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Project Evaluation & Management

ASSIGNMENT # 02

Life-cycle Phases of an Education Policy

Submitted to Dr. Rameez Khalid


Faculty, Department of Management, IBA, Karachi

Prepared by

Mirza Arshad Baig EMBA PS-IX

Introduction: The policy development process is a vital element in educational planning. Policy is defined functionally to mean: An explicit or implicit single decision or group of decisions which may set out directives for guiding future decisions, initiate or retard action, or guide implementation of previous decisions1. Being a Policy maker one has to follow following life cycle and its phase in the development process of an education policy. Phase 1: Phase 2: Phase 3: Phase 4: Phase 5: Phase 6: Conceptualization / Need Identification The Selection of Mode of generating policy options Development & selection of Policy Options Decisions Implementation Evaluation / Review

Wadi D. Haddad, (1995), Education policy-planning process: an applied framework, UNESCO: International Institute for Educational Planning

EDUCATION POLICY LIFE CYCLE AND ITS PHASES

Conceptualization / Need Identification


Research findings

Horizon Scan

Internal initiative

Legal Mandate

Incident Occurren ce/ Crisis

Political Agenda

Process Impact and options

Commu nity review

Outcome review of Previous Policy

The Selection of Mode of generating policy options


Systematic Mode (Futuristic Mode) Incremental Mode (Present Mode) Ad hoc Mode Importation Mode

Development & Selection of Policy Options


Choices / Opportunities Cost / Benefits Resources Instrument choices Consultation Revision Trade-offs required

Decisions
Policy Advice Political Input Approval of Cabinet or Parliament

Implementation
Communication Resource provision Administration Testing / Follow up

Evaluation / Review
Results or effectiveness of the policy Recommendations Revision , Adjustment, Learning

ACTIVITIES PERFORMED DURING DIFFERENT PHASES OF THE LIFE CYCLE OF AN EDUCATION POLICY Projects Phases
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1.

Projects Activities
Research findings Horizon Scan Internal initiative Legal Mandate Incident Occurrence/ Crisis Political Agenda Process Impact and options Systematic Mode (Futuristic Mode) Generation of data Formulation of options Prioritization of option 2. Incremental Mode (Present Mode) Problem is identified through public debate within the education system. Acting out approach is used to adjust present difficulties through different options by promoting incremental improvements 3. Ad hoc Mode Problem is identified outside the educational system. Some adjustments or changes may be required for a short term. May have no rational basis within the education sector. 4. Importation Mode Policy options are imported from foreign countries as role model to improve local education system 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. 2. 3. Choices / Opportunities Cost / Benefits Resources Instrument choices Consultation Revision Trade-offs required Policy Advice Political Input Approval of Cabinet or Parliament Communication Resource provision Administration Testing / Follow up Results or effectiveness of the policy Recommendations Revision , Adjustment, Learning

Effort

Phase 1: Conceptualization / Need Identification

Low

Phase 2: The Selection of Mode of generating policy options (Any one)

Medium

Phase 3: Development & selection of Policy Options

High

Phase 4: Decisions Phase 5: Implementation Phase 6: Evaluation / Review

High

High

Low

EFFORT LEVEL DURING DIFFERENT PHASES OF A POLICY LIFE CYCLE

Effort
16 14 12 10 EFFORT 8 6 4 2 0 Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Effort

Weak and Strong areas of a policy life cycle phases.


The weakest area of the policy development process is its implementation. The highest level of efforts / resources is required in this phase. A political and financial mobilization of resources is the key for the implantation of a policy. In under develop countries like Pakistan resource provision for the policy implementation is the most crucial phase of this life cycle. Due to shortage of resources and lack of political motivation or prioritization of different sectors education policy implementation phases has been observed as the weakest area of this whole process. The strongest area of this life cycle phases is the development & selection of policy options. The failure & success of a policy depends upon this phases. If the selection of options is realistic and based on ground realities then the chances of success of the policy are brighter.

A comparison between education policy life cycle & a policy life cycle.
Education policy development process is generally takes place with government initiative and control. It may differ country to country. Different sectors of the government prepare different policies using different life cycle phases. The structure of life cycle phases is based on

needs and structure of that particular sector. Following diagram shows a life cycle phases of a policy development process. This life cycle is consisted of five phases. They are 1. Problem identification 2. Agenda setting 3. Policy development 4. Implementation 5. Policy Evaluation Most of the phases of both life cycles are same but there is one additional phase in the educational policy life cycle and which is Decision.