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Understanding Rate of Reaction 1. Rate of reaction is defined as the change in the amount of reactants or products per unit time.

2. It is a measure of how fast a reaction occurs. a. Fast Reaction = Rate of reaction is high. b. Slow Reaction = Rate of reaction is low 3. A fast reaction taken shorter time for the reaction to complete. Example of fast reaction Type of Reaction Example Combustion Combustion of magnesium in oxygen Mg+O2MgO Combustion of ethane (C2H6) C2H6+72O22CO2+3H2O

Reaction between reactive metal and water Reaction between metal carbonate and acid Ionic precipitation (Double decomposition)

Reaction between potassium and water 2K+2H2O2KOH+H2

Reaction between limestone/ marble and sulphuric acid CaCO3+H2SO4CaSO4+CO2+H2O

Precipitation of silver(I) chloride AgNO3+ HClAgCl + HNO3

Example of slow reaction Type of Reaction Example Photosynthesis Rusting Fermentation 6CO2+ 6 H2OC6H12O6+ 6O2 4Fe+3O2+ 2H2O2Fe2O3H2O C6H12O62C2H5OH + 2CO2

Finding Average Rate of Reaction Rate of reaction is a measure of how fast a reaction occur, or how much the reactant/product change in a period of time. Rates of reaction = Quantity change of reactants/productsTotal time for the reaction

Example In a chemical reaction, 2.5g of calcium carbonate react completely with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 600cm of carbon dioxide gas in 1.5 minutes. Find the rate of reaction in term of a. decreasing mass of calcium carbonate b. increasing volume of carbon dioxide gas produced Answer: a. Change of the amount of reactant=2.5gTima taken for the change=1.5minute=90sRate of Reaction=2.5g90s0.02 7gs1 b. Change of the amount of product=600cm3Tima taken for the change=1.5minute=90sRate of Reaction=600cm390s6 .7cm3s1 Finding Average Rate of Reaction from measurable quantities 1. During a chemical reaction, two things happen a. The quantities of reactants reduce. b. The quantities of products increase. 2. Therefore, the rate of the reaction can be determined by a. measuring the decrease of the amount of the reactants over time. b. measuring the increase of the amount of the products over time. 3. However, the quantity (or change) of the reactants/product may be measurable or immeasurable. 4. The easily measured quantity changes include a. Mass b. Concentration (Conductivity) c. Volume of gas Example Reaction between calcium carbonate and hydrochloric acid. CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O The rate of the reaction can be determined by a. Measuring the reduces of the mass of the calcium carbonate (reactants) over time Rate of Reaction = Mass of CaCO3 reactedTime taken b. Measuring the increases of the volume of the carbon dioxide gas produced over time. Rate of Reaction = Volume of CO2 producedTime taken Example: In a reaction, 5 g of calcium carbonate takes 250 seconds to completely react with solution of hydrochloric acid. Calculate the average rate for this reaction in units (a) g s-1 and (b) mol s-1 [ Relative atomic mass: C 12; O, 16; Ca, 40] Answer: a. Rate of Reaction=5g250s=0.02gs1

b. Relative Formula Mass of calcium carbonate (CaCO3)=40+12+3(16)=100Number of mole of CaCO3=5g100gmol 1=0.05molRate of Reaction=0.05mol250s=0.0002mols1