evidence o" the o dest charges that such traditions had no e2istence in Sa2on ti!es& 57n this darkness %hich e2tended over a 7ta y' on y one s!a a!p re!ained a ight' !aking a bright spark in the vast 7ta ian Necropo is& 7t %as "ro! the 5+agistri Co!acini&5 Their respective na!es are unkno%n' their individua %orks unspecia ised' but the breath o" their spirit !ight be "e t a through those centuries' and their na!e co ective y is egion& (e !ay sa"e y say that o" a the C;=BD %orks o" art bet%een F<< and -<<<' the greater and better part are && due to that brotherhood 99a %ays "aith"u and o"ten secret 99o" the +agistri && Co!acini&5 ,J& A& L orente' 5Hist& o" the 7n:uisition*5 London -F;I& 57& +aestri Co!acini*5 +i ano -F.G&/ The con:uest o" Ro!e' by the Teutonic nations' ed to a great e2tension o" the Christian +onasteries' during the =th and Ith centuries' and these %ere usua y p aced in :uiet or inaccessib e situations' the better to escape "ro! the tu!u ts o" the ti!es& Here ibraries %ere estab ished and the ancient earning "ound a resting p ace& This ed to the cu tivation o" the +ystica and the

spiritua in !an' and it !ay be observed that the ter! +ystic is derived "ro! the rank o" +ystae in the +ysteries' even as the ter! 5+ystery5 %as adopted by trade #ui ds to !ean their art' and 5c osed ips&5 Sto%e says that in the Bth or Fth century the %a s o" London %ere rebui t by Aenedictine +onks brought "ro! Airkenhead& The "ounder o" this brotherhood %as St& Aenedict' born at Nursia in 8!bria about A&$& JF<* he %ent to +onte Cassino' =G<' a"ter%ards the centre o" his order' and there co!posed his ru e' %hich entered Eng and bet%een the Ith and Bth century& Archdeacon 4rescott says3 5The "inest Abbeys' and near y a the Cathedra s' be onged to the order&5 About the year =.B Augustine ca!e over to Eng and "ro! the Church o" the Luatuor Coronati at Ro!e& His instruction "ro! 4ope #regory %as3 5$estroy

the ido s' never the te!p es* sprink e the! %ith ho y %ater' p ace in the! re ics' and et the nations %orship in the p aces accusto!ed&5 He is said to have brought over Ro!an +asons' and a "urther nu!ber in the year I<-* he died in I<=& 7t has been supposed that he bui t the Church o" the 0our cro%ned +artyrs at Canterbury' %hich is !entioned casua y by Aede in I-.& This introduction o" +asons "ro! Ro!e is usua y taken to prove that the bui ding "raternities had beco!e e2tinct in this country' but it does no such thing& There %as no doubt a scarcity C;=FD o" capab e !en a!ongst the Sa2ons "or the %ork %hich the Ro!ish Saint had in vie%' but %e cannot a together re y upon the good "aith o" their historians' nor are %e at a 6usti"ied in assu!ing that the native Aritish +asons' Carpenters' and the bui ding "raternities derived "ro! the Ro!ano9heathen popu ation %ere e2tinct' and %e have proo"s to the contrary in the Cu dee erections o" St& 4eter at York in I;I' and in the Cu dee estab ish!ent at Lindis"arne in the year IGJ by Aidan' a +onk o" 7co !ki in 7ona* and in the 5Ho y 7s and5 St& Cuthbert %as interred be"ore the City o" $urha! e2isted& There ies' behind' the "act that Ro!e considered a Aritish Christianity as heretica ' and a the successors o" Augustine "o o%ed his ro e' %ith the unsuccess"u ob6ect o" %ho y destroying Cu dee in" uence& Aede in"or!s us that the Aritish Christians re"used either to ive' or eat' %ith the Augustinians' and they rep ied to a de!and "or obedience3 5(e o%e obedience on y to #od' and a"ter #od to our venerab e head' the Aishop o" Caer eon9on98ske&5 Aede co!p ains a so that +onasteries had been estab ished by ay!en %ith the!se ves as Abbots' %hi st sti continuing !arried re ations %ith their %ives' a Cu dee custo!' sanctioned by e2a!p e o" Aishop Synesius& He says a so that a +artyriu! o" the 5"our b essed Coronati5 e2isted at Canterbury I-.9;J& re ics' and et the nations %orship in the p aces accusto!ed&5 He is said to have brought over Ro!an +asons' and a "urther nu!ber in the year I<-* he died in I<=& 7t has been supposed that he bui t the Church o" the 0our cro%ned +artyrs at Canterbury' %hich is !entioned casua y by Aede in I-.& This introduction o" +asons "ro! Ro!e is usua y taken to prove that the bui ding "raternities had beco!e e2tinct in this country' but it does no such thing& There %as no doubt a scarcity C;=FD o" capab e !en a!ongst the Sa2ons "or the %ork %hich the Ro!ish Saint had in vie%' but %e cannot a together re y upon the good "aith o" their historians' nor are %e at a 6usti"ied in assu!ing that the native Aritish +asons' Carpenters' and the bui ding "raternities derived "ro! the Ro!ano9heathen popu ation %ere e2tinct' and %e have proo"s to the contrary in the Cu dee erections o" St& 4eter at York in I;I' and in the Cu dee estab ish!ent at Lindis"arne in the year IGJ by Aidan' a +onk o" 7co !ki in 7ona* and in the 5Ho y 7s and5 St& Cuthbert %as interred be"ore the City o" $urha! e2isted& There ies' behind' the "act that Ro!e considered a Aritish Christianity as heretica ' and a the successors o" Augustine "o o%ed his ro e' %ith the unsuccess"u ob6ect o" %ho y destroying Cu dee in" uence& Aede in"or!s us that the Aritish Christians re"used either to ive' or eat' %ith the Augustinians' and they rep ied to a de!and "or obedience3 5(e o%e obedience on y to #od' and a"ter #od to our venerab e head' the Aishop o" Caer eon9on98ske&5 Aede co!p ains a so that +onasteries had been estab ished by ay!en %ith the!se ves as Abbots' %hi st sti continuing

!arried re ations %ith their %ives' a Cu dee custo!' sanctioned by e2a!p e o" Aishop Synesius& He says a so that a +artyriu! o" the 5"our b essed Coronati5 e2isted at Canterbury I-.9;J& The Aritish 4endragons see! to have kept the Sa2ons in check' but they %ere ab e to destroy Aangor in the year I<B& $eira %as strong y rein"orced by Ang es "ro! the Sa2on coast' and Eing Ed%in so icited "ro! his "riend Cas%a on' the Aritish 4endragon' that he !ight assu!e the rega cro%n as Aret%a da' but Cas%a on re"used his sanction' on the ground that there %as 5one so e cro%n o" Aritain&5 Ee!b e says that' 5The Sa2ons neither took possession o" the to%ns' nor gave the!se ves the troub e o" destroying the!&5 The Heptarchia prince ings and their vi agers %ere 4agans' and e2ercised but s!a in" uence& 4ope Aoni"ace 7?& is credited %ith the grant C;=.D o" privi eges in I-J to those architects %ho had the erection o" sacred bui dings& 7n I-I Ethe bert Eing o" Eent bui t the Church o" St& 4eter' and St& 4au ' at Canterbury' upon the site o" a s!a church erected by the ear y Aritains* a so the church o" St& Andre% in Rochester* and he is thought to have restored St& && 4au s in London' erected on the site o" a te!p e to $iana' though other %riters suppose it to have been bui t %ithin the area o" %hat %as the Ro!an 4retorian Ca!p in the ti!e o" Constantine& Siebert Eing o" the (est Sa2ons' in IG<' bui t the +onastery o" (est!inster' on the site o" a Te!p e to Apo o' and it %as repaired in the ne2t century by O""a Eing o" +ercia& About the !idd e o" this century' say I=<' an 7rish saint o" the na!e o" Aega estab ished a s!a Nunnery at the p ace no% ca ed St& Aees in Cu!ber and' then a Aritish port' and a church %as erected a"ter%ards in her honour& The Ro!ans had a te!p e at Teign!outh' and here an i!portant 4riory %as erected& 7n the reign o" Ed%in over Yorkshire' $urha!' and Northu!bria' circa && I;I' a %ooden edi"ice %as erected here' si!i ar to Aidans Church at

Lindis"arne' and %as "o o%ed by a church o" stone erected by his successor St& Os%a d' circa IIG& A"ter it had been destroyed by the $anes' it %as restored by Ecg"rid' in the -=th year o" %hose reign the neighbouring church at Jarro% %as dedicated' and %hich' %ith that o" (ear!outh' is in the diocese o" He2ha!& ed by his successor St& Os%a d' circa IIG& A"ter it had been destroyed by the $anes' it %as restored by Ecg"rid' in the -=th year o" %hose reign the neighbouring church at Jarro% %as dedicated' and %hich' %ith that o" (ear!outh' is in the diocese o" He2ha!& 7n the year IB=' Aenedict Aiscop is said to have brought over "ro! 0rance ski ed +asons to erect the +onastery at Jarro%& At the sa!e date (i "rid "ounded Ripon' He2ha!' and E y' bringing +asons "ro! Ro!e or 7ta y and 0rance& Eing 7na a so rebui t # astonbury* and (i ia! o" +a !esbury in"or!s us that it possessed a sapphire o" inesti!ab e va ue' perhaps the origin o" the egend o" the #raa cup& The sa!e %riter says3 57n the pave!ent are stones designed y aid in triang es and s:uares' and "i2ed %ith ead' under %hich i" 7 be ieve so!e sacred enig!a to be enshrined 7 do no in6ustice to C;I<D re igion5* he a so a udes to t%o pyra!idica structures in the churchyard& Ang o9Sa2on bui ding' so!eti!es o" %ood' and then o" stone' continued upon their gradua conversion to Christianity& 7n IJG Een%eath o" (esse2 5bade ti!ber the o d +inster o" (inchester&5 7n I=J 5Aotu " began to bui d a +onastery at 7ca!bo5 ,Aoston/& 7n I=B' 4enda o" +ercia and Os%in o" Northu!bria bui t a +onastery at +edesha!stede ,4eterborough/& Os%in bui t si2 in $eira& 7n II. Echbert o" Eent gave 5Recu ver to Aass' the +ass9priest' to bui d a +onastery&5 7n II. St& Ethe reda 5began the +onastery at E y&5 Ae"ore BG=' re igious houses e2isted at Lastringha!' +e rose' Lindis"arne' (hithern' Aardney' #i ing' Aury' Ripon' Chertsey' Aarking' Abercorn' Se sey' Redbridge' A dingha!' To%cester' Hackness' and severa other p aces& & active abroad* in =F; St& 4eter The 7rish +onks %ere s Convent at Sa 1burg %as erected by Rudbert& About I-<' convents at Costnit1 and Augsburg erected by Edu!ban& About I<I' convents at Regenburg under Rudbert& About BJ<' convents at Eichstadt under the 7rish !onk (i d%a d& As to !i itary architecture %e read that Ed%ard' the "ather o" Athe stan' had t%enty "ortresses bet%een Co chester'

+anchester' and Chester& (hy then shou d %e dispute the e2istence o" such #ui ds as are shado%ed in our ancient +asonic +SS&@ 4ro"essor 0ree!an says that St& +ary e (ig"ord Church %as bui t by Co es%egan& Ae "red' brother o" Ec"rid Eing o" Northu!ber and' so6ourned in 7re and to ac:uire "ro! the +onks the earning o" the period' and on the death o" Ec"rid' in IF=' he %as reca ed to succeed hi!' but it is very doubt"u %hether the Aritons recognised these Sa2ons as Eings' unti Egbert beca!e Aret%a da in && the year F;J& 7n I.< Theodore' Aishop o" Canterbury' erected Eing s Schoo in that city& 7n B-I Ethe ba d bui t Croy and in Linco nshire& O" this period a series o" dra%ings e2ist a!ongst the Cottonian +SS& in the Aritish +useu!' && and have been engraved "or the 50ree!asons+aga1ine'5 scenes in the C;I-D i"e o" St& #uth ac* one o" these represents hi! in the act o" bui ding his chape & The Saint is hoisting up !ateria to a +ason %ho is aying a stone at the top o" the bui ding* near the Saint is a stone9cutter %ho is he%ing the stone into shape %ith an a2e& (e sha see ater that a chise %as used in Nor!an ti!es' and soon a"ter a c a%9ad1e& A though the Arch had its origin in high anti:uity' and is said to have been "ound in Aaby onian re!ains near -<'<<< years o d' pre"erence %as given in ear y Eng ish church architecture to the straight inte o" the 4agan te!p es' then Arches "o o%ed' but it %as not unti the -<th century that vau ted roo"s ca!e into use' and soon spread over the %ho e o" Europe& As ear y as the Fth century the Eng ish +onk' St& Aoni"ace or (ini"rid' estab ished in #er!any a specia c ass o" +onks "or the practice o"

bui ding' %ith the grades o" Operarii or Cra"ts!en' and +agistri operu! or +asters o" (ork& So!e o" these acted as designers' others as painters or scu ptors' others %rought in go d and si ver e!broidery' and others %ere Ce!entarii or Stone +asons3 occasiona y it %as necessary to e!p oy ay!en under their superintendence&MM5Lud%ig Steig it1'5 :uoted by +ackey&NN or +asters o" (ork& So!e o" these acted as designers' others as painters or scu ptors' others %rought in go d and si ver e!broidery' and others %ere Ce!entarii or Stone +asons3 occasiona y it %as necessary to e!p oy ay!en under their superintendence&MM5Lud%ig Steig it1'5 :uoted by +ackey&NN The church o" York' erected in I;I' %as da!aged by "ire in BJ-' and Archbishop Egbert began a ne% church& About the year B.G O""a Eing o" +ercia erected the +onastery o" St& A bans near the o d Ro!an ?eru a!' and && in the Cottonian Library is a picture' a so engraved "or the 50ree!asons+aga1ine'5 she%ing hi! in the act o" giving instructions to his +aster +ason' %ho has the s:uare and co!passes in hand* a +ason on the top is using a p u!b9ru e' %hi st another is setting a stone* be o% are t%o +asons s:uaring stones %ith an a2e& These dra%ings are by +atthe% o" 4aris about the year -;=<& O""a be"ore beginning this %ork !ade a 6ourney to Ro!e by %ay o" 0rance' and Arother C& C& Ho%ard' o" 4icton' supposes that he brought +asons thence "or his %ork& At Ly!inge in Eent there is an o d church bui t upon a C;I;D Ro!an Aasi ica by Sa2on +asons* it is note%orthy as having an o d Ro!an sun9dia bui t into the south %a o" the Nave by St& $unstan circa .I=& 7t !ay be noted here that in recent ti!es a bron1e s:uare and co!passes %ere dug up at Cor"u' a ong %ith coins and vesse s o" the Fth and .th centuries& The Ro!ans see! not to have had a sett e!ent at $urha!' and %e do not && hear o" the p ace during the ti!e o" the Sa2on Heptarchy& The Aishops See %as "ounded at Lindis"arne as ear y as IG=& 7n FFG the Aishop and his c ergy took up their abode at the Ro!an Chester9 e9Street' %here they re!ained %ith the body o" St& Cuthbert unti ..=' %hen the $anes caused the! to take up their %anderings %ith the body o" that Saint& 7n ... A dune the Aishop caused the Cathedra to be erected' and ere .< years had passed this s!a edi"ice gave p ace to the present state y "abric& $uring a this period the Sa2ons had a #ui d syste! in "u operation* and the o d a%s o" A "red' 7na' and Athe stan reproduce sti o der a%s ackno% edging the #ui ds& The o d Arito9Ro!an cities !ust have continued their #ui ds during these centuries' even %hi st the Sa2ons %ere !aking a%s on the sub6ect' and estab ishing ne% ones on the o d ines& The a%s o" 7na' IFF9B;=' touch upon the iabi ity o" a #ui d' in the case o" ki ing a thie"& 7n

F;J Eng and had absorbed Aritain and Sa2on under Egbert' and the atter had beco!e the ru ing e e!ent& These #ui ds e2acted an Oath o" secrecy "or the preservation o" trade 5+ysteries'5 and obedience to the a%s& The Judicia Civitatis %ere ordinances to preserve the socia i"e o" #ui ds' o" the ti!e o" Athe stan& A a% o" Edgar' .=.9B=' ordains that 5every priest "or increase o" kno% edge sha di igent y earn so!e handicra"t'5 but this %as on y en"orcing o d Cu dee custo!s& There is said to be a etter o" the .th century' %ritten by Eric o" Au2erre to Char es the Aa d o" 0rance' in praise o" certain 7rish phi osophers' %ho' as 5servants o" the %ise So o!on'5 %ere visiting 0rance && under the Eings protection' %ho 5"or C;IGD the instruction o" his country!en'5 attracted thither #reeks and 7rish!en& This probab y re"ers to the erection o" Ai2e9 a9Chape e by his grand"ather Char e!agne& 7t %as introduced into the 7rish +asonic Ca endar by the ate Arother +ichae 0urniva ' and has created an i!pression that there e2isted in 7re and at this period so!e Society ana ogous to the Sons o" So o!on in 0rance' %hich %e sha !ention short y&

St& (erberg at Chester is said to be erected on the site o" a Sa2on Church as o d as FJ=& o d as FJ=& About the year F=< Ethe %o "' Eing and Aret%a da' is said to have e!p oyed St& S%ithin to repair the pious houses& The $anes burnt Croy and +onastery in FBJ and s e% Abbot Theodore at the a tar steps& A "red the #reat' about FB;' "orti"ied and rebui t !any to%ns' and "ounded the 8niversity o" O2"ord& 7n FI=' and again in FB<' the 4riory o" Teign!outh' %here the Nuns o" Hart epoo had taken re"uge' %as destroyed by the $anes and again rebui t& 7t is certain that in these ti!es' a arge nu!ber o" ti!ber structures %ere erected* it %as a sty e o" bui ding %hich ad!itted o" rough stone and rubb e %ork' and %as e:ua y co!!on both in Eng and and 0rance& This is probab y the reason %hy our ancient 5Constitutions5 state' as they do' that the origina designation o" the 0raternity %as #eo!etry' %hich %as as necessary in bui dings o" %ood as o" stone' and is so!e evidence o" the anti:uity o" these ancient +SS& An authority !aintains that ater erections o" stone' by the Sa2ons' %ere in" uenced by this sty e' as in the use o" stone buttresses in i!itation o" ti!ber bea!s' and in %indo% ba ustres or pi ars !ade to i!itate %ork turned in a athe&MM50ree!s& +ag&'5 J& 0& 4arker' 0&S&A&' -FI-& iv' p& -FG&NN $oubt ess !any o" the churches burnt by the $anes %ere o" %ood' and rebui t o" stone& 7n Constantinop e' and the East genera y' %ooden structures continue' and are pre"erred to stone& 7n the year .-= Sigebert' Eing o" the East Ang es' began the erection o" the 8niversity o" Ca!bridge' %hich %as co!p eted by Ethe %ard the brother o" Eing Ed%ard C;IJD the e der& This atter erected !any considerab e %orks and "orti"ications' repairing' says Ho inshed' in .;<' the city o" +anchester' de"aced by the %ars o" the $anes& He %as succeeded by his e der' but i egiti!ate' son' Athe stan' %ho is said in the o dest +S& Constitution to have 5bui t hi!se " churches o" great honour' %herein to %orship his #od %ith a his !ight&5 Anderson says that Athe stan rebui t E2eter' repaired the o d Cu dee church at York' and a so bui t !any cast es in the o d Northu!brian Eingdo! to check the $anes* a so the Abbey o" St& John at Aever ey* and +e ton Abbey in $orsetshire& 7" "or the advance!ent and i!prove!ent o" architecture this Eing granted an actua charter to York' he %ou d natura y do the sa!e to (inchester' in %hich city he "i2ed his roya residence* and there %e "ind architecture " ourishing& 0e% Sa2on speci!ens o" architecture no% e2ist* there is the to%er o" Ear && && s Aarton Church' Linco nshire* Se!p ing in Susse2* St& +ichae s in O2"ord&

A "ine speci!en o" !i itary architecture o" the period is Cast e Rushen in +an& 7t is be ieved to have been begun by Eing Orry and co!p eted by his son #uthred' circa .I<* it rese!b es so c ose y one at E sinore in $en!ark that they are both supposed to be by the sa!e architect& The one in +an is bui t o" the i!estone o" the district' and is in a state o" per"ect preservation* the e e!ents have had no e""ect upon the stone' o%ing to a hard' g ass9 ike g a1e' ad!itting o" a high po ish' "ro! %hich it !ay be in"erred that the !i itary architects %ere ac:uainted %ith so!e che!ica secrets that re!ain a secret to this day& 7n .J; Odo' Archbishop o" Canterbury began the restoration o" his Cathedra * it %as a"ter%ards !uch in6ured by the $anes in -<--' and Eing Canute ordered its restoration* again it su""ered by "ire in -<JG& 7n the ti!e o" Ethe %orth and St& $unstan' %ho %as a Aenedictine +onk' Anderson says' ;I

pious houses %ere erected' and under Edgar JF pious houses& Aet%een .IGFJ' C;I=D Ethe %o d' Aishop o" (inchester' erected J< +onasteries' and is sty ed the 5Constructor'5 o" his Cathedra church& Edgar' in .I.' at the instance o" $unstan' repaired (est!inster Abbey church& 7n .BJ' Ednoth' a +onk o" (inchester' superintended the erection o" Ro!say Abbey church& 0ro! .BB9F-' Ae "ric' Abbot o" +a !esbury' is said to have been ski "u in architecture& There is a charter o" Eing Aethe red o" the year ..J %hich describes the $eity in +asonic ter!s as 5#overnor o" the bright po e and Architect o" the great etherea design & & & &o" the %or d' une2pressib y p acing in order the 0abric&5 && Another o" Eing Canute uses the sa!e pre"ace&MMThorpe s 5Eng ish Charters'5 -FI=&NN The paucity o" Ang o9Sa2on re!ains prevents our dea ing arge y %ith their +asonic Sy!bo is!& There is' ho%ever' a bron1e sea o" Ae "ric $uke o" && +ercia' ..;' %ith the egend 5COD Higi u! Ae "rici Csy!bo ' a 5T5 above t%o 5 P s5 abutted to "or! a crossed9pair o" chevrons' one chevron inverted&D'5 thus p acing the cross' and the s:uare and co!passes in 6u2taposition&MM50ree!& +ag&'5 7F==' p& =<.&NN $e Cau!ont !entions a sarcophagus' o" this period' %hich bears a cross %ithin a circ e' and t%o eve s p aced side%ays& (ith the c ose o" the year -<<< A&$& a great i!pu se %as given to church bui ding' as a "ee ing prevai ed that this year %ou d see the end o" the %or d& (hen the panic had passed the Christian nations in thank"u ness began bui ding& The $anes had caused great havoc in this country' and especia y at York' and had even revived heathen rites' %hich Canute proc ai!ed in the year -<G<& There is no reason to suppose that these %ars e2tinguished the bui ding "raternities' and Canute in -<;< erected a stone +inster at Assingdon' and a so repaired the +insters throughout Eng and' as %e are in"or!ed by (i ia! o" +a !esbury& Leo"ric Ear o" Coventry' circa -<=<' bui t the Abbey o" that City and -; pious houses& Eing Ed%ard the Con"essor rebui t (est!inster Abbey' devoting to the %ork a tenth o" a his substance& O" this reign there %as a curious inscription at Eirkda e' (&R& Yorkshire' %hich says that Orin' son o" #e!e ' rebui t the C;IID church* Che itt e %as architect' assisted by Ho%ard &

and Arand the 4riest& Yorkshire being strong in the $anish e e!ent' +ason s +arks are o"ten Runic etters& Re!ains o" Sa2on architecture yet e2ist in the churches o" Jarro%* && +onk%ear!outh ,both Aiscops IF-/* at Repton' Co& $erby ,FB=/* Ripon' He2ha!' York ,in Crypts/* Ear s Aarton' and Aarnick' Co& Northa!pton* Aarton on Hu!ber* So!pting' Co& Susse2* Cavers"ie d* $eerhurst' Ari2%orth' etc& 7t is %e kno%n that the To%er o" Aabe %as one o" the !ost ancient traditions o" +asonry' and there is an o d Sa2on +S& %hich represents it in course o" erection %ith the Sa2on pick' and on the top step o" a very ta adder is the +aster +ason giving the hai ing sign o" a Cra"ts!an yet used' %hi st behind && hi!' on the sa!e eve ' is the ange %ith dra%n s%ord* a copy o" it in Casse sHistory o" Eng and' o" the year -.<-' can readi y be e2a!ined& 7t is said that the keep o" Arunde Cast e dates "ro! Sa2on ti!es' but the chie" entrance is a "ine Nor!an door%ay& +r& Ja!es 0erguson says that in these ti!es the %orking bands o" +asons served under Aishop' Abbot' or 4riest' and this continued do%n to the -Gth century& 7n trave ing "ro! one p ace to another their costu!e %as a short b ack' or grey' tunic open at the sides' to %hich a gorget' or co% or hood %as attached* round the %aist %as a eathern gird e "ro! %hich depended a short'

heavy s%ord' and a eathern satche & Over the tunic they %ore a b ack scapu ary' si!i ar to that %orn by the priests' %hich they tucked up under the gird e %hen %orking& They had arge stra% or "e t hats* tight eather breeches' and ong boots& Attached to the +onasteries %ere 5Ob a i'5 %ho %ere usua y received as +onks' acted as serving brothers o" the +asons' and %hose costu!e %as si!i ar to the trave ing +asons' but %ithout the co% & scapu ary' si!i ar to that %orn by the priests' %hich they tucked up under the gird e %hen %orking& They had arge stra% or "e t hats* tight eather breeches' and ong boots& Attached to the +onasteries %ere 5Ob a i'5 %ho %ere usua y received as +onks' acted as serving brothers o" the +asons' and %hose costu!e %as si!i ar to the trave ing +asons' but %ithout the co% & O%ing to the "act that !odern 0ree +asonry has a %ays ooked to the North o" Eng and as its +ecca' inas!uch so that ast century its syste! %as deno!inated 5Ancient5 York +asonry in opposition to the #rand C;IBD Lodge o" Eng and organised in -B-B' %hich %as ter!ed 5+odern'5 %e %i retrace a itt e in respect to this division o" the o d Sa2on Heptarchy' %hich bore the na!e o" $eira' and e2tended "ro! Hu!ber to 0orth' save the (estern ha " %hich %as the Eingdo! o" the Stratchc yde Aritons& 7t %as these t%o portions %hich continued to "or! the centre o" Cu dee in" uence' the capita o" $eira being York' and the centre o" Ancient +asonry& The city o" York possesses nu!erous re!ains o" the Ro!an occupation' %hich the ear y Christians converted to the use o" the Church& The +onastery o" the Aegging 0riars is kno%n to have been a te!p e dedicated to the Egyptian Serapis' and %e have a ready !entioned the inscription to Serapis discovered at To"t #reen in -BB<& 7n this City the Aritish Legionaries' on the death o" Constantius Ch orus' raised his son Constantine' surna!ed the #reat' on their shie ds' and proc ai!ed hi! E!peror ;=th Ju y' G<I& The Cu dee Eing Arthur is be ieved to have occupied and repaired it in =;;& 7t is considered that the Crypt o" York +inster a""ords evidence o" the progress o" +asonry "ro! Arito9Ro!an ti!es to Sa2on occupation& The Crypt has a +osaic pave!ent o" b ue and %hite ti es' aid a"ter the "or! used in the -st $egree o" +asonry* it she%s the sites o" three stone a tars and such trip ication %as o" Egyptian derivation* but these stone a tars are a so said to have had seats %hich %ere used by the +aster and his (ardens %ho !et here' a"ter the !anner re ated by Synesius o" the 4riests o" Egypt' as a sacred and secret p ace' during the construction o" the edi"ice& 7t is kno%n that the Cra"t occasiona y !et in this Crypt during ast century' and the a eged +asonic custo! o" !eeting in Crypts e se%here is no doubt "ounded in "act& As the Christian %orship at York %as o" Cu dee origin' so the veneration paid to +ist etoe %as derived "ro! the $ruids& The earned Arother $r& (!& Stuke ey has this passage in his 5+eda ic History o" Carducius53 5The C;IFD custo! is sti preserved' and ate y at York on the eve o" Christ!as $ay they carry !ist etoe to the high a tar o" the Cathedra and proc ai! a pub ic and universa iberty' pardon' and "reedo! to a sorts o" in"erior and even %icked

peop e at the gates o" the city to%ards the "our :uarters o" heaven&5 7t "o o%s "ro! %hat %e have seen that the Ro!an Co egia and the +ysteries o" Serapis e2isted side by side at York' and a!ongst the !e!bers o" these it is no i!probab e thing to suppose 99a"ter the c ose connection %hich %e have she%n to have e2isted in Egypt 99that there %ere Arito9Ro!ish Christians %ho estab ished the Cu dee "raternities at York' be"ore the days o" Constantius Ch orus' about ; -R; centuries be"ore Eing Arthur %as in possession o" the city' and that these Cu dees in" uenced the +asonic Co egia' and the sa!e re!ark e:ua y app ies to other cities o" the ti!e* and though there is no abso ute proo" that York %as the "irst centre o" Cu dee in" uence in the North' yet everything ends itse " to that supposition& Every circu!stance gives %eight

to the state!ents o" the o d Northern Constitutions o" +asonry' that' as Associates in #eo!etry' it %as o" #reco9Ro!an derivation "ro! Egypt* and that %hen it %as thought "it to reorganise the 0raternity o" Artisans' the Cra"t produced +SS& in #reek' Latin' and Aritish' %hich it is said %ere 5"ound to be a one 5* and through this descent %e reach those Soda ites %hich studied in Sy!bo s' #eo!etry' Science' and Theosophy in their ho!e at A e2andria& Associates in #eo!etry' it %as o" #reco9Ro!an derivation "ro! Egypt* and that %hen it %as thought "it to reorganise the 0raternity o" Artisans' the Cra"t produced +SS& in #reek' Latin' and Aritish' %hich it is said %ere 5"ound to be a one 5* and through this descent %e reach those Soda ites %hich studied in Sy!bo s' #eo!etry' Science' and Theosophy in their ho!e at A e2andria& (hen %e e2a!ine the +SS& %hich e!body the ancient La%s o" 0ree!asonry %e "ind that their historica state!ents and organisation are as !uch in agree!ent as their cere!onies %ere' %ith the Arcane and +ystic schoo s& Nor is this to be %ondered at since the Cu dee +onks %ere e:ua y Serapians' Christians' and the Schoo !asters %ho taught science and re igion to the peop e& As the Co eges o" Artisans' %hich %ere introduced by the Ro!ans as ear y as JI A&$&' ceased to e2ist in the apse C;I.D o" years' i" ever they did cease to e2ist' %hich is very i!probab e' the !e!bers beca!e attached to the Cu dee +onasteries and trans!itted' through this a iance' their traditiona art secrets' and as the priests had their o%n version o" the ancient +ysteries' they understood that %hich the +asonic +SS& i!p y& 7t is an historica "act that the ear y Cu dee priests %ere so!eti!es educated in Ro!e' and that they %ere converted $ruidica 7nitiates* genera y speaking it !ust have been so& To and says that in 7re and' Co u!ba' the "o o%er o" St& 4atrick' converted the $ruidica Sanctuaries into Christian +onasteries&MMTo and' i' -B;I' p& F&NN He a so provides us %ith a theory to e2p ain the preservation o" the +asonic Constitutions in rhy!e in this' that %ith the absorption o" $ruidis!' %hich %as prohibited by Ro!e' into Christianity' it %as "ound necessary to "ra!e ne% Regu ations "or the Aards and +instre s& According y in =GB an asse!b y %as he d at $ru!cat in !odern Londonderry' at %hich %as present the Eing A!!erius' Aidus Eing o" Scot and' and the Cu dee Co u!ba' %hen it %as reso ved that' "or the preservation o" earning' the Eings and every Lord o" a Cantred or Hundred' shou d have a Aard' and that schoo s shou d be endo%ed under the supervision o" the Arch9 poet o" the Eing&MM57bid'5 p& J&NN ThierryMM5Nor!an Con:uest&5NN states that %hen Northu!ber and' Cu!ber and' and (est!or and' circa --GF' "or!ed part o" Scot and' the Ang o9Sa2on traditions %ere preserved by the +instre s' and that "ro! thence the o d Eng ish poetry' a though obso ete in p aces inhabited by the Nor!ans' again !ade itse " heard in a ater age& The o dest version o" the Constitutiona Charges is in poetica "or!' and %as "irst printed by +r& Ja!es Orchard Ha i%e ' %ho considers it to be a copy %ritten in the atter part o" the -Jth century& Recent y a copy has been printed in "ine "acsi!i e' %ith a !ost va uab e Co!!entary by Arother Robert 0reke

#ou d' 4&+& ;<BI' %ho con"erred upon it its present na!e o" 5Regius +S&5 He C;B<D adduces strong evidence "or our be ie" that this version o" +asonry !ay have been patronised by the Cu dee +onks o" York' and that the syste! actua y dates "ro! the ti!e o" Ed%in Eing o" $eira' %ho %as converted to Christianity in the year I;I and "or %hose baptis! a s!a church or Oratory %as constructed o" %ood' co!p eted by St& Os%a d in IJ;' and repaired by Aishop (i "rid in II.& The Cu dee A cuin' surna!ed 0 accus and a so A binus' %as engaged %ith Eanba d under A dbhert' %ho beca!e Archbishop' in the rebui ding o" York +inster o" stone bet%een the years BI< and BF<& A cuin and Eanba d !ade

so!e 6ourneys to the continent together' and on one occasion at east to Ro!e' bet%een the years BI; and BII' in search o" books and other kno% edge' and it %as in the year BII9B that A dbhert beca!e Archbishop' and converted A cuin "ro! a Lay!an into an ordained $eacon& T%o years be"ore his death in BFF the Archbishop created Eanba d Coad6utor Aishop' and gave to A cuin the charge o" his schoo s' and the no% reno%ned ibrary& bet%een the years BI; and BII' in search o" books and other kno% edge' and it %as in the year BII9B that A dbhert beca!e Archbishop' and converted A cuin "ro! a Lay!an into an ordained $eacon& T%o years be"ore his death in BFF the Archbishop created Eanba d Coad6utor Aishop' and gave to A cuin the charge o" his schoo s' and the no% reno%ned ibrary& (hen A cuin %ent to 0rance and beca!e the "riend and tutor o" Char e!agne it %ou d see! that 0rench +asonry %ou d inter ace %ith that o" the North o" Eng and& Char e!agne %as cro%ned a Eing in the year B=J' hut his "ather Eing 4epin ived unti BIF* and %hen A cuin speaks' as he does' 5o" the te!p e at Aachen %hich is being constructed by the art o" the !ost %ise So o!on'5 he is paying a co!p i!ent to his "riend Char e!agne* and again in his treatise 5$e && ani!ae ratione5 "or the Eings cousin #undrede he a so co!pares hi! "or %isdo! to So o!on& Hence it see!s to be possib e that A cuin !ight have so!e kno% edge o" a So o!onian +asonry' and the +os e!s then %ere' or had been' occupying the South o" 0rance& 7t is a curious "act that the receptions into the ?eh!' "ounded by Char e!agne' e!braces a the sa ient points o" +asonic reception' though the ai!s o" the t%o Societies %ere so dissi!i ar* C;B-D and this !ust be considered in esti!ating #er!an +asonic receptions& The ancient +onasteries possessed a 5book o" gestures'5 by %hich they cou d converse by signs& The Trappists in A"rica use it at this day& The +asons o" o d see! to have had a kno% edge o" this& (e have every 6ust reason to be ieve that a +asonic organisation %as thus ear y in e2istence' and that it %as rati"ied and sanctioned by Eing Athe stan' %ho no% ru ed a Eng and "ro! (inchester to Ed%insburg' no% ca ed Edinburgh* and %ho visited York in the year .GG' and again in .GB' con"erring great privi eges upon Aever ey and Ripon o" %hich Sa2on charters' in rhy!e' are produced* he a so enriched the Co dei' as they are then ter!ed at York' && %here they %ere acting as the priests o" St& 4eters' and %here they continued && unti they %ere re egated to St& Leonard

& "or Nor!an c erics at St& 4eter s Hospita by the Aastard to !ake roo! s& According to this poetica Constitution' Athe stan' in order to re!edy divers de"ects %hich e2isted in the organisation o" Cra"t #eo!etry or +asonry' invited a the +en o" Cra"t to co!e to hi! %ith their Counci 3 9 5Ase!b e thenne he co%the et !ake' O" dyvers ordes yn here state' $ukys' Er ys' and barnes a so' Eny1thys' s:uyers' and !ony !o' And the grete burges o" that syte' They %ere there a e yn here degree&5 The detai s o" this poetica +S& is con"ir!ed by a prose copy attached to a !ore !odern historica version in a +S& %ritten be"ore the year -J=<' and %hich is kno%n to have been in possession o" #rand +aster 4ayne in -B;-' and %hich %as "irst printed in -FIF by Arother +atthe% Cooke and is hence ter!ed the 5Cooke +S&5 A very precise e2a!ination o" this +S& has been !ade by Arother #& (& Speth in a Co!!entary %hich he has issued %ith a "acsi!i e' as %e as the +S& itse "' in book "or! bound in oak9boards' %hich Arother (& J& Hughan C;B;D has 6ust y described as a 5ge!&5 Arother Speth has c ear y

de!onstrated that this +S& is a copy !ade about -J=< by a ater %riter than the origina co!pi er& The "irst part is a 4re"ace dra%n by the author "ro! various histories' +asonic traditions and charges' and is o" a ater period than the Sa2on Charges& To this 4re"ace has been attached an actua copy o" the !ost ancient 5Aook o" the Charges&5 (ith so!e s ight di""erences* %hich %e %i note "ro! ti!e to ti!e' the poetica 5Regius +S&'5 and the c osing 5Aook o" Charges5 o" the 5Cooke +S&5 are in substantia agree!ent' and either !ight %e be the origina o" the other& The prose version o" the co!position o" the origina co!pi er& The "irst part is a 4re"ace dra%n by the author "ro! various histories' +asonic traditions and charges' and is o" a ater period than the Sa2on Charges& To this 4re"ace has been attached an actua copy o" the !ost ancient 5Aook o" the Charges&5 (ith so!e s ight di""erences* %hich %e %i note "ro! ti!e to ti!e' the poetica 5Regius +S&'5 and the c osing 5Aook o" Charges5 o" the 5Cooke +S&5 are in substantia agree!ent' and either !ight %e be the origina o" the other& The prose version o" the co!position o" && Athe stans Asse!b y is not so ornate as that o" the poetica ' but in"or!s us that 5"or grete de"aut "ounde a!ongst +asons5 he ordained 5bi his counse ers and other greter ordys o" the onde' bi co!yn assent'5 a certain ru e& A nu!ber o" such o d +SS& te s us that Athe stan granted a charter to ho d such Asse!b y to his son Ed%in' and a though Athe stan had no son o" the na!e' he had a younger brother Ed%in' %ho! he is accused' on very insu""icient evidence' o" having caused to be dro%ned in .GG* +abi on says' on e:ua y doubt"u evidence' that this Ed%in %as received into the Aenedictine +onastery o" Aath in .JJMM5Anna s o" the Order o" St& Aenedict'5 4aris' -B<G&NN 7t has been recent y he d by Arother R& 0& #ou d' in a paper o" -F.; upon the nature o" the +asonic #enera Asse!b ies that it !ay re"er' not to a grant o" their o%n +asonic right o" Asse!b y by Athe stan' but to the Sa2on Court eets' Shire9!otes' 0o c9!otes' or Hundred Courts o" the Sheri""s& The author o" this theory grounds it chie" y upon that part o" the +SS&' %hich %e have a ready :uoted' in regard to the great Lords "or!ing part o" the +asonic Asse!b y& Aut such argu!ent can a!ount to no !ore than this' that the %riters o" these docu!ents attribute the grant o" the right o" +asonic Asse!b y by Athe stan at a !eeting o" the (itenage!ote* and that the +asonic Asse!b ies %ere he d' or supposed to be he d' C;BGD in si!i ar "or! to the 0o co!tes' and they %ere in "act' a Court o" this nature' con"ined strict y to && +asonic a""airs& 4robab y Athe stan sanctioned the +asters 5Artic es5 in a Counci o" Nob es' and the +asonic Counci added the 54oints5 to govern Cra"ts!en& The nature o" the Constitutions' thus a eged to be sanctioned' describe an organisation %hich is out o" har!ony %ith %hat %e !ight e2pect to "ind in Nor!an ti!es' or at any period to %hich %e !ight assign it a"ter the -;th century& The Athe stan grant o" +asonic Asse!b y %as he d "or ad!itting

0e o%s' and 4assing +asters' %hi st' on the other hand' the 0rench +asons had their 5+asters && 0raternities5 to %hich none %ere ad!ited %ithout !uch di""icu ty& 7t has a so been suggested by Arothers Speth' Ry ands' and Aege!ann that the +asonic Asse!b ies !ay have been he d on the sa!e day as the (itenage!ote to assure an appea to the Sheri"" i" necessary& 7n regard to the origin o" the poetica Constitution %hich is ter!ed the 5Regius +S&'5 there is good reason "or be ieving that it %as handed do%n in rhy!e in the Eingdo! o" Northu!bria unti it %as co!!itted to %riting in so!e other part o" Eng and* and that it %as intended "or a #ui d or Asse!b y o" Specu ative brethren consisting o" Artisans o" a descriptions connected %ith bui dings' and ad!itting C erics and Es:uires* "or !ora addresses suited to a these c asses are strung together in the sa!e +S& $r& Aege!ann considers "ro! the anguage that the copy %as !ade in North Chester' Here"ord' or (orcestershire& 7n other %ords' it is addressed to' and "or' an Asse!b y si!i ar to the i!itation !ade by our present #rand Lodges& Charters o" privi eges %ere given by the Nor!an Aishops o" $urha!' to a c ass o" peop e' %ho !ust have

ong e2isted' ca ed 5Ha i9%erk"o c5* "or the na!e being Sa2on they %ere c ear y pre9Nor!an %ork "o k& The ate Arother (i ia! Hutchinson' o" Aarnard Cast e' te s us that' in -BB=' he had severa Charters a uding to these peop e' and gives the prea!b e o" one' granted about --<< by the then Aishop o" $urha!' C;BJD %hich is addressed to both 50ranci et Ha i9%erk "o c&5 This %riter be ieves that the c ass %ere Specu ative +asons' and he instances a branch connected %ith the o d Cu dee Shrine o" St& Cuthbert' and i" his vie%s %ere accepted' it %ou d give good grounds on %hich to assu!e the connection o" this "raternity %ith the poe!& 9%erk"o c5* "or the na!e being Sa2on they %ere c ear y pre9Nor!an %ork "o k& The ate Arother (i ia! Hutchinson' o" Aarnard Cast e' te s us that' in -BB=' he had severa Charters a uding to these peop e' and gives the prea!b e o" one' granted about --<< by the then Aishop o" $urha!' C;BJD %hich is addressed to both 50ranci et Ha i9%erk "o c&5 This %riter be ieves that the c ass %ere Specu ative +asons' and he instances a branch connected %ith the o d Cu dee Shrine o" St& Cuthbert' and i" his vie%s %ere accepted' it %ou d give good grounds on %hich to assu!e the connection o" this "raternity %ith the poe!& 7t is %orthy o" note that the Cu dee syste! e2isted in Scot and "or so!e centuries a"ter the Nor!an Con:uest' nor does it then see! to have been e2tinct in 7re and& The continuation o" the na!e o" the Te!p ars in Scot and ages a"ter its suppression in 0rance' is probab y o%ing to the continuance o" Cu dee heresy& The +onastery o" Arechin' as +r& Cos!o 7nnes points out' e2isted in the ti!e o" $avid 7&' the pro!oter o" Roya Aurghs' --;G9=G' and that a"ter the erection o" the Episcopa See' the o d Cu dee Convent beca!e the e ectora chapter o" the ne% Aishopric* the Abbot o" Arechin %as secu arised' and trans!itted to his chi dren the ands %hich his predecessors had he d "or the church* and one o" these' in the ti!e o" (i ia! the Lion' !ade a grant o" && ands to the !onks at Arbroath&MMLuoted in Abbott s 5Ecc & Surna!es'5 -FB-&NN No% the sea o" Arbroath has a design %hich has been taken to re"er to the secret 7nitiation o" the Cu dees3 a priest stands be"ore an a tar %ith a ong sta"" in his right hand' upon the upper part o" %hich is 57O'5 the top "or!ing a cross* be"ore the a tar knee s a scanti y c othed !an %ith so!ething in his hand' he !ight be s%earing upon a re ic* three other persons are present' o" %ho! t%o are brandishing s%ords& An antagonistic theory is that the sea represents the !urder o" Tho!as a Aeckett& A %e %i say here is that it is a very "air representation o" the "or!er vie%' and a very poor one o" the atter* and that' in consonance %ith the ti!es' it !ay have a doub e !eaning& Sir Ja!es $a ry!p e says that the Cu dees kept the!se ves together in Scot and unti the beginning o" the -Jth century' and resisted the %ho e po%er o" the pri!acy& 5Constitutiona Charges&5 (e %i no% !ake a s ight C;B=D e2a!ination o" %hat %e %i ca the Athe stan Constitution' as it appears in the Regius +S&' at

ti!es :uoting the version o" the Cooke +S& The "or!er inc udes !uch ornate co!!ent' %hich is given !ore sober y in the atter' but essentia y the t%o docu!ents are one& Aoth consist o" t%o series o" Charges "or 5t%o C asses'5 and a "ina ordinance& These' in both +SS&' are preceded by a si!p e history o" the !ode in %hich Euc id organised the "raternity in Egypt' and the regu ations by %hich Athe stan ensured a !ore per"ect syste!& The "irst series o" Charges in the Regius +S& are -=' ca ed ART7CLES' and concern the duties o" a +ASTER to his 4rentices' 0e o%s' and their Lords or e!p oyers& The second series o" Charges are ca ed 4O7NTS' and arrange the duties o" CRA0TS+EN to their +aster and to each other& 7n the Cooke +S& these 5Artic es and 4oints5 have e2act y the sa!e bearing but are each divided into . in p ace o" -=& The c osing part o" the Regius +S& is headed 5Other Ordinances'5 and re"ers to the grant o" a right o" Asse!b y by Athe stan and the duties it had to discharge* but a co!parison %ith the Cooke +S& !ight suggest that this portion is !isp aced and shou d precede the Artic es and 4oints' though in another point o" vie% it !ight be taken to be a ater addition' and to prove the !uch greater

anti:uity o" the 5Regius'5 as having a history sett ed be"ore the grant o" the Asse!b y& 7n the Cooke +S& the ast thing is Charges to 5Ne% +en that never %ere charged be"ore'5 %hich ooks ike a !ore ancient "or! o" the 4oints' but in the Regius +S& this part constitutes the c osing 4oints o" a Cra"ts!an' and is conc uded in a very characteristic %ay& 7t personates Athe stan hi!se "' and is ius'5 as having a history sett ed be"ore the grant o" the Asse!b y& 7n the Cooke +S& the ast thing is Charges to 5Ne% +en that never %ere charged be"ore'5 %hich ooks ike a !ore ancient "or! o" the 4oints' but in the Regius +S& this part constitutes the c osing 4oints o" a Cra"ts!an' and is conc uded in a very characteristic %ay& 7t personates Athe stan hi!se "' and is && he d to have the very ring o" the origina grant* and is a record o" that Eings assent to&a that has been re ated3 9 5These Statutes that y have hyr y "onde' Y chu e they ben ho de throu1h !y onde' 0or the %orshe o" !y rygo te That y have by !y dygnyte&5 C;BID Athe stan bui t severa cast es in Northu!ber and' and there yet e2ists a "a!i y o" the na!e o" Rodda! o" Rodda! %ho c ai! their ands under the "o o%ing Charter' and there is actua y no greater i!probabi ity in the one than in the other3 99MMAurke && s 5Landed #entry'5 -FJF&NN 57 Eonig Athe stane' gi""e heir to 4au ane' Oddia! and Rodda!' a s gude and a s "air' a s ever ye !ine %are' ann yair to %itness +aud !y %i"e&5 0o o%ing the Regius Constitution %e have a ater section devoted to !ora

duties and eti:uette& 7t begins %ith the egend o" the 5Luatuor Coronati'5 "our 5ho y !artyrs that in this Cra"t %ere o" great honour'5 +asons and scu ptors o" the best& The church egend re ates that they %ere Christians %ho %ere e!p oyed in scu pture' and a %ays %rought %ith prayer in the na!e o" the Lord Jesus Christ' a"ter signing %ith the cross' and their ski %as so great that the 4hi osophers attributed it to the !ysterious %ords o" art !agic& $ioc etian gave the! the option o" %orshipping the 4agan gods' %hich they re"used to do' and %ere put to death circa ;.<' and the Catho ic Church canonised the! as the 50our Cro%ned +artyrs&5 A"ter this they ca!e to be ackno% edged as 4atrons o" the bui ding trades' and as such are "ound in the Strasburg' Eng ish' Lo!bard' and other Constitutions& They are respective y represented %ith a2e' ha!!er' !a et' co!passes and s:uare* so!eti!es %earing cro%ns* at ti!es a dog is represented %ith the!& Attached to the Regius Constitutions are t%o other docu!ents intended to co!p ete the instruction in !ora duties' begun in the egend 6ust re ated* the "irst o" the! is e:ua y "ound in a +S& entit ed 57nstruction to 4arish 4riests'5 and concerns behaviour at church* the c osing part o" this portion is "ound in another +S& ter!ed 58rbanitatis'5 and re"ers to the genera behaviour o" C;BBD young persons' %hether Artisans or Es:uires* +SS& o" these t%o atter portions' as o d as -J=< are "ound separate y' but their actua origin is unkno%n' and it is supposed that they !ay have had Nor!an origina s& The !otto o" (i ia! o" (ykeha! %as 5+anners !akyth !an'5 and ine B;I has 5#ode !aneres !aken a !on&5 Aet%een the egend o" the 0our +artyrs and the other docu!ents is a portion %hich has the appearance o" being i!per"ect' but %hich

&& re"ers to the bui ding o" Aaby on and Euc ids tuition in the seven ibera arts and sciences* it is a part o" the !atter "or!ing the 4re"ace to the 5Aook o" Charges5 in the Cooke +S&' so that it is possib e there %as a +S&' no% ost' "ro! %hich the %riters o" these t%o docu!ents respective y copied additions& 7n any case both these +SS& are but copies o" o der docu!ents' both have !any i!per"ections attributab e to the copyists' and %hich prove that they %ere but copyists& 7n both +SS& again' these Constitutions c ear y prove that there %as a recognised Euc id Charge' %ho is ter!ed 5Eng et5 in the prose copy* that these Charges %ere rati"ied by Athe stan* and the va ue %hich the ancient +asons attached to these Charges is proved by the genera agree!ent %hich e2ists bet%een t%o diverse docu!ents' treated in a dissi!i ar !anner' and no doubt used in parts distant "ro! each other& Aoth docu!ents e:ua y a ude to +asters as a degree o" the #enera or Heptarchia ' or provincia Asse!b y' both assert that a Congregation !ight be !ade every year or third year' as they %ou d* there is !ention a so o" E ders' and the 5principa o" the gathering 5* and both e:ua y pro"ess to give the La%s as trans!itted "ro! Egypt' and sanctioned by Athe stan& The Regius +S&' -;th 4oint' says that at these Asse!b ies3 9 5Ther schu be !aystrys and "e o%s a so' And other grete ordes !any !o* Ther scha be the Schere" o" that contre And a so the !eyer o" that syte' Eny1tes and s:%yres ther schu be' And other a der!en' as ye schu se&5 C;BFD The prose +S& has it' 5i" need be' the Scheri""e o" the countie' or the +ayer o" the Cyte' or A der!an o" the to%ne in %hich the congregacon is ho den scha be "e a% and sociat o" the +aster o" the congregacon in he pe o" hi! agenst rebe es&5 That is the Sheri"" and +ayor %ere to be ca ed to support the && +asters authority& This prose version a so !entions the 5+aister %ho is principa o" the gadering&5 A so' that 5Congregacons scho de be !aide by 5+aisters5 o" a 5+aisters +asons5 and 50e aus5 in the "oresaide art& And so at such congregacons thei that be !ad +asters scha be e2a!ined o" the Articu s a"ter %ritten and be ransakyed %hether thei be abu and kunnynge to the pro"yte o" the ordys the! to serue and to the honour o" the "orsaide art&5 0ro! this it is c ear' and %e sha see it !ore p ain y as %e proceed' that a"ter

the accepted 0e o% had deve oped his architectura kno% edge it %as the province o" the Congregation' Asse!b y' or Chapter' to e2a!ine into his co!petency "or +astership' to s%ear hi! to his specia 5Artic es'5 and' according to traditiona custo!' to 4ass hi! by a cere!ony %hich gave hi! certain signs' tokens' and %ords' %hich enab ed hi! to prove his capacity %herever his trave s !ight carry hi!& That is to say' not actua y to 7nsta hi! a +aster o" (ork' but to enab e hi!' as %as the !ain ob6ect o" such Tokens' to she% that he %as a 4assed +aster* "or the Asse!b y considered it to be its duty to see that the Cra"t and Art o" +asonry %as not dishonoured by ignorant pretenders& 7n actua practice' both in this country and on the continent' the +aster had to e2ecute an approved task' or piece o" %ork' or 5+aster piece'5 as evidence o" his abi ity& 7n London in -G=I there %as a dispute o" such nature

bet%een t%o c asses o" +asons' %hen the very authorities cited in these Constitutions' na!e y' the A der!en' Sheri""s' Qc&' arranged the di""icu ty by a a% that any +ason taking %ork in contract shou d bring 5Si2 or "our ancient !en o" his trade'5 to testi"y to his abi ity to co!p ete it& 7n the a%s o" the Haupt Hutte o" Strasburg' C;B./ %hich though o" the -=th century !ust reproduce !uch o der a%s' and %hich rese!b e our o%n' it is enacted that they !ight be a tered by 5three or "our5 !asters o" %ork' %hen !et together in Chapter* and %e "ind that a Cra"ts!an or 0e o%' %ho served but "ive years in p ace o" the Eng ish seven' cou d not be !ade a 4ar irer or 0ore!an unti as a Constitutions' na!e y' the A der!en' Sheri""s' Qc&' arranged the di""icu ty by a a% that any +ason taking %ork in contract shou d bring 5Si2 or "our ancient !en o" his trade'5 to testi"y to his abi ity to co!p ete it& 7n the a%s o" the Haupt Hutte o" Strasburg' C;B./ %hich though o" the -=th century !ust reproduce !uch o der a%s' and %hich rese!b e our o%n' it is enacted that they !ight be a tered by 5three or "our5 !asters o" %ork' %hen !et together in Chapter* and %e "ind that a Cra"ts!an or 0e o%' %ho served but "ive years in p ace o" the Eng ish seven' cou d not be !ade a 4ar irer or 0ore!an unti as a && Journey!an he had !ade one years tour o" the country' in order to increase his pro"iciency& Such duties the Regius +S& gives in Nor!an90rench as 5Cure'5 && and ater they are designated (ardens duties* in #ui d Rites s%orn o""icers& 7t %ou d see! "ro! %hat has passed that origina y the 0e o%s and +asters !et together in Asse!b y' but the ti!e ca!e %hen the +asters !et by the!se ves :uarter y' as 0inde sho%s in regard to #er!any' %hi st the 0e o%s && !et !onth y& There the +asters0raternities %ere presided over by an 5O d +aster'5 and the 0e o%s by an 5O d 0e o%&5 7n addition to %hat has been described it %as in the po%er o" the #enera Asse!b y to over ook the Libera Art o" +asonry' regu ate it' re%ard !erit' and punish irregu arities& 7t %ou d a so appoint o""icers unti the ne2t 5#athering'5 and "i2 contributions& Arother R& 0& #ou d has disinterred an o d -Ith century re"erence to the #ui d o" +instre s' %hich a eges that they had !et annua y at && Aever ey' "or that purpose' "ro! the days o" Eing Athe stan* the si!i ar c ai!s

o" +asons !ay be va id' though %e have access at present to no records' to prove that the +asonic Asse!b y !et annua y at York' or e se%here' beyond %hat %e "ind in the La%s o" the govern!ent' and the assertions o" o d +asonic +SS& 7n the Regius +S& %e have the "o o%ing account o" the divisions o" the Society by Euc id3 9 5+ayster y9ca ed so schu de he be&5 0or3 95 To hy! that %as herre yn this degre That he schu de teche the sy!p yst o" %ytte&5 Again3 95 8chon schu e ca e others "e o%s by cuthe' 0or cause they co!e o" adyes burthe&5 C;F<D No% the Cooke +S& had not to acco!!odate itse " to the !etre' and !ay be supposed to give the sa!e thing in c oser con"or!ity to the origina docu!ent& Speaking o" the Constitution granted by Enc id to Egyptians it says3 5Ai a serteyn ti!e they %ere not a i ike abu to take o" the "orseyd art& (here"ore the "oresayde +aister Eng et ordeynet thei ,that/ && scho de be passing honoured& And %ere passing o" conynge ded to ca the conynge +aister "or to en"or!e the esse o" counynge +aisters o" the %iche %ere ca ed +asters o" nobi itie o" %ytte and conynge o" that art& Neverthe ess thei co!!anded that thei that %ere ass o" %itte scho de not be ca ed seruantes nor so1ette but "e aus ""or nobi ite o" their genty e b ode&5 (e earn at east "ro! this that a 5dua 5 syste! %as instituted' %hich "inds its e:uiva ent in the esser and greater +ysteries' "or %hat %e "ind si!i ar in

Rites' bet%een these bodies' e2tends to organisation' and %e see it co!posed o" the nob e or Eno%ing +asters' and the ess kno%ing& 0e o%s 99cra"ts!en' or the nob e or Eno%ing +asters' and the ess kno%ing& 0e o%s 99cra"ts!en' or && 6ourney!en 99and %e begin to see %hy the +astersArtic es !ake !ention && on y o" that rank' and the Cra"ts!ens4oints app y on y to those subordinate to the +asters& The t%o +SS& distinct y te us that both the +asters and the 4rentices %ere to ter! the Cra"ts!en their 0e o%s& 7t is evident that the Apprentices had no ca to the Asse!b y' but %e sha soon see %hat their status actua y %as& They !ay possib y have been s%orn in private Lodges o" 6ourney!en' and certain y "or about ; -R; centuries it has been considered that the Charge o" the prose +S& to 5Ne% +en that never %ere s%orn be"ore'5 re"erred to the!& The t%o +SS& are again in entire con"or!ity in the "o o%ing Regius e2tract& && The "irst Artic e o" the +astersorders says3 9 5The +ayster +ason !ust be "u secur y' Aoth stead"ast' trusty' and tre%e' Hyt scha hi! never then are%e' And pay thy "e o%s a"ter the coste&5 C;F-D Aut the Ith Artic e distinct y speci"ies 5three5 grades o" pay!ent3 9 5That the +ayster do the ord no pregedysse' To take o" the ord "or his 5pren"ysse'5 A s !uch as hys 5"e o%s5 don in a vysse' 0or yn that Cra"t they ben "u per"yt' So ys not he 1e !o%e sen hyt&5 The Artic e' ho%ever' goes on to enact that the +aster !ay give a 5deserving Apprentice5 higher %ages than a ess per"ect one& Such an one %as no doubt at ti!es accepted in the Asse!b y be"ore the e2piry o" his seven years* and there %as a si!i ar custo! in the Arcane Schoo s' "or 7a!b ichus ,ci&' vi&' p& ;;/ te s us it %as a custo! o" the 4ythagoreans that 5the Novitiate o" "ive years %as abridged to those %ho attained sooner to per"ection&5 7t is yet a custo! in so!e

countries that %hen an Apprentice app ies to be !ade a 0e o% 0ree!ason' he re:uests 5aug!entation o" sa ary&5 (e %i no% "o o% on to that c ass o" +asons %ho had not been passed as +asters' or %ho %ere e!p oyed under a +aster o" (ork& These ru es are ca ed 54oints5 and here a so the poetica and prose +SS& are in per"ect accord& They en"orce Arother y9 ove as "u y as did the ancient Society o" 4ythagoras& The "irst 4oint says3 9 5That %hoso %o conne thys cra"t and co!e to astate' He !ust ove %e #od' and ho y church a gate' And his +aster a so' that he hys %ythe' (hether it be in "ieid or "rythe' And thy "e o%s thou ove a so&5 The third 4oint en6oins secrecy in regard to a he !ay see or hear3 9 5The prevyste o" the Cha!ber te he no !on'

Ny yn the ogge %hatsoever they done' (hatsever thou heryst' or syste hi! do' Te it no !on' %hersever thou go' The co%nse o" ha e' and 1eke o" bo%re' Eepe hyt %e to gret honoure&5 C;F;D && The "ourth 4oint is as conc usive as to degrees as %as the +astersArtic es3 9 5Ny no pregedysse he scha not do' To hys 5+ayster'5 ny his 5"e os%5 a so' And tha1th the 5prentis5 be under a%e&5 & The seventh 4oint is a a% against unchaste conduct %ith a +aster s %i"e' daughter' sister' or concubine' %hich %e !ention here because it assigns a pena ty' %hich con"ir!s %hat %e have said' that a deserving Apprentice !ight be !ade "ree o" his cra"t be"ore the e2piry o" seven years' and in this case it i!p ies a secret or traditiona regu ation* "or the cri!e speci"ied the pena ty is3 5The payne thereo" et hyt be ser' That he be prentes "u seven 1er&5 The eighth 4oint a udes to the duty o" a Cure or (arden3 9 5A true !edyater thou !ost nede be' To thy +ayster and thy "e o%s "re&5 The ninth 4oint concerns Ste%ards o" 5our ha e'5 and has evident re"erence to the Charges o" Euc id %ith %hich the +S& co!!ences3 9 5Love yche to serven uchon othur' As tha%gh they %ere syster and brother&5

The ater 4oints are not nu!bered as such in the prose +S&' but "o o% its ninth 4oint as unnu!bered a%s& The -;th is o" 5gret Roya te'5 and at the Asse!b y3 9 5Ther schu be +aystrys and "e o%s a so' And other grete ordes !any !o&5 The "ourteenth 4oint te s us that the 0e o% had to be s%orn& As the Asse!b y had t%o series o" a%s "or +asters and 0e o%s' it is :uite evident that they had authority over t%o ranks' besides the Apprentice* and hence the #rand Lodge o" Eng and "ro! its reviva in -B-B' do%n to -B;=' c ai!ed ike po%er over the degrees o" +asters and 0e o%s' thus treating the !a6ority o" the subordinate bodies as i" Apprentice Lodges& This -Jth 4oint says3 9 5A good tre%e oathe he !ust there s%ere' To hys +ayster and hys "e o%s that ben there&5 C;FGD

The "i"teenth 4oint is a 4ena a% !ade against the rebe ious and these Statutes c ose %ith a con"ir!ation' c ai!ing to be that o" Athe stan& Statutes c ose %ith a con"ir!ation' c ai!ing to be that o" Athe stan& No% a though it !ust be ad!itted that these ancient Constitutions are e2oteric in character' and do not !ake it a part o" their business to sett e the %ork o" degrees' in their esoteric aspect' %hich it e"t to the ancient traditiona !ode* yet %hat does appear is in per"ect a""inity to a si!i ar syste! o" degrees such as %e possess' and %ith oaths' cere!onia s' and secrets "or these& As there %as an e2a!ination' ending in an Oath' there !ust o" necessity have been so!e cere!ony' and in its proper p ace %e %i give evidence !uch o der than this copy' that the Cra"t had its secrets' signs' and %atch%ords and a president %ho! they s%ore to obey& Certi"icates %ere not in use at this ear y date' and in co!!on %ith the Arcane Schoo s these secrets did duty "or a certi"icate' and proved as %e the degree o" ski a +ason possessed* in !ore ancient ti!es such Rites and sy!bo ic instruction had a higher va ue than a !ere "or!u a by %hich to recognise each other& Apart "ro! trade secrets there %as another reason "or great secrecy as to +asonic Rites in the "act that %hi st the Christian E!perors o" Ro!e %ere destroying the Arcane Schoo s and hounding the! to death' the protection o" the +asonic art %as necessary to the g ori"ication o" the Church 99and each sought to protect the!se ves& There is no doubt that these ancient traditiona Rites' %hich %ere origina y the type o" an ancient re igion' %ou d vary %ith circu!stances' the convenience o" ti!e and p ace' and the !e!bers o" the Lodge& 7n the very ear y ti!es o" the Society' the Apprentice had no cere!ony' unti ' %ith ti!e' he !erited to beco!e a 0e o%& The esoteric Ritua o" the Asse!b y %as then dua ' but there is evidence in !odern ti!es that the Apprentice %as s%orn to a Charge& 7n very e2tensive bui dings %here the Lodge %as nu!erous' 99and %e read o" so!e e!bracing "ro! hundreds to thousands && o" %ork!en* the C;FJD Apprentice %ou d be s%orn' and the chie" +aster s 0e o%s %ou d co!e to inc ude t%o divisions3 So!e %ho had been 4assed as 5Nob e +asters5 %ou d take e!p oy!ent on such %orks as Journey!en' and %e shou d thus "ind in the sa!e Lodge' s%orn 0e o%s' and +asters' under a so e (orship"u +aster o" (ork' or the syste! %e have to9day in our Lodges' but %ithout the ancient technica kno% edge&

Though these Constitutions had other egends tacked on to the! in Nor!an ti!es' and to %hich %e sha re"er in our ne2t chapter' the Ang o9Sa2on +asons !ust have considered the! as the ti!e9i!!e!oria Charter o" their privi eges' even do%n to the -Jth century& They %ere the authority under %hich they continued to ho d Asse!b ies' the e2istence o" %hich is vouched by the a%s %hich the State !ade to suppress the!& (e have seen that the !eetings %ere he d under a president' %ho had po%er to s%ear 0reed9 Apprentices or 4assed 0e o%s' and in due course to e2a!ine and pass these as +asters i" "u y co!petent& Aesides the tokens by %hich they cou d prove their rank' they had a syste! o" +arks to indicate their property and %ork!anship* it is a eged there %as even a doub e syste!' evidenced in this' that as a Stone Cutter possessed a +ark "or his %ork' and the +aster one "or his approva * && traces are c ai!ed to e2ist %here' at a ater period' the stone9cutter s +ark && co!es to be used as the +asters sy!bo o" approbation& Arother Chet%ode Cra% ey' LL&$&' dra%s attention to this' that during the centuries %hen the +asonic Association %as in "u operation' Arabic nu!era s and there"ore !odern arith!etic %as unkno%n' and ca cu ations cou d on y be !ade by aid

o" the Ro!an notation* hence the traditions and secret ru es o" geo!etry %ere a i!portant to the Cra"t' and !ade it essentia that +asons shou d be geo!eters& +r& Co2 "inds that the design or tracing9boards o" various o d bui dings are grounded upon the "ive9pointed Star o" 0ree!asonry' and on the 4ythagorean prob e! o" a !odern past9+aster' %ith its ratio o" G' J' C;F=D =' or the !u tip es thereo" as I' F' 7O' and this %as especia y a #ui d secret o" construction& a i!portant to the Cra"t' and !ade it essentia that +asons shou d be geo!eters& +r& Co2 "inds that the design or tracing9boards o" various o d bui dings are grounded upon the "ive9pointed Star o" 0ree!asonry' and on the 4ythagorean prob e! o" a !odern past9+aster' %ith its ratio o" G' J' C;F=D =' or the !u tip es thereo" as I' F' 7O' and this %as especia y a #ui d secret o" construction& The +SS& upon %hich %e have been co!!enting represent the best days o" the Sa2on Cra"t* %ith the Nor!an Con:uest ca!e over 0rench +asons in arge nu!bers* and %e !ay see bet%een the ines' a subt e strugg e bet%een antagonistic syste!s' and possib y !uch o" the secrecy o" +asonry that e2isted throughout the centuries do%n to -B-B' !ay be o%ing to this* and to the "act that the Sa2on +ason %as assigned a subordinate position& There can be no doubt that at the co!parative ate date %hen these t%o +SS& %ere %ritten there %ere +asons in various parts %ho sti c ung to the Athe stan constitution& On the other hand the Ang o9Nor!an Eings' -G=<9I<' %ere passing Ordinances and a%s' against 5a a iances' covines' congregations' chapters' ordinances and oaths'5 a!ongst +asons and other artisans& These a%s %ere endorsed by others in -GIF' -GBF' -J-J' and -J;G& They see!' ho%ever' to have a""ected very itt e the +asonic Asse!b ies' and in -J;= a a% %as passed to specia y prohibit +asons "ro! asse!b ing in Chapters* even this a% re!ained a dead etter on the Statute book* but it is "ro! about this period that the Sa2on syste! passes entire y into disuse& 7n this contest bet%een the a eged Sa2on right o" Asse!b y' and the ob6ections o" the Ang o9 Nor!an ru ers to !eetings he d %ithout a Charter' %e see the necessity that e2isted "or the +asons to sub!it their Constitutiona Charges to the reigning Sovereigns' as they had been co!!anded by Athe stan to do' "ro! Eing to Eing* indeed Acts %ere passed in -GF. and -JG. ordering the o""icers o" #ui ds and 0raternities to sho% their 4atents to the neighbouring Justices "or their approva ' but it does not see! c ear %hether other is !eant than the Chartered Livery Co!panies& 7t has been previous y !entioned that in these t%o price ess docu!ents %hich have a the !arks o" a genuine Sa2on trans!ission' there is not one %ord %hich eads us to suppose that the !e!bers o" the Society thus C;FID "or!ed had an idea that their "ore"athers had %rought at the bui ding o" && So o!ons te!p e* and it is i!possib e to suppose that i" the cere!onies then in use had re"erred to such a circu!stance a re"erence thereto %ou d have

been o!itted "ro! the Constitution& The anguage in %hich these docu!ents are couched is Christian' o" a ibera but per"ect y orthodo2 cast& Christian churches cou d on y be sy!bo ica y constructed' %ith Christian sy!bo is!' by +asons practising Christian Rites' and the priests %ou d have been ready enough to burn any +ason that supported the Ta !ud* %e have an instance o" this into erance in the destruction o" the Te!p ars in the year -G-<9-G& This is a :uestion o" si!p e historica "act in %hich %e need have no bias either one %ay or the other& A +asonic tradition is opposed to uni"or!ity o" Rites' and in 0rance' "ro! the ear iest ti!es' %e "ind three opposing schoo s %hose cere!onies !ay be broad y c assed as Trinitarian and +onotheistic rites& (hen %e consider that the +asons o" pre9con:uest ti!es %ere not subordinated to those o" 0rance' %e shou d not e2pect uni"or! Rites in the t%o

countries and %hen %e e2a!ine the +SS& o" the "or!er and the atter it is c ear that such did not e2ist& 7n 0rance itse " no such uni"or!ity e2isted* co!ing do%n side by side' shrouded in secrecy "or centuries' there e2isted three sections deno!inated the 5Co!pagnonage5 "or!ed o" arti1ans genera y and not con"ined to +asons' and it is a together an error to suppose that the !ost ancient Sa2on "raternity %as con"ined to %orkers in stone' they inc uded a !en %ho used #eo!etry in their trade' as the +SS& the!se ves in"or! us& Aesides these' at an ear y period' probab y !uch ear ier but at east co9eva that such did not e2ist& 7n 0rance itse " no such uni"or!ity e2isted* co!ing do%n side by side' shrouded in secrecy "or centuries' there e2isted three sections deno!inated the 5Co!pagnonage5 "or!ed o" arti1ans genera y and not con"ined to +asons' and it is a together an error to suppose that the !ost ancient Sa2on "raternity %as con"ined to %orkers in stone' they inc uded a !en %ho used #eo!etry in their trade' as the +SS& the!se ves in"or! us& Aesides these' at an ear y period' probab y !uch ear ier but at east co9eva && %ith the Nor!an con:uest o" Eng and' there e2isted in 0rance +asters "raternities o" an essentia y Christian character attached to so!e church' and to the support o" %hich 0e o%s and Apprentices had to contribute& As a Soda ity the Counci o" Rouen in --F.' and o" Avignon C;FBD -G;I' recorded their disapprobation' against their signs' their oaths' and their obedience to a 4resident& The Eng ish a%s o" the Nor!an Eings "o o%ed this prohibition' Scot and "o o%ed suit' and it is not i!probab e that this circu!stance ed to the chartering o" Livery Co!panies in Eng and' and 7ncorporations in Scot and& 5The 0rench Sects&5 The three divisions o" the 0rench Co!pagnonage beca!e chie" y 6ourney!en' and "or a period o" over =<< years %ere in !utua dissension' and at ti!es even at actua %ar' %hen !any ives %ere ost& These are' %ere' and sti are' 99,-/ the 5Chi dren o" +aster Jac:ues'5 %hich is represented in Ang o9Sa2on Christian +asonry* ,;/ the 5Sons o" So o!on'5 c assed %ith our present syste!* and it is :uite possib e they !ay derive a Se!itic syste! "ro! Spain in very ear y ti!es "or the +os e!s %ere in possession in the South unti +arte e2pe ed the!* ,G/ the 5Chi dren o" 0ather Sonbise 5%ho %ere chie" y Carpenters' as !any o" the !ost ear y bui ders !ust have been' and %hose na!e is supposed to have so!e a""inity %ith Saba1ios' one o" the na!es o" Aacchus or $ionysos& Each o" these Sections had their o%n pecu iar cere!onies in %hich is the dra!a o" an assassination' a so!e%hat si!i ar but apparent y arranged in such !anner as to cast odiu! on their opponents& One pecu iarity is that the +e!bers assu!e the na!e o" so!e ani!a ' and branches are kno%n as %o ves' %ere%o ves' dogs' "o2es' %hich re!inds us o" the !asks o" cri!ina s %orn in the re igious +ysteries o" #reece and Egypt' and %e sa% that the sun %as co!pared to a %o " in the +ysteries o" Aacchus& Arother #ou d has e2pressed an opinion that the Carpenters %ere the o dest association' the "o o%ers o" Jac:ues the to%n association' and the Sons o" So o!on the privi eged corporations that set out "ro! the +onasteries' a"ter the crusades' %hen architecture beca!e a ay

occupation& 7t is perhaps as probab e' though not irreconci ab e %ith th s vie%' that the sects arose out o" the successive deve op!ents o" civi ' sacred' and !i itary architecture& Arother C;FFD 0& 0& Schnitger e2presses an opinion that the +asons be onging to a 5$o!us5 ,civi / %ere un"ree* those attached to the Cast e o" a Lord %ou d be 5g ebae proscripti5 ,!i itary/* and that it %ou d on y be the trave ing church +asons ,sacred/' "ree to %ork any%here that %ou d be actua 0ree +asons' and that these %ou d be ike y to have di""erent cere!onies' even i" the t%o "irst9na!ed %ere a o%ed any& The probabi ities are e2ceeding strong in 0rance "or the trans!ission o" o d Ro!an Rites' and the 0raternities %ou d see! to possess traditions or custo!s co!!on to the #nostics and Saracens& Like the +anichees they reverence the reed and ike the $ervish sects they a ege the receipt o" a Charge by the act o" receiving so!e particu ar gar!ent o" the +aster* thus one received his Cap'

another his +ant e' and a third his gird e* the sa!e is a eged in the +os e! sects& 7t is a rite or c ai! that has the appearance o" derivation' though possib y "ro! an ancient co!!on source' and %ou d scarce y arise accidenta y& ther his +ant e' and a third his gird e* the sa!e is a eged in the +os e! sects& 7t is a rite or c ai! that has the appearance o" derivation' though possib y "ro! an ancient co!!on source' and %ou d scarce y arise accidenta y& 7n the egend o" +aster Jac:ues' that personage is s ain by the "o o%ers o" Soubise& The 5Sons o" So o!on5 have a re ation in regard to the death o" Hira!' or Adonira! the co ector o" tribute to So o!on and Rheoboa!' %ho %as s ain by the incensed peop e' and the account re ates that his body %as "ound by a dog* this sect c ai!s a direct Charge "ro! Eing So o!on and ad!its a re igions %ithout :uestion in contradistinction to the other sects %hich re:uire their !e!bers to be orthodo2& 4erdiguer says o" its 7nitiation' that 5in it are cri!es and punish!ents&5 7n re"erence to the cause o" the i "ee ing bet%een the sects the egends vary& One account carries back this hosti ity to a period %hen a section p aced the!se ves under the patronage o" Jac:ues de +o ay' #rand +aster o" Te!p ars -G<F9-G-<' and i!!ediate y be"ore the destruction o" that Order by 4hi ip e Ae & Another account attributes these dissensions to the ti!e o" a Jac:ues +o ar' %ho is said to be the bui der in -J<; o" C;F.D the to%ers o" Or eans Cathedra * the Sons o" So o!on re"used to abour %ith the chi dren o" Jac:ues' struck %ork and " ed' and the strong ar! o" the a% had to be re:uisitioned& 7t ooks ike the :uarre s o" an ordinary trade9union %hether occurring in -G<F or -J<;& 7" the Jac:ues +o ar version is historica it is possib e that so!e o" the Sons o" So o!on !ay have e"t that Society and 6oined an a ready e2isting "raternity o" Jac:ues' thus adding a bui ding progra!!e to the !any a ready represented in that "raternity& The traditions %ou d see! to possess the sa!e re iabi ity as our o%n +asonic egends* and the one tends to prove the anti:uity o" the other* "or as the Co!pagnonage and Eng ish +asonry' have each their cere!onies' degrees' oaths' and tokens o" recognition' they have had a derivation in co!!on' "or there has been no a iance bet%een the t%o at any period& 7n regard to Rites the 5Chi dren o" +aster Jac:ues5 ad!it on y Ro!an Catho ics' and say that they 5accept Jac:ues as their !orta "ather and Christ as their spiritua "ather'5 and adopt the sensib e !a2i! that 5%hi st So o!on "ounded the!' other !en !odi"ied the! and that they ive under the a%s o" these ast&5 (e have endeavoured' ho%ever i!per"ect y' to she% %hat Ang o9 Sa2on +asonry %as' and consider this syste! to assi!i ate %ith it* and %e !ust bear in !ind that the Continent %as !uch indebted to this country at one ti!e' thus $ioc etian sent Artists "ro! Aritain to #au ' Co u!ban 6ourneyed to Aurgundy' A cuin o" York to the Court o" Char e!agne' St& Aoni"ace to #er!any&

The 5"irst step5 is ter!ed Attendant or A""i iate' and corresponds to our Apprentice' he is a young %ork!an' protected and ooked a"ter' but considered to be outside any +ystic Rites as %as the Sa2on Apprentice& The 5second step5 is ter!ed Received Co!panion* %hich is e:uiva ent to the ter! accepted and the 0e o% o" the Sa2on Asse!b ies' he has certain secrets and takes part in a dra!atic cere!ony o" the assassination and buria %ith a!entations as in the o d +ysteries' o" +aster C;.<D Jac:ues' %hose corpse %as discovered supported by reeds& 7t is practica y a disguised dra!a o" the betraya o" Christ& The & 5third step5 probab y points to a ti!e prior to the estab ish!ent o" +asters 0raternities' and corresponds %ith the 4assed +asters and Harodi! o" the

#ui ds* it is ter!ed 0inished Co!panion' in %hich the Aspirant passes through a dra!atic representation o" the passion o" Christ' and this cere!ony' as %as doubt ess the case in o d ti!es in Eng and' rendered and sti renders' its possessor e igib e "or o""ices o" dignity and honour* and !ay be c assed %ith the Nob e' Eno%ing' or (orship"u +aster %hich "or!ed the chie" rank o" the Sa2on congregations' save those %ho had been the 5+aister %ho is principa o" the gadering&5 7t is curious that the na!es shou d agree so c ose y %ith those o" the 4ersian +agi' in the ti!e o" Cyrus' %hich %ere in trans ation' 99$iscip e' +aster' Co!p ete +aster& T%o other circu!stances point in the sa!e direction "or the descent o" this branch o" the Society' na!e y the use o" the reed' and o" so!e artic e o" c othing to con"ir! a 5Charge*5 both the +anichees and the $ervish sects are descendants o" the 4ersian +agi& This cere!ony in the grade o" Accepted Co!panion represents the heroic and pre9Christian anti9type* and as such is para e %ith the 4edesta point o" Harodi!9Rosy Cross' %here the Candidate is ed up a pinnac e and sees a %ord that is prophetica o" %hat is given in the degree o" 0inished Co!panion %hich is the e2p anation and co!p e!ent o" the anti9type& Eng ish +asonry has ost !uch by the re"ine!ents o" the earned' or by those %ho 5i!agined the!se ves to be earned'5 and in any case it is easy "or such to in" uence the ignorant& The 0rench have acked this in the severa sects' and have there"ore trans!itted %hat they received %ithout understanding it& So have Eng ish Stone +asons& There is a pecu iar syste! o" sa utation ca ed the #ui brette' t%o !eet' cross their %ands and e!brace* it has its ana ogue in a #ui ds both East and (est& a dra!atic representation o" the passion o" Christ' and this cere!ony' as %as doubt ess the case in o d ti!es in Eng and' rendered and sti renders' its possessor e igib e "or o""ices o" dignity and honour* and !ay be c assed %ith the Nob e' Eno%ing' or (orship"u +aster %hich "or!ed the chie" rank o" the Sa2on congregations' save those %ho had been the 5+aister %ho is principa o" the gadering&5 7t is curious that the na!es shou d agree so c ose y %ith those o" the 4ersian +agi' in the ti!e o" Cyrus' %hich %ere in trans ation' 99$iscip e' +aster' Co!p ete +aster& T%o other circu!stances point in the sa!e direction "or the descent o" this branch o" the Society' na!e y the use o" the reed' and o" so!e artic e o" c othing to con"ir! a 5Charge*5 both the +anichees and the $ervish sects are descendants o" the 4ersian +agi& This cere!ony in the grade o" Accepted Co!panion represents the heroic and pre9Christian anti9type* and as such is para e %ith the 4edesta point o" Harodi!9Rosy Cross' %here the Candidate is ed up a pinnac e and sees a %ord that is prophetica o" %hat is given in the degree o" 0inished Co!panion %hich is the e2p anation and co!p e!ent o" the anti9type& Eng ish +asonry has ost !uch by the re"ine!ents o" the earned' or by those %ho 5i!agined the!se ves to be earned'5 and in any case it is easy "or such to in" uence the ignorant& The 0rench have acked this in the severa sects' and have there"ore trans!itted %hat they received %ithout understanding it& So have Eng ish Stone +asons& There is a pecu iar syste! o" sa utation ca ed the #ui brette' t%o !eet' cross their %ands and e!brace* it has its ana ogue in a #ui ds both East and (est& C;.-D The egends as to the schis!' though o d and in %riting no%' are o" course

traditiona ' and cannot be unconditiona y accepted& (e earn so!ething o" %hat their cere!onies consisted ;=< years ago' as the $octors o" the Sorbonne e2a!ined so!e traitorous !e!bers bet%een -IJF9=<' Co!pagnonage o" pro"aning the +ystery o" Christ && and accused the s passion and death' o" baptising in derision' o" taking ne% na!es' using secret %atch%ords' ob igating && to !utua assistance 5%ith other accursed cere!onies&5MM?ide #ou ds 5Hist& 0ree!asonry&5NN +uch o" th s %e have seen %as co!!on to the Arcane $iscip ine o" the church' and the Charges read very si!i ar to those !ade by the 0athers %hen they desired to have the Ancient +ysteries suppressed* in the sa!e spirit they have destroyed a iterature that !ade against the!se ves and their acts& A !ost the sa!e thing !ight be said by a "anatic and "oo against the o d Ancient degrees o" Harodi!9Rosy Cross in this country3 and it is very note%orthy and 5very suggestive5 that the ancient oath o" the Eng ish && Rosy Cross has a pena ty' a uding to the Saviours death %hich is abso ute y identica %ith the highest grade o" this 0rench "raternity o" Jac:ues& The 0rench 50endeurs'5 or Charcoa burners' rese!b e so c ose y those described by the priests in -I=<' that there can be no doubt both have the sa!e co!!on origin* the 0endeur 7nitiation carry their egends back to re!ote ti!es' and c ai! a Scottish origin* possib y it points to a Cu dee or other sectarian derivation thence& 5The Sa ute&5 +ost o" the +ystic Sects %hich derive "ro! %hat %e ter! the Arcane Schoo s' see! to have a 5Sa ute5 by %ay o" recognition' that is' a phrase by %ay o" 5Sa utation'5 and this is probab y %hat Arito9Sa2on +asonry possessed' be"ore Se!itic egends and Hebre% %ords %ere introduced in Nor!an ti!es& This 5#reeting5 %ent %ith the 5(ord5 unti it %as abandoned

&& ast century& A Christian syste! that had no a usion to So o!ons te!p e %ou d have the 5#reeting'5 and is there"ore probab y one o" the !ost ancient parts o" our Rites& C;.;D Arother J& #& 0inde in his 5History o" 0ree!asonry5 pro"esses to give the Catechis! in use a!ongst the +asons o" the Haupt Hutte o" Strasburg' %hich ter!ed their Asse!b ies Chapters' a"ter the usage o" the Aenedictines& 7n the strict sense o" the ter! %hat is ca ed 5(ords5 in this ritua is a #reeting& The :uestioner asks3 995Ho% !any %ords has a +ason@ Seven& L& (hat are they@ #od b ess a honourab e conduct* #od b ess a honourab e kno% edge* #od b ess the honourab e Cra"t o" +asonry* #od b ess the honourab e +aster* #od b ess the honourab e "ore!an* #od b ess the honourab e 0raternity* #od grant honourab e pre"er!ent to a +asons here' and in a p aces by sea and and&5 (e have here seven prayers easi y re!e!bered* and the "o o%ing pass%ords %ere e icited by the Luestioner3 995Eaiser Car 77&* Anton Hierony!us* (a kan&5 The t%o ast are supposed to be corrupted "ro! Adonira!' and Tuba Cain' the ast na!ed' it !ay be' through ?u can& 4ro"essor Robison' %ho %rote upon #er!an +asonry ast century' e2presses an opinion that an Apprentice received an additiona %ord %ith each year o" his abour& $uring ast century there sti re!ained o d !e!bers o" the Strasburg Constitution' though it had then ost a its in" uence' and there is an interesting state!ent recorded on the authority o" +r& ?oge ' an o d operative +ason' %ho is reported to have said' in -BF=' that the #er!an +asons consisted o" three c asses3 995The Letter +asons'5 or those !ade by Certi"icate* 5The Sa ute +asons'5 or those %ho used a "or! o" Sa utation si!i ar to that 6ust :uoted* and 5the 0ree!asons'5 %ho he && says' 5are the richest' but they %ork by our %ord and %e by theirs*5MM#ou d & s 5Hist& 0ree!asonry'5 ii' p& G-;* a so 0inde s 5Hist& 0ree!&5NN %hich i!p ies that he %as a 5Sa ute5 +ason' and that the 5#reeting'5 and the 5(ord5 %ere origina y the !arks o" t%o distinct sects but had co!e to be united& Another %riter states' on the authority o" a ne% y received 0ree!ason' %ho %as a !e!ber o" the Haupt Hutte syste!s' that the grip %as the sa!e in both societies& C;.GD

(e !ay dis!iss the 5Certi"icate5 +ason in a "e% %ords* in Eng and it corresponds %ith trade 0reedo! granted by +unicipa bodies "ro! the ti!e o" Lueen E i1abeth to our o%n days& Our o dest Catechis!s not on y inc ude a trip icate 5#reeting5 but the 5(ord5 syste!' but %e need not give this unti its proper date' and on the evidence %e have given it !ay be assu!ed' that in the ancient +asonry o" this country the 5Sa ute5 %as the 5(ord'5 and that upon it %as engra"ted certain Hebre% %ords& && As the Sa2on syste! %as a Christian one' no doubt its chie" grade' or +aster s 0raternity' has descended to us in the degrees o" Harod and the Harodi!9Rosy Cross' trans ated by the 0rench Rosecroi2 o" Heredo!' Te!p ar' etc&' "or a these grades are very si!i ar* and its trans!ission is e:ua y probab e %ith the kno%n trans!ission "or centuries' o" the Christ9 ike cere!onies o" the 0rench "raternity o" Jac:ues' but this %e %i again re"er to in a chapter on the high9grades& 5Conc usion&5 As %e have observed severa ti!es' but !ay again repeat' the dra!a o" the +ysteries %as o" a spiritua nature designed to teach ho% !an !ight so conduct his earth y pi gri!age as to arrive at i!!orta i"e' and the 7nitiate during the instruction personated a god %ho %as s ain and rose again "ro! the dead& 7t is not di""icu t to co!prehend ho% such a sy!bo ic death and rebirth %as trans"or!ed into the dra!a o" the career o" the Saviour o" "a en

!an& Such a Rite is in entire accord %ith %hat %e kno% o" the Cu dee +onks and +asons' %ho %ere at York %hen Eing Athe stan granted the! a Charter' %hi st Hira!is! is in discord thereto& (e !ay su!!arise the detai s o" this chapter in a "e% %ords* they point to the derivation o" a syste! o" trade +ysteries introduced by #reco9Ro!ans into Aritain "ro! an Egyptian source* !odi"ied into orthodo2 Christianity by Cu dees %ho had si!i ar recondite +ysteries o" a spiritua type' and %ho taught and directed the #ui ds o" Arti1ans during the %ho e Sa2on period* our ne2t Chapter %i indicate a syste! in consonance %ith the 0rench 5Sons o" So o!on&5 a Rite is in entire accord %ith %hat %e kno% o" the Cu dee +onks and +asons' %ho %ere at York %hen Eing Athe stan granted the! a Charter' %hi st Hira!is! is in discord thereto& (e !ay su!!arise the detai s o" this chapter in a "e% %ords* they point to the derivation o" a syste! o" trade +ysteries introduced by #reco9Ro!ans into Aritain "ro! an Egyptian source* !odi"ied into orthodo2 Christianity by Cu dees %ho had si!i ar recondite +ysteries o" a spiritua type' and %ho taught and directed the #ui ds o" Arti1ans during the %ho e Sa2on period* our ne2t Chapter %i indicate a syste! in consonance %ith the 0rench 5Sons o" So o!on&5 C;.JD CHA4TER 7>& +ASONRY 7N NOR+AN EN#LAN$& (E !ade !ention in our ast Chapter o" a series o" +asonic egends %hich are' in so!e !easure' historica y opposed to the o d Sa2on Constitutions& These "irst appear in %ritten docu!ents o" about -J=< A&$&' but as these are copies o" sti o der +SS&' !ay %e date into the -;th century in this country& There are t%o o d +SS& the a%s o" %hich di""er in essentia points3 in the e der or 5Cooke +S&5 those egends %hich i!p y a Se!itic origin and actua y represent our present Cra"t Rites' "or! the 4re"ace' or Co!!entary' to an actua Sa2on Charge* %hi st the ater' or 5(!& (atson +S'5 is a copy o" a !uch o der docu!ent' and itse " over t%o centuries o d' is co!p ete in itse "' %ith a !odi"ied series o" charges3 the second part !ight be ong to a 5#ui d5 %hich had a traditiona pre"erence to a Sa2on Constitution' and the "irst to a ater co!pi er' one %ho had accepted the Nor!an syste!' and its Rites& (e %i endeavour in this Chapter to supp y such re iab e in"or!ation' as can be gathered' to account "or the egends superi!posed upon the o der& 7t is in Nor!an ti!es' adding 0rench detai s' that this !atter she%s itse "' and as there is yet no estab ished vie% on the sub6ect' it !ay be e2a!ined in various aspects& 7n the "irst p ace these egends !ay have been "i2ed in 0rance by the con:uests %hich the Saracens !ade in that country* or ;nd y' they !ay have reached that country through the +oorish con:uests in Spain* or Grd y' and a probab e vie%' they !ight have been brought C;.=D "ro! the East' by those +asons %ho returned in the train o" the Crusaders* ast y' but upon this %e p ace s!a credence' so!e o" our ab e critics have he d that the Orienta egends are co ected "ro! books o" genera history by the "irst co!pi er o" this

version o" the Charges' though ad!itting that the author had o d +asonic Charges to guide hi!& A very e aborate paper' %hich !ay be c assed %ith the "irst o" these vie%s' has been %ritten by Arother C& C& Ho%ard' o" 4icton' Ne% Hea and' and he re ies upon the "act that this ne% Charge dra%s its inspiration "ro! Ro!an ?eru a! and the erection o" St& A bans by O""a' Eing o" +ercia' circa B.G' and that one Na!as #raecus' under various spe ings' is given as the teacher o"

+asonry in 0rance& O""a is supposed' by Arother Ho%ard' to have brought +asons "ro! Nis!es' or Ni!es' in Southern 0rance' "or the purpose in vie%' hence the derivation o" Na!as #raecus& +asons "ro! Nis!es' or Ni!es' in Southern 0rance' "or the purpose in vie%' hence the derivation o" Na!as #raecus& A theory such as that o" Arother Ho%ard %ou d %e account "or a that is pecu iar in this Constitution& The present Ni!es is a very ancient #reco9 Ro!an to%n' and has per"ect re!ains o" the %ork o" their architects* !oreover it %as "or t%o centuries in the hands o" the Saracens' unti Char es +arte ' %ho %as the traditiona patron o" 0rench +asons and the Ha!!er o" the Saracens' drove the! out o" that to%n' and !ay then have appointed a $uke or prince to ru e it& The 5Cooke +S5 ike the Strasburg Statutes speak o" Char es 77&' but this is an error' and it is note%orthy that the 5Charges o" $avid and So o!on'5 are invariab y united %ith the 0rench patronage' proving that %e derive these +asonic vie%s "ro! 0rench sources& At %hatever date these Constitutions "irst appeared in this country they eventua y superseded the Eng ish version& The Saracens %ere arge bui ders in the East' and even the +auso eu! o" Theodric o" Ravenna' erected in the Ith century' is considered by de ?ogue to be the %ork o" Syrian +asons brought "or%ard by Ay1antines& 7t is C;.ID said that about the year I.G they asse!b ed -;'<<< stonecutters to bui d the great A a!ya at $a!ascus&MMCondes 5Arabs in Spain&5NN The Tu un +os:ue at Cairo %hich %as bui t in the .th century' has a the !ain "eatures o" #othic sty es' and the sa!e race erected nu!erous !agni"icent %orks in Spain& #ibbon in"or!s us that bet%een F-G9GG the +oors brought into Spain a the iterature %hich they cou d obtain in Constantinop e' and that bet%een .-;9Ithe !ost ce ebrated architects %ere invited "ro! thence& (e earn "ro! a cata ogue o" the Escurie ibrary that they possessed B< pub ic ibraries' and that the +SS& handed do%n inc udes trans ations "ro! #reek and Latin and Arabic %riters on phi osophy' phi o ogy' 6urisprudence' theo ogy' !ysticis!' ta is!ans' divination' agricu ture' and other arts& They gave us astrono!y' a che!y' arith!etic' a gebra' #reek phi osophy' paper9!aking' the pendu u!' && the !arinersco!pass' and our "irst notions o" chiva ry' and ar!ed9 "raternities& (hether they gave us #othic architecture !ay be doubt"u but the durabi ity o" their o%n bui dings is astounding' and Cordova' the seat o" e!pire' covered a space ;J !i es by I !i es' even in the Fth and .th centuries' and %as "i ed %ith !agni"icent pa aces and pub ic edi"ices& Roger Aacon probab y derived gunpo%der through their inter!ediary& 7t is possib e that Syrian "raternities o" +asons continued to e2ist unti its invasion by the Saracens' and they the!se ves' as %e have seen' had secret "raternities ana ogous to 0ree!asonry' and as the Eoran accepts the history o" the Je%ish 4atriarchs such a syste! as %e no% possess is in accord %ith their "ee ings' and !ight possib y be acceptab e to a 0rench "raternity %ho %ere

Christians and had derived bui ding instructions "ro! a +os e! race& 7" the Saracenic theory in regard to Nis!es is inad!issab e' or the derivation o" the 0rench Charges under Nor!an introduction' %hen the syste! had conso idated under the 5Sons o" So o!on*5 there are t%o other vie%s %e !ay notice& The possibi ity o" a derivation "ro! the C;.BD Spanish +oors* or through the Crusaders %ho returned "ro! 4a estine a"ter erecting end ess %orks %ith the assistance o" the native +asons& Neither o" these t%o vie%s %i account "u y "or the "act that the 5Constitutions5 o" the period o" this Chapter connect the Charges o" $avid and So o!on %ith the Na!as #raecus 5%ho had been at the bui ding o" So o!on && s te!p e'5 %ith Char es +arte ' or even Char es 77& Aut

this is not a great di""icu ty' "or Na!as does not appear unti circa -=;=' and %as a %ays a troub e to the Copyists' so!eti!es he is Na!as' at others he is Ay!on' or the !an %ith a #reek na!e' and on one occasion he is #renaeus& Again bui ding' in Europe' %as a c erica art do%n to the -;th century and ay!en %ere sub6ect to the!* but the re igion o" the Saracens %as o" a di""erent cast' and ad!itted "ro! the very "irst' o" the continuance o" independent schoo s o" Architecture attached to no Sheik9u 97s a!' +o ah' or $ervish& On the %ho e %e see! to be ed by these considerations to the Nor!an90rench introduction into this country o" a species o" +asonic ru es' rites' and egends %hich e2isted in Southern 0rance' and %hich %ere sti "urther in" uenced in the -Gth century by +asons "ro! the East* but the reader can 6udge o" this upon reading a the "acts& %as a %ays a troub e to the Copyists' so!eti!es he is Na!as' at others he is Ay!on' or the !an %ith a #reek na!e' and on one occasion he is #renaeus& Again bui ding' in Europe' %as a c erica art do%n to the -;th century and ay!en %ere sub6ect to the!* but the re igion o" the Saracens %as o" a di""erent cast' and ad!itted "ro! the very "irst' o" the continuance o" independent schoo s o" Architecture attached to no Sheik9u 97s a!' +o ah' or $ervish& On the %ho e %e see! to be ed by these considerations to the Nor!an90rench introduction into this country o" a species o" +asonic ru es' rites' and egends %hich e2isted in Southern 0rance' and %hich %ere sti "urther in" uenced in the -Gth century by +asons "ro! the East* but the reader can 6udge o" this upon reading a the "acts& (hen Abdur9Rah!an bui t the great +os:ue o" Cordova in the short space o" ten years' he said' 995Let us raise to A ah a Ja!!a +us6id %hich sha surpass the te!p e raised by Su ie!an hi!se " at Jerusa e!&5 o dest co!parison %hich %e have o" So o!on && This is the s erection as co!pared %ith !ediaeva erections' and co!ing "ro! a +os e! is e!inent y suggestive& So!e G< years ago Aro& ?iner Aedo phe brought "or%ard so!e cogent argu!ents to prove that though our Cra"t +asonry had been derived "ro! the Ro!an Co eges the Grd $egree o" +odern +asonry had been added' in its second ha "' by +os e!s& Aut as a !atter o" "act the e2isting Je%ish #ui ds have a cere!ony "ro! %hich our +odern Grd $egree is derived through the ancient #ui ds' and it is :uite possib e that the %ork C;.FD !en o" Abdur9Rah!an "ound it o" o d date in Spain' as %e sha see ater* and that a #ui d o" the! %as e!p oyed at Cordova& +ecca has had "or ages a se!i9+asonic Society %hich c ai!s its derivation "ro! the Eoreish %ho %ere #uardians o" the Eaaba*

na!e y' the Aenai 7braha!& 0or so!e hundreds o" years our Constitutions have asserted that Ni!rod %as a #rand +aster and gave the +asons a Charge %hich %e sti "o o%& 7ts "irst degree is the 5Aui ders o" Aaby on'5 and is directed against Ni!rod and his ido s' and against ido atry in genera & 7ts second degree is the 5Arothers o" the 4yra!ids'5 and teaches' as do our o%n Constitutions' that Abraha! taught the Egyptians geo!etry' and the !ode o" bui ding the pyra!ids& The third degree is 5Aui ders o" the Eaaba'5 in %hich the three #rand +aster +asons 7brahi!' 7sh!ae ' and 7sa:ue' erect the "irst Eaaba' on the "oundations o" the te!p e erected by Seth on the p ans o" his "ather Ada!& At the co!p etion o" the Eaaba' the t%e ve chie"s or Assistants o" the 5three5 #rand +asters are created 4rinces o" Arabia& The Society %as c ear y ancient in A&$& I<< as a Eoran a udes to the egendary basis on %hich it is "or!ed& There is a very interesting 0rench ro!ance o" the -;th century by Huon de ?i eneuve %hich see!s to have a bearing upon the na!es o" our o d +asonic +SS&' or at east on a corrupt version o" the!* and %hich !oreover co!!e!orates the +asonic death o" a person %ho is supposed to have batt ed %ith the Saracens in 0rance and 4a estine& Either the %ork !ay vei egends o" the Co!pagnonage' or' %ith ess probabi ity' these atter !ay have dra%n so!ething "ro! it& This ro!ance is entit ed 5Les Lua re 0i s Ay!on&5 Char e!agne returns victorious "ro! a ong and b oody %ar against the Saracens in Easter' BIF' and has to isten to accusations against 4rince Ay!on o" the Ardennes' "or "ai ing to per"or! his "ea ty in not %arring against the Saracens& Char e!agne has as co eagues So o!on o" Aretagne' and his trusty

"riend the $uke o" Nais!es& Renaud' A ard' #uichard' and C;..D Richard' the 5"our sons o" Ay!on'5 depart "ro! the Court in :uest o" adventure& They de"eat Aourgons the Saracen chie" be"ore Aordeau2' cause hi! to beco!e a Christian' and a"ter that restore Yon' Eing o" A:uitaine' to his throne* Renaud !arries his daughter Laura and erects the Cast e o" +ontauban& Yon "ears the anger o" Char e!agne' persuades the "our Ay!ons to so icit his grace' and they set out 5%ith o ive branches in their hands'5 but are treacherous y %ay aid by their ene!ies' and %ou d have been s ain but "or the arriva o" their cousin +augis' and the 5cyprus %as changed "or the pa !&5 Richard is taken prisoner' and conde!ned to death' but +augis disguises hi!se " as a 4i gri!' hangs the e2ecutioner' carries o"" Richard' and a so the go den cro%n and sceptre o" Char e!agne' %ho thereupon reso ves to attack +ontauban& A"ter a due a!ount o" batt es' peace is restored on condition that Renaud departs on a pi gri!age to 4a estine& On arriva there he is surprised to !eet +augis' and bet%een the! they restore the o d Christian Eing o" Jerusa e! to the throne& A"ter an interva Renaud is reca ed to 0rance and on his arriva "inds his %i"e dead o" grie"' as %e as his aged "ather Ay!on and his !other& His o d antagonists 99Nais!es' Oger' and Ro and have been s ain at Ronciveu2& 0ive years ater Char e!agne visits Ai29 a9Chape ' %ith the three brothers Ay!on 5"our sons o" Ay!on'5 depart "ro! the Court in :uest o" adventure& They de"eat Aourgons the Saracen chie" be"ore Aordeau2' cause hi! to beco!e a Christian' and a"ter that restore Yon' Eing o" A:uitaine' to his throne* Renaud !arries his daughter Laura and erects the Cast e o" +ontauban& Yon "ears the anger o" Char e!agne' persuades the "our Ay!ons to so icit his grace' and they set out 5%ith o ive branches in their hands'5 but are treacherous y %ay aid by their ene!ies' and %ou d have been s ain but "or the arriva o" their cousin +augis' and the 5cyprus %as changed "or the pa !&5 Richard is taken prisoner' and conde!ned to death' but +augis disguises hi!se " as a 4i gri!' hangs the e2ecutioner' carries o"" Richard' and a so the go den cro%n and sceptre o" Char e!agne' %ho thereupon reso ves to attack +ontauban& A"ter a due a!ount o" batt es' peace is restored on condition that Renaud departs on a pi gri!age to 4a estine& On arriva there he is surprised to !eet +augis' and bet%een the! they restore the o d Christian Eing o" Jerusa e! to the throne& A"ter an interva Renaud is reca ed to 0rance and on his arriva "inds his %i"e dead o" grie"' as %e as his aged "ather Ay!on and his !other& His o d antagonists 99Nais!es' Oger' and Ro and have been s ain at Ronciveu2& 0ive years ater Char e!agne visits Ai29 a9Chape ' %ith the three brothers Ay!on and their && t%o nephe%s' and the "o o%ing is a itera trans ation o" %hat && occurred3 5

Ho oK says the E!peror' to a good %o!an' %hat !eans this cro%d@ && The peasant ans%ered' 7 co!e "ro! the vi age o" Crosne' %here died t%o days ago a ho y her!it %ho %as ta and strong as a giant& He proposed to assist the +asons to construct at Co ogne the Church o" St& 4eter* he !anoeuvred so %e that the others %ho %ere 6ea ous o" his abi ity' ki ed hi! in the night ti!e %hi st he s ept' and thre% his body into the Rhine' but it " oated' covered %ith ight& On the arriva o" the bishop the body %as e2posed in the Nave' %ith uncovered "ace that it !ight be recognised& Aeho d %hat it is && that dra%s the CG<<D cro%d&5 The E!peror approached and behe d Renaud o" +ontauban' and the three Ay!ons' and t%o sons o" Renaud' !ing ed their tears over the corpse& Then the bishop said3 99Conso e yourse vesK He "or %ho! you grieve has con:uered the i!!orta pa !&5 The E!peror ordered 5a !agni"icent "unera and a rich to!b&5 7n the trans ation o" Ca2ton it is the bishop %ho does this and a so Canonises hi! as 5St& Renaude the +arter&5 7n the ti!e o" Char e!agne' and even !uch ater' there e2isted a great nu!ber o" pre9Christian and #nostic rites' and the E!peror is credited %ith re"or!ing' or estab ishing' in Sa2ony' the country o" Ay!on' %hose !e!ory %as he d in great veneration even do%n to the -.th century' a secret "raternity "or the suppression o" 4aganis!' %hich has !ost o" the "or!s o" +odern 0ree!asonry& Hargrave Jennings ho ds that the " eur9de9 is !ay be traced through the bees o" Char e!agne to the Scarab o" Egypt' and is again "ound on the Tiaras o" the gods o" Egypt and Cha dea& A"ter the Cu dee A cuin had assisted in bui ding the Church o" St& 4eter at York' he %ent over to 0rance' and beca!e a great "avourite at Court' having the instruction o" the E!peror hi!se " %ho! he ter!s a bui der 5by the Art o" the +ost (ise So o!on'5 %ho !ade hi! an Abbot& Apart "ro! the signi"icance o" this ro!ance in a +asonic sense' %hich appears to have dra%n on e2isting +asonry' there are so!e pecu iar correspondences& The body o" Osiris %as thro%n into the Ni e' that o" Renaud into the Rhine& The address o" the bishop to the !ourners is a !ost identica %ith that o" the o d Hierophants to the !ourners "or the s ain sun9god& As

be"ore stated the 5branch5 varied in the +ysteries' as the erica' the ivy' the pa !' the aure ' the go den9bough& As in the case o" the substituted victi! "or Richard the +os e!s he d that a substitute %as !ade "or Jesus& The ro!ance con"uses the ti!e o" Char e!agne' i" %e accept it itera y' %ith that o" a Christian Eing o" Jerusa e!' as the +asonic +SS& con"use the date o" Char es o" 0rance %ith an apocrypha Ay!on %ho %as at the bui ding CG<-D o" pa !' the aure ' the go den9bough& As in the case o" the substituted victi! "or Richard the +os e!s he d that a substitute %as !ade "or Jesus& The ro!ance con"uses the ti!e o" Char e!agne' i" %e accept it itera y' %ith that o" a Christian Eing o" Jerusa e!' as the +asonic +SS& con"use the date o" Char es o" 0rance %ith an apocrypha Ay!on %ho %as at the bui ding CG<-D o" && So o!ons te!p e& 4ossib y the +asons con"used the Te!p e o" So o!on %ith that e2isting one %hich Cardina ?itry and +aundevi e in"or! us %as 5ca ed the Te!p e o" So o!on to distinguish the te!p e o" the Chiva ry "ro! that o" Christ*5 they a ude o" course to the house o" the Enights Te!p ars& These egends !ay %e represent so!e ancient tradition' and %e kno% not %hat +SS& have perished during the centuries& A curious y vei ed pagan +ytho ogy !ay be traced in 4aris* co!paring St& $enis to $ionysos& The death o" St& $enis takes p ace on +ont!artre' that o" $ionysos on +ount 4arnassus* the re!ains o" $enis are co ected by ho y %o!en %ho consign the! %ith a!entations to a to!b over %hich the beauti"u Abbey %as erected* but he rises "ro! his to!b ike $ionysos' and rep acing his severed head %a ks a%ay& Over the southern gate o" the Abbey is a so scu ptured a sprig o" the vine aden %ith grapes %hich %as a $ionysian sy!bo ' and at the "eet o" the Saint' in other parts' the panther is represented' %hose skin %as in use in the Rites o" the +ysteries& Other atte!pts to identi"y Na!as #raecus !ay be given& Arother Robert H& +urdock' +a6or R&A&' considers that this person is the +arcus #raecus "ro! %hose +S& Aacon ad!its in 5$e Nu itate +agiae'5 -;-I' that he derived the co!position o" gunpo%der& There is one o d +S& in the ear y days o" the #rand Lodge that has adopted this vie%& Here again %e run against the Saracens' "or $uten she%s that the Arah!ins %ere ac:uainted %ith po%der "ro! %ho! it passed to the Lu i or #ypsies o" Aaby on' the #reeks and Saracens' and it is thought to have been used by the Arabs at the siege o" +ecca in I.<* again 4eter +e2ia she%s that in -GJG the +oors used e2p osive she s against A phonso >77& o" Casti e' and a itt e ater the #ypsies %ere e2pert in !aking the heavy guns& ?ery itt e is kno%n o" +arcus #raecus but ear y in the .th century his %ritings are' erroneous y' supposed to be !entioned by the Arabian physician +esue&MMThe 5Cyc o& o"5 Eph& Cha!bers' art& 5#unpo%der&5NN CG<;D The acceptance o" +arcus o" gunpo%der notoriety as identica %ith Na!as or +arcus o" +asonic notoriety' necessitates one o" t%o suppositions3 ,-/ either he %as the instructor' or be ieved to be so' o" Char es +arte in +i itary erections* or ,;/ the "raternity o" +asons had a branch devoted to the study o" A che!y and the hidden things o" nature and science3

!uch !ight he said in its "avor' but un ess there %as so!e +S& o" a !uch ear ier date that !entions Na!as or +arcus' and is !issing' the introduction is probab y on y o" the -Ith century %hen +asons %ere actua y Students o" +asonry and the secret sciences& Another theory has been propounded by Arother E ein' 0&R&S&' the e!inent 4&+& o" the Luatuor Coronati Lodge' na!e y && that Haroun a Raschids son the Ca iph a +a!un is 5the !an %ith a #reek na!e&5 He she%s that in the ti!e o" this Ca iph the books o" Euc id %ere trans ated into Arabic "or the Co eges o" Cordova' and it %as not unti the -;th century that Abe ard o" Aath rendered the! into Latin& The origina #reek +S& %as ost "or B<< years %hen it %as "ound by Si!on #rynaeus' a Suabian and co9 abourer o" +e ancthon and Luther& 7n -=G< he gave the +S& to the %or d'

and %e actua y "ind that in so!e o" our +SS& #raecus is trans"or!ed into #reen' #renenois' #renus' #raneus& Ca2ton printed the 50our Sons o" Ay!on5 in the -=th century' and %e "ind so!e scribes trans"or!ing Na!as into Ay!on& Here %e have a ater atte!pt to identi"y the persona ity !entioned* he %as a !an o" %ho! nobody kne% anything' and each scribe sought to deve op his o%n idea' i" he had any& #reen' #renenois' #renus' #raneus& Ca2ton printed the 50our Sons o" Ay!on5 in the -=th century' and %e "ind so!e scribes trans"or!ing Na!as into Ay!on& Here %e have a ater atte!pt to identi"y the persona ity !entioned* he %as a !an o" %ho! nobody kne% anything' and each scribe sought to deve op his o%n idea' i" he had any& Char e!agne %as a conte!porary o" the Haroun a Raschid here !entioned %ho sent hi! a sapphire orna!ent and chain by his a!bassador& #reen in his 5Short History o" the Eng ish 4eop e5 ,London' -FBI/ says3 995A Je%ish !edica schoo see!s to have e2isted at O2"ord* Abe ard o" Aath brought back a kno% edge o" +athe!atics "ro! Cordova* Roger Aacon hi!se " studied under the Eng ish Rabbis5 ,page CG<GD FG/& Aacon hi!se " %rites3 57 have caused youths to be instructed in anguages' geo!etry' arith!etic' the construction o" tab es and instru!ents' and !any need"u things besides&5 The great %ork o" this !endicant 0riar o" the Order o" St& 0rancis' the 5Opus +a6us'5 is a re"or! o" the !ethods o" phi osophy3 5Aut "ro! gra!!ar he passes to !athe!atics' "ro! !athe!atics to e2peri!enta phi osophy& 8nder the na!e o" +athe!atics %as enc osed a the physica science o" the ti!e&5 7t is beyond doubt that a"ter the Nor!an con:uest in -<II the predo!inant genius o" +asonry %as 0rench* the oversight and the design %ere 0rench' the abour Ang o9Sa2on* but the atter %ere strong enough as she%n' by an e!inent architect' to trans!it their o%n sty e in co!bination %ith that o" the 0rench& 7t !ust a so be borne in !ind that i" the Eng ish to%ns have so!e c ai!s to Ro!an succession' that "eature is doub y strong in 0rance' even to the anguage& Long a"ter the con:uest o" the country by the 0ranks' and even unti !odern ti!es' the peop e %ere a o%ed to continue Ro!an a%s' privi eges' co eges' and #ui ds* pure Ro!an architecture e2ists to this day' and notab y at Ni!es& Lodges' though not perhaps under that na!e' !ust have e2isted "ro! the ear iest ti!es' "or %e "ind that in the -;th century' the Cra"t %as divided into three divisions* %e !ay even say "our' "or besides the 4assed +asters Associations' there %ere Apprentices' Co!panions or Journey!en' and perpetua Co!panions' or a c ass %ho %ere neither a o%ed to take an Apprentice' or to begin business as +asters* that is they cou d e!p oy the!se ves on y on in"erior %ork& The e!inent historian o" +asonry' Arother R& 0& #ou d' she%s this' and a so that the so9ca ed 50raternities5 o" && 0rance %ere the +astersAssociations' but that the Co!panions and Apprentices had to contribute to the "unds that %ere necessary "or their

!aintenance& The :ua i"ication necessary to obtain +e!bership o" this Association %as the e2ecution o" a +aster9piece' %hich %as !ade as e2pensive as possib e' CG<JD in order to keep do%n the nu!ber o" +asters& 7t %i be seen at once that this is a very di""erent organisation to the Constitution o" the Asse!b ies o" our ast Chapter' and the reader !ust keep this distinction in !ind' as %e as the "act that there ca!e over to this country a c ass o" !en i!pressed %ith these discordant vie%s& 7t %ou d e2tend "ar beyond the scope o" this book to give !ore than a very s ight account o" the nu!erous Abbeys' +onasteries' Churches and Cast es %hich %ere erected a"ter the Nor!an con:uest* it is' ho%ever' necessary' in our in:uiry a"ter the Specu ative e e!ent' to say so!ething o" these' and o" the persons %ho erected the!& $octor Ja!es Anderson states that Eing (i ia! the Aastard e!p oyed #undu "' bishop o" Rochester' and Ear Roger de

+ontgo!ery in bui ding' or e2tending' the To%er o" London' Cast es o" $over' E2eter' (inchester' (ar%ick' Here"ord' Sta""ord' York' $urha!' Ne%cast e' && a so Aatt e Abbey' St& Saviour s in South%ark' and ninety other pious houses* %hi st others bui t "orty t%o such' and "ive cathedra s& Aatt e Abbey %as in bui ding -<IB9.<' the architect being a Nor!an +onk %ho %as a noted arro%head !aker and there"ore na!ed (i ia! the 0aber' or S!ith& Aet%een -<B<--G< Canterbury Cathedra %as in course o" erection& 7n -<BI Archbishop Tho!as began the re9erection o" the Cathedra o" York' %hich had previous y been burnt in contest %ith the Nor!ans& Aet%een -<B.9.G' (inchester Cathedra %as in progress& The (hite or S:uare to%er on the Tha!es is o" this period and Jennings !entions one o" the !ain pi ars %hich has a va ute on the other' %hich he considers to have the && signi"icance as the t%o pi ars o" So o!on one side' and a horn on sa!e s te!p e' that is sy!bo ising !a e and "e!a e& 7t is evident that +asons !ust have no% been in great de!and and that %hether Sa2on or Nor!an %ere sure o" e!p oy!ent* the "o o%ing are o" interest' and as %e !eet %ith any particu ars' %hich have a distinct bearing upon the +asonic organisation' %e %i give the!& CG<=D The Ne% Cast e' %hence the na!e o" that to%n is taken' %as bui t by a son o" the Aastard' and thence"orth beca!e' as in Ro!an ti!es' a p ace o" great strength' and a so the chie" ho!e o" the +onastic Orders' "or Aenedictines' Augustinians' Car!e ites' 0ranciscans' Hospita ers o" St& John' and Nuns a bui t houses here' and their conventua bui dings %ithin its %a s' and !any an Hospitiu! "or %ay"arers' !any #ui ds' and !any a chape o" b ack' %hite and grey 0riars %ere "ounded& The 4ercys had a to%n residence here in the narro% street ca ed the C ose&

7n -<BJ Linco n Cathedra %as begun by Re!gius 0oscha!p' the Nor!an Aishop' %ho had it ready "or consecration in F years& 7t %as destroyed by "ire in --J-' but Aishop A e2ander restored it to !ore than its "or!er beauty& (here the Cast e no% stands e2isted an ancient "ortress %hich the Aastard converted into a Nor!an strongho d& 7n -<BB Robert the Ce!entarius' or +ason' had a grant o" ands in re%ard "or his ski in restoring St& A bans* and %e !ay "ind in this circu!stance the origin o" the St& A ban Charge co!bined %ith that o" Char es +arte and $avid and So o!on* inc uding the Nor!an "iction that St& A ban had "or his +asonic instructor St& A!phabe out o" 0rance& (e say "iction because Aritain at that day sent +asons to #au & 7n Yorkshire a #odi"ried the +aster9bui der %itnesses the (hitby Charter o" 8chtred' the son o" #ospatric& These are $anish na!es and the +arks o" Yorkshire +asons' in this and the "o o%ing century' are strong in the use o" etters o" the Runic or Scandinavian a phabet& & Aa d%in' Abbot o" St& Ed!und s began a church in -<II %hich %as consecrated in -<.=& Her!annus the +onk' co!pares it in !agni"icence to && So o!ons te!p e' %hich is the "irst +asonic re"erence %e have to that structure' and in Nor!an ti!es& 4aine 4evere ' a bastard son o" the Eing' bui t a s!a round church at Ca!bridge %hich %as consecrated in CG<ID --<-' this "or! being a !ode o" the Ho y Sepu chre at Jerusa e!& He a so began a cast e in $erbyshire' on a peak inaccessib e on three sides one o" %hich over ooks the 4eak Cavern' %hich 0aber supposes %as used in the $ruidica +ysteries&

A round church %as erected at this period in Northa!pton' probab y by Si!on de St& Lu1& An ancient sun9dia is bui t into its %a s* the too ing o" the bui ding is Sa2on chevron sty e' in contradistinction "ro! the Nor!an diagona a2e %ork& %as erected at this period in Northa!pton' probab y by Si!on de St& Lu1& An ancient sun9dia is bui t into its %a s* the too ing o" the bui ding is Sa2on chevron sty e' in contradistinction "ro! the Nor!an diagona a2e %ork& There is a curious y !ystic !onu!ent at Arent 4e ha! to 4iers Shonke' %ho died in -<FI& (eever ca s it 5a stone %hereon is "igured a !an' and about hi! an eag e' a ion' and a bu ' having a %ings' and an ange as i" they %ou d represent the "our evange ists* under the "eet o" the !an is a cross " euree&5 (e !ust not hasti y con"ound these e!b e!s %ith the present :uartering in the Ar!s o" 0ree!asons& $uring the reign o" Ru"us the great pa ace o" (est!inster %as bui t' and thirty pious houses& 7n -<F. the Eing aid the "oundation o" St& +ary && s Abbey at York& 7n the sa!e year the Aishop o" Here"ord aid the "oundation o" the #othic cathedra at # oucester' and it %as consecrated in --<<& 7n -<.G (i ia! o" Eari ipho' Aishop o" $urha!' aid the "oundation o" his cathedra ' in the presence o" +a co ! Eing o" Scots and 4rior Turgot& Surtees says that it 5%as on a p an %hich he had brought %ith hi! "ro! 0rance&5 7n the sa!e year the church o" the o d Cu dee sett e!ent o" Lindis"arne %as erected' and Ed%ard' a !onk o" $urha!' acted as architect& 7n -<.G Hugh Lupus' Ear o" Chester' sent "or Anse !e' Abbot o" Aec' 5by his consei e to bui d the Abbey o" St& (erberg at Chester&5 7t contains an o d pu pit o" b ack oak %hich is "u o" hera dic carving %hich has been !istaken "or +asonic e!b e!s&MM4ast #rand b aster S!ith' 8&S&A&NN 7t %as in this +onastery CG<BD that Ra ph Higden co!pi ed the 4o ychronicon' a history o"ten re"erred to in the 5Cooke +S&5 The %ork o" $urha! Cathedra %as continued by Aishop Ranu " de 0 a!bard "ro! --<J and co!p eted be"ore the year --;.& 8nder Aishop (i ia! de Cari o"e the grant %hich (a theo"' Ear o" Northu!ber and' had !ade to the See o" $urha! %as con"ir!ed' o" the 4riory o" Teign!outh to the Church o" Jarro%' %hich %as bui t by Aenedict Aiscop in IF. and o" (ear!outh F years ater& A so Robert de +o%bray brought !onks "ro! St& A bans to rebui d the 4riory Church' %hich %as co!p eted in ---<& Anything connected %ith these Northern provinces is +asonica y i!portant' "or Northu!ber and and $urha! had !any Operative Lodges ong prior to the #&L& o" -B-B' and any egiti!acy %hich that body can have it o%es to those Northern Lodges' %hich eventua y

6oined its ranks& Northu!ber and is studded %ith "orti"ied pi es or to%ers and "orti"ied vicarages %hich !ust have given !uch e!p oy!ent to +asons& E sden possessed one o" these and a so t%o "o c9!ote hi s' %here in o d ti!e' 6ustice %as ad!inistered in the open air' as in the ?eh! o" (estpha ia' dating back one thousand years& Os%o d the good Aishop o" Sa isbury bui t the Church o" St& Nicho as at Ne%cast e about the year -<<J& 7n ---= Henry 7& !ade grants to the Canons regu ar o" Car is e& +any parts o" the Church o" St& Andre% are ear ier than St& Nicho as' but its erection is o" ater date& The Church o" St& +ary' Aever ey' is supposed to have had upon its site' a Chape o" Ease dedicated to St& +artin by Archbishop Thurston' o" York' bet%een ---J9J;* it is certain' ho%ever' that it %as constituted a ?icarage o" St& +ary in -G;=& The Nave %as bui t about -J=<' and consists o" si2 bays and seven c erestory %indo%s' but in -=G< the upper part o" the centra to%er "e

upon the Nave %ith !uch oss o" i"e& 7ts pi ar %as erected by the #ui d o" +instre s' %hich ike that o" the +asons' c ai!ed to date "ro! Sa2on ti!es* it has upon the " uted CG<FD cornishes "ive "igures o" the +instre s %ith their instru!ents' o" %hich on y t%o respective y %ith guitar and pipe are intact* and stands on the north side "acing the pu pit& The 5+isere5 sta s in the chance are o" the -=th century' %ith carved bas re ie"s under the seats* one o" these +instre s' %hich ike that o" the +asons' c ai!ed to date "ro! Sa2on ti!es* it has upon the " uted CG<FD cornishes "ive "igures o" the +instre s %ith their instru!ents' o" %hich on y t%o respective y %ith guitar and pipe are intact* and stands on the north side "acing the pu pit& The 5+isere5 sta s in the chance are o" the -=th century' %ith carved bas re ie"s under the seats* one o" these & represents a 5"o25 shot through the body %ith a %ood!ans arro%' and a 5!onkey5 approaching %ith a bott e o" physic& 7n regard to sy!bo is! Arother #eorge O iver' $&$&' !entions an o d church at Chester' %hich he does not na!e' containing the doub e e:ui atera triang es* a so the sa!e in the %indo% o" Lich"ie d Cathedra & +r& #ood%in states that the trip e triang es inter aced !ay be seen in the to%er o" a church in Susse2& (e are no% approaching the period o" the Crusades' and it !ay be noticed that C uny and other great 0rench Abbeys are usua y considered the centres o" action %hence proceeded the bui ders that acco!panied the ar!ies o" the cross to 4a estine& Here an enor!ous nu!ber o" bui dings %ere erected' bet%een --JF9F.' in %hich Europeans directed native %ork!en' and in %hich the "or!er earned a ighter sty e o" architecture %hich resu ted in pointed #othic* a sty e %hich had ear y e2istence in the East' "or 4ro"essor T& Hayter Le%is points out that the .th century +os:ue at Tu un in Cairo has every arch pointed' every pier s:uared' and every capita enriched %ith ea" orna!ent* this sty e the returned +asons began to construct and superintend in the (est& +r& (yatt 4ap%orth !entions that a Aishop o" 8trecht in --.. obtained the 5Arcanu! +agisteriu!5 in aying the "oundation o" a church' and that he %as s ain by a +aster +ason %hose son had betrayed the secret to the Aishop& About this ti!e %as begun the o d church at Aro%nsover' near Rugby* %hen it %as restored in -FBI t%o ske etons %ere "ound under the north and south %a s' in spaces cut out o" the so id c ay' and covered over %ith the oakb ocks && o" t%o carpentersbenches& A si!i ar discovery %as !ade in Ho s%orthy parish church in -FF=* CG<.D in this case the ske eton had a !ass o" !ortar over the !outh' and the stones %ere hudd ed about the corpse as i" to hasti y cover it over& There is no doubt that in this and !any other cases the victi!s %ere &&PP

buried a ive as a sacri"ice&MM5Aui dersites and Cere!onies'5 #& ( Speth' -F.J&NN They are instances in proo" o" a %idespread and ancient be ie" o" a iving sacri"ice being necessary& Eing Henry 7&' --<<9G=' bui t the pa aces o" (oodstock and O2"ord' and "ourteen pious houses' %hi st others bui t one hundred such' besides cast es and !ansions& The Aishop o" $urha! con"ir!ed and granted privi eges to the Ha i9%erk9"o c %ho %ou d be Sa2on arti"icers& 7n ---G Jo""red' Abbot o" Croy and' aid the "oundation o" that Abbey* about ;; stones %ere aid by 4atrons' %ho gave !oney or ands& Arno d is described as 5a ay brother' o" the art o" +asonry a !ost scienti"ic +aster&5 About this ti!e' or a itt e ear ier' the seven Libera Arts and Sciences are designated the 5Triviu!5 and 5Luadriviu!'5 and the Chronic er gives us the "o o%ing i ustration o" the "irst division3 995$uring this ti!e Odo read essons in 5#ra!!ar5 to the younger sort' Terrick Logic to the e der students at noon* and (i ia! 5Rhetoric5 in the a"ternoon* %hi st #i bert preached every Sunday' in di""erent churches' in 0rench and Latin against the Je%s' and on ho iday && evenings e2p ained the Scriptures to the earned and c ergy&5 7n Esse2s Aib iotheca Topographia' -BFG ,vo & iv&/ %e "ind it stated that the bui ders o"

this portion cut rude y at the %est end o" the south ais e' a pair o" co!passes' a e%is' and t%o circu ar "igures' %hich' he supposes' are intended "or sun and !oon* in -J;B' ho%ever' there %ere repairs in progress' not o" this part' but in the %est and north ais es& This Abbey possessed a ibrary o" .<< books' and save that Jo""rid' or #i bert' e2hibited so !uch ani!osity against the Je%s' is so consonant %ith the "irst part o" the 5Cooke +S&5 that %e !ight have taken it as a proo" that the Se!itic Rites e2isted in ---G& They probab y did in 0rance and parts o" Spain& The bron1e cande abru! o" CG-<D # oucester %as !ade in ---=' and has the doub e triang es and !uch other +asonic sy!bo is!* it is o" Ay1antine design and appro2i!ates to o d Egyptian %ork and sy!bo is!& a e%is' and t%o circu ar "igures' %hich' he supposes' are intended "or sun and !oon* in -J;B' ho%ever' there %ere repairs in progress' not o" this part' but in the %est and north ais es& This Abbey possessed a ibrary o" .<< books' and save that Jo""rid' or #i bert' e2hibited so !uch ani!osity against the Je%s' is so consonant %ith the "irst part o" the 5Cooke +S&5 that %e !ight have taken it as a proo" that the Se!itic Rites e2isted in ---G& They probab y did in 0rance and parts o" Spain& The bron1e cande abru! o" CG-<D # oucester %as !ade in ---=' and has the doub e triang es and !uch other +asonic sy!bo is!* it is o" Ay1antine design and appro2i!ates to o d Egyptian %ork and sy!bo is!& Eing Stephen' --G=9=J' e!p oyed #i bert de C are to bui d "our Abbeys' t%o Nunneries' and the Church o" St& Stephen at (est!inster' %hi st others bui t about ninety pious houses& Jesus Co ege at Ca!bridge %as "ounded in this reign' and a very re!arkab e church %as erected at Ade near Leeds& 7t is recorded o" a so dier o" Eing Stephen' na!ed O%en or Tynda ' that he received a species o" re igious 7nitiation at the Cu dee +onastery in $onega ' p aced in a 5pastos5 o" the ce * he then %ent on a pi gri!age to the Ho y9 and' and on his return' as has been recorded o" Renaud o" +ontauban' assisted in bui ding the Abbey o" Aos!agovsich& The +arks o" Airkenhead 4riory o" this date have been && co ected and printed by Arother (& H& Ry ands' a so those o" St& Johns Church in Chester' the Cathedra ' Chester' and the %a s' so!e o" %hich are Ro!an %ork&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 -F.J&NN 7n --JB Henry de Lacy aid the "oundation o" Eirksta Abbey in Yorkshire* it is o" pointed #othic& Roche Abbey %as bui t bet%een this date and --FI' and these t%o are be ieved to be by the sa!e architect& Rivau 2 and 0ountains Abbey %ere begun in --.. and -;<<& At this ti!e Ada!' a +onk o" 0ountains Abbey' and previous y o" (hitby' %as ce ebrated "or his kno% edge o" #othic architecture' and o""iciated at the bui ding o" the Abbeys o" +eu2' (oburn' and Eirkstede* it is not said %hether he %as ay or c eric& York Cathedra %as again destroyed by "ire in --GB' and Archbishop Roger began to re9erect it in --=J& 7n Nor!andy the #ui ds %ere trave ing about ike those o" Eng and and %ere o" i!portance in --J=' and had a #ui d union %hen they %ent to Chartres& At this ti!e Huges' Archbishop o" Rouen' %rote to Theodric o" A!iens in"or!ing

hi! that nu!erous organised co!panies CG--D o" +asons resorted thither under the headship o" a Chie" designated 4rince' and that the sa!e co!panies on their return are reported by Hai!on' Abbe o" St& 4ierre sur $ive' to have restored a great nu!ber o" churches in Rouen& The 4riory o" St& +ary in 0urness %as co!!enced by Aenedictines "ro! Savigney& 7n --B. the 4riory o" Lannercost %as "ounded by Robert de ?a ibus' Aaron o" #i es and& Aishop Hugh de 4udsey rebui t the Nor!an Cast e o" $urha!' dating "ro! -<.; to --BJ& Aet%een --=G9.J this 4re ate %as the great Transitiona Aui der o" the north' and he began the erection o" a ne% church at $ar ington in --F< on the site o" an o d Sa2on one& The great Ha o" the Cast e o" $urha! %as the %ork o" Aishop Had"ie d in the reign o" Richard 777& on an o der Nor!an one& Henry 77& bet%een --=J9F. bui t ten pious houses' %hi st others bui t one hundred such& 7t is the era o" the advent o" the 5transitiona #othic&5 7n the && "irst year o" this Eings reign' --==' the 54oor 0e o% So diers o" Jesus Christ' and o" the Te!p e o" So o!on'5 began to bui d their Te!p e in 0 eet Street' London' and continued at %ork ti --.<& 7t is a round church in pointed

#othic to %hich a rectangu ar one %as added ater& Ay 4apa Au o" --I; these Enights %ere dec ared "ree o" a tithes and i!posts in respect o" their !ovab es and i!!ovab es' and their serving brethren had ike "avours' indu gences' and Aposto ic b essings& Ja!es o" ?itry says that they had a very spacious house in Jerusa e!' %hich %as kno%n as the Te!p e o" So o!on to distinguish the Te!p e o" the Chiva ry "ro! the Te!p e o" the Lord& 7n the Ru e %hich Aernard' Abbot o" C airvau2' dre% up "or the!' he speaks o" the poverty o" the Enights' and says o" their house that it cou d not riva the 5%or d reno%ned te!p e o" So o!on5* in chapter 222&' he again speaks o" the poverty o" the house o" #od' and o" the te!p e o" So o!on&5 As a "raternity he designates the! 5va iant +accabees&5 Sir John +aundevi e visited the house' and CG-;D speaks o" it in -G=I thus3 5Near the te!p e So" ChristT on the south is the Te!p e o" So o!on' %hich is very "air and %e po ished' and in that te!p e d%e the Enights o" the Te!p e' ca ed Te!p ars' and that %as the "oundation o" their order' so that Enights d%e t there' and Canons Regu ar in the te!p e o" our Lord&5 As +asonic sy!bo is! is "ound in their 4receptories' this %ou d be a channe "ro! %hich to deduce both our So o!onic egends' and the a eged 4apa bu s' %hich Sir (i ia! $ugda e asserted %ere granted to trave ing 0ree!asons* but this vie% has never !et %ith "avour "ro! +asonic historians' %ho ai! chie" y at %riting things agreeab e to their patrons and ru ers& Arother O iver states that the high a tar has the doub e triang es' at any rate these appear on the !odern e!broidered cover* there is the anchor o" the ?irgin' a so the Aeauseant o" b ack and %hite' %hich ?itry interprets that they are "air to their "riends but b ack to their ene!ies' but Jennings says3 5This grand y !ystic banner is #nostic' and re"ers to the !ystic Egyptian apotheg! that ight proceeded "ro! darkness&5 He "urther !entions these sy!bo s in the spandre s o" the arches o" the ong church 99the Aeauseant* pascha a!b on a red cross* the a!b %ith the red cross standard trip e c oven* a pro onged cross issuing out o" a crescent !oon' having a star on each side& The arches abound %ith stars' "ro! %hich issue %avy or crooked " a!es* the %inged horse' %hite' on a red "ie d' is one o" their badges& He adds that there is a %ea th o" !eaning in every curve o" the to!bs' %hich appear in the circu ar portion& Ay 4apa Au o" --I; these Enights %ere dec ared "ree o" a tithes and i!posts in respect o" their !ovab es and i!!ovab es' and their serving brethren had ike "avours' indu gences' and Aposto ic b essings& Ja!es o" ?itry says that they had a very spacious house in Jerusa e!' %hich %as kno%n as the Te!p e o" So o!on to distinguish the Te!p e o" the Chiva ry "ro! the Te!p e o" the Lord& 7n the Ru e %hich Aernard' Abbot o" C airvau2' dre% up "or the!' he speaks o" the poverty o" the Enights' and says o" their house that it cou d not riva the 5%or d reno%ned te!p e o" So o!on5* in chapter 222&' he again speaks o" the poverty o" the house o" #od' and o" the te!p e o" So o!on&5 As a "raternity he designates the! 5va iant +accabees&5 Sir John +aundevi e visited the house' and CG-;D speaks o" it in -G=I thus3 5Near the te!p e So" ChristT on the south is the Te!p e o" So o!on' %hich is very "air and %e po ished' and in that te!p e d%e the Enights o" the Te!p e' ca ed Te!p ars' and that %as the "oundation o" their order' so that Enights d%e t there' and Canons Regu ar in the te!p e o" our Lord&5 As +asonic sy!bo is! is "ound in their 4receptories' this %ou d be

a channe "ro! %hich to deduce both our So o!onic egends' and the a eged 4apa bu s' %hich Sir (i ia! $ugda e asserted %ere granted to trave ing 0ree!asons* but this vie% has never !et %ith "avour "ro! +asonic historians' %ho ai! chie" y at %riting things agreeab e to their patrons and ru ers& Arother O iver states that the high a tar has the doub e triang es' at any rate these appear on the !odern e!broidered cover* there is the anchor o" the ?irgin' a so the Aeauseant o" b ack and %hite' %hich ?itry interprets that they are "air to their "riends but b ack to their ene!ies' but Jennings says3 5This grand y !ystic banner is #nostic' and re"ers to the !ystic Egyptian apotheg! that ight proceeded "ro! darkness&5 He "urther !entions these sy!bo s in the spandre s o" the arches o" the ong church 99the Aeauseant* pascha a!b on a red cross* the a!b %ith the red cross standard trip e c oven* a pro onged cross issuing out o" a crescent !oon' having a star on each side& The arches abound %ith stars' "ro! %hich issue %avy or crooked " a!es* the %inged horse' %hite' on a red "ie d' is one o" their badges& He adds that there is a %ea th o" !eaning in every curve o" the to!bs' %hich appear in the circu ar portion& 7re and has !any %orks erected during this period' and +r& Street says o" the!3 57 "ind in these bui dings the !ost un!istakab e traces o" their having been erected by the sa!e !en' %ho %ere engaged at the sa!e ti!e' in Eng and and (a es&5 The sa!e re!ark %i app y to Scot and& The ancient 4receptory o" the Te!p e at 4aris contained ,says 5At anta5 2i& p& GGB/ 5;J co u!ns o" si ver CG-GD %hich supported the audience cha!ber o" the #rand +aster' and the Chape ha paved in +osaic and enriched by %ood%ork o" cedar o" Lebanon' contained si2ty huge vauses o" go d&5 The "ortress %as partia y destroyed in -BB.& Aatissier in his E e!ents o" Archaeo ogy ,4aris' -FJG/' says that the na!e 5+agister de Lapidibus vivis5 %as given in the !idd e ages to the Chie" artist o" a con"raternity 99+aster o" iving stones& Or the person %as si!p y ter!ed 5+agister Lapidu!'5 and he re"ers on both these points to so!e statutes o" the Corporation o" Scu ptors :uoted by 0ather de a ?a e& 0or the origin o" the "irst o" these ter!s consu t the Apocrypha books o" Her!as' but the ter! has !ore in it than appears on the sur"ace' "or in #ui d cere!onia the candidate had to undergo the sa!e treat!ent as the stone' %rought "ro! the rough to the per"ect& A!ateurs %ere received' "or the -;I< 5Charte Octroyie5 is :uoted by

the Aishop o" Aa e thus3 5The sa!e conditions app y to those %ho do not be ong the 5+etier'5 and %ho desire to enter the 0raternity&5 be ong the 5+etier'5 and %ho desire to enter the 0raternity&5 A 4riory o" the C unic order o" +onks %as "ounded in --I- at $ud ey by #ervase 4agne ' and they had others at Le%es' Cast eacre' and Aer!ondsey& A "ire having occurred at Canterbury' #ervasius' a Aenedictine +onk' in --BJ' consu ted 50rench and Eng ish Arti"icers'5 %ho disagreed in regard to the repair o" the structure& The account %hich #ervaise gives is high y interesting and instructing& The %ork %as given to (i ia! o" Sens' 5a !an active' ready' && and ski "u both in %ood and stone& && 5 5He de ivered !ode s "or shaping the stones' to the scu ptors5* he reconstructed the choir and !ade t%o ro%s' o" "ive pi ars on each side* but in the "i"th year he %as so in6ured by the "a o" his sca""o d that he had to appoint as deputy a young +onk 5as Overseer o" the +asons&5 (hen he "ound it necessary to return to 0rance the +asons %ere e"t to the oversight o" (i ia! the Eng ish!an' a !an 5s!a in body' but in %ork!anship o" !any kinds acute and CG-JD honest&5 The Nave %as co!p eted in --F<' and #ervaise in"or!s us that in the o d structure everything %as p ain and %rought 5%ith an a2e'5 but in the ne% e2:uisite y 5scu ptured %ith a chise &5 (e gather t%o points o" in"or!ation "ro! this account o" --I<* "irst %e have the in"or!ation that (i ia! o" Sens issued 5+ode s5 to the %ork!en' %hich e2p ains a a% o" the +asonic +SS& that no +aster shou d give 5!ou d5 or ru e to one not a !e!ber o" the Society* %e see' in the second p ace' that the chise %as superseding the a2e& (e %i a so !ention here that there is Charter evidence o" this century' that Christian the +ason' and La!bert the +arb e +ason had ands "ro! the Aishop o" $urha! "or services rendered& The "a o" Jerusa e! in --FB brought back "ro! the East !any artisans to the (est' %hose in" uence is traceab e in the ear y pointed sty e' or as it is ter!ed the 5Lancet'5 or 5Ear y Eng ish&5 A note%orthy !ove!ent' %hich e2tended to other countries had p ace in 0rance at this period& A shepherd o" the na!e o" Aene1et conceived the idea o" bui ding a bridge over the Rhone at Avignon* the bishop supported his sche!e &&

and superintended its erection bet%een --B-9FF& 8pon Aene1ets death' in --FJ' 4ope C e!ent 777& canonised hi!' and sanctioned a ne% 0raternity o" 0reres 4ontives 99bridge bui ders& 7n --F.' 0it1 A %ine' +ayor o" London' he d his "irst assi1e' "ro! %hich %e earn that the +aster Carpenters and +asons o" the City %ere to be s%orn not to pre6udice the ancient rights ordained o" the estates o" the City& Aet%een --F.9-;<J Aishop Lacey %as engaged in adding to (inchester Cathedra & There are re"erences %orthy o" note in Scot and at this ti!e& 7n --.< Aishop Joce yne obtained a Charter "ro! (i ia! the Lion to estab ish a 50raternity5 to assist in raising "unds %here%ith to erect the Cathedra o" # asgo%* it is supposed to i!p y the e2istence o" a band o" trave ing +asons& The sa!e bishop undertook the erection o" the Abbey o" Ei %inning& The Te!p ar CG-=D 4receptory o" Redd9Abbey Stead %as erected at the sa!e ti!e' and an ancient Lodge o" +asons e2isted here ast century& 7n the reign o" John' -;<<9-I' about "orty pious houses %ere erected& Hugh' Aishop o" Linco n' about -;<<' %rought %ith his o%n hands at the choir and transept o" the Cathedra ' the designs being by #au"rids de Noires' && 5constructor ecc esiae&5 The +asons+arks are nu!erous* and it is asserted

by Arother E!ra Ho !es that' "ro! the centra to%er' !ay be seen three arge "igures o" a !onk' a nun' and an ange ' each disp aying one o" the signs o" the three degrees o" +asonry& The Cathedra has a so an ancient stained g ass %indo%' %hich has the doub e triang es in "our out o" si2 spaces' an engraving o" %hich appears in the 5Historica Land!arks5 o" Arother #eorge O iver& Arother 0ort asserts that the +asons o" the !idd e ages !ust have received their technica education "ro! the 4riories' and that a tendency continua y revea s itse " to use the abstruse prob e!s o" #eo!etry as the basis o" phi osophica specu ations' thus b ending the visib e theore!s %ith unseen operations o" the spirit& He considers that the bui ding operations o" the +asons %ere canvassed in the Lodge and %orked out !athe!atica y' the p an o" the bui ding serving as the basis o" instruction& These vie%s !ean in t%o %ords that +asonry in a ti!es %as Operative and Specu ative' but the "igures o" a !onk' a nun' and an ange ' each disp aying one o" the signs o" the three degrees o" +asonry& The Cathedra has a so an ancient stained g ass %indo%' %hich has the doub e triang es in "our out o" si2 spaces' an engraving o" %hich appears in the 5Historica Land!arks5 o" Arother #eorge O iver& Arother 0ort asserts that the +asons o" the !idd e ages !ust have received their technica education "ro! the 4riories' and that a tendency continua y revea s itse " to use the abstruse prob e!s o" #eo!etry as the basis o" phi osophica specu ations' thus b ending the visib e theore!s %ith unseen operations o" the spirit& He considers that the bui ding operations o" the +asons %ere canvassed in the Lodge and %orked out !athe!atica y' the p an o" the bui ding serving as the basis o" instruction& These vie%s !ean in t%o %ords that +asonry in a ti!es %as Operative and Specu ative' but the && identica syste! prevai s to9day in so!e sti e2isting Stone +asons#ui ds& 7n -;<; #od"rey de Lucy' Aishop o" (inchester' "or!ed a 50raternity5 "or repairing his church during the "ive years ensuing& There is nothing to disc ose the nature o" these 0raternities* it !ay !ean no !ore than a co!!ittee "or && 0raternities o" the 0rench !ay have co ecting the !eans' possib y the +asters & given the idea& At this period #i bert de Everso de %as abouring at St& A bans Abbey' as the architect' and Hugh de #o dc i""e is ca ed a deceit"u %ork!an& 7n -;<J the Abbey o" Aeau ieu in Hants %as "ounded by Eing John' and CG-ID $urandus' a +aster e!p oyed on the Cathedra o" Rouen' ca!e over to it by

re:uest& 7n -;<. London Aridge' %hich %as begun by 4eter de Co church' %as co!p eted& There is a s ab' o" this period' in the transept o" +arton Church' (&R& Yorkshire' %hich has upon it a Ca vary cross' a cross9hi ted s%ord' and a && +asons s:uare and eve ' pointing to the union o" ar!s' re igion' and art& 7n -;-; a& second Assi1e %as he d in London by +ayor 0it1 A %yne' %hen o%ing to a great "ire it %as thought necessary to "i2 the %ages& At this ti!e a horse or co% cou d be bought "or "our shi ings& +asons %ere granted Gd& per day %ith "ood' or J -R;d& %ithout* Labourers had - -R;d& or Gd&* cutters o" "reestone ; -R;d& or Jd&* the ter!s used are 5Ce!entarii'5 and 5Scu ptores apida! Liberoru!&5 John died in -;-I' and +atthe% o" 4aris' and others' %rite his epitaph3 5(ho !ourns' or sha ever !ourn' the death o" Eing John 5* 5He ' %ith a its po utions' is po uted by the sou o" John&5 ,i& ;FF/ 7n the reign o" Henry 777&' -;-I9B;' thirty9t%o pious houses %ere erected' and && the Te!p ars bui t their $o!us $ei at $over& The beginning o" this Eings reign is the period %hen Lay!en' e!ancipating the!se ves "ro! the +onasteries' co!e to the "ront as bui ders' and eaders o" %orking +asons& 7t is a so the co!!ence!ent o" a !ore high y "inished sty e o" pointed #othic introduced by the +asons %ho returned "ro! 4a estine& $uring this reign " ourished the ce ebrated 0riar Roger Aacon' %ho' as !e!ber o" a s%orn "raternity' gave hi!se " to the investigation o" the hidden things o" nature and science& 7n the reign o" Henry 777& the +onks o" Teign!outh raised a !asterpiece o" architecture in their ne% conventua church' %hich they co!p eted by -;;<' and %ere engaged in constant contention %ith the c ai!s to 6urisdiction o" the Aishops o" $urha!* and then "o o%ed disputes %ith the burgesses o" && Ne%cast e' o%ing to the +onks "ostering the trade o" North Shie ds& The 4riors o""icers %ere in the habit o" !eeting those o" the co!!on CG-BD a% on the hi

o" #ateshead' or beneath a spreading oak in Northu!ber and' %hen they ca!e to ho d assi1es in Ne%cast e& a spreading oak in Northu!ber and' %hen they ca!e to ho d assi1es in Ne%cast e& 7n -;;< the "oundation o" Sa isbury Cathedra %as aid by Aishop 4oore* Robert %as +aster +ason' and He ias de Aerha!' one o" the Canons' e!p oyed hi!se " on the structure& 7ts base is the 4atriarcha cross' its erection occupied GF years' and it is the on y #othic cathedra in Eng and bui t in one sty e o" architecture& The "ive9pointed star is "ound in the tracery o" the arcades' and heads o" G; %indo%s' and the e:ui atera triang e is the basic design o" the parapet& 7n -;;< 4eter' Aishop o" (inchester' eve ed the "ootstone o" && So o!ons porch in (est!inster Abbey& He is the sa!e person as 4eter de Rupibus' a native o" 4oictiers' %ho served %ith Coeur de Lion in 4a estine' and %as knighted by hi!' created Aishop o" (inchester in -;<J' Chie" Justice in -;-J' %ent on a 4i gri!age to 4a estine and returned in -;G-& A!ongst his architectura abours is a $o!inican convent in (inchester* the Abbey o" 4itch"ie d* part o" Net ey Abbey* a pious house at Joppa* and the $o!us $ei in 4orts!outh& He died in -;GF' and his e""igy' %hich is a recu!bent "igure in (inchester Cathedra ' has the right hand on the e"t breast' and his e"t hand c asping a book&MMArs Luat& Cor&NN && 0ro! -;GG9=B the 5C ose Ro s5 give nu!erous detai s o" the Eings +asons %ho %ere e!p oyed at #ui d"ord' (oodstock' and (est!inster& 7n -;=G the Eing had consu tations %ith +asons' 50ranci et Ang i&5 7t is a so the period o" origin o" the 5#eo!etrica 5 sty e& There is a docu!ent o" -;=F %hich' though 0rench' has an i!portant bearing on Eng ish +asonic egends' re"erring a!ongst other things to Char es +arte ' and %hich' though traditiona ' %as accepted as su""icient to secure i!portant "reedo!s& 7n this year Stephen Aoi eau' 4rovost o" the Corporation o" 4aris' co!pi ed a code o" 5Regu ations concerning the arts and trades o" 4aris' CG-FD based upon the State!ents o" the +asters o" #ui ds'5 and a!ongst these %e "ind the "o o%ing in regard to the +asons' %hich gives the! a doub e tit e to the ter! 50ree'5 "or they %ere "ree9stone cutters and "ree o" certain duties3 22i& The +asons ,5+acons5/ and p asterers are ob iged to do guard duty' and pay ta2es' and render such other services as the other citi1ens o" 4aris o%e to their Eing& 22ii& The +ortar9+akers are "ree o" guard duty' as a so every stone9cutter since the ti!e o" Char es +arte ' as the ancients ,54rudo !es5 or %ise !en/ have heard' "ro! "ather to son&5 The :uestion arises here %hether +asons and setters' %ho' %ere not "ree o" duty' though cutters and scu ptors %ere' use the ter! Caro us Secundus in Eng and as a c ai! "or the +asons and Setters& The 4rudo!es %ere the (ardens under the 5+aster

%ho ru es the Cra"t'5 and %e are "urther to d that this +aster had taken his oath o" service at the 4a ace' and a"ter%ards be"ore the 4rovost o" 4aris& 7t is && a so said that' a"ter si2 years service the Apprentice appeared be"ore 5the +aster %ho keeps the Cra"t'5 in order to s%ear 5by the Saints'5 to con"or! to Cra"t usage& He thus beca!e a Journey!an' or Co!panion' but cou d not beco!e a +aster' and undertake the entire erection o" a bui ding' unti he had co!p eted such a 5+aster94iece5 as %as appointed hi!' and %hich entai ed && !uch out ay* but i" this %as 4assed he beca!e a !e!ber o" the 5+asters0raternity&5 The di""erence bet%een the Sa2on and the 0rench custo! appears to be this3 that %hi st in the "or!er case the acceptance o" a +aster rested %ith the sa!e Asse!b y as that to %hich the Journey!an be onged' in the atter && case the +asters0raternity %as no% a separate body' %ith independent a%s&

The custo! o" +ontpe ier' according to docu!ents printed by Arother R& 0& #ou d' %ou d see! to have deve oped so!e%hat di""erent y& Here' a"ter an Apprentice had served three years' he %as p aced "or another "our years to serve as a Journey!an' under a +aster& At the end o" this period he !ight present his +aster9piece' and i" it %as approved he took the oath to CG-.D the 4rovosts and on y such s%orn +aster %as per!itted to erect a bui ding "ro! the base!ent* but it %as a o%ab e "or a Journey!an to undertake s!a repairs& Thus as city custo!s varied con"usion !ust at ti!es have arisen in 6ourneying abroad& There is !ention in -;FB' %hen the Cathedra o" 8psa a in S%eden %as begun' that Etienne de Aonneui took %ith hi! "ro! 4aris 5ten +aster +asons and ten Apprentices5* possib y so!e o" the +asters or so!e o" the Apprentices' %ere %hat %e ca 0e o%s' but there is nothing to %arrant any c assi"ication& 7t is i!portant to she% the secret nature and the i!port o" the #ou d' %ou d see! to have deve oped so!e%hat di""erent y& Here' a"ter an Apprentice had served three years' he %as p aced "or another "our years to serve as a Journey!an' under a +aster& At the end o" this period he !ight present his +aster9piece' and i" it %as approved he took the oath to CG-.D the 4rovosts and on y such s%orn +aster %as per!itted to erect a bui ding "ro! the base!ent* but it %as a o%ab e "or a Journey!an to undertake s!a repairs& Thus as city custo!s varied con"usion !ust at ti!es have arisen in 6ourneying abroad& There is !ention in -;FB' %hen the Cathedra o" 8psa a in S%eden %as begun' that Etienne de Aonneui took %ith hi! "ro! 4aris 5ten +aster +asons and ten Apprentices5* possib y so!e o" the +asters or so!e o" the Apprentices' %ere %hat %e ca 0e o%s' but there is nothing to %arrant any c assi"ication& 7t is i!portant to she% the secret nature and the i!port o" the 0rench organisation' and 0raternities' and %e :uote the "o o%ing "ro! Arother && J& #& 0inde s 5History o" 0ree!asonry53 995The 50raternities5 e2isting as ear y as the year --F. %ere prohibited by the Counci o" Rouen ,5cap&5 ;=/* and the sa!e %as !ost c ear y e2pressed at the Counci o" Avignon in the year -G;I' %here ,5cap&5 GB/ it is said that the !e!bers o" the 0raternity !et annua y' bound the!se ves by oath !utua y to ove and assist each other' %ore a costu!e' had certain %e kno%n and characteristic signs and countersigns' and chose a president ,5+a6ore!5/ %ho! they pro!ised to obey&5 Nothing very vi e in this& 7n -;J; 4rior +e sonby !ade additions to $urha! Cathedra ' and others %ere !ade by Aishop 0arnha! be"ore -;JB' and by 4rior Hoghton about -;.<& At Ne%cast e the church o" A Saints %as "ounded be"ore -;.I' and that o" St& John in the sa!e century& The church o" St& Nicho as %as rebui t in the -Jth century' but the present to%er on y dates "ro! the ti!e o" Henry ?7& C ave says that the sea o" Er%in de Steinbach' Chie" +aster o" Co ogne' -;B=' bears the s:uare and co!passes %ith the etter #&

Turning to the North o" Eng and %e "ind that at York in --B-' --;B' -;J-' and -;.-' the choir' south transept' and nave o" the +inster %ere either co!p eted or in course o" erection' and the %ork!anship is in"inite y superior to ater portions o" the bui ding& 7n -;B< the ne% church o" CG;<D the Abbey o" St& +ary in York %as begun by the Abbot Si!on de (ar%ick' %ho %as seated in a chair %ith a tro%e in his hand and the %ho e convent standing around hi!& There is a so a $eed o" -;BB %ith the sea o" (a ter $i2i' Ce!entarius' de Aerne%e e' %hich conveys ands to his son La%rence* the egend is 5S& (a ter e +asun'5 surrounding a ha!!er bet%een a ha "9!oon and a "ive9pointed star& 7n this sa!e year' -;BB' 4ope Nicho as 77& is credited %ith etters patent to the +asons con"ir!ing the "reedo!s and privi eges' said to have been granted by Aoni"ace 7?& in I-J* i" such a Au %as issued' it has escaped discovery in recent ti!es& 7n these so!e%hat dry bui ding detai s it %i have been noticed that re"erences are !ade to 0rench designers' and to consu tation %ith 0rench and Eng ish +asons' and %ith this enor!ous a!ount o" bui ding there !ust necessari y have been a constant i!portation o" 0rench +asons' %ith the introduction o" 0rench custo!s& On the sy!bo is! o" this period there are so!e interesting particu ars in the 5Rationa e5 o" Aishop $urandus' %ho died in -;.I& The 5ti es5 signi"y the & protectors o" the church* the 5%inding9staircase5 5i!itated "ro! So o!on s

te!p e5 the hidden kno% edge* the 5stones5 are the "aith"u ' those at the corners being !ost ho y* the 5ce!ent5 is charity* the 5s:uared stones5 ho y and pure have une:ua burdens to bear* the 5"oundation5 is "aith* the 5roo"5 charity* the 5door5 obedience* the 5pave!ent5 hu!i ity* the "our 5side %a s5 6ustice' "ortitude' te!perance' prudence* hence the Apoca ypse saith 5the city ieth "our s:uare&5MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 2' p& I<&NN The custo! is Hindu' 0rench' Aritish& corners being !ost ho y* the 5ce!ent5 is charity* the 5s:uared stones5 ho y and pure have une:ua burdens to bear* the 5"oundation5 is "aith* the 5roo"5 charity* the 5door5 obedience* the 5pave!ent5 hu!i ity* the "our 5side %a s5 6ustice' "ortitude' te!perance' prudence* hence the Apoca ypse saith 5the city ieth "our s:uare&5MM5Ars Luat& Cor&'5 2' p& I<&NN The custo! is Hindu' 0rench' Aritish& 7n a paper recent y read be"ore one o" the earned Societies 4ro"essor T& Hayter Le%is has she%n that the bui ders o" the ear y 54ointed #othic 5o" the -Gth century %ere o" a di""erent schoo to those %ho preceded the! in the -;th && century* he she%s that the +asons!arks' the sty e' and the !ethods o" too ing the stones' di""er "ro! the o der %ork' and %hi st the o der %as %rought %ith diagona too ing' the ater %as upright CG;-D %ith a c a% ad1e& He traces these changes in !ethods and !arks through 4a estine to 4hoenicia& This ne% sty e' he considers' %as brought into this country by +asons %ho had earned && it a!ongst the Saracens' and though +asons!arks %ere in use in this country ong be"ore they %ere no% "urther deve oped on the Eastern syste!&MM57bid'5 iii' a so v' p& ;.INN There is as %e tangib e evidence o" the presence o" Orienta +asons in this country* t%o %ooden e""igies' said to be o" the ti!e o" the Crusades' %ere "or!er y in the +anor house o" (ooburn in Auckingha!shire' o" %hich dra%ings %ere she%n to the Society o" Anti:uaries in -F-J' and have recent y been engraved in 5Ars Luatuor Coronatoru!&5MM57bid'5 viii& -F.=&NN These e""igies are i"e si1e' one represents an o d !an %ith :uadrant and sta""' the other a young !an %ith s:uare and co!passes' and 5the attire' headdress' and even "eatures' indicate Asiatic origina s&5 7t has been thought that the +oorish A ha!bra at #renada && indicates the presence o" 4ersian +asons' and %e "ind the trans ator o" Tassos 5Jerusa e! $e ivered5 in every case substitutes the %ord +acon "or +oha!!ed' but this is on y a provincia abbreviation "or +ao!etto& Though supported in a superior !anner' the theory o" 4ro"essor Hayter Le%is is not ne% to 0ree!asonry' as in the -Bth century Sir (!& $ugda e' Sir Chris& (ren' and others "i2 upon the reign o" Eing Henry 777& as the period %hen the Society o" 0ree!asons %as introduced into Eng and by Trave ing +asons'

protected by 4apa Au s' and (ren is said to have added his be ie" that pointed #othic %as o" Saracenic origin' and that the bands resided in Huts near the erection upon %hich they %ere %orking' and had a (arden over every ten !en& Aut E ias Ash!o e he d that %hi st such a reorganisation actua y took p ace' it %as upon a Ro!an "oundation& $ugda e probab y derived his vie%s "ro! so!e !onastic docu!ent' or tradition' %hi st Ash!o e as a +ason' %ith better in"or!ation "o o%ed the o d +S& Constitutions' as %e CG;;D have done in these chapters& Arother #ou d is o" opinion that the a eged Au s %ere given to the Aenedictines and other !onkish "raternities %ho %ere bui ders' and that they on y app y to +asons as !e!bers' or ay brothers o" the +onasteries* and' %e !ay add' Te!p ars& 7t !ust be c ear to a %ho have eyes to see' that %ith this i!portation into Eng and o" the "oreign e e!ent a ne% series o" egends %ere engra"ted upon&the origina si!p e account o" the o d Eng ish +asons& Such are the Charges o" Ni!rod' o" $avid and So o!on' and o" Char es +arte ' and though %e have no +SS& o" this period to con"ir! us' there is no doubt that they are o" this period* e:ua y %e have no conte!porary te2t o" the Charges by %hich the ne% y i!ported +asons %ere ru ed& The in"or!ation a ready given enab es us to see

that there %as a di""erence both in egends and a%s bet%een the t%o e e!ents and that it %as a sectarian di""erence& and that it %as a sectarian di""erence& Eng ish +SS&' o" !ore !odern date' re"er to 5Aooks o" Charges'5 %here those o" Ni!rod' o" So o!on' o" St& A ban' and o" Athe stan are inc uded' and i" they actua y e2isted' as %e see no reason to doubt' they %ere o" this century& +oreover the re"erences to Caro us Secundus' or to Char es +arte ' !ust be o" this period ,though there can be no doubt that this re"ers to Caro us +agnus or Char e!agne/ as s!a i!portations o" 0rench +asons in Sa2on ti!es %ou d not have in" uenced the o der egends' nor stood a chance o" adoption by the Eng ish& 7n regard to the a%s by %hich the 0rench +asons %ere governed' %e are' ho%ever' in"or!ed in the !ore !ode! +SS& that they di""ered but itt e' or 5%ere "ound a one5 %ith the Ro!an' Aritish' and Sa2on Charges& 7t is very evident that the ear y "oreign e e!ent had a Charge o" their o%n re"erring to Ni!rod' $avid' So o!on' and Char es o" 0rance' app icab e to their o%n cere!onies' and that in Eng and' they united there%ith the 5Charges5 o" Euc id' St& A ban' and Athe stan in a heterogeneous !anner* and these are "ound in t%o' or !ore' +SS& to %hich %e re"er CG;GD ater' as having been approved by Eing Henry ?7&' and a"ter%ards !ade the genera a%& There is one piece o" evidence %hich !ight enab e us to sett e certain di""icu t points i" %e cou d re y upon it& 4ro"essor +arks' a earned Je%' has stated that he sa% in one o" the pub ic ibraries o" this country a Co!!entary upon the Eoran o" the -Jth century' %ritten in the Arabic anguage' %ith Hebre% characters' re"erring according to his vie%' to 0ree +asonry' and %hich contained an anagra!!atica sentence o" %hich each ine has one o" the etters +& O& C& H&' and %hich he reads3 5(e have "ound our Lord Hira!5 ,Chira!/* but the $ervish Sects have a si!i ar phrase' %hich %ou d read3 5(e have "ound in our Lord rest5 ,Eeri!' or Cheri!/& (e !ust there"ore ho d our !inds in reserve unti the book has been re9"ound and e2a!ined& 7n any case it see!s to add a ink to the chain o" evidence as to the Orienta origin o" 5our present Rites&5 (e !ay "ee assured that the +asons %ho returned "ro! the Ho y9 and %ere o" a c ass ca cu ated to !ake a !arked i!pression on the Society& The %ord to %hich the "oregoing a udes' in !odern Arabic' !ight be trans ated 5Chi d o" the Strong one&5 Severa !odern %riters' both +asons and non9 +asons' ho d to the opinion that there %ere t%o Artists at the bui ding o" && So o!ons te!p e3 Hura! the Abiv' %ho began the %ork' and Hira! the son' %ho co!p eted %hat his "ather had to eave undone& Succoth' %here the brass orna!ents "or the Te!p e %ere cast' signi"ies Aooths or Lodges' and 7saradatha !eans sorro% or troub e&MM?ide 5Light "ro! the Lebanon Lodge&5 Joe Nash&NN Josephus says that Hira! %as son o" a %o!an o" the tribe o" Naptha i' and that his "ather %as 8r o" the 7srae ites& The account that %e have o" hi!' in the Aib e' is that he %as e2pert in dyeing' and in %orking in go d' and in brass* %hich !akes hi! a che!ist and !eta urgist' rather than a +ason& There %ere !any Arts in %hich the ancients %ere our superiors& A very i!portant CG;JD

ecture on this point has recent y appeared "ro! the pen o" the Rev& Aro& +& Rosenbau!& A"ter this ong digression %e %i return to architecture in genera & +r& (yatt 4ap%orth points out the use o" the ter! 7ngeniator' in various docu!ents' bet%een --I<9-G<< re"erring to cast es repaired or constructed& So!e o" these %ere undoubted y Architects and not Engineers' %hose duties %ere the construction o" %ar ike !achines* and though gunpo%der had not yet co!e

into use in this country' the connection %ith +asoning !ight' at a ater period' ead to the introduction o" +arcus #raecus into our +SS& eriod' ead to the introduction o" +arcus #raecus into our +SS& 7n the reign o" Ed%ard 7&' -;B;9-G<B' +erton Co ege in O2"ord' the cathedra o" Nor%ich and t%enty pious houses %ere "ounded* the nob e #othic sty e had reached its c i!a2& Aet%een -;.-9J severa crosses %ere erected* and there are !entions o" +asons %ho %ere e!p oyed by the Eing' so!e ite!s o" e2pense re"er to ti!ber' 5to !ake a Lodge "or +aster +ichae and his +asons&5 4eter de Cava ini designed the 5E eanor Crosses*5 the one in Cheapside %as begun by Richard de Cru!b e' and co!p eted by Roger de Cru!b e* it %as o" three stories' decorated %ith Niches having Statues e2ecuted by A e2ander e 7!aginator& A sti !ore beauti"u one %as the Charing Cross& 0ro! -;.<-G<< (est Eirkby Church %as bui ding' and the +arks are recorded by Arother Ry ands' as %e as those o" Eastha!' and Se"ton Churches&MM5Ars Luat& Cor&5 vii&NN 7n -G<< Henry the +onk' surna!ed Latho!' Lato!us' 99+ason or Stone9cutter' rebui t part o" the Abbey o" Evesha!& 7n -G<G the +ayor and ;J A der!en o" London' !ade ordinances "or the regu ation o" the Carpenters' +asons and abourers* the +ayor %as #regory de Rokes ie' and the +a1ounes +estres' or +aster +asons' and +aster Carpenters are !entioned' in con6unction %ith their servants& 0ro! -G<F9;I (i ia! Aoyden %as e!p oyed in erecting The Chape o" the ?irgin at the Abbey o" St& A bans& CG;=D 7n the reign o" Ed%ard 77&' -G<B9;B' E2eter and Orie Co eges in O2"ord' C are && Ha in Ca!bridge' and eight pious houses %ere bui t& $uring this Eings reign %e have the advent o" the 5Curvi inear'5 or 5$ecorated5 sty e' %hich he d its ground "or near a century& 7n -G-G the Enights Te!p ars %ere suppressed %ith great bruta ity in 0rance* in Eng and their property %as con"iscated to the Enights o" St& John' their eading 4receptories being at London' (ar%ick' (a sden' Linco n' Lindsey' Ao ingbroke' (idine' Agerstone' York' Te!p e9 So%erby' Ca!bridge' etc&* they %ere distributed throughout the +onasteries' or 6oined the Enights o" St& John* those o" York had enient treat!ent by Archbishop #reen"ie d' and %ere re egated to St& +ary && s ad6acent to the Cu dee hospita o" St& Leonard& Their Lay brethren' a!ongst %ho! %ou d be a nu!erous body o" +asons' %ere iberated* a circu!stance "ro! %hich !ight spring !ore than a traditiona connection& So!e o" the Enights returned to

Lay occupations' and even !arried to the great annoyance o" the 4ope& 7n Scot and the Enights' aided in their ai!s by the %ars bet%een that country and Eng and' retained their 4receptories and though they see! to have united %ith the Order o" St& John in -JI= they %ere as o"ten distinguished by one na!e as the other& The Aurg9 a%s o" Stir ing have the "o o%ing in -J<=' 995Na Te!p ar sa intro!et %ith any !erchandise or gudes pertaining to the gi de' be buying and se ing' %ithin or %ithout their a%n ands' but gi"" he be ane gi de brother&5MM50ree!& +ag&5 2vi' p& G-&NN Thus i!p ying that the Enights had actua !e!bership %ith the #ui ds& The Te!p ars' at the ike date ,-JI</ are !entioned in Hungary&MM+a c1ovich 995Ars Luat' Cor&5 Yarker& A so -.<J' p& ;J<&NN 7n 4ortuga their innocence o" the charges brought against the! %as accepted' but to p ease the 4ope their na!e %as changed to Enights o" Christ& 7n an o d Hungarian to%n' %here the Te!p ars once %ere' the Ar!s are a %hee && on %hich is the Aaptists head on a charger& CG;ID

A bishop o" $urha!' circa -;.=9-G<< na!ed Aeke had re:uired !ore than the accusto!ed !i itary service "ro! the tenants o" St& Cuthbert' %ho p eaded the privi eges o" 5Ha y9%erk "o c' not to !arch beyond the Tees or Tyne'5 and Surtees e2p ains that 5Ha y%erk "o c or ho y%ork peop e' %hose business' to %it' %as to de"end the ho y body o" St& Cuthbert' in ieu o" a other service5MM5Hist& $urha!' #en &5 222iii&NN' are here a uded to' but o" Cu dee origina the ter! i!p ied an art origin& Sir Ja!es $a ry!p e' speaking o" Scot and' says' 995The Cu dees continued ti the beginning o" the -Jth century' up to %hich ti!e they contended "or their ancient rights' not on y in opposition to the %ho e po%er o" the pri!acy' but the additiona support o" papa authority&5 Noted Lodges e2ist "ro! o d ti!es at Cu dee seats' such as Ei %inning' +e rose' Aberdeen' and as the period %hen this %as she%n %as that o" the suppression o" the Te!p ars' and the Scotch genera y never a o%ed the!se ves to be 4ope9ridden' %e have one reason %hy the na!e o" Te!p ar %as continued in that country& There %as every%here a gro%ing discontent against the Church o" Ro!e secret y indicated' even in the art o" the +asonic Soda ities& 7saac $israe i a udes to it in his 5Curiosities o" Literature&5 7n his Chapter entit ed' 5E2pression o" Suppressed Opinion'5 he states that scu ptors' and i u!inators' shared these opinions' %hich the !u titude dare not e2press' 9-G<< na!ed Aeke had re:uired !ore than the accusto!ed !i itary service "ro! the tenants o" St& Cuthbert' %ho p eaded the privi eges o" 5Ha y9%erk "o c' not to !arch beyond the Tees or Tyne'5 and Surtees e2p ains that 5Ha y%erk "o c or ho y%ork peop e' %hose business' to %it' %as to de"end the ho y body o" St& Cuthbert' in ieu o" a other service5MM5Hist& $urha!' #en &5 222iii&NN' are here a uded to' but o" Cu dee origina the ter! i!p ied an art origin& Sir Ja!es $a ry!p e' speaking o" Scot and' says' 995The Cu dees continued ti the beginning o" the -Jth century' up to %hich ti!e they contended "or their ancient rights' not on y in opposition to the %ho e po%er o" the pri!acy' but the additiona support o" papa authority&5 Noted Lodges e2ist "ro! o d ti!es at Cu dee seats' such as Ei %inning' +e rose' Aberdeen' and as the period %hen this %as she%n %as that o" the suppression o" the Te!p ars' and the Scotch genera y never a o%ed the!se ves to be 4ope9ridden' %e have one reason %hy the na!e o" Te!p ar %as continued in that country& There %as every%here a gro%ing discontent against the Church o" Ro!e secret y indicated' even in the art o" the +asonic Soda ities& 7saac $israe i a udes to it in his 5Curiosities o" Literature&5 7n his Chapter entit ed' 5E2pression o" Suppressed Opinion'5 he states that scu ptors' and i u!inators' shared these opinions' %hich the !u titude dare not e2press' but %hich the designers e!bodied in their %ork& (o "ius' in -G<< !entions' as && in the Abbey o" 0u da' the picture o" a %o " in a +onk s co% preaching to a " ock o" sheep' and the egend' 5#od is !y %itness' ho% 7 ong "or you a in !y

bo%e s&5 A cushion %as "ound in an o d Abbey' on %hich %as e!broidered a "o2 preaching to a " ock o" geese' each %ith a rosary in its !outh& On the stone %ork and co u!ns o" the great church at Argentine' as o d as -G<<' %ere scu ptured %o ves' bears' "o2es' and other ani!a s carrying ho y9%ater' cruci"i2es' and tapers' and other things !ore inde icate& 7n a !agni"icent CG;BD i u!inated Chronic e o" 0roissart is inscribed severa si!i ar sub6ects' 99a %o " && in a +onk s co% stretching out its pa% to b ess a cock* a "o2 dropping beads %hich a cock is picking up& 7n other cases a 4ope ,%e hope C e!ent ?&/ is being thrust by devi s into a cau dron' and Cardina s are roasting on spits& He adds that' at a ater period' the Re"or!ation produced nu!erous pictures o" the sa!e c ass in %hich each party satirised the other& Over the entrance to the Church o" St& #enevieve' says Ja!es #rant in 5Captain o" the #uard5 ,ch& 222iii&/' at Ao!!e is the scu pture o" !itred cat preaching to t%e ve itt e !ice& There is a so!e%hat indecent carving at Strat"ord upon Avon& The 7ncorporated Society o" Science' Letters' and Art' in its Journa o" January' -.<;' contains a paper by +r& T& Tinda (i dbridge upon the ideographic orna!entation o" #othic bui dings& He observes that there %ere +asons %ho possessed the tradition o" ancient sy!bo ic "or!u a' and that %hi st the O y!pic +ytho ogy is a !ost ignored' the 5Sub6ect being ,by the!/ derived "ro! the Hodiaca syste!'5 and it is' he observes' that this sy!bo isation' o"ten satirica ' ho ds p ace on e:ua ter!s %ith the ackno% edged church e!b e!s& He instances so!e o" these at O2"ord and e se%here' one o" %hich is the sy!bo o" Horus in his she ' and in a second instance reproduced as a 5"o25 %ith a bott e o" ho y %ater& The a tar o" the Church o" $oberan in +eck enburg e2hibits the priests grinding dog!as out o" a !i & 7n -G;; A an de (a singha! restored E y' hi!se " p anning and %orking at the bui ding& The -G;; (i o" +agist