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Daftar simbol matematika

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Dalam matematika sering digunakan simbol-simbol yang umum dikenal oleh matematikawan. Sering kali pengertian simbol ini tidak dijelaskan, karena dianggap maknanya telah diketahui. Hal ini kadang menyulitkan bagi mereka yang awam. Daftar berikut ini berisi banyak simbol beserta artinya.

Simbol matematika dasar


Nama

Simbol

Dibaca sebagai

Penjelasan

Contoh

Kategori

Kesamaan x = y berarti x and y mewakili hal atau nilai yang sama.

sama dengan

1+1=2

umum

Ketidaksamaan x y berarti x dan y tidak mewakili hal atau nilai yang sama.

tidak sama dengan

12

umum

Ketidaksamaan

< >

lebih kecil dari; lebih besar dari

x < y berarti x lebih kecil dari y. x > y means x lebih besar dari y.

3<4 5>4

order theory

Ketidaksamaan

x y berarti x lebih kecil lebih kecil dari dari atau sama dengan y. atau sama 3 4 and 5 5 dengan, lebih x y berarti x lebih 5 4 and 5 5 besar dari atau besar dari atau sama sama dengan dengan y. order theory

Perjumlahan 4 + 6 berarti jumlah antara 4 dan 6.

tambah

2+7=9

aritmatika

disjoint union A1={1,2,3,4} A2={2,4,5,7} A1 + A2 = {(1,1), (2,1), (3,1), (4,1), (2,2), (4,2), (5,2), (7,2)}

the disjoint union of and

A1 + A2 means the disjoint union of sets A1 and A2.

teori himpunan

Perkurangan 9 4 berarti 9 dikurangi 83=5 4.

kurang

aritmatika

tanda negatif 3 berarti negatif dari angka 3.

negatif

(5) = 5

aritmatika

set-theoretic complement A B berarti himpunan yang mempunyai semua {1,2,4} {1,3,4} = minus; without anggota dari A yang {2} tidak terdapat pada B. set theory

multiplication 3 4 berarti perkalian 3 7 8 = 56 oleh 4.

kali

aritmatika

Cartesian product

the Cartesian product of

XY means the set of all ordered pairs with the {1,2} {3,4} = first element of each pair {(1,3),(1,4),(2,3),(2,4)} selected from X and the second element selected

and ; the from Y. direct product of and

teori himpunan

cross product u v means the cross (1,2,5) (3,4,1) = product of vectors u and (22, 16, 2) v

cross

vector algebra

division

bagi 6 3 atau 6/3 berati 6 dibagi 3.

2 4 = .5 12/4 = 3

/
aritmatika square root x berarti bilangan positif yang kuadratnya x.

akar kuadrat

4 = 2

bilangan real

complex square root if z = r exp(i) is represented in polar coordinates with - < the complex , then z = r square root of; exp(i/2). square root (-1) = i

Bilangan kompleks

absolute value |x| means the distance in the real line (or the |3| = 3, |-5| = |5| complex plane) between |i| = 1, |3+4i| = 5 x and zero.

||

nilai mutlak dari

numbers

factorial n! adalah hasil dari 12...n.

faktorial

4! = 1 2 3 4 = 24

combinatorics

probability distribution X ~ D, means the has random variable X has distribution; the probability tidk terhingga distribution D. X ~ N(0,1), the standard normal distribution

statistika

material implication

implies; if .. then

A B means if A is true then B is also true; if A x = 2 x2 = 4 is true, is false then nothing is but x2 = 4 x = 2 is said about B. in general false (since x could be 2). may mean the same as , or it may have the

meaning for functions given below.

propositional may mean the same as logic , or it may have the meaning for superset given below.

material equivalence

A B means A is true if if and only if; x + 5 = y +2 x + B is true and A is false if iff 3=y B is false. propositional logic

logical negation

not

The statement A is true if and only if A is false. (A) A x y (x = y)

A slash placed through another operator is the same as "" placed in propositional front. logic

logical conjunction or meet in a lattice

and

The statement A B is true if A and B are both true; else it is false.

n < 4 n >2 n = 3 when n is a natural number.

propositional logic, lattice theory

logical disjunction or join in a lattice

The statement A B is true if A or B (or both) propositional are true; if both are false, logic, lattice the statement is false. \ theory

n4 n2 n 3 when n is a natural number.

xor


||exclusive or universal quantification

propositional logic, Boolean algebra

The statement A B is true when either A or B, but not both, are true. AB means the same.

(A) A is always true, A A is always false.

! :=

x: P(x) means P(x) is for all; for any; true for all x. for each predicate logic

n N: n2 n.

existential quantification there exists predicate logic uniqueness quantification there exists exactly one predicate logic definition

x: P(x) means there is at least one x such that P(x) is true.

n N: n is even.

! x: P(x) means there is exactly one x such that ! n N: n + 5 = 2n. P(x) is true.

x := y or x y means x is defined to be another cosh x := (1/2)(exp x + is defined as name for y (but note that exp (x)) can also mean other things, such as A XOR B : everywhere congruence). (A B) (A B) P : Q means P is

:
set brackets

defined to be logically equivalent to Q. {a,b,c} means the set N = {0,1,2,...} consisting of a, b, and c.

{,} {:} {|} {}

the set of ... teori himpunan set builder notation the set of ... such that ... teori himpunan himpunan kosong himpunan kosong teori himpunan set membership is an element of; is not an element of everywhere, teori himpunan subset is a subset of

{x : P(x)} means the set of all x for which P(x) is {n N : n2 < 20} = true. {x | P(x)} is the {0,1,2,3,4} same as {x : P(x)}.

berarti himpunan yang tidak memiliki elemen. {n N : 1 < n2 < 4} = {} juga berarti hal yang sama.

a S means a is an (1/2)1 N element of the set S; a S means a is not an 21 N element of S.

A B means every element of A is also element of B.

A B A; Q R

teori himpunan A B means A B but A B. superset A B means every element of B is also is a superset of element of A. teori himpunan A B means A B but A B. set-theoretic union A B means the set that contains all the elements AB AB=B the union of ... from A and also all those and ...; union from B, but no others.

A B B; R Q

teori himpunan set-theoretic intersection A B means the set that contains all those {x R : x2 = 1} N = intersected elements that A and B {1} with; intersect have in common. teori himpunan

set-theoretic complement

A \ B means the set that contains all those minus; without elements of A that are not in B. teori himpunan

{1,2,3,4} \ {3,4,5,6} = {1,2}

function application of

f(x) berarti nilai fungsi f pada elemen x.

Jika f(x) := x2, maka f(3) = 32 = 9.

()

teori himpunan precedence grouping umum function arrow Perform the operations inside the parentheses first. (8/4)/2 = 2/2 = 1, but 8/(4/2) = 8/2 = 4.

f:XY
o

from ... to teori himpunan function composition

f: X Y means the Let f: Z N be function f maps the set X defined by f(x) = x2. into the set Y.

fog is the function, such composed with that (fog)(x) = f(g(x)). teori himpunan

if f(x) = 2x, and g(x) = x + 3, then (fog)(x) = 2(x + 3).

Bilangan asli

N Z

N berarti {0,1,2,3,...}, but see the article on natural numbers for a Bilangan different convention. N Bilangan bulat Z Bilangan Bilangan

{|a| : a Z} = N

Z berarti {a : |a| N} = Z {...,3,2,1,0,1,2,3,...}.

Q berarti {p/q : p,q Z, 3.14 Q

Q R C

rasional Q Bilangan Bilangan real R Bilangan Bilangan kompleks C Bilangan infinity

q 0}.

R berarti {limn an : n N: an Q, the limit exists}.

R (1) R

C means {a + bi : a,b R}.

i = (1) C

is an element of the extended number line infinity that is greater than all real numbers; it often numbers occurs in limits. berarti perbandingan (rasio) antara keliling lingkaran dengan Euclidean diameternya. geometry pi

limx0 1/|x| =

pi

norm

A = r adalah luas lingkaran dengan jarijari (radius) r

|| ||

||x|| is the norm of the norm of; length element x of a normed of vector space. linear algebra summation

||x+y|| ||x|| + ||y||

4 k2 = 12 + 22 + sum over ... k=1n ak means a1 + a2 + 2k=1 2 3 +4 =1+4+9+ from ... to ... of ... + an. 16 = 30 aritmatika product k=14 (k + 2) = (1 + product over ... 2)(2 + 2)(3 + 2)(4 + n a means a1a2an. from ... to ... of k=1 k 2) = 3 4 5 6 = 360 aritmatika i=0nYi means the set of all (n+1)-tuples n=13R = Rn

Cartesian product

the Cartesian (y0,...,yn). product of; the direct product of set theory derivative prime; derivative of kalkulus indefinite integral or antiderivative indefinite f(x) dx means a integral of ; function whose the derivative is f. antiderivative of kalkulus definite integral ab f(x) dx means the signed area between the integral from x-axis and the graph of ... to ... of ... the function f between with respect to x = a and x = b. kalkulus f (x1, , xn) is the vector of partial derivatives (df / dx1, , df / dxn). x2 dx = x3/3 + C f '(x) is the derivative of the function f at the If f(x) = x2, then point x, i.e., the slope of f '(x) = 2x the tangent there.

'

0b x2 dx = b3/3;

gradient

del, nabla, gradient of kalkulus partial derivative partial derivative of kalkulus boundary boundary of topology

If f (x,y,z) = 3xy + z then f = (3y, 3x, 2z)

With f (x1, , xn), f/xi is the derivative of f with If f(x,y) = x2y, then respect to xi, with all f/x = 2xy other variables kept constant. M means the boundary {x : ||x|| 2} = of M {x : || x || = 2} x y means x is If lm and mn then l

perpendicular

is perpendicular to y; or perpendicular more generally x is to orthogonal to y. geometri bottom element the bottom element lattice theory entailment

|| n.

x = means x is the smallest element.

x : x =

|=

A B means the sentence A entails the entails sentence B, that is every A A A model in which A is true, model theory B is also true.

inference

|-

infers or is derived from propositional logic, predicate logic normal subgroup

x y means y is derived A B B A from x.

/
See also

is a normal subgroup of group theory quotient group mod group theory isomorphism

N G means that N is a normal subgroup of group G.

Z(G) G

G/H means the quotient of group G modulo its subgroup H.

{0, a, 2a, b, b+a, b+2a} / {0, b} = {{0, b}, {a, b+a}, {2a, b+2a}}

Q / {1, 1} V, G H means that group is isomorphic where Q is the G is isomorphic to group to quaternion group and V H is the Klein four-group. group theory

Mathematical alphanumeric symbols

Pranala luar

Jeff Miller: Earliest Uses of Various Mathematical Symbols TCAEP - Institute of Physics

Special characters
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Artikel yang perlu diterjemahkan dari bahasa Inggris April 2013 Simbol matematika Daftar bertopik matematika Daftar bertopik simbol

http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daftar_simbol_matematika

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