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EMC CONSULTING INC.

P.O. Box 496, Merrickville, Ontario, !G "N! P#one$ %6"&' (69)4(4* +ax$ %6"&' (69)(!4, E)-ail$ e-ccon./-a0-a.ca 1e2 Pa0e$ 333.-a0-a.ca45e-ccon.

S6.ce7ti2ilit8 o9 Electric Matc#e.4 Electrical I0niter. to ES:, Li0#tnin0 an; Electro-a0netic +iel;..
The data and information contained within this report was obtained from an independent R&D project funded by EMC Consulting Inc. The contents may be used and uoted but the source must be referenced in any publication.

!art " #usceptibility to Electrostatic discharge and $ightning :. <. 1e.ton "% Introduction I0niter. are 6.e; 9or con.6-er 7ro;6ct. .6c# a. rocket i0niter., a6to-otive air2a0. an; to 9ire 78rotec#nic ;evice. .6c# a. 9a-il8 or ;i.7la8 9ire3ork.. In t#i. re7ort 3e concentrate on t#eir 6.e a. an initiator 6.e; in t#e electric 9irin0 o9 78rotec#nic ;evice.. T#e Electrical I0niter or Electric Matc#, 3#ic# 3e re9er to a. an e)-atc# in t#e re7ort, con.i.t. o9 t3o 3ire. connecte; to a re.i.tive 2ri;0e3ire coate; in a 78rotec#nic co-7o.ition .i-ilar to a -atc# #ea;. T#e e)-atc# #ea; i. covere; 28 a 7la.tic .#ro6; 3#en ;elivere;. 1#en a .699icientl8 #i0# c6rrent i. a77lie; t#e 2ri;0e3ire #eat. 67 an; i0nite. t#e #ea; o9 t#e e) -atc# 3#ic# can 2e connecte; ;irectl8 to t#e 78rotec#nic ;evice lea;er %96.e' or in;irectl8 via .lo3 %;ela8' or >6ick %2lack' -atc# an; t#ere28 i0nite. t#e ;evice. T#e e)-atc# -a8 2e i0nite; 28 9riction an; 9or t#i. rea.on .o-e 9ire3ork. .67ervi.or. leave t#e .#ro6; in 7lace even 3#en connecte; to a lea;er, >6ick -atc# or .lo3 -atc#. T3o -an69act6rer. e)-atc#e. 3ere te.te;. 1it# t#e t87e ?( e)-atc# re7orte; #ere no 7ro2le- in i0nitin0 #a. 2een .een 3it# t#e .#ro6; in 7lace. T#e 9ir.t 7art o9 t#i. re7ort inve.ti0ate. t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 to ES: 0enerate; 28 t#e +ire3ork. S67ervi.or 3#en #an;lin0 t#e e)-atc# an; al.o t#e 7ro2a2ilit8 o9 i0nition 28 near28 or ;irect li0#tnin0 .trike.. T#e .econ; 7art o9 t#e re7ort inve.ti0ate. t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 o9 t#e e)-atc# to near28 .o6rce. o9 electro-a0netic ener08 .6c# a. <M, +M, an; T@ tran.-itter., cell 7#one 2a.e .tation. a. 3ell a. 7orta2le .o6rce. .6c# a. cell6lar 7#one. an; 3alkie talkie.. Section ( in 7art " .6--ariAe. t#e re.6lt. o9 t#e ES: an; Li0#tnin0 inve.ti0ation an; -a8 2e o9 6.e to t#o.e 3#o are intere.te; onl8 in t#e 7ro2a2ilit8 o9 a .a9et8 i..6e an; reco--en;e; 7reca6tion. an; are not intere.te; in t#e inve.ti0ation. e-atc#".i--.;oc ")=)(!!*

EMC E&'I&EERI&' (&D EMI !R)*$EM #)$+I&'

,% Conclusions to parts " and , ,." E#D Test One o9 t#e t3o e)-atc#e. te.te; %?"' i0nite; 3#en a 6k@ ES: ;i.c#ar0e 3a. -a;e to t#e -atc# #ea;. < 7otential o9 6k@ can ea.il8 2e 0enerate; 28 a 7er.on an; .o t#e ;an0er o9 78rotec#nic. 7re-at6rel8 ;etonatin0 in clo.e 7roxi-it8 to one o9 t#e .et 67 cre3 i. ver8 real. T#e .econ; e)-atc# %?(' 3a. i--6ne 67 to "*k@ an; it i. 6nlikel8 t#at at t#e 9ire3ork. ;i.7la8 location a 7otential a. #i0# a. "*k@ can 2e 0enerate;. Bot# e)-atc#e. 3ere i--6ne to 67 to "*k@ a77lie; to t#e 3ire en;., 2ot# 3#en o7en circ6it an; .#ort circ6ite;. T#e reco--en;ation t#ere9ore i. t#at all cre3 3#o are involve; 3it# .>6i22in0 9ir.t to6c# t#e 3ire en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 2e9ore to6c#in0 t#e e)-atc# #ea;. T#i. 3ill e99ectivel8 e>6aliAe t#e c#ar0e 2et3een t#e #6-an 2o;8 an; t#e e)-atc# an; .8.te- an; 3#en t#e -atc# #ea; i. to6c#e; no ;i.c#ar0e 3ill occ6r. ,., $ightning tests and analysis 1e a..6-e t#at t#e 9irin0 circ6it #a. 2een re-ove; 9ro- t#e 9irin0 area an; ;oe. not -al96nction ;6e to li0#tnin0. <l.o ;6rin0 li0#tnin0 activit8 t#e 9ire3ork. cre3 .#o6l; .#elter in a 26il;in0 or in ve#icle. 3it# con;6ctive 2o;ie.B < ve#icle 3it# a -etal 2o;8 #a. 2een te.te; 3it# a ;i.c#ar0e o9 67 to t3o -illion volt. %(M@', .i-6latin0 a li0#tnin0 .trike, an; t#e occ67ant 3a. 6na99ecte; 28 t#e ;i.c#ar0e. T#i. 7rotection i. ac#ieve; 28 t#e ve#icle actin0 a. a C+ara;a8 Ca0eD. T#i. 7rotection onl8 a77lie. i9 t#e occ67ant.E li-2. are ke7t in.i;e t#e ve#icleB <l.o to6c#in0 t#e -etal aro6n; t#e 3in;o3. i. not reco--en;e;, alt#o60# t#i. #a. not 2een te.te;B I9 a ;irect li0#tnin0 .trike occ6rre; to t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 an; a..ociate; 3irin0 it 3ill 96.e. I9 a ;irect .trike occ6r. to t#e e)-atc# #ea; it 3ill eit#er i0nite or 2e va7oriAe; .o >6ickl8 t#at t#e lea;er 3ill not 2e i0nite;. In o6r te.tin0 a. t#e 3ire. to e)-atc# ?" 96.e; t#e e)-atc# 3a. i0nite;. 1#erea. e)-atc# ?( ;i; not i0nite 26t t#e -olten -etal 9ro- t#e 3irin0 ;i; i0nite t#e lea;er o9 a near28 78rotec#nic ;evice in one ca.e. <. li0#tin0 #it. t#e 0ro6n; or 3irin0 it re.6lt. in arcin0 an; .corc#in0. T#e re.6ltant .7ark. can i0nite cake., 2o-2ar;o., -ine. etc 3#ic# are 26rie; 67 to #al9 t#eir #ei0#t in t#e .oil an; al.o >6ick -atc# lai; o6t on t#e .6r9ace 2et3een 78rotec#nic ;evice.. In concl6.ion, o6r te.t. .#o3 t#at a ;irect .trike to t#e e)-atc# 3irin0, 3it# t#e ?( t87e o9 e)-atc#, 3#ic# i. in#erentl8 i--6ne, an; to t#e 0ro6n; co6l; i0nite a n6-2er o9 78rotec#nic ;evice. 26t i. 6nlikel8 to 9ire all ;evice.. One exce7tion -a8 2e, t#e #i0#e.t -a0nit6;e li0#tnin0 .trike. 3#ic# -a8 .et 9ire to 3oo;en -ortar rack.. 1#erea. t#e 7ro2a2ilit8 o9 -o.t o9 t#e 78rotec#nic ;evice. i0nitin0 3#en .>6i22e; 3it# e)-atc# ?" i. ver8 #i0#. T#e -a0netic 9iel; 0enerate; 28 a 3or.t ca.e li0#tnin0 .trike can i0nite e)-atc# ?" 3it# t#e .trike at a ;i.tance o9 4.4-, 3it# t#e 3ire en;. t3i.te; to0et#er, 3#erea. t#e .trike

can 2e a. clo.e a. (.(- to e)-atc# ?( 3it# t#e en;. t3i.te; to0et#er %.#orte;' 2e9ore it i0nite.. <n electric 9iel; a. #i0# a. "M@4- can 2e 0enerate; ;6rin0 a li0#tnin0 .trike %a2ove "M@4- t#e air 3ill 2reak ;o3n'. < "M@4- 9iel; ;oe. not i0nite eit#er o9 t#e t3o e) -atc#e. 3it# t#e 3ire en;. eit#er .#ort circ6it or o7en circ6it. O6r inve.ti0ation .#o3e; t#at it i. al.o 6nlikel8 t#at t#e volta0e, in;6ce; 28 t#e li0#tnin0 .trike, 2et3een t#e en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3#en connecte; to a ter-inal 2ox an; &!%"!!E' o9 ca2le 3ill re.6lt in a 2reak;o3n in t#e 3ire in.6lation, even 3#en t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 i. lai; o6t on a 9airl8 con;6ctive 0ro6n;. ,.#usceptibility to electromagnetic and magnetic fields +or .a9et8 it i. o9ten reco--en;e; to .#ort t#e 3ire en;. o9 e)-atc#e. alt#o60# a. ;i.c6..e; in t#e 7a7er on i--6nit8 to li0#tnin0 .trike. t#i. 7ractice i. contrar8 to electro-a0netic t#eor8 at -o.t 9re>6encie.. Onl8 at certain re.onant 9re>6encie. i. t#e c6rrent 9lo3 t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# #i0#er 3#en t#e 3ire en;. are le9t o7en circ6it. <. ;e.cri2e; in t#e li0#tnin0 7a7er t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 to electric 9iel;. an; -a0netic 9iel;. 0enerate; 28 a li0#tnin0 .trike i. -6c# #i0#er 3#en t#e 3ire en;. are .#ort circ6it an; .o t#e reco--en;ation 9ro- t#e li0#tnin0 re7ort i. to leave t#e e)-atc# 3ire. o7en circ6it, 3it# t#e 3ire. re-ainin0 clo.e to0et#er an; to t3i.t t#e- ;o3n t#eir len0t#. 1#en a .699icientl8 #i0# c6rrent 9lo3. into t#e e)-atc# t#e 2ri;0e3ire #eat. 67 an; i0nite. t#e #ea; o9 t#e e)-atc#. S#ortin0 t#e 3ire en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 9or-. a loo7, co-7lete; 28 t#e 2ri;0e3ire at t#e ot#er en; o9 t#e 3ire.. T#i. -ean. t#at -axi-6- c6rrent 9lo3. t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# #ea; 3#en ex7o.e; to -a0netic an; electro-a0netic 9iel;.. 1#en t#e 3ire en;. are le9t o7en circ6it no, or ver8 -ini-al c6rrent i. in;6ce;, at most fre uencies an; t#e e)-atc# i. in#erentl8 i--6ne at -o.t 9re>6encie. an; a0ain.t li0#tnin0 .trike.. Fo3ever 9or a certain an0le o9 inci;ence o9 t#e electric 9iel; an; 3#en t#e 9re>6enc8 i. .6c# t#at t#e len0t# o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire. e>6al one >6arter o9 a 3avelen0t# %' or -6lti7le. o9 a >6arter 3avelen0t# t#en t#e c6rrent in t#e 2ri;0e3ire i. #i0#. 1avelen0t# in -eter. G &!!49re>6enc8 %MFA'. T#6. 9or a ".",- len0t# o9 e)-atc# 3irin0 t#e t#eoretical re.onant 9re>6enc8 i. 3#en ".",- G "44. T#ere9ore G 4.6- an; t#e re.onant 9re>6enc8 i. a77roxi-atel8 &!!44.6- G 6,.(MFA. T#i. #i0# c6rrent -a8 ca6.e i0nition o9 t#e e)-atc# at ver8 #i0# level. o9 9iel;., a. ;e.cri2e; in .ection 6. +or exa-7le in t#e Ca. ;elivere; 3ire con9i06rationD 3#ic# #a. t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 ")(-- a7art ;o3n t#eir len0t# a -a..ive 4!!!@4- at t#e 9ir.t re.onant 9re>6enc8 3o6l; 2e re>6ire; to i0nite t#e -o.t .en.itive e)-atc# an; over 9!!!@4- 9or t#e lea.t .en.itiveB

,.. Combined lightning and electromagnetic field conclusions T#e co-2ine; concl6.ion. 9ro- 2ot# re7ort. i. t#at 3it# t#e 3ire. en;. eit#er o7en or .#ort circ6it, an; 3it# t#e 3ire. ke7t clo.e to0et#er an; t3i.te; ;o3n t#eir len0t# t#at even t#e -o.t extre-e level o9 electro-a0netic 9iel; can i0nite eit#er e)-atc# ?" or ?( an; t#at i--6nit8 to a li0#tnin0 .trike a. 3ell a. electro-a0netic 9iel;. 3ill 2e #i0#. I9 t#e -an69act6rer. o9 e)-atc#e. 3ere to t3i.t t#e 3ire ;o3n t#eir len0t# ;6rin0 -an69act6re t#en t#e i--6nit8 3o6l; 2e even #i0#er. In E6ro7e it i. 6n;er.too; t#at 78rotec#nic ;evice. -a8 #ave t#eir e)-atc#e. in.erte; at a re-ote location an; t#en tran.7orte; to t#e 9irin0 .ite 3#erea. t#i. i. not allo3e; in Cana;a. O6r inve.ti0ation .#o3. t#at a. lon0 a. t#e e)-atc# 3ire. are not .e7arate; an; le9t o7en circ6it t#at t#e8 are i--6ne even to t#e -o.t extre-e electro-a0netic 9iel;. an; all 26t a ;irect li0#tnin0 .trike.

-% Type of e/matches0 firing criteria and firing systems T#e e)-atc# i. a ;evice 3#ic# i. i0nite; 28 a c6rrent 9lo3 t#ro60# it. T#e re.i.tance o9 t#e e)-atc# varie. 9ro- !.= to a77roxi-atel8 ( . +or eac# e)-atc# t#ere i. a -axi-6no)9ire c6rrent an; a -ini-6- all 9ire c6rrent. Ta2le &." .#o3. t#e ran0e o9 t#e.e c6rrent. 9or co--erciall8 availa2le e)-atc#e..

Ta2le &." Han0e o9 Maxi-6- No +ire an; Mini-6- <ll 9ire c6rrent. He.i.tance O#-. ".6 I4)!.& ".6 I4)!.& (.! (.! (.! " I4)!.( Maxi-6- No +ire C6rrent %<-7.' !.4 !.( !.4 !." !.( !.& Mini-6- <ll +ire C6rrent %<-7.' ".! !.&* ".! !.4 !., !.,

T#e val6e. in ta2le " a77l8 6ntil t#e e)-atc# i. i0nite;, t87icall8 ()4!-S. 1#en t#e ;6ration o9 t#e c6rrent i. li-ite;, .6c# a. ;6rin0 a li0#tnin0 .trike or ES:, a -6c# #i0#er c6rrent can 9lo3 2e9ore t#e e)-atc# i. i0nite;. :6e to lack o9 availa2ilit8, onl8 t3o -an69act6rer. e)-atc#e. 3ere te.te; an; t#e.e .#o3e; a .i0ni9icant ;i99erence in .6.ce7ti2ilit8 to ES: an; li0#tnin0. T#i. -ean. t#at t#e ot#er a77roxi-atel8 t#ree e)

-atc#e. co--erciall8 availa2le -a8 2e -ore or le.. .6.ce7ti2le t#an t#e t3o te.te;, an; ;e.cri2e; in t#i. re7ort. It i. #o7e; t#at at a later ;ate -ore e)-atc#e. -a8 2e te.te; 9or ES: an; li0#tnin0 an; e.7eciall8 9or t#e .econ; #al9 o9 t#e inve.ti0ation into t#e a99ect. o9 electro-a0netic 9iel;.. T#e e)-atc# i. connecte; to a ter-inal 2ox, .o-eti-e. re9erre; to a. a 9iel; connection -o;6le. T#e ter-inal 2oxe. are eit#er connecte; via t87icall8 &!- %"!!E' ca2le. to t#e 9irin0 .8.te- or to a ;i.tri26tion 2ox clo.e to t#e 78rotec#nic., 3#ic# t#en connect to t#e 9irin0 .8.te- eit#er 28 ca2le or 3irele... T#e 9irin0 .8.te- -a8 2e eit#er -an6all8 or ;i0itall8 controlle;.

.%

#usceptibility to Electrostatic Discharge 1E#D%

.." The E#D e2ent ES: i. t#e .6;;en an; -o-entar8 electric c6rrent t#at 9lo3. 3#en an electricall8 in.6late; o2Ject, .6c# a. t#e #6-an 2o;8, #a. an exce.. o9 electric c#ar0e .tore; on it an; eit#er to6c#e. or i. in clo.e 7roxi-it8 to a .6r9ace at a ;i99erent 7otential. In realit8 it -a8 2e t#e o2Ject 3#ic# #a. an exce.. o9 c#ar0e an; t#e #6-an 2o;8, at a ne6tral or 0ro6n; 7otential, ;i.c#ar0e. it. T#i. latter ca.e i. ex7erience; 3#en a 7er.on to6c#e. an a6to-o2ile 3#ic# #a. 2een c#ar0e; 28 9riction a. t#e air 9lo3. over it. .6r9ace. ES: i. -o.t 9re>6entl8 ex7erience; 3#en t#e #6-i;it8 i. lo3. T#e -oi.t6re 9ro- t#e air 9or-. a t#in la8er on t#e .6r9ace o9 an8 -aterial an; can increa.e it. electrical con;6ctivit8. T#6. on a #6-i; ;a8 t#e c#ar0e on an o2Ject ;i..i7ate. -ore rea;il8 t#ro60# t#e increa.e; electrical con;6ctivit8. <not#er 3a8 to 0enerate a c#ar0e i. 3#en t3o -aterial. t#at are initiall8 in contact are .e7arate;. < 7ro9e..ional ;i.7la8 9ire3ork. cre3 in Cana;a i. t87icall8 -a;e 67 o9 a .67ervi.or or .67ervi.or. an; a77rentice. 3#o attac# t#e en; o9 t#e e)-atc# to t#e .#ell lea;er or >6ick -atc# etc. T#i. tec#ni>6e i. .o-eti-e. re9erre; to a. C.>6i22in0D. I9 a -e-2er o9 t#e cre3 i. c#ar0e;, an ES: event can occ6r a. contact i. -a;e 3it# t#e #ea; o9 t#e e)-atc#. T#i. ;i.c#ar0e can occ6r t#ro60# t#e 78rotec#nic ;evice lea;er 3#en t#e ;evice i. alrea;8 .>6i22e; an; .o a ;evice can ;etonate clo.e to a cre3 -e-2er. T#i. ;oe. not re>6ire t#at t#e e)-atc# 2e connecte; to 0ro6n; or t#at t#e 9irin0 .8.te- 2e connecte; to 0ro6n;. 1it# t#e ter-inal 2ox l8in0 on t#e 0ro6n; an; attac#e; to eit#er t#e 9irin0 .8.te- ;irectl8 or via a ;i.tri26tion 2ox, t#e c6rrent 9lo3. to c#ar0e t#e ca2le. an; t#e .8.te-. < ca7acitance i. 9or-e; 2et3een t#e 3irin0 an; 0ro6n; an; t#e ;i.c#ar0e c6rrent al.o c#ar0e. t#i. ca7acitance. T#e c6rrent 9lo3. to e>6aliAe t#e 7otential 2et3een t#e #6-an 2o;8 an; t#e .8.te-. ES: #a. lon0 2een a concern 9or t#e 9ire3ork. cre3. an; te.t. on e)-atc#e. #ave 2een 7er9or-e; 28 r622in0 t#e 9eet on a car7et. +riction i. t87icall8 t#e -ec#ani.- 9or c#ar0in0 an; a 7ractical exa-7le o9 0eneratin0 .tatic 3o6l; 2e 3#en one o9 t#e cre3 i. la8in0 o6t an electrical ca2le on a ;r8 ;a8. T#e

action o9 la8in0 o6t t#e ca2le can 0enerate .tatic, a. t#e ca2le i. 7a..e; 9ro- #an; to #an;, an; t#en i9 t#e cre3 .tart. to .>6i2 an e)-atc# an ES: event can occ6r. 1earin0 0love. to la8 o6t t#e ca2le 3ill likel8 increa.e t#e c#ar0in0.

.., The human body model and E#D 'enerator. < #6-an Bo;8 -o;el te.t 0enerator %ES: 06n' 9or te.tin0 t#e e99ect o9 a CF6-an Bo;8 :i.c#ar0eD i. ;e.cri2e; in IEC 6"!!!)4)(. T#i. .7eci9ie. .7eci9ic co-7onent val6e. 9or t#e ener08 .tora0e ca7acitor an; ;i.c#ar0in0 re.i.tor t#at -o.t clo.el8 a77roxi-ate. t#o.e 9or a #6-an 2o;8. T#e .tora0e ca7acitor in t#e 0enerator i. ",!7+ 3#erea. t#e #6-an 2o;8 -a8 #ave a ca7acitance 67 to ,!!7+. T#6. t#e act6al #6-an 2o;8 ;i.c#ar0e -a8 0enerate eit#er #i0#er c6rrent or a lon0er ;6ration t#an t#e te.t 0enerator. T#e 0enerator can 0enerate a contact ;i.c#ar0e in 3#ic# t#e electro;e o9 t#e ES: 0enerator i. #el; in contact to t#e 6nit 6n;er te.t an; t#e ;i.c#ar0e i. act6ate; 28 t#e ;i.c#ar0e .3itc# in t#e 0enerator. <n air ;i.c#ar0e i. a -et#o; o9 te.tin0 in 3#ic# t#e c#ar0e; electro;e i. 2o60#t .lo3l8 clo.e to t#e 6nit 6n;er te.t 3it# t#e ;i.c#ar0e .3itc# 7er-anentl8 clo.e; an; t#e ;i.c#ar0e i. act6ate; 28 a .7ark to t#e EUT. In t#e te.tin0 recor;e; in t#i. re7ort a cali2rate; e8Tec# MiniKa7 -o;el MK)",4EC 3a. 6.e; 9or t#e te.tin0. T#i. -o;el i. ca7a2le o9 0eneratin0 ES: 67 to ",)"*k@ an; can 0enerate 2ot# contact an; air ;i.c#ar0e.. ..- Typical E#D 2oltages generated by the human body. <..6-in0 a 7er.on 3it# a t87ical ca7acitance o9 (!!7+ 3earin0 .#oe. 3it# in.6latin0 .ole.. 1#en 3alkin0 acro.. a car7et or an in.6late; 9loor -aterial a ;r8 3inter ;a8 %in;oor #6-i;it8 i. 6.6all8 lo3er on a 3inter. ;a8' a c#ar0e o9 "(k@ to ",k@%"(,!!!@ to ",,!!!@' -a8 2e 0enerate;. 3% #ensiti2ity of two manufacturers e/matches to E#D testing 3." Test set up +i06re ,." .#o3. t#e te.t .et 67. T#e e)-atc# i. lai; over in.6lation 7lace; on a con;6ctive ForiAontal Co67lin0 Plane %FCP'. T#e FCP i. connecte; via t3o 4*!k re.i.tor. to t#e 6n;erl8in0 Gro6n; 7lane. P#oto ,." .#o3. t#e ES: 0enerator 7lace; on t#e FCP 3it# t#e ?( e)-atc#. T#e te.t -et#o;. 6.e; 3ere contact ;i.c#ar0e to eac# en; o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire o7en circ6it 9i06re ,.(2, an; a0ain to t#e e)-atc# 3ire. .#ort circ6ite; to0et#er, 9i06re ,.(a. <not#er te.t 3a. 7er9or-e; 3it# an air ;i.c#ar0e ;irectl8 to t#e e)-atc# #ea; 3it# t#e .#ro6; in 7lace an; a0ain 3it# t#e .#ro6; re-ove;, 9i06re ,.(c, an; a0ain to t#e 2ri;0e3ire to 3#ic# t#e -atc# #ea; i. 2on;e;, 9i06re ,.(;.

3., Test results T#e volta0e 0enerate; 28 t#e ES: 0enerator 3a. rai.e; in (k@ incre-ent. 9or all te.t. 6ntil eit#er t#e e)-atc# i0nite; or t#e -axi-6- volta0e 9ro- t#e ES: 0enerator 3a. reac#e;, 3#ic# ever ca-e 9ir.t. T#e t3o e)-atc#e. are ;e.i0nate; t87e ?" an; t87e ?( an; a co-7ari.on o9 t#e 7er9or-ance i. 7rovi;e; in ta2le ,.". Ta2le ,." ES: Te.t He.6lt.
T87e o9 te.t an; e)-atc# con9i06ration @ reac#e; Te.t re.6lt.

e)-atc# ?" Contact ;i.c#ar0e to one 3ire at a ti-e. 1ire. .e7arate; Contact ;i.c#ar0e to 2ot# 3ire. .#ort circ6ite; <ir ;i.c#ar0e 3it# .#ro6; to #ea; o9 -atc# <ir ;i.c#ar0e 3it# .#ro6; re-ove; to #ea; o9 -atc# ",k@ Matc# intact

",k@

Matc# intact

"!k@

Matc# i0nite;

6k@

Matc# i0nite;

e)-atc# ?( Contact ;i.c#ar0e to one 3ire at a ti-e. 1ire. .e7arate; Contact ;i.c#ar0e to 2ot# 3ire. .#ort circ6ite; <ir ;i.c#ar0e 3it# .#ro6; to #ea; o9 -atc# <ir ;i.c#ar0e 3it# .#ro6; re-ove; to #ea; o9 -atc# ",k@ Matc# intact

",k@

Matc# intact

"*k@

Matc# intact

"*k@

Matc# intact

T#e i-7lication. o9 t#i. te.t an; -et#o;. o9 06ar;in0 a0ain.t an ES: event are ;e.cri2e; in .ection ( o9 t#i. re7ort.

Horizontal Coupling Plane ESD gun e-match insulation 470k 470k

ground connection Ground Plane

+i06re ,." ES: te.t .et 67

P#oto ,." ES: 06n on FCP 3it# ?( e)-atc#

a$

Contact up to 17k

"$

Contact up to 17k

c$ !ir to match head up to 17k

d$

!ir to "ridge#ire up to 17k

+i06re ,.( ES: te.t. 7er9or-e;

4% #usceptibility of e/matches to direct lightning induced currents 4." The cloud to ground lightning stri8e. In a t#6n;erclo6; t#e electrical c#ar0e. 3it#in t#e clo6; are .e7arate;. In a t87ical t#6n;er clo6; t#ere i. a -i; level ne0ative c#ar0e an; an 677er level 7o.itive c#ar0e. T#e lo3er ne0ative c#ar0e in;6ce. a 7o.itive c#ar0e on t#e 0ro6n;. T#e clo6; an; 0ro6n; are rea.ona2l8 0oo; con;6ctor. an; .o a ca7acitance exi.t. 2et3een 2ot# 3#ic# i. c#ar0e; 67. T#e electric 9iel;. on t#e 0ro6n; 6n;er a t#6n;er.tor- clo6; are t87icall8 , to (!k@, 3#ic# are li-ite; 28 t#e .7ace c#ar0e. Fo3ever t#e 9iel;. on t#e 0ro6n; are inten.i9ie; at t#e extre-itie. o9 an ex7o.e; 7ointe; o2Ject .o t#at t#e 9iel;. can reac# "M@4- to (M@4- at 3#ic# val6e. t#e air 3ill 2reak ;o3n. <t 2reak;o3n t#e o2Ject e-it. corona c6rrent, 3#ic# 7ro;6ce. a 7o.itive .7ace c#ar0e a2ove t#e o2Ject. T#e .7ace c#ar0e t87icall8 re;6ce. t#e 9iel; at t#e extre-itie. to 2elo3 t#e 2reak;o3n val6e a0ain. <. t#e c#ar0e .e7aration in t#e clo6; contin6e. t#e electric 9iel;. in.i;e t#e clo6; inten.i98 an; 3#en t#e 9iel;. are #i0# eno60#, an electrical 2reak;o3n a0ain occ6r.. 1#en t#e .7ace c#ar0e no lon0er re;6ce. t#e 9iel; eno60#, t#e 2reak;o3n 7ro7a0ate. ;o3n3ar; in ioniAe; air, ter-e; a C.te77e; lea;erD, at a77roxi-atel8 "6!k-4#. Beca6.e t#e .te77e; lea;er i. 26ilt 67 in .ection. t#e li0#tnin0 .#o3. it. c#aracteri.tic Ai0)Aa0 9or-. T#e .te77e; lea;er in o6r exa-7le carrie. ne0ative c#ar0e to3ar;. t#e 0ro6n;. <. t#e lea;er near. t#e 0ro6n;, t#e electric 9iel; near t#e ti7. o9 o2Ject. i. #i0# eno60# .o t#at 7o.itive .7ark. ter-e; C.trea-er.D are 7ro;6ce;, 3#ic# race 673ar; to t#e ;e.cen;in0 ne0ative lea;er an; ;i.c#ar0e t#e clo6; to 0ro6n; ca7acitance. I9 t#e .te77e; lea;er i. too 9ar 9rot#e 0ro6n;, t#e electric 9iel; 2et3een t#e lea;er an; .trea-er are not #i0# eno60# to -aintain t#e .trea-er an; it ;ie. o6t. T#e 7ointe; o2Ject ;oe. not #ave to 2e .#ar7. < 2l6nt o2Ject can a. ea.il8 or -ore ea.il8 inten.i98 t#e 9iel; co-7are; to a .#ar7 o2Ject, re9erence ". Earlier it 3a. 2elieve; t#at a 7ointe; li0#tnin0 ro; ne6traliAe. c#ar0e an; con;6ct. t#e li0#tnin0 to 0ro6n;. 1#erea. li0#tnin0 ro;. #ave little or no val6e in 7reventin0 a li0#tnin0 .trike an; it i. not i-7ortant t#at t#e 7oint. 2e .#ar7. :e7en;in0 on t#e ;i.tance o9 t#e t#6n;erclo6; 9ro- tall o2Ject. %antenna to3er., F@ 7o3er line., tele7#one line. an; tree.' t#e.e are t#e -o.t likel8 to 2e .tr6ck. Fo3ever li0#tnin0 can even 2e initiate; 9ro- t#e 2la;e. o9 0ra.. 3#en tall o2Ject. are .699icientl8 9ar a3a8. 1#en t#e clo6; i. at a 9ar ;i.tance 9ro- tall o2Ject. t#en t#e li0#tnin0 .trike. t#e 0ro6n; 2elo3 t#e t#6n;erclo6;. 1#en t#e t#6n;erclo6; i. 3it#in t#e attraction Aone o9 a tall o2Ject t#en t#at 3ill 2e .tr6ck. 1#en t#e .trea-er an; lea;er -eet, a con;6ctive 7at# to 0ro6n; i. e.ta2li.#e; an; c6rrent 9lo3. 9ro- 0ro6n; to t#e clo6;. <lt#o60# -an8 o2Ject. -a8 e-it .trea-er. one 7oint t87icall8 e.ta2li.#e. t#e li0#tnin0 .trike, t#o60# li0#tnin0 .#o3. 9re>6ent 2ranc#in0. Initiall8 a ver8 #i0# c6rrent 9lo3. 9or a ;6ration 9ro- t87icall8 6S to ,!!S. +or t#e -aJorit8 o9 .trike. %99L' t#e 7eak c6rrent i. (!!,!!!< or le... < t87ical val6e i. &!,!!!<. +i06re 6." .#o3. a t87ical #i0# c6rrent 3ave9or- %co-7onent <' 9or a 3or.t)ca.e .trike.

"9

Component !

1*0k!

)00k!

&0k!

)0k!

0%1& s

0%& s
+eading edge

' s

(%' s

&0, amplitude - (*%.7 s

< = &00 s
Pulse #idth

+i06re 6." Co-7onent <. Fi0# c6rrent 7ortion o9 li0#tnin0 .trike. Li0#tnin0 .el;o- .trike. once a. t#e c#ar0e 2et3een t#e clo6; an; 0ro6n; rever.e., an; one or -ore re).trike. are o9ten 9or-e; an; c6rrent 9lo3. a0ain 2et3een 0ro6n; an; clo6;.. T#e MIL)ST:)464 .7eci9ie; c6rrent 3ave9or-. .#o3 an Inter-e;iate C6rrent 3ave9or- %Co-7onent B' a9ter t#e #i0# c6rrent, 9ollo3e; in t6rn 28 a Contin6in0 C6rrent an; t#en 9inall8 28 a 3ave9or- %Co-7onent :', t#e He).trike C6rrent, 3#ic# #a. t#e .a-e .#a7e a. co-7onent < 26t a2o6t !., ti-e. t#e 7eak a-7lit6;e. T#e val6e. 9or co-7onent. <, B an; C are .#o3n in 9i06re 6.(.

""

0nitial strike 0 pk - )00k! 12-)0,

0ntermediate Current )k! 12-10,

3estrike Continuing Current )00 - *00!

!
< = &00 s

/
4-&mS

C
0%)& - 1s

+i06re 6.( Co-7onent. <, B an; C 9ro- MIL)ST:)464.

4., Direct lightning stri8e :6rin0 li0#tnin0 activit8 t#e 9ire3ork. cre3 .#o6l; .#elter in a 26il;in0 or in ve#icle. 3it# con;6ctive 2o;ie.B <..6-in0 t#e cre3 are not on t#e ;i.7la8 area, t#e 9irin0 .8.te- #a. 2een re-ove; an; t#e -ortar rack. are 9ar 9ro- 26il;in0. an; tree. t#en t#e -o.t likel8 ;i.c#ar0e 7oint. 9or li0#tnin0 are to t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 an; t#e ca2le lai; o6t 2et3een t#e ter-inal 2oxe. an; t#e 9irin0 .8.te-. I9 t#e c6rrent .trike. t#e en; o9 t#e e)-atc# it 3ill eit#er 2e i0nite; an; i0nite t#e lea;er or i9 t#e 3ire i. va7oriAe; >6ickl8 it -a8 not i0nite t#e lea;er. I9 t#e c6rrent .trike. t#e e) -atc# 3ire t#en, a2ove a .7eci9ic c6rrent an; ;e7en;in0 on t#e ;6ration o9 t#e c6rrent, t#e con;6ctor. 3ill 96.e. Un;er t#e.e con;ition. t#e i0nition o9 t#e e)-atc# i. a0ain 7o..i2le an; t#i. 3a. t#e 76r7o.e o9 a te.t. Co77er i. t#e -o.t co--on con;6ctor 6.e; in 3irin0 an; 3it# a kno3le;0e o9 t#e 3ire 0a60e, .7eci9ic #eat, t#e ;en.it8, t#e -eltin0 7oint, t#e electrical re.i.tivit8 at t#e -eltin0 7oint, t#e avera0e 76l.e ;6ration o9 t#e c6rrent an; t#e t#er-al con;6ctivit8 o9 co77er allo3. a calc6lation o9 t#e 96.in0 c6rrent 9or t#e <, B an; C co-7onent. o9 t#e .trike. T#e : co-7onent. i. i0nore; a. it. c6rrent i. a77roxi-atel8 !., x co-7onent < an; t#e 76l.e 3i;t# a77roxi-atel8 t#e .a-e. T#e -axi-6- c6rrent. 9or a .in0le con;6ctor (4<1G e)-atc# 3ire are .#o3n in 9i06re 6.&. T#e val6e. in 2racket. are t#e 7re;icte; c6rrent 9or t#e B an; C co-7onent. a..6-in0 a 7eak c6rrent o9 &=6!< an; 2a.e; on MIL)ST:)464. 1e .ee t#at t#e 96.in0 C6rrent. 9or t#e < an; B co-7onent. i. #i0#er t#an 7re;icte; 2a.e; on MIL)ST:)464. T#i. -ean. t#at it i. t#e initial #i0# c6rrent co-7onent <, 3#ic# 3ill re.6lt in 96.in0.

",

peak appro8% '*(0!

!5erage - 1&00! !5erage - 47'! !5erage - ''! 6'.!$ 61(!$

!
< = &00 s

/
4-&mS

C
0%)& - 1s

! 7 trailing edge - in5erse e8ponential Single 9)4!:G ;using current ;or components !7/ and C
ematch4%sk;

+i06re 6.& +6.in0 c6rrent. 9or t#e <,B an; C co-7onent. o9 a ;irect li0#tnin0 .trike %val6e. in 2racket. are t#e B an; C co-7onent. 9ro- MIL)ST:)464 2a.e; on a 7eak c6rrent o9 &=6!< 9or co-7onent <' to a (4<1G 3ire.

T#6. 3e can .ee 9ro- 9i06re 6.& t#at t#e initial 76l.e %<' 3ill 96.e t#e 3ire an; not B an; C. Be9ore t#e 96.in0 c6rrent, t#e e)-atc# 3ire can #eat 67 an; t#i. -a8 i0nite t#e e)-atc#. Mea.6re-ent. 3ere -a;e 6.in0 t#e te.t .et 67 a. .#o3n in 9i06re 6.4. In t#e te.t, t#e 76l.e 3i;t# o9 t#e ;o62le ex7onential 76l.e 3a. =!!S at !."7k c6rrent an; (,!S at !.,7k c6rrent. < .in0le (4<1G 3ire 3a. te.te;. Bot# 3ire. 96.e; at 4!=,< 26t onl8 e)-atc# ?" i0nite;. < .6--ar8 o9 t#e te.t re.6lt. i. .#o3n in ta2le 6." Ta2le 6." E99ect on e)-atc# o9 3ire 96.in0 e)-atc# " ( Peak -ea.6re; c6rrent 4!=,< 4!=,< Te.t re.6lt 1ire 96.e; an; e)-atc# i0nite;. 1ire 96.e;. E)-atc# intact.

"-

T#e anal8.i. 3a. -a;e an; t#e te.t 7er9or-e; a..6-in0 t#e li0#tnin0 .trike 3a. to onl8 one con;6ctor in t#e e)-atc# 3irin0. T#i. i. ver8 6nlikel8. It i. -ore likel8 t#at 2ot# 3ire. 3ill 2e .tr6ck, in 3#ic# ca.e t#e 7eak c6rrent 2e9ore 96.in0 3ill 2e clo.e to ="!!<. T#e c6rrent. 9lo3 in 2ot# con;6ctor. e>6all8 %co--on -o;e c6rrent' alt#o60# .o-e .-all 9raction o9 t#e c6rrent can 9lo3 t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# %;i99erential -o;e c6rrent' i9 t#e 3ire en;. are .#orte; to0et#er. 1it# t#e 3ire en;. o7en t#en t#i. c6rrent i. ne0li0i2le. <not#er 7o..i2ilit8 i. t#at t#e li0#tnin0 c6rrent 3ill ;ivi;e 2et3een a n6-2er o9 e)-atc# 3ire. an; t#e 7eak allo3a2le li0#tnin0 c6rrent 2e9ore 96.in0 3ill increa.e. Fo3ever i9 a n6-2er o9 e)-atc#e. 3ire. are .tr6ck, t#e 7ro2a2ilit8 o9 a ;irect #it to t#e e)-atc# en; increa.e.. I9 e)-atc# ( i. 6.e; t#e onl8 e)-atc#e. t#at are ;irectl8 #it 3ill i0nite 3#erea. 9or e)-atc# " an8 o9 t#e 3ire. 3#ic# 96.e 3ill i0nite t#e e)-atc#. It i. co--on 7ractice to 3ra7 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 aro6n; t#e lea;er o9 a .#ell. I9 t#i. i. t#e ca.e t#e 3ire, 96.e; 28 t#e tran.ient li0#tnin0 .trike, -a8 i0nite t#e lea;er 3it#o6t i0nition o9 t#e e)-atc# an; t#i. .it6ation 3a. al.o te.te;. Neit#er >6ick %2lack' -atc# nor .lo3 %;ela8' -atc# 3a. i0nite; 28 t#e 96.in0 an; va7oriAin0 o9 t#e con;6ctor. in t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 at c6rrent. 9ro- 4!!!< to =!!!<. Fo3ever t#e -olten -etal an; .7ark. a. t#e 3irin0 ex7lo;e; ;i; in one ca.e .et .o-e near28 2lack -atc# ali0#t. <. li0#tnin0 .trike. t#e 0ro6n;, eit#er ;irectl8 or via a .tr6ct6re a2ove 0ro6n;, t#e c6rrent. .7rea; o6t on t#e .6r9ace aro6n; t#e .trike 3#ic# ca6.e. arcin0 an; .corc#in0 o9 t#e .oil or 0ra.. an; ca6.e. .7ark.. Even 3#en li0#tnin0 .trike. 3ater, t#e .a-e .6r9ace arcin0 occ6r.. O9ten cake., 2o-2ar;o., -ine. etc are 26rie; 67 to #al9 t#eir #ei0#t in t#e .oil. <l.o >6ick -atc# i. o9ten lai; o6t on t#e .6r9ace 2et3een 78rotec#nic ;evice. an; .o t#e 7o..i2ilit8 o9 i0nition ;6e to t#e arcin0 i. ver8 real. In concl6.ion, o6r te.t. .#o3 t#at a ;irect .trike to t#e e)-atc# 3irin0, 3it# t#e t87e o9 e) -atc# 3#ic# i. in#erentl8 i--6ne, an; to t#e 0ro6n; co6l; i0nite a n6-2er o9 78rotec#nic ;evice. 26t i. 6nlikel8 to 9ire all ;evice., 3it# 7er#a7. t#e exce7tion o9 all 26t t#e #i0#e.t -a0nit6;e .trike..

".

Scope

810 scope pro"e

e-match head 9)4!:G #ire

4'%''m<hm

+ightning Generator

&000! output
ematch&%sk;

+i06re 6.4 Te.t .et 67 6.e; to 96.e t#e 3ire 3it# a co-7onent < 3ave9or-.

5% : field coupling to the e/match and wiring 5." Introduction In a clo6; to 0ro6n; li0#tnin0 .trike a #i0# c6rrent 9lo3. 3#ic# 0enerate. a -a0netic 9iel;. Li0#tnin0 9ollo3. t#e 7at# o9 lea.t i-7e;ance an; alt#o60# t#at 7at# i. ;6e to ioniAe; air an; i. tort6o6. it 9ollo3. O#-. la3. T#6. t#e c6rrent 9lo3 in t#e .trike ;e7en;. on t#e volta0e ;i99erence 2et3een clo6; an; 0ro6n; an; t#e i-7e;ance o9 t#e ;i.c#ar0e 7at#. T#e ;6ration o9 t#e .trike i. ;eter-ine; 28 t#e clo6; to 0ro6n; ca7acitance. I9 3e -o;el t#e c6rrent 7at# t#ro60# t#e air a. an in9initel8 lon0, .trai0#t con;6ctor, t#en 3e can o2tain t#e a77roxi-ate -a0netic 9iel; at .o-e ;i.tance 9ro- t#e .trike 6.in0 t#e e>6ation 9or t#e ;c -a0netic 9iel; 9ro- a 3ire. Even t#o60# t#e .trike i. a ;o62le ex7onential tran.ient 3it# a 9a.t ri.e ti-e an; .lo3 9all ti-e t#e e>6ation 9or a ;c 9iel; i. .till a77lica2le a. t#e F 9iel; 0enerate; 28 a c6rrent carr8in0 con;6ctor i. in;e7en;ent o9 ri.e ti-e or 9re>6enc8.

"3

T#e ;c -a0netic 9iel; 9ro- an in9inite .trai0#t 3ire i.$ I ( r

F=

1#ere F G -a0netic 9iel; <4I G c6rrent in <-7. H G ra;i6. 9ro- 3ire in -. U.in0 t#e a2ove e>6ation 3e can 7re;ict t#e -a0nit6;e o9 t#e F 9iel; at ;i99erent ;i.tance. 9ro- t#e .trike an; 9or ;i99erent c6rrent. an; t#i. i. .#o3n in ta2le *." Ta2le *." Pre;icte; -a0netic 9iel; clo.e to a li0#tnin0 .trike Pk c6rrent %<' o9 .trike &!,!!! &!,!!! &!,!!! &!,!!! (!!,!!! (!!,!!! (!!,!!! (!!,!!! :i.tance 9ro- .trike %-' " & , "! " & , "! Ma0netic 9iel; %<4-' 4=!! "6!! 96! 4*= &",9!! "!,6!! 64!! &(!! Ma0netic 9iel; %Te.la' !.!!6 !.!!( !.!!"( !.!!!6 !.!4 !.!"&4 !.!!= !.!!4

"4

5., Current and pulse width to ignite an e/match T#e 3ire. to t#e e)-atc#, 3#en t3i.te; or .#orte; at t#e 9ar en;, 9or- a loo7. 1#en a -a0netic 9iel; c6t. t#i. loo7, a ;i99erential -o;e c6rrent i. .et 67 in t#e loo7. T#e -an69act6rer. o9 e)-atc#e. 7rovi;e t#e -ini-6- ;c c6rrent 9or i0nition o9 t#e e)-atc#. U.6all8 t#e c6rrent 3ill 9lo3 a. lon0 a. re>6ire; 2e9ore t#e e)-atc# i0nite. %t87icall8 "!-S'. In t#e ca.e o9 t#e li0#tnin0 in;6ce; c6rrent t#e c6rrent 9lo3. 9or a li-ite; 7erio;, ;e7en;in0 on t#e ;6ration o9 t#e .trike. T#e c6rrent at 3#ic# i0nition occ6r. 9or t#e ?" e) -atc# 3it# ;i99erent 76l.e 3i;t#. at t#e ,!L c6rrent a-7lit6;e i. .#o3n in ta2le *.(. Ta2le *.( C6rrent an; 76l.e ;6ration 9or i0nition o9 e)-atc# ?" P6l.e 3i;t# at ,!L <-7lit6;e 6!!S (!!S "*,S 66S C6rrent t#ro60# e)-atc# 9or i0nition ".6<

&<

&.46<

4.*<

5.- Magnetic field test set up and magnitude of : field generated To te.t t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 o9 t#e t3o -an69act6rer. e)-atc#e., a te.t circ6it 3a. ;e.i0ne; to 0enerate .699icientl8 #i0# -a0netic 9iel;. 9or t#e te.t. T#e -o.t o2vio6. te.t -et#o; 3o6l; 2e to ex7o.e t#e ".(- lon0 e)-atc# 3irin0 ;o3n it. len0t# to #i0# -a0netic 9iel; 0enerate; in.i;e a lon0 .olenoi;. T#e 7ro2le- 3it# t#i. a77roac# i. t#e #i0# in;6ctance .6c# a .olenoi; 3o6l; 7re.ent to t#e li0#tnin0 0enerator 6.e; to ;evelo7 t#e tran.ient c6rrent. In.tea; t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. 26n;le; 67 an; 7lace; in a &" t6rn coil a77roxi-atel8 &.*c- lon0 an; "!c- 3i;e. T#e orientation o9 t#e t3o con;6ctor. in t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. -a;e .o t#at t#e -axi-6- c6rrent 3o6l; 2e in;6ce; into t#e 3irin0 9ro- t#e tran.ient 9iel;. T#e ti-e con.tant o9 t#e coil 3a. a;J6.te; 28 a;;in0 a re.i.tor in .erie. 3it# t#e coil o9 "., . T#e c6rrent t#ro60# t#e coil 3a. -ea.6re; 28 -ea.6rin0 t#e volta0e ;ro7 9ir.t acro.. a 4&.&&- re.i.tor an; later, a #i0#er 3atta0e (9- re.i.tor. +i06re *." .#o3. "5

t#e te.t .et 67. Beca6.e t#e 3irin0 o9 t#e e)-atc# Ai0)Aa0. in.i;e t#e coil t#e c6rrent in;6ce; into eac# len0t# i. o6t o9 7#a.e 3it# t#e c6rrent in t#e next len0t# an; .o cancel.. T#i. -ean. t#at t#e 3ire. #ave to 2e t3i.te; at t#e en; o9 eac# a77roxi-atel8 =.,clen0t#, a. .#o3n in 9i06re *.(, to en.6re t#at t#e c6rrent. alon0 t#e len0t# o9 3irin0 a;; 67. +i06re *.( .#o3. a re; 3ire at t#e to7 in one len0t# an; a. it ;o62le. 2ack t#e re; 3ire i. .#o3n on t#e 2otto-. T#e len0t# o9 e)-atc# 3ire. 3a. ".,- an; a9ter t3i.tin0 t#e len0t# ex7o.e; to t#e 9iel; 3a. e.ti-ate; to 2e ".(-.

+ightning Generator
1%& coil 4'%''m di5ide "> 10 pro"e

<scilloscope

=est coil to generate H-;ield '1 = 91*!:G length - '%7cm7 #idth - 10cm

+i06re *." F 9iel; te.t .et 67.

"6

Coil e-match #iring


+i06re *.( <rran0e-ent o9 e)-atc# 3irin0 in.i;e t#e coil. T#e -a0netic 9iel; 0enerate; in.i;e t#e coil can 2e o2taine; 6.in0 t3o -et#o;.. T#e c6rrent t#ro60# t#e coil i. -ea.6re; 28 t#e volta0e ;ro7 acro.. t#e 4&.&&- or later t#e (9- re.i.tor. <. t#e n6-2er o9 t6rn. in t#e coil i. kno3n t#e 9iel; in t#e center o9 t#e coil can 2e co-76te;. T#e 9iel; at 2ot# en;. o9 t#e coil i. a77roxi-atel8 #al9 o9 t#e 9iel; in t#e center an; .o t#e avera0e 9iel; to 3#ic# t#e receivin0 loo7 antenna %t#e t3o con;6ctor e)-atc# 3irin0 t3i.te; at one en; an; ter-inate; at t#e ot#er in t#e " re.i.tance o9 t#e e)-atc# #ea;' i. ex7o.e; can 2e calc6late;. T#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3#en .#ort circ6it at one en; an; ter-inate; in t#e " re.i.tance o9 t#e e)-atc# #ea; at t#e ot#er, 9or-. a loo7 antenna 3it# a len0t# o9 ".(- an; a 3i;t# %;i.tance 2et3een 3ire.' o9 ".&--. U.in0 t#e receivin0 7ro7ertie. o9 t#e loo7, t#e -a0netic 9iel; re>6ire; to 0enerate t#e -ea.6re; volta0e can 2e 9o6n;. T#e .#ort circ6it 3a. re7lace; 3it# a "., re.i.tor an; t#e volta0e -ea.6re; acro.. t#i. re.i.tance ;6rin0 t#e te.t. T#e -a0netic 9iel; in.i;e a lon0 .olenoi; i. 0iven 28 F G 4TI4"!L 1#ere F G Ma0netic 9iel; in Oer.te; T G n6-2er o9 t6rn. I G C6rrent in <-7. LG len0t# o9 coil T#e avera0e 9iel; in <4- in t#e .#ort .olenoi; i. a77roxi-atel8 F G %4TxI!.*,4"!L' x *9.6 <lt#o60# t#e Te.la i. t#e 6nit 9or -a0netic 9l6x ;en.it8 a. all -ea.6re-ent. 3ere -a;e in air 3it# a relative 7er-ea2ilit8 o9 ", an; .o a .i-7le conver.ion 3a. -a;e 2et3een t#e -a0netic 9iel; in <4- an; t#e -a0netic 9l6x ;en.it8 in Te.la.

"7

+or t#e avera0e 9iel; 9or t#e .olenoi; an; to convert t#e an.3er to Te.la t#e e>6ation i.$ F %T' = 4 TI !.*, "e )4 "!L "'

<. an exa-7le t#e 7eak c6rrent 9lo3 t#ro60# t#e &"T coil 3a. -ea.6re; at 9(< at "4S. T#e avera0e -a0netic 9l6x ;en.it8 in Te.la i. %"(.,6x &"T x 9(< x !.*,4 &.*c- x "!' x "e)4 G !.!*(6T T#e 7re;icte; o7en circ6it volta0e in;6ce; into t#e loo7 9or-e; 28 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 9ro- a tran.ient 9iel; i.$ @= F L W Tr

1#ere F i. t#e 9l6x ;en.it8 in Te.la Tr G ri.e ti-e in .econ;. to 7eak 9iel; L G len0t# o9 coil %len0t# o9 e) -atc# 3irin0 in t#e inJection coil' 1 G 3i;t# o9 coil %;i.tance 2et3een t#e t3o con;6ctor. in t#e 3irin0' T#e 7eak -a0netic 9iel; 3#en t#e o7en circ6it volta0e i. -ea.6re; i. 0iven 28$ F= V Tr L W ('

T#e volta0e -ea.6re; acro.. t#e "., re.i.tor connecte; to t#e e)-atc# loo7 3it# 9(< 9lo3in0 t#ro60# t#e excitation coil 3a. *@ at (S an; ,.,@ at "4S at 3#ic# ti-e t#e F 9iel; i. at -axi-6-. T#6. 3it# a "4S ri.e ti-e to 7eak c6rrent t#e 9iel; -ea.6re; 28 t#e loo7 i.$ ,.,@ x "4S4 ".(- x !.!!"&- G !.!49T % &9,!!!<4-' 3#ic# i. relativel8 clo.e to t#e 7re;icte; !.!*(T %,*,!!!<4-' 2a.e; on t#e c6rrent t#ro60# a .olenoi; %e>6ation "'. Si-ilar re.6lt. 3ere o2taine; 6.in0 a .in0le t6rn =c- x =-- loo7 7lace; in t#e coil. T#ere9ore to 2e con.ervative, t#e 7eak F 9iel; co-76te; 6.in0 e>6ation " 3a. re;6ce; 28 a 9actor o9 !.6= in t#e .62.e>6ent .ection..

,9

< n6-2er o9 76l.e 3i;t#. an; ri.e ti-e. 3ere trie; 9or t#e c6rrent t#ro60# t#e excitation coil an; a t87ical 3ave9or- i. .#o3n in 9i06re *.&

H-;ield generated in test

0%.4 8 pk H-;ield

pk H-;ield

0%44& 8 pk H-;ield 0%'7( 8 pk H-;ield

) s 4 s
+eading edge

14 s

&0 s

&0, amplitude - (( s

)&0us
Pulse #idth

+i06re *.& 1ave9or- o9 c6rrent t#ro60# excitation coil an; t#ere9ore t#e -a0netic 9iel;.

T#e 3ave9or- 9or c6rrent in;6ce; into t#e e)-atc# 3#en ex7o.e; to t#e 9iel; in 9i06re *.&, i. 7rovi;e; in 9i06re *.4.

,"

Ipk !.*= Ipk

!." Ipk
)uS 14uS 100uS

+i06re *.4 1ave9or- o9 c6rrent t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# T#e c6rrent t#ro60# t#e coil an; t#e -a0netic 9iel; at 3#ic# t#e t3o e)-atc#e. eit#er i0nite; or 3ere i--6ne 3ere -ea.6re; at a n6-2er o9 76l.e 3i;t#. an; -ore i-7ortantl8, ri.e ti-e.. It 3a. not 7o..i2le to ac#ieve a ri.e ti-e o9 (S an; .o t#e re.6lt. 3it# a "4S ri.e ti-e an; a 66S 76l.e 3i;t# at ,!L F7k 3a. 7re;icte; 9or (S. T#e re.6lt. are .#o3n in ta2le *.&. T#e co67lin0 to t#e t3o con;6ctor. in t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 in o6r te.t .et 67 3a. 3or.t ca.e. I9 in t#e act6al a77lication o9 t#e e)-atc#, t#e 3ire. are t3i.te; t#en t#e e)-atc# can .6.tain a -6c# #i0#er -a0netic 9iel;. To 7rove t#i. t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 in.i;e t#e coil 3a. 6nt3i.te; a. it 3a. 3ra77e; aro6n;. T#i. re7re.ent. a t3i.te; 3ire 3#en o6t.i;e o9 t#e coil 3it# a t3i.t a77roxi-atel8 ever8 *.,c-. In t#i. con9i06ration it 3a. not 7o..i2le to i0nite e)-atc# ?" %t#e -o.t .6.ce7ti2le o9 t#e t3o e) -atc#e.' 3it# t#e #i0#e.t level o9 F 9iel; an; t#e 9a.te.t ri.e ti-e 3e co6l; ac#ieve in t#e te.t. It i. co--on 7ractice to .#ort o6t t#e en; o9 t#e e)-atc# 7rior to a .#o3 28 6.in0 eit#er a .#ortin0 7l60 on t#e ter-inal 2ox or a .#ortin0 link. In all o9 t#e F 9iel; -ea.6re-ent. t#e en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire. 3ere t3i.te; to0et#er an; .o .#orte;. < c6rrent 3ill onl8 9lo3 in t#e 3irin0 3#en t#i. .#ort i. 7re.ent an; 3#en t#e e)-atc# i. in.erte; in a -a0netic 9iel;. 1it# t#e en;. o7en circ6it no c6rrent 9lo3. an; t#e e)-atc# cannot i0nite. T#i. 3a.

,,

7roven 28 -ea.6re-ent. 3it# t#e en; o7en circ6it 3#en no level o9 F 9iel; 3o6l; ;etonate t#e e)-atc#. Ta2le *.& Ma0nit6;e o9 F 9iel; an; ri.e ti-e at 3#ic# t#e t3o -ake. o9 e)-atc# 3o6l; i0nite Hi.e ti-e %S' P6l.e 3i;t# at ,!L F7k %S' 66 P6l.e 3i;t# at "!L F7k %S' (,! E)-atc# " Te.t re.6lt E)-atc# ( Te.t re.6lt

"4

I0nite; at &9,!!!<4I0nite; at "!,,!!!<4-

I0nite; at 9!,!!!<4:i; not i0nite <t M"!,,!!!<4:i; not i0nite at M"(=,!!!<4)

,!

"*,

&,!

6!

(!!

,!!

I0nite; at "(=,!!!<4e)-atc# 3ire t3i.te; ever8 *.,c-. :i; not i0nite at "(=,!!!<4Pre;icte; to i0nite at *!!!<4-

6!

(!!

,!!

66

(,!

Pre;icte; to i0nite at "6,!!!<4-

T#e concl6.ion. 9ro- t#e.e -ea.6re-ent. are t#at 9or a 3or.t ca.e li0#tin0 .trike o9 (!!,!!!<4- 3it# a ri.e ti-e o9 (S at a ;i.tance o9 4.4-, e)-atc# " co6l; i0nite, 3#erea. t#e .a-e .trike 3o6l; #ave to occ6r at (.(- 9ro- e)-atc# ( 2e9ore it 3o6l; i0nite.

,-

6% Common mode induced 2oltage and test method <. t#e -a0netic 9iel; c6t. t#e t3o con;6ctor. in t#e e)-atc# 3irin0, a ;i99erential -o;e c6rrent i. in;6ce;, a. ;i.c6..e; in .ection *.(. In a;;ition to t#e c6rrent a co--on -o;e c6rrent %o9ten re9erre; to a. antenna c6rrent' 9lo3. an; an o7en circ6it volta0e i. ;evelo7e; ;e7en;in0 on t#e len0t# o9 t#e 3ire an; it. #ei0#t a2ove 0ro6n;. No ;i99erential c6rrent 9lo3. t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# an; .o no ;an0er o9 i0nition exi.t.. Fo3ever one 7o..i2ilit8 i. t#at t#e o7en circ6it volta0e re.6lt. in a 2reak;o3n 2et3een t#e 3irin0 an; 0ro6n;. <. lon0 a. t#e 2reak;o3n occ6r. 2et3een 2ot# 3ire. an; 0ro6n;, t#i. al.o ;oe. not 7re.ent a 7ro2le-. In t#e 6nlikel8 event t#at one 3ire 2reak. ;o3n t#en c6rrent 9lo3. in one con;6ctor. I9 t#e en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 are .#orte; o6t, a ;i99erential -o;e c6rrent t#en 9lo3. t#ro60# t#e e)-atc#. P#oto =." .#o3. t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 9ro- t#e -ortar ;o3n to a ter-inal 2ox an; 7#oto =.(, t#e te.t .et 67 3it# li0#tnin0 0enerator an; .te7 67 tran.9or-er. T#e avera0e #ei0#t in t#e 3ire 2et3een t#e -ortar an; 0ro6n; i. !.(,- an; t#e len0t# o9 t#i. .ection i. (.(-. T#6. t#e area 2et3een 0ro6n; an; 3irin0 i. !.(, x (.("& G "."&-. T#e re-ainin0 len0t# o9 3ire 2ack to t#e 9irin0 .8.te- i. t87icall8 "!!E %&!-' an; #ei0#t o9 t#e 3irin0 a2ove 0ro6n; -a8 2e a77roxi-atel8 *--. T#6. t#e 3irin0 area a2ove 0ro6n; i. &!- x !.!!*- G !.("-. T#e o7en circ6it volta0e 28 a 3ire a2ove 0ro6n; i. 0iven 28$ @ G 4 x "!)* x l x # x F4 Tr 1#ere l G avera0e len0t# # G avera0e #ei0#t F G -a0netic 9iel; in <4Tr G ri.eti-e %.econ;.' Ta2le =." .#o3. t#e 7re;icte; o7en circ6it volta0e 9or t#e (."&- len0t# o9 3ire an; t#e &!- len0t# a..6-in0 a 3or.t)ca.e %9a.te.t' ri.e ti-e o9 ( S at ;i99erent inci;ent F 9iel;..

,.

P#oto =." E)-atc# a2ove 0ro6n; 7lane an; ter-inal 2ox con9i06ration

,3

P#oto =.( Te.t .et 67 3it# li0#tnin0 0enerator an; .te7 67 tran.9or-er 9or co--on -o;e 2reak;o3n volta0e te.t.

,4

Ta2le =." C4M 7re;icte; co--on -o;e volta0e Peak F 9iel; Hi.e ti-e %(S' <vera0e area o9 3ire a2ove 0ro6n; %t3o .e0-ent.' %-' !.( !.( !.( !.( !.( "."& "."& "."& "."& "."& O7en circ6it volta0e

"!!! (!!! 4!!! 6!!! =!!! "!!! (!!! 4!!! 6!!! =!!!

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

"(6 (," ,!( *,4 "!!! *"! "4(! (=4! 4(6! ,6=!

T#e total volta0e i. t#e .6- o9 t#e t3o .e0-ent.. T#6. at =!!!< t#e total volta0e i. "!!! I ,6=! G 66=!@. In t#e te.t 6.in0 a 76l.e 3it# a ri.e ti-e o9 ".,S to ,!L a-7lit6;e an; a 76l.e 3i;t# o9 "6!S at ,!L a-7lit6;e t#e 7eak volta0e t#at co6l; 2e 0enerate; 3a. 4!!!@ an; 2reak;o3n 2et3een t#e 3ire an; 0ro6n; ;i; not occ6r. Metal -ortar rack. ,5

are o9ten 6.e; in.tea; o9 3oo; an; t#i. 3a. .i-6late; 28 3ra77in0 t#e 3oo;en rack 3it# al6-in6- 9oil in ;irect contact 3it# t#e 2ra.. 0ro6n; 7lane. <0ain no 2reak;o3n occ6rre; at a 4!!!@ 76l.e. To te.t t#e 2reak;o3n volta0e o9 t#e e)-atc# in.6lation a varia2le ;c 7o3er .677l8 o9 -axi-6- (=k@ 3a. a77lie; to t#e -ortar en; o9 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0. T#e in.6lation 2roke ;o3n at ("k@ an; .o t#e co--on -o;e co67lin0 to t#e 3irin0 ;6rin0 all 26t t#e .evere.t li0#tin0 .trike. .#o6l; ca6.e a 7ro2le-.

7% E field coupling to the e/match and wiring T#e electric 9iel; clo.e to a Teleco--6nication. to3er can 2e o2taine; 28 anal8.i. a. ;e.cri2e; in re9erence ( an; t#i. anal8.i. re.6lt. in a -a0nit6;e o9 E 9iel; 67 to .ixt8 ti-e. #i0#er t#an t#e -a0netic 9iel;. T#6. 9or a (!,!!!<4- F 9iel; t#e E 9iel; i. ver8 a77roxi-atel8 ".&(M@4-. Fo3ever in t#e anal8.i. 7re.ente; in t#e re7ort on li0#tnin0 tran.ient re.7on.e o9 4!!k@ tran.-i..ion to3er., re9erence &, t#e anal8.i. .#o3. ratio. o9 onl8 ".== 9or E4F an; a 7eak E 9iel; o9 4,k@4- 3it# a (!,!!!< li0#tnin0 .trike to t#e to3er. I9 t#e li0#tnin0 7at# i. -o;ele; a. a c6rrent ele-ent ;i7ole t#e 7re;icte; ratio o9 E 9iel; to F 9iel; i. even #i0#er t#an eit#er o9 t#e re7ort.. Mea.6re-ent. on t#e c6rrent an; -a0netic 9iel; 0enerate; ;6rin0 li0#tnin0 .trike. 3ere recor;e; at t#e LEMP -ea.6rin0 .tation in .o6t#ern Ger-an8, re7orte; in re9erence 4. T#e.e .#o3e; a -axi-6- -a0netic 9iel; o9 ((.=k<4- at a ;i.tance o9 "=9- 9ro- t#e 2a.e o9 t#e to3er 9or a -ea.6re; c6rrent o9 (!.9k< at t#e 2a.e o9 t#e to3er. +ro- a 7rivate co--6nication in re9erence ,, a t87ical val6e o9 9iel; i. ,!k@4- an; a -ea.6re-ent 3a. -a;e 3#ic# 3a. 0reater t#an "!!k@4- at t#i. location. Ba.e; on avera0e an; 7eak -a0netic 9iel;. ;e.cri2e; in t#e .a-e re7ort, t#e E 9iel;. -a8 2e ei0#t ti-e. #i0#er t#an t#e F 9iel;. He0ar;le.. o9 t#e.e con9lictin0 re7ort. an; anal8.e. t#e 7eak E 9iel; -6.t 2e li-ite; to a2o6t "M@4- a. air 2reak. ;o3n at E 9iel;. -6c# a2ove t#i. val6e. T#e E 9iel; an; F 9iel; -ea.6re-ent. 3ere -a;e on t#e e)-atc#e. 3it# t#e 3ire. eit#er .#ort circ6ite; or o7en circ6it. T#e e)-atc# i. i0nite; 28 c6rrent. +ro- 2a.ic antenna t#eor8 3e 3o6l; 7re;ict t#at t#e -axi-6- c6rrent 9lo3 in t#e e)-atc# 3ill occ6r 3it# t#e 3ire. .#ort circ6ite;, 3it# eit#er an inci;ent -a0netic 9iel; or electric 9iel;. 1e 9o6n; 3it# t#e -a0netic 9iel; co67lin0 t#at t#e e)-atc#e. onl8 i0nite; 3it# t#e en;. .#orte; 3#en ex7o.e; to -a0netic 9iel;. an; .o t#e E 9iel; co67lin0 -ea.6re-ent. 3ere al.o -a;e 3it# t#e e)-atc#e. 3ire. .#orte;. T3o .et. o9 -ea.6re-ent. 3ere -a;e$

,6

One 6.in0 t#e li0#tnin0 0enerator, 3#ic# ;evelo7e; 9iel;. a. #i0# a. "6!k@4- in t#e 7arallel 7late antenna .#o3n in 7#oto 9.". In t#i. te.t .et 67 t#e 76l.e 3i;t# at ,!L a-7lit6;e 3a. 66S an; t#e ri.e ti-e "4S to 7eak a-7lit6;e. T#e .econ; .et o9 -ea.6re-ent. 3ere -a;e 6.in0 a #i0# volta0e .677l8, ;i.c#ar0e 0a7 an; F@ ca7acitor. 3it# 3#ic# a 9iel; a. #i0# a. "M@4- co6l; 2e ;evelo7e; in.i;e t#e 7arallel 7late antenna. T#e 76l.e 3i;t# at ,!L a-7lit6;e 3a. a77roxi-atel8 4&S 3it# a ri.e ti-e o9 a77roxi-atel8 "S. T#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. oriente; .o t#at t#e vertical E 9iel; 0enerate; in t#e 7arallel 7late antenna in;6ce; t#e -axi-6- volta0e in t#e 3irin0 an; t#i. i. .#o3n in 7#oto 9.(, 3#ic# i. a 7#oto o9 e)-atc# ?(. Neit#er e)-atc# ?" nor ?( i0nite; 3#en ex7o.e; to E 9iel;. 67 to "6!k@4- in t#e 9ir.t .et 67 or to 9iel;. a. #i0# a. "M@4- in t#e .econ;.

P#oto 9." Parallel 7late antenna connecte; to .econ;ar8 o9 .te7 67 tran.9or-er 3it# F@ 7ro2e.

,7

P#oto 9.( ?( E)-atc# 3irin0 a. 7lace; in.i;e antenna

"9% !art , #usceptibility to electromagnetic fields. "9." 'eneral T#e concern i. t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 o9 t#e e)-atc# to near28 .o6rce. o9 electro-a0netic ener08 .6c# a. <M, +M an; T@ tran.-itter., cell 7#one 2a.e .tation. a. 3ell a. 7orta2le .o6rce. .6c# a. cell6lar 7#one. an; 3alkie talkie.. S6.ce7ti2ilit8 to -a0netic 9iel;. 9roac 7o3er tran.9or-er. an; 3irin0 3a. al.o inve.ti0ate;. Ex7o.6re -a8 occ6r in .tora0e, tran.7ortation or on t#e 9irin0 .ite. T#e len0t# o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire. 3ere ".",- 9or t#e electro-a0netic 9iel; te.t an; al.o 9or t#e -a0netic 9iel; te.t. T87icall8 t#e C a. ;elivere; 3ire con9i06rationD #a. t#e t3o e) -atc# 3ire. .e7arate; 28 a77roxi-atel8 "-- to (--. In all o9 t#e te.t. ;e.cri2e; in t#i.

-9

7a7er t#e 3ire. o9 t#e t3o e)-atc#e. te.te; 3ere .e7arate; 28 ,c- ;o3n t#e ".",len0t# an; t#e 3ire. 3ere .#orte; to0et#er at t#eir en;. or le9t o7en circ6it. Se7aratin0 t#e 3ire. 28 ,c- en.6re. t#at t#e -axi-6- c6rrent 9lo3. ;6e to t#e inci;ent 9iel;, 9or eit#er t#e .#ort circ6it or o7en circ6it ca.e, an; en.6re. a ver8 -6c# 3or.t ca.e te.t. "9., Conclusions +or .a9et8 it i. o9ten reco--en;e; to .#ort t#e 3ire en;. o9 e)-atc#e. alt#o60# a. ;i.c6..e; in t#e 7a7er on i--6nit8 to li0#tnin0 .trike. t#i. 7ractice i. contrar8 to electro-a0netic t#eor8 at -o.t 9re>6encie.. Onl8 at certain re.onant 9re>6encie. i. t#e c6rrent 9lo3 t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# #i0#er 3#en t#e 3ire en;. are le9t o7en circ6it <. ;e.cri2e; in t#e li0#tnin0 7a7er t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 to electric 9iel;. an; -a0netic 9iel;. 0enerate; 28 a li0#tnin0 .trike i. -6c# #i0#er 3#en t#e 3ire en;. are .#ort circ6it an; .o t#e reco--en;ation 9ro- t#e li0#tnin0 re7ort i. to leave t#e e)-atc# 3ire. o7en circ6it, 3it# t#e 3ire. re-ainin0 clo.e to0et#er an; to t3i.t t#e- ;o3n t#eir len0t#. 1#en a .699icientl8 #i0# c6rrent 9lo3. into t#e e)-atc# t#e 2ri;0e3ire #eat. 67 an; i0nite. t#e #ea; o9 t#e e)-atc#. S#ortin0 t#e 3ire en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 9or-. a loo7, co-7lete; 28 t#e 2ri;0e3ire at t#e ot#er en; o9 t#e 3ire.. T#i. -ean. t#at -axi-6- c6rrent 9lo3. t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# #ea; 3#en ex7o.e; to -a0netic an; electro-a0netic 9iel;.. 1#en t#e 3ire en;. are le9t o7en circ6it no, or ver8 -ini-al c6rrent i. in;6ce;, at most fre uencies an; t#e e)-atc# i. in#erentl8 i--6ne at -o.t 9re>6encie. an; a0ain.t li0#tnin0 .trike.. Fo3ever 9or a certain an0le o9 inci;ence o9 t#e electric 9iel; an; 3#en t#e 9re>6enc8 i. .6c# t#at t#e len0t# o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire. e>6al one >6arter o9 a 3avelen0t# %' or -6lti7le. o9 a >6arter 3avelen0t# t#en t#e c6rrent in t#e 2ri;0e3ire i. #i0#. 1avelen0t# in -eter. G &!!49re>6enc8 %MFA'. T#6. 9or a ".",- len0t# o9 e)-atc# 3irin0 t#e t#eoretical re.onant 9re>6enc8 i. 3#en ".",- G "44. T#ere9ore G 4.6- an; t#e re.onant 9re>6enc8 i. a77roxi-atel8 &!!44.6- G 6,.(MFA. T#i. #i0# c6rrent -a8 ca6.e i0nition o9 t#e e)-atc# at ver8 #i0# level. o9 9iel;., a. ;e.cri2e; in .ection 6. +or exa-7le in t#e Ca. ;elivere; 3ire con9i06rationD 3#ic# #a. t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 ")(-- a7art ;o3n t#eir len0t# a -a..ive 4!!!@4- at t#e 9ir.t re.onant 9re>6enc8 3o6l; 2e re>6ire; to i0nite t#e -o.t .en.itive e)-atc# an; over 9!!!@4- 9or t#e lea.t .en.itiveB T#e co-2ine; concl6.ion. 9ro- 2ot# re7ort. i. t#at 3it# t#e 3ire. en;. eit#er o7en or .#ort circ6it, an; 3it# t#e 3ire. ke7t clo.e to0et#er an; t3i.te; ;o3n t#eir len0t# t#at even t#e -o.t extre-e level o9 electro-a0netic 9iel; can i0nite eit#er e)-atc# ?" or ?( an; t#at i--6nit8 to a li0#tnin0 .trike a. 3ell a. electro-a0netic 9iel;. 3ill 2e #i0#. I9 t#e -an69act6rer. o9 e)-atc#e. 3ere to t3i.t t#e 3ire ;o3n t#eir len0t# ;6rin0 -an69act6re t#en t#e i--6nit8 3o6l; 2e even #i0#er.

-"

In E6ro7e it i. 6n;er.too; t#at 78rotec#nic ;evice. -a8 #ave t#eir e)-atc#e. in.erte; at a re-ote location an; t#en tran.7orte; to t#e 9irin0 .ite 3#erea. t#i. i. not allo3e; in Cana;a. O6r inve.ti0ation in t#i. an; a co-7anion 7a7er .#o3. t#at a. lon0 a. t#e e) -atc# 3ire. are not .e7arate; an; le9t o7en circ6it t#at t#e8 are i--6ne even to t#e -o.t extre-e electro-a0netic 9iel;. an; all 26t a ;irect li0#tnin0 .trike. "9.Typical electromagnetic ambient and choice of test le2els

T#e electro-a0netic a-2ient #a. 2een c#aracteriAe; 9or a n6-2er o9 location. an; #a. 2een .6--ariAe; in re9erence 6. M6c# #i0#er level. t#an t87ical 9or t#e a-2ient are >6ote; 9or .a9et8 li-it. 9or E 9iel;., electro-a0netic 3ave. an; -a0netic 9iel;. a77lica2le to t#e 0eneral 762lic. On t#e a..6-7tion t#at e)-atc#e. 3ill not 2e 6.e; in an electro-a0netic environ-ent a2ove t#e reco--en;e; .a9et8 li-it. 9or #6-an. it i. t#e.e or .li0#tl8 #i0#er level. 3#ic# #ave 2een 6.e; to te.t t#e .6.ce7ti2ilit8 o9 e)-atc#e.. <t t#e re.onant 9re>6encie. o9 t#e e)-atc# 3ire. t#e e)-atc# an; 3ire. 3ere ex7o.e; t#e ver8 #i0#e.t level. o9 E 9iel; t#at co6l; 2e 0enerate; to .ee at 3#at level, i9 an8 t#e8 i0nite;. "9.. #afety limits0 test le2els and test results

In Cana;a, Fealt# Cana;a .a9et8 co;e 6 CLi-it. o9 #6-an ex7o.6re to Ha;io9re>6enc8 Electro-a0netic +iel;. in t#e +re>6enc8 Han0e 9ro- &kFA to &!!GFAD are t#e reco--en;e; li-it.. In t#e U.S.< t#e IEEE C9,." "99" Stan;ar; 9or Sa9et8 Level. 1it# He.7ect to F6-an Ex7o.6re to Ha;io +re>6enc8 Electro-a0netic +iel;., &kFA to &!!GFA contain. t#e reco--en;e; li-it.. Fealt# Cana;a ;oe. not .7eci98 a -axi-6- ex7o.6re to -a0netic 9iel;. 2elo3 "!kFA 26t a contact t#ere 7rovi;e; a re9erence to an IHP< re7ort entitle. C Interi- 06i;eline. +or Ex7o.6re to 6!FA -a0netic 9iel;.D 762li.#e; in t#e Fealt# 7#8.ic. No6rnal in "99!. In t#i. ;oc6-ent t#e reco--en;e; -axi-6- ex7o.6re, over a 7erio; o9 (4 #r., to 6!FA -a0netic 9iel;. i. "!!!-Ga6.. G " Ga6.. G *9.&6<4-. T#i. li-it i. a77roxi-atel8 (6 ti-e. #i0#er t#an -axi-6- 9iel;. -ea.6re; in an o99ice 2lock 3#ere co-76ter -onitor. on t#e 9ir.t 9loor ex#i2ite; ;i.tortion in t#e i-a0e ;6e to #i0# level -a0netic 9iel;. 9ro- a 7o3er tran.9or-er in t#e .a9et8 li-it.. Bot# e)-atc#e. 3ere ex7o.e; to =!<4- at 6!FA an; neit#er 3ere .6.ce7ti2le. T#e8 3ere al.o te.te; at t#e level. 9ro- "MFA to (!!!MFA a. .#o3n in ta2le "!."3it# t#e carrier 2ot# -o;6late; an; 6n-o;6late;.

-,

Ta2le "!." T#e Cana;a Sa9et8 Co;e ?6 an; IEEE C9,."."99" Maxi-6- 7er-i..i2le ex7o.6re li-it. to electro-a0netic ra;iation, an; t#e level t#e e)-atc#e. 3ere te.te; to. +re>6enc8 %MFA' Cana;a Sa9et8 co;e 6 E 9iel; li-it. 9or t#e 0eneral 762lic %@4-' (=! "4! ,6 (= (= (= (= (= (= (9.6 &".* &,.4 &6.* &=.= &=.= 4!.* 4( ,! 6" *" IEEE C9,."."99" E +iel; li-it. +or t#e 0eneral 762lic %@4-' 6"4 4"( "6, =(.&= (*., (*., (*., (*., !.((& G (9.6@4!.(66 G &".*@4!.&& G &,.4@4!.&6 !.4 G &=.=@4!.4 G &=.=@4!.44 G !.4* G 4(@4!.6, G ,!4" G 6"@4 ".&& G *"@4IEEE C9,."."99" Po3er li-it. 9or t#e 0eneral 762lic -14c-( %Converte; to E 9iel; 9or a 7lane 3ave' 46! 46! ,!! =(.= %,6,' ",! O "6!P" &6!)46*P( (= ,!P& (= (9.6 &".* &6.= &4 4,.= 4& *4 =" 9! "&= "(=

Level. to 3#ic# e)-atc#e. 3ere te.te; @4-

" ( , "! ,!)=! ,!)",! "!! ",!)"*! &!! &,! 4!! ,!! ,&* ,** 6!" 66" *&4 "!!! ",!! (!!!

P" Level. 3it# 3ire. o7en circ6it P( Level. 3it# 3ire. .#ort circ6it P& T#i. level c#o.en to .i-6late t#e -axi-6- 9iel; 9ro- t#e 3alkie talkie.

"!.4." Cell6lar 7#one., 3alkie talkie. an; te.t re.6lt. T#e level. t#e 9iel;. 9ro- t#ree cell6lar 7#one. 3ere -ea.6re; 6.in0 a (!c- cali2rate; 2o3 tie antenna. T#e .i0nal .tren0t# i. .#o3n in 7lot "!."

--

Signal Strength of Cellular Phones at 20cm


+G =G*00 14* 14( ( !u"#m) 144 14) 140 1'* 1'( *1& *)0 *)& *'0 *'& *40 *4& *&0 Frequency (MHz) ?okia @otorola i7'0

Plot "!." +iel; .tren0t# 9ro- t#ree cell6lar 7#one. -ea.6re; at (!c- 9ro- antenna T#e conver.ion 9ro- ;B@4- to @4- i. .#o3n in ta2le "!.(. Ta2le "!.( P#one E 9iel; %;B@4-' "46 "4") "4,.6 "&6.* E 9iel; %@4-'

E-Fiel

Motorola i*&! LG TG=!! Nokia

(! "" ) "9 *

-.

<lt#o60# 6nlikel8, a ver8 3or.t ca.e 3o6l; #ave t#e #ea; o9 t#e e)-atc# in contact 3it# t#e antenna on t#e cell 7#one. One o9 t#e te.t. con;6cte; 3a. 3it# t#e e)-atc# #ea; in contact 3it# t#e antenna. o9 t#e t#ree cell 7#one. an; no i0nition o9 eit#er o9 t#e t3o -an69act6rer. e)-atc#e. 3a. .een. < -ea.6re-ent 3a. -a;e o9 c#an0e in E 9iel; 3it# c#an0e in ;i.tance an; t#i. i. 7lotte; in 7lot "!.(. T#e -ea.6re; c#an0e in E 9iel; 3it# c#an0e in ;i.tance 9ro- ,!c- to "!c- i. "4.6;B. T#e 7re;icte; c#an0e i. ver8 clo.e 9ro- (! lo0 ,!c-4"!c- G "4;B. Extra7olatin0 9ro- t#i. 7lot to a ;i.tance o9 ,c- t#e E 9iel; 3ill 2e a77roxi-atel8 "4=;B@4- G (,@4- an; at (.,c- G "4=.&;B@4- G (6@4-. <t =6@4- t#e te.t level 9ro- Ta2le "!." over t#e ="9., to =(=MFA 9re>6enc8 ran0e 3a. .i0ni9icantl8 #i0#er t#an t#e level. -ea.6re; 9ro- 7#one.. In a;;ition t#e ra;iation 9rot#e cell6lar 7#one i. localiAe; an; 9all. o99 3it# ;i.tance 3#erea. in t#e E 9iel; te.t t#e 96ll len0t# o9 t#e !.,- lon0 e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. ex7o.e; to t#e te.t 9iel;. 1e can t#en con9i;entl8 .a8 t#at 9or t#e t3o e)-atc#e. te.te; t#at cell6lar 7#one. ;o not 7o.e a #aAar; to t#e e)-atc#e.. 1alkie talkie. can 0enerate E 9iel;. -6c# #i0#er t#an -ea.6re; 9ro- cell6lar 7#one.. T#e -axi-6- -ea.6re; E 9iel; 9ro- t3o ;i99erent 3alkie talkie. te.te; on ;i99erent c#annel. 3a. 9.,@4- at a ;i.tance o9 "- 9ro- t#e ;evice. <t (!c- t#e 7re;icte; E 9iel; 9ro- "6")"6".,MFA i. 4*.,@4- an; at ,c- it i. 6(@4-. T#e e)-atc#e. 3ere te.te; to ,!@4- 9ro- ",! O "*!MFA. T#e 9iel; 3a. 0enerate; over t#e 3#ole !.,- len0t# o9 t#e e) -atc# 3irin0 3#erea. t#e 9iel; 9ro- t#e antenna i. localiAe; an; re;6ce. ra7i;l8 3it# ;i.tance. Fo3ever ;e.7ite t#e concl6.ion to 2e ;ra3n 9ro- t#i. te.t it a;vi.a2le not to 6.e a 3alkie talkie in clo.e 7roxi-it8 to e)-atc#e. an; e.7eciall8 not in contact 3it# t#e antennaB

-3

$e uction of Cellular Phone Signal Strength %ith &istance


+G =G*00

1&0 Signal Strength ( !"#m) 140 1'0 1)0 110 100 10 )0 '0 &istance (cm) 40 &0

Plot "!.( He;6ction o9 E 9iel; 9ro- cell6lar 7#one 3it# ;i.tance.

"9.3 Test methods and test le2els < .tri7line antenna 3a. 6.e; to 0enerate t#e 9iel;. 9ro- "MFA to 4!!MFA a. .#o3n in 7#oto "!.". +ro- 4!!MFA to "!!!MFA a lo0 7erio;ic antenna 3a. 6.e; a. .#o3n in 7#oto "!.(. +ro- "!!!MFA to (!!!MFA a lar0e #orn antenna 3a. 6.e;. T#e .tri7line antenna an; lo0 7erio;ic are cali2rate; on a 8earl8 2a.i. an; t#e in76t level. to t#e antenna -onitore; ;6rin0 t#e te.t to en.6re t#at t#e .7eci9ie; 9iel; i. 0enerate;. T#e .tri7line antenna ;evelo7. t#e 9iel; 2et3een t3o 7late. an; t#e 9iel; i. in#erentl8 6ni9or-. T#e 6ni9or-it8 o9 t#e 9iel; 0enerate; 28 t#e lo0 7erio;ic antenna #a. 2een te.te; an; i. 7rovi;e; in <77en;ix ". +or t#e #orn antenna a cali2rate; ;o62le ri;0e; 06i;e %:HG' antenna i. 6.e; to .et 67 t#e 9iel;. T#e :HG antenna i. t#en re7lace; 28 t#e e)-atc#e. an; ex7o.e; to t#e te.t 9iel;. T#e te.t. 3ere 7er9or-e; at t#e.e level. 3it# t#e 9iel; 2ot# -o;6late; an; 6n-o;6late;. In a;;ition to t#e.e te.t .et 67. t#e e-atc#e. 3ere ex7o.e; ;irectl8 to t#e ver8 localiAe; 9iel;. 9ro- cell6lar 7#one. 3it# t#e antenna 7lace; on t#e e)-atc# #ea;, a. ;e.cri2e; in "!.4.".

-4

P#oto "!." Stri7line antenna

-5

P#oto "!.( Lo0 7erio;ic antenna

"9.4

Tests at resonant fre uency

1it# t#e e)-atc# 3ire. o7en circ6it t#e -axi-6- c6rrent 9lo3. 3#en t#e inci;ent E 9iel; i. in t#e .a-e 7lane a. t#e t3o 3ire. an; at t#e 9re>6enc8 o9 re.onance, 3#ere t#e len0t# o9 t#e 3ire. e>6al. Q la-2;a. <l.o 3#en t#e 3ire len0t# i. -6lti7le. o9 Q la-2;a in len0t#. 1it# t#e 3ire. .#ort circ6ite; t#e 9re>6enc8 o9 re.onance i. 3#ere t#e 3ire len0t# e>6al. R la-2;a. <l.o at 9re>6encie. 3#en t#e 3ire len0t# i. -6lti7le. i9 Q la-2;a in len0t#. U.in0 t#e .tri7 line antenna t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. oriente; .6c# t#at t#e inci;ent E 9iel; en.6re; -axi-6- co67lin0 to t#e 3irin0. 1it# t#e 3ire en;. o7en circ6it t#e E 9iel; at 3#ic# e)-atc# ?" i0nite; 3a. "6(@4- an; 9or e)-atc# ?( it 3a. &6&@4-. T#e 3ire. 3ere .e7arate; a. .#o3n in 9i06re "!.". It i. 6n6.6al to .e7arate t#e 3ire. to t#i. extent. < -ore reali.tic con9i06ration i. .#o3n in 9i06re "!.( an; 3it# t#i. -6

con9i06ration t#e ?" an; ?( e)-atc#e. 3ere i--6ne at &6&@4-. T#e t87ical a. ;elivere; con9i06ration i. .#o3n in 9i06re "!.&. 1it# t#e 3ire en;. on 2ot# e)-atc#e. .#ort circ6it 2ot# 3ere i--6ne 9ro- ,! O ",!MFA at 9ro- (9!@4- to 46*@4-, 3#ic# cover. t#e re.onant 9re>6enc8 9or a .ort circ6it. It 3o6l; a77ear t#at e)-atc# ?" i. .6.ce7ti2le to E 9iel;. 3it# t#e 3ire en;. o7en circ6it. Fo3ever t#e -ini-6- level o9 E 9iel; i. a ver8 #i0# at "6(@4-. ,.= ti-e. t#e .a9et8 level. I9 t#e 3ire. are not .e7arate; 28 ,c- t#en t#e i--6nit8 i. -6c# #i0#er. In t#e Ca. ;elivere; 3ire con9i06rationD o9 9i06re "!.& 3#ere t#e 3ire. are .e7arate; 28 "-- to (-- ;o3n t#eir len0t# a 9iel; o9 4!!!@4- 3o6l; 2e re>6ire; to i0nite e)-atc# ?" an; 96!!@4- 9or e)-atc# (. <l.o t#e E 9iel; #a. to 2e at a re.onant 9re>6enc8 an; at t#e ri0#t an0le o9 inci;ence. I9 t#e E 9iel; i. 2roa;.i;e on to t#e 3irin0 t#en no c6rrent i. in;6ce; into t#e 2ri;0e3ire even t#o60# t#e ca2le i. re.onant. In o6r te.t t#e t3o 3ire. 3ere ke7t .trictl8 one a2ove t#e ot#er ;o3n t#e len0t# o9 t#e 3irin0. I9 t#e 3ire i. t3i.te; ;o3n it. len0t# t#en t#e i--6nit8 o9 t#e 3irin0 i. increa.e; even 96rt#er. T#i. -ean. 6n;er 7ractical con;ition. not even an extre-e electro-a0netic a-2ient can i0nite eit#er e)-atc# ?" or ?( 3it# t#e 3ire. o7en circ6it.
e-match "ridge#ire

& cm

End - open or short circuit

#ire length - 1%1&m

+i06re "!." e)-atc# 3ire con9i06ration a. te.te;.

e-match "ridge#ire End - open or short circuit & cm

7cm #ire length - 1%1&m

+i06re "!.( e)-atc# t87ical 3irin0 con9i06ration a. 6.e;.

-7

e-match "ridge#ire

1mm to )mm distance "et#een #ires :ire ends open cicruit

#ire length - 1%1&m

+i06re "!.& e)-atc# 3ire con9i06ration a. ;elivere;

"9.5 Current flow through the e/match with the wires short circuit. :6rin0 te.tin0 3it# t#e e)-atc# 3ire en;. .#ort circ6it t#e H+ c6rrent 9lo3in0 t#ro60# t#e e)-atc# 3a. -ea.6re;. T#e .#ort at t#e en;. o9 t#e e)-atc# 3irin0 3a. re7lace; 28 a " O#- re.i.tor an; a "GFA o.cillo.co7e 3a. 6.e; to -ea.6re t#e volta0e ;ro7 acro.. t#e re.i.tor. Ta2le "!.& .#o3. t#e H+ c6rrent 9lo3in0 t#ro60# t#e e)-atc#e. ;6rin0 ex7o.6re to t#e 9iel;. .#o3n in ta2le "!.". <t &4!MFA t#e 9iel; 3a. increa.e; to t#e -axi-6ac#ieva2le an; .o t#e e)-atc#e. 3ere over te.te;. Even 3it# *94-< neit#er e)-atc# i0nite;. One 7o..i2le rea.on exi.t. to ex7lain t#i.. T#e c6rrent -ea.6re; 28 t#e .co7e i. 7eak to 7eak. T#e #eatin0 e99ect o9 t#e c6rrent i. 0iven 28 t#e r-. val6e an; at &4!MFA t#i. i. (=!-<.

Ta2le "!.& H+ c6rrent in;6ce; into e)-atc#e. ;6rin0 ra;iate; .6.ce7ti2ilit8 te.tin0 at .a9et8 level. +re>6enc8 %MFA' 99.4 (!* (4! &!! &!= &4! &,9 &*" 64( 9=" P G over te.t. Fi0#er t#an (9.6@4H+ c6rrent %-<' "(& &(! (6! &"6 446 *94P 4(! ,!! "6, 94

.9

"9.6

(C power magnetic field test

+or t#e 6!FA -a0netic 9iel; a "- x "-, 4 t6rn coil 3a. connecte; to a .te7 ;o3n tran.9or-er. T#e 7ri-ar8 .i;e o9 t#e .te7 ;o3n tran.9or-er 3a. connecte; to a varia2le o6t76t 0enerator a. .#o3n in 7#oto "!.&. Bot# e)-atc#e. 3ere i--er.e; in a -a0netic 9iel; at =!<4- at 6!FA. T#e 3ire. 3ere .e7arate; 28 ,c- an; t#e len0t# o9 3irin0 i. ".",-. T#e e)-atc# in.erte; in t#e "- x "antenna i. .#o3n in 7#oto "!.&.

P#oto "!.& Ma0netic 9iel; "- x "- antenna

."

(ppendi; " $og !eriodic Immunity <ield =niformity


((! ) 9!!MFA %<ntenna ti7 i. "- 9ro- 2o3 tie antenna. Ele-ent. are "."- to (."- 9ro- 2o3 tie' Uni9or- area i. ".,- #oriAontal an; "- in #ei0#t. No ;ata 7oint. are ;elete; l76ni.cal Po.ition 6 * )( " ( )" )( )( )4 )& " ( " )"! )& )4 )( )" & & 4 )( " ( )" )( )( )4 )& " ( " )"! )& )4 )( )" & & 4

f %MFA' ((4 (&* (,& (*= &"9 &,4 &*& &=& &99 4"= 4(6 444 ,!( ,&! ,,! ,9= 6"( *,& =9,

" )( )( )" )( ! )" )( )( " ! )" )"( )* )* ), )4 4 4 6

( )( ! " ! ! )& )4 )4 ! ! )" )"! )* )* ), )4 4 & ,

& )( ! " ! ! )& )4 )4 ! ! )" )"! )* )* ), )4 4 & ,

4 )( )( )" )( ! )" )( )( " ! )" )"( )* )* ), )4 4 4 6

, )( ! ! )& )( )( )4 )& " ( " )"! )6 )6 )4 )" & ( 4

= )( ! ! )& )( )( )4 )& " ( " )"! )6 )6 )4 )" & ( 4

9 )( ! ! )( )& )( )4 )& ! " ! )9 )* )* )4 )& & & ,

"! )( ! ! )( )& )( )4 )& ! " ! )9 )* )* )4 )& & & ,

"" )( ! ! )( )& )( )4 )& ! " ! )9 )* )* )4 )& & & ,

"( )( ! ! )( )& )( )4 )& ! " ! )9 )* )* )4 )& & & ,

;B ! & & & & ( ( ( " ( ( & 4 & & & " ( (

T#e 3or.t ca.e 9iel; 6ni9or-it8 i. &;B 3it# none o9 t#e ;ata 7oint. ;elete; 3#erea. t#e re>6ire-ent in EN6"!!!)4)& i. C3it# a -axi-6- o9 (,L o9 t#e ;ata 7oint. ;elete; t#e re-ainin0 .#all 2e 3it#in I4) &;BD.

.,

He9erence "

Li0#tnin0 <ir Ter-inal. O I. S#a7e I-7ortant 1illia- Hi.on, C#arle. B Moore an; Gra8;on :. <6lic# IEEE EMC S8-7o.i6- recor; (!!4.

He9erence ( Electro-a0netic +iel;. Generate; 28 Li0#tnin0 on Protection Str6ct6re. o9 Teleco--6nication Center.. Caixeta, G. P. Pi.ollato +il#o, N He9erence & Li0#tnin0 Tran.ient He.7on.e o9 4!!k@ Tran.-i..ion To3er 3it# <..ociate; Gro6n;in0 S8.te-. Srete Nikolov.ki, :a-ir SlJivac an; Si-on +ortin. Internation S8-7o.i6- on Electro-a0netci Co-7ati2ilit8 "99= Ho-e Ital8.

He9erence 4 Li0#tnin0 C6rrent an; Ma0netic +iel; Para-eter. Ca6.e; 28 Li0#tnin0 Strike. to Tall Str6ct6re. Helatin0 to Inter9erence o9 Electronic S8.te-.. +ranA +6c#., Ern.t Ulric# Lan;er., H6;ol9 Sc#-i;t an; No#ane.. 1ei.in0er. IEEE Tran.action. on Electro-a0netic Co-7ati2ilit8 @ol 4!, No. 4 "9== He9erence , He9erence 6 Private co--6nication 3it# :r. + Fei;ler 3it# t#e +e;eral <r-e; +orce. Univer.it8, M6nic#, Ger-an8 Electro-a0netic Co-7ati2ilit8$ Princi7le. an; <77lication.. Secon; E;ition. <6t#or :. <. 1e.ton . P62li.#e; 28 Marcel :ekker N.S. (!!"

.-