Anda di halaman 1dari 1

I.

Simple Past Tense: Pronunciation of ed endings of Regular Verbs


The final ed ending has three different pronunciations: /t/, /d/, and /ed/
Final ed is pronounced /t/ after all voiceless sounds. Voiceless sounds are made by pushing air through your mouth; no sound comes from your throat. Examples of voiceless sounds : K, P, S, Ch, Sh, F Final ed is pronounced /d/ after voiced sounds. Voiced sounds come from your throat. If you touch your neck when you make a voiced sound, you can feel your voice box vibrate. Examples of voiced sounds: L, V, N, B and all vowel sounds. Final ed is pronounced /id/ after T, and D sounds. The sound of /id/ adds a whole syllable to a word Example: Looked ! look/t/ = one syllable Needed ! need/ed/ = two syllables looked ! look/t/ clapped ! clap/t/ missed ! miss/t/ watched ! watch/t/, finished ! finish/t/ smelled ! smell/d/ saved ! save/d/ cleaned ! clean/d/ robbed ! rob/d/ played ! play/d/ decided ! decide/ed/ needed ! need/ed/ wanted ! want/ed invited ! invite/ed

II. Plural Nouns & Present Tense: Use, Pronunciation and Spelling of Final -s, -es endings
A final s or es is added to a noun to make the noun plural. Friend = singular noun, Friends = plural noun Noun + s: Friends are important Noun + es: I like my classes Mary works = Singular She works = Singular The students work = plural They work = plural Verb + -S: Mary works at the bank Verb + -ES: John watches birds

A final s or es is added to a present tense verb when the subject is a singular noun (e.g., Mary, My father, the machine) or third person (e.g., she, he, it)

Pronunciation of S, -ES
Final s is pronounced /s/ after voiceless sounds, as in T, P, and K seats ! seat/s/ ropes ! rope/s/ backs ! back/s/ seeds ! seed/z/ robes ! robe/z/ bags ! bag/z/ sees ! see/z/ dishes ! dish/ez/ catches ! catch/ez/ kisses ! kiss/ez/ mixes ! mix/ez/ prizes ! prize/ez/ edges ! edge/ez/ sing ! sings song ! songs wash ! washes watch ! watches class ! classes buzz ! buzzes box ! boxes toy ! toys buy ! buys baby! babies cry ! cries

Final s is pronounced /z/ after voiced sounds, as in D, B, G and EE

Final s and es are pronounced /ez/ after SH, CH, S, Z, and GE,, DGE. The /ez/ ending adds a syllable.

Spelling: Final S vs. ES


For most words (whether a verb or noun), a final s is added Final es is added to words ending with SH, -CH, -S, -Z, and X.

For words ending in Y: if Y is preceded by vowel only s is added If y is preceded by a consonant, the y is changed to i and es is added.