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10/19/2010

JMG 213E/4 : TECHNIQUES IN GEOGRAPHY

VIDEO CONFERENCE 1 : MAP PROJECTIONS

By : Izham Mohamad Yusoff

School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden, 11800 Penang.

JMG 213E/4 - THE OBJECTIVES

To provide Geographical skills. Read, analyze, interpret and producing maps. To locate and differentiate elements of the Earths surface. Interpret topographic maps where appropriate to the optional themes.

JMG 213E/4 ASSIGNMENT (DUE DATE : 6th JANUARY 2011)


To what extend does GIS benefits the contribution of Cartography, Remote Sensing and Aerial Photogrammetry towards producing high quality maps and its interpretations in Malaysia? State your reason and examples based on (1) one of the sub-topics below : 1. 1 2. Climate changes Transportation 3. 3 4. Town Planning Agricultural

Your assignment must be organized based on the following sub-sections : 1. 2. 3. 4. Introduction Study Area Literature Review Methodology 5. 6. 7. Analysis Conclusions References (15-20 PAGES)

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JMG 213E/4 - ASSESSMENT

1. 2. 3. 4.

The Final Examination (60%) The graded assignments (20%) Continuous Assessment/Test (10%) Practical during intensive course (10%) (3) and (4) during Intensive Course in USM.

Total : 100%

CONTENTS
WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

WHAT AND WHY MAPS?

Cartography : The art, science and technology of producing maps. Map : Abstract representation of the features that occur on or near the surface of the Earth. (i.e. topographic maps, weather map, geological maps, thematic maps, chain maps, cadastral maps). Medium of providing spatial information via GIS (captured from remote sensing imagery, aerial photogrammetry, photogrammetry, (Light Detection and Ranging LiDAR LiDAR), ), Unmanned Aerial Vehicle UAV). Why maps? : Effective devices for communicating and recording information about the environment.

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WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


Clay tablet map 2200 B.C Northern Mesopotamia

WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


Babylonian clay tablet world map, 600 B.C.

WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


The map we practices today : Map reading? Analysis? Interpretation?

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WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


Google Earth / Google Map:

WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


Global Positioning System within mobile phone :

WHAT AND WHY MAPS?...cont


Car Navigation System :

What is the main component of a map? Reference system Legends Scale Texture / colouring Symbolization Generalization Metadata

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WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

PROJECTION SURFACES
MAP PROJECTIONS

A mathematical model for conversion of locations from 3D earth surface to a 2D map representation. This conversion necessarily distorts some aspect of the earth's surface, such as area, shape, distance or direction. Every projection has its own set of advantages and disadvantages. There is no "best" projection. Some distortions of conformality (shape), scale, distance, direction, and area always result from this processes.

PROJECTION SURFACEScont MAP PROJECTION...cont

Some projections minimize distortions in some of these properties at the expense of maximizing errors in others. Some projection are attempts to only moderately distort all of th these properties. ti The mapmaker must select the one best suited to the needs, reducing distortion of the most important features. Mapmakers and mathematicians have devised almost limitless ways to project the image of the globe onto a flat surface (paper).

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PROJECTION SURFACEScont WHY MAP PROJECTION?

PROJECTION SURFACEScont WHY MAP PROJECTION...cont

Some projections minimize distortions in some of these properties at the expense of maximizing errors in others. Problem of mapping pp g 3-D coordinates related to a particular datum on a flat surface. Impossible to convert spheroid into flat plane without distortions map projections. Assuming : Earth is spherical (where by Earth is ellipsoidal). Why??

PROJECTION SURFACEScont

TYPES OF MAP PROJECTION

There are 3 types : a) b) c) Cylindrical Conical Azimuthal @ Zenithal

Divided into 3 aspects : a) b) c) Equator Transverse Oblique

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PROJECTION SURFACEScont
CYLINDRICAL

Cylinder that has its entire circumference tangent to the Earths surface along a great circle (e.g. equator). Tangent to the globe at the equator. No distortions at the equator but it increases moving North or South. Nice rectangular grid. Example : Mercator Projection (1569), Transverse Mercator Projection (Lambert 1772).

PROJECTION SURFACEScont
EQUATOR TRANSVERSE

OBLIQUE

PROJECTION SURFACEScont
Mercator Projection (1569) -Directions are true along straight line of any two points, Distances are true only along equator, and reasonable correct within 15 of equator, in secant model, distance along two parallels are correct in scale instead of the Equator. Areas and shapes of large area are distorted. Distortion increases away from Equator and is extreme in polar regions. However, map is conformal in that angles and shapes within any small area is essentially true. -Used for navigation or maps of equatorial regions. Transverse Mercator Projection (Lambert 1772) - Distances are true only along the central meridian selected by the mapmaker or else along two lines parallel to it, but all distances, directions, shapes, and areas are reasonably accurate within 15 of the central meridian. Distortion of distances, directions, and size of areas increases rapidly outside the 15 band. Because the map is conformal, however, shapes and angles within any small area (such as that shown by a USGS topographic map) are essentially true. - Used for many USGS 1:24,000 to 1:250,000 map

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PROJECTION SURFACEScont
CONICAL

One or more cones tangent to one or more parallels. Best for mid-latitudes in an E-W direction (U.S.). A straight t i ht line li i is almost l t a perfect f t great t circle i l route t (airplanes use this). Can be conformal or equivalent. Example : Lambert Conformal Conic Projection.

PROJECTION SURFACEScont

PROJECTION SURFACEScont

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PROJECTION SURFACEScont

PROJECTION SURFACEScont
Albers Equal-Area Conic Projection (1805) - All areas on the map are proportional to the same areas on the Earth. Directions are reasonably accurate in limited regions. Distances are true on both standard parallels. Maximum scale error is 1 1/4% on map of conterminous States with standard parallels of 29 1/2N and 45 1/2N. Scale true only along standard parallels - Used for maps showing the conterminous United Stated.

Lambert Conformal Conic Projection (1772) - Distances true only along standard parallels; reasonably accurate elsewhere in limited regions. Directions reasonably accurate. Distortion of shapes and areas minimal at, but increases away from standard parallels. Shapes on large-scale maps of small areas essentially true Used for maps of North America. USGS Base Maps for 48 conterminous States with standard parallels 33 N, and 45 N (maximum scale error 2 %). for TOPO maps, standard parallels vary. - Used for many topographic maps and for State Base Map series.

PROJECTION SURFACEScont
AZIMUTHAL @ ZENITHAL

Plane is tangent to the globe at some point N or S of the equator or one point on the equator. No distortion at the point of tangency but it increases moving away. All directions from the center are accurate. It is like a view from space. Can only see half the world at once. All great circles passing through the point of tangency appear as straight lines.

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PROJECTION SURFACEScont

Example : Polar projections (i.e. Lambert Azimuthal, Stereographic, Gnomonic).

PROJECTION SURFACEScont
Stereographic Projection - Directions true only from center point of projection. Scale increases away from center point. Any straight line through center point is a great circle. Distortion of areas and large shapes increases away from center point. - Used for maps of Antarctica and Arctic, Arctic for TOPO maps and navigating in latitudes above 80, and for some geophysical maps and NEXRAD precipitation products.

WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

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GNOMONIC, STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC POSITIONS


THE PERSPECTIVES :

A gnomonic map projection displays all great circles as straight lines. Gnomonic projections : place the light source at the centre of the globe globe.

GNOMONIC, STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC POSITIONScont

Stereographic projection is a particular mapping (function) that projects a sphere onto a plane. Stereographic projections : place the light source at the antipode of the point of tangency.

GNOMONIC, STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC POSITIONScont

Orthographic projection is a perspective (or azimuthal) projection, in which the sphere is projected onto a tangent plane or secant plane. Orthographic projections - place the light source an infinite distance from the point of tangency, resulting in parallel light rays. rays

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WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE

Transverse Cylindrical Oblique Cylindrical Cylindrical

Secant Cylindrical

ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACEcont

Conical

Secant Conical

Planar

Secant Planar

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WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
CONFORMAL MAP PROJECTION

Angles on a conformal map are the same as measured on the Earths surface. Area and distance of square are distorted. Meridians intersect parallels at right angles.

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
CONFORMAL MAP PROJECTION

Application : Designing topographical maps Projection Examples : Mercator - rhumb lines are represented by straight segments Stereographic - shape of circles is conserved Roussilhe Lambert conformal conic Quincuncial map Adams hemisphere-in-a-square projection Guyou hemisphere-in-a-square projection Malaysia : Rectified Skewed Orthomorphic projection is used for developing national topographical maps.

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GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
EQUIDISTANT MAP PROJECTION

Scale factor along a meridian is equal to 1. Shape and area of square are distorted.

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
EQUIDISTANT MAP PROJECTION

Applications : Designing cadastral maps. Projection Examples : Equirectangular - distances along meridians are conserved. conserved Azimuthal equidistant - distances along great circles radiating from centre are conserved. Equidistant conic. Sinusoidal - distances along parallels are conserved Malaysia : Cassini-Soldner projection is used for developing cadastral maps.

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GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
CADASTRAL MAPS

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
EQUALEQUAL -AREA MAP PROJECTION

Equal areas are represented by the same map area regardless of where they occur. Shape and distance of sphere are distorted.

GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
EQUALEQUAL -AREA MAP PROJECTION

Applications : Designing thematic maps (demographic maps, land use, rainfall). Projection Examples : Gall orthographic (also known as GallPeters, or Peters, projection) Albers conic Lambert azimuthal equal-area Lambert cylindrical equal-area Mollweide Hammer Sinusoidal

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GLOBE CHARACTERISTICScont
THEMATIC MAPS

WHAT AND WHY MAPS PROJECTION SURFACES GNOMONIC STEREOGRAPHIC AND ORTHOGRAPHIC GNOMONIC, POSITIONS ORIENTATION OF A PROJECTION SURFACE GLOBE CHARACTERISTICS PROJECTION SELECTION AND EFFECTS

PROJECTION SELECTION & EFFECTS


PROJECTION SELECTION

Map purpose : For distribution maps: equal area. For navigation : projections that show azimuths or angles properly properly.

Size of area : Some projections are better suited for East-West extent, others for North-South. For small areas the projection is relatively unimportant (< 10 km2). For large areas the projection is very important (> 10 km2).

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PROJECTION SELECTION & EFFECTS


PROJECTION SELECTION

No flat map can be both equivalent and conformal. The various methods of preparing a 2D plane from the Earths surface are critical to the accessibility and presentation of GIS. Map projection is not an accurate portrayal of the globe because 2D plane cannot represent the large portions of the curve-linear surface accurately.

PROJECTION SELECTION & EFFECTS


THE RIGHT CHOICE

Conic projections for mid-latitudes : True along some parallel between the poles and equator. Cylindrical for equatorial regions : True at the equator and distortion increases towards the poles. Azimuthal for poles : True only at their center point but distortion is generally worst at the edges.

PROJECTION SELECTION & EFFECTScont


PROJECTION EFFECTS
Mercator projection: Maintains shape and direction. Sinusoidal and Equal-Area Cylindrical projections: Both maintain area, but look quite different from each other. Robinson projection : Does not enforce any specific properties but is widely used because it makes the earths surface and its features look right.

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ANY QUERIES?

Room No : 024, School of Distance Education, USM Main Campus, Penang. E-mail : izham@usm.my H/P : 013013 -4058342

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