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Integration of Gender in Agriculture: An Analysis of Situation

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations UN Complex, Pulchowk, Nepal June 2010
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Table of Contents I. Background ........................................................................................................................ 1

II. Objective ............................................................................................................................ 2 III.Methods .............................................................................................................................. 2 IV. Situation Analysis of Gender in Agriculture ...................................................................... 2 4.1Participation in Agriculture Sector ............................................................................ 4 4.1.1 Farm Production Activities ............................................................................... 5 4.1.2 Labour Management Activities......................................................................... 6 4.1.3 Food Security and Nutrition.............................................................................. 7 4.2 Access to and Decision-making / Control over Resources and Benefits ..................... 8 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.2.3 4.2.4 4.2.5 4.2.6 4.2.7 Land .................................................................................................................. 9 Water ................................................................................................................. 9 Livestock ......................................................................................................... 11 Marketing, Income and Savings ..................................................................... 11 Extension Service/Training ............................................................................. 12 Technology ..................................................................................................... 12 Membership in Informal/Formal Institution ................................................... 13

4.3 Feminization in Agriculture ....................................................................................... 13 V. Gender Integration in National Policy and Plans ............................................................. 14 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 VI. Policy and Constitution ............................................................................................. 14 National Development Plans ..................................................................................... 15 Major Issues .............................................................................................................. 23 Challenges ................................................................................................................. 29 Opportunities ............................................................................................................. 30 Identified Gaps .......................................................................................................... 32

Gender Concerns in Donors/INGOs Strategies, Policies and Plans ............................. 35

VII. Conclusion and Recommendations ............................................................................... 46 References ................................................................................................................................ 54

Integration of Gender in Agriculture: An Analysis of Situation1

I. Background
Almost 86% of the total population of Nepal (27 million) reside in rural Nepal. In recent years, there has been a fast growth in urban population. The trend of growth in urban area was 2.8% from 1981 to 1991 and reached up to 4.7% in 2001. This clearly shows a flow of immigrants from rural to urban areas. In most Asian countries, rural to urban migration still dominates because of the higher proportion of the population living in rural areas and various factors including global climate change and its adverse affect on agricultural sector. This demonstrates a decreasing trend in agricultural employment and increasing importance of non-farm work for income security. However, this flow is basically of men who outnumber women in urban areas. On the other hand, women who constitutes half of the total population of Nepal, exceeds men by 7.5% in rural areas. Apart from socio-cultural constraints, inadequate basic infrastructure and resources in rural areas marginalized mostly girls and women in accessing resources and getting benefit from the opportunities. For example, adult literacy rate of Nepalese women is 38.4% as compare to 69.7% of men which is further lower for rural women i.e. 34.3% (HDR, 2009). Likewise, female-headed household has reached up to 22% in 2008 from 14% in 2001. The low HDI (0.553) ranked Nepal at 144th position out of 182 countries, indicating a low life expectancy at birth, low educational attainment, and low income. Furthermore, it illustrates situation of Nepal in human development context. The lower value of GDI (0.545) as compare to HDI demonstrates gender disparities within human development, which ranked Nepal at 144th position. According to CBS 2009, women participation in economic activities is 55.2% versus 71.6% of men indicating a poor status of Nepalese women and existence of a challenge to meet gender equality in the country. In fact, women are involved more in non-productive activities such as in household chores and other farm activities which do not account value for their work. Likewise, Nepal ranks 83rd out of 109 countries in the GEM with a value of 0.486 in 2006 (HDR, 2009). Poor participation of women in local election and insignificant number of women in professional and administrative work as compared to men has put Nepal among the lowest-ranking countries. In addition, this also reflects exclusion of women in decision-making and control over resources. An unequal human development is due to both cause and effect of exclusion (HDR, 2009). Despite there being a significant improvement in HDI in recent years, inequality still persists in literacy rates, per capita income, opportunities for
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This report is prepared by Dr. Milan Adhikary, FAO Consultant for the NMTPF Formulation Team.

participation, and access to resources across regions, caste, ethnic groups, and gender. The extent of relative deprivation of the people in the rural areas, dalits and janjatis, and Muslims of Terai region is higher in comparison to urban area and other ethnic groups residing in hills and mountains. During the last few years, nation-wide poverty has decreased by more than 20%; however, the rate of decrease has been very unequal across the ethnic groups and caste, which further widens the gap between rich and poor. The incidence of poverty is reported to be greater in case of agricultural-wage laborer who are landless, illiterate and have a large family size. Since womens access to the household assets and other productive resources is limited throughout the country, poor women outnumber poor men irrespective of regions, caste, and ethnic groups (HDR 2009).

II. Objective
The general objective of this study is to analyse the situation of gender in agriculture sector and provide input on its integration for formulation of National Medium Term Policy Framework (NMTPF). Specific objectives are:

To identify priority issues on gender and social inclusion for integration in Agriculture and Rural Development Sector. To assess challenges and opportunities and explore the existing possibilities for integration of gender and social inclusion in Agriculture sector To identify gender and social inclusion gaps in the existing Agriculture policy and programs To recommend measures for addressing the identified issues and bridging the gaps for achieving gender equality in agriculture sector To explore potential partners for collaboration with FAO for necessary support in addressing the gender and social inclusion issues in Agriculture.

III.Methods
The study basically employed a desk review of available on line literature on gender and agriculture and hard copies of reports from various organizations. The study also attempted to hold a brief meeting with a number of focal persons from organizations that are involved in integrating gender equality in their plans and programs to understand the nature and extent of integration of gender equality in their organization as well as at program and project levels and also sought the possibility of collaboration with FAO for addressing the issue if needed.

IV.

Situation Analysis of Gender in Agriculture

Agriculture is the mainstay of Nepalese economy contributing about one- third to GDP (32.8%). However, the share of agricultural sector to gross domestic product (GDP) has been declining due to the structural and economic transformation. Despite the fact that the majority of the population of rural areas (80%) still depend on the agricultural sector, productivity remains low and largely subsistence oriented. Apart from difficult physio-topographic situation, limited access to inputs and resources along with insufficient governance of public institutions to deliver development services to a socially diverse and disadvantaged population are the vital factors for low agricultural production in recent years (ADB 2004). It is well known fact that agriculture provides not only the rural population with household and national food security but also the food supply of urban consumers depend on the agricultural production from both men and women farming population. Women make substantial contribution in agriculture sector. According to MOAC 2009, 72.8% of economically active (age 10 and over) women are engaged in agricultural work compared to men's 60.2%. The percentage share of women to agriculture sector is 12.6% higher than that of men. This is one of the major evidences for poor performance in HDI and GDI. Many of the poorest countries have an agriculture-based economy. About three fifth of the worlds poor are women, scores of whom depend on agriculture for survival. (GoN/DANNIDA 2005) There is much evidence from past and current studies that both men and women contribute significantly to farming systems of Nepal. Poor rural women play important roles as unpaid family workers, hired labourers, income earners, savers of expenditures, and major caretakers of family health and nutrition. In Asia, the prevailing rice cultivation practices demand heavy manual labour inputs and drudgery, particularly on women. However, gender roles in Asia vary by region, agroecological system, type of farming systems, crops grown, interlinks with livestock and fish production, and opportunities for off-farm occupation for family members. According to a recent study conducted by IRRI in 2009, female participation increases with poverty and unfavourable environment. World Food Program revealed, Gender inequality is a major cause and effect of hunger and poverty (Karl 2009). Although a large section of the society suffers from food and nutrition insecurity, the most affected groups are the people with little or no land to depend upon, especially women. This is mainly because of the misguided main-stream policy and economic models which promote large scale commercial agriculture to the detriment of small food producers. Women are particularly affected as they are the majority of smallscale producers who do not have rights on land and access to resources. Consequently, women who grow food crops are neglected, resulting fall in food production. It is the women who suffer the most for meeting household needs.

In recent years, food crisis has become a global issue which has become serious due to negative impact of climate change on food production and increased fuel price. In the context of Nepal, the situation is alarming as population is increasing at a faster rate as compared to agriculture production. There are a number of reasons behind the low food production. Among them, use of fertile land for construction purposes, decline in soil fertility due to excessive use of fertilizers, pesticides and water scarcity, change in cropping pattern, and lack of land management are the main (Khanna 2008). Food insecurity cannot be isolated from poverty. In most of the cases it is poverty which causes food insecurity in households and communities. Despite a decade long conflict and poor performance in agriculture, Nepal has made a considerable progress toward reducing poverty from 42 % to 31% from 1995 to 2003 due to contribution from remittance from migrated people. However, there are wide inequalities depending on geographic location, ethnicity, caste and gender. It has been assessed that poverty incidence in urban area has declined by 7% per year while it is just 2.5% per year for rural area within 8 years duration (NLSSII). Within the five development regions, the incidence of poverty has decreased in eastern and western hills, while it has increased slightly in terai regions, particularly in Midwest and far-west regions. The increasing trend of poverty in Terai region has also increased the incidence of malnutrition. Terai region, which is the country's heartland for food production, has incidence of malnutrition as much as in food deficient areas of hills and mountains. This explains that mere food deficit is not the only cause for malnutrition; rather, a number of factors such as socio-cultural aspect, food-habit, lifestyle and sanitation practice play important roles (Khanna 2008). 4.1 Participation in Agriculture Sector

Mixed crop and livestock integrated farming is the characteristic feature of Nepalese agriculture and widely prevalent in the country, irrespective of agro-ecological regions. In subsistence agriculture, both men and women involve significantly in sustainable agriculture production and management. However, there exists a gender division of labour between men and women in farming as well as in household activities. Therefore in gender relation there is defined role and responsibilities for men and women that has been socially accepted and practised. In farming practice, men and women perform their task through mutual cooperation and interdependence to each other. Because of gender division of labour, gender differentiation in participation persists in agriculture. Gender analysis helps in understanding nature and extent of men and womens participation in various sector of agriculture such as crop, livestock, fisheries, and other related components. It also explains different roles and responsibilities of men and women such as who does what, where and when do they work, and for how 4

long. Due to gender division in labour, differentiation in genders work is obvious. The differentiation in allocation of labour, nature of labour, and extent of their use is influenced broadly by religion, culture, social, economic, agro-ecological, and political situation of the country. However, a multiple factors are responsible for gender variation in participation in agriculture activities within each region and socio-culture parameters. Women's involvement is highest in the hills and mountains, in small and marginal households, and lower in the terai (plains) amongst high caste groups 4.1.1 Farm Production Activities Women play a significant role in all the various stages of crop production, processing and preparing for markets. Rural women are responsible for 60 to 80 per cent of food production in developing countries, yet female farmers are often underestimated and overlooked in agricultural policies and strategies (GoN/DANIDA 2005). According to the study carried out by FAO in 2005, women in the high mountain areas contribute more in agricultural work than men, more or equal work in the middle hills, and slightly less work in the Terai (low foothills and plains). However, in all agroecological zones, men generally perform tasks that require heavy physical labour such as ploughing (although women all over rural Nepal can be seen carrying heavy loads of fuel-wood, water, and fodder). Women, on the other hand, chiefly perform tedious and time-consuming work such as weeding, harvesting, threshing, and milling. Studies have shown that women involvement is greater in the case of minor and subsistence food crops production such as millet, maize, soybean etc. However, in the case of cash crop and commercial production men involvement has been observed significantly. For example, rice is a staple food crop of Nepal and grown in larger scale in Terai region, where involvement of men is observed to be more as compared to that of women. In general, women in Terai participate less in farm activities as compared to women in hill and mountain regions due to socio-cultural restrictions particularly in the case of higher caste such as Bhramins and Chhetris. This restriction is more relaxed in the case of other ethnic group such as Magyar, Taming, Gerung, Sherpa, Lama, and Newer and social groups such as Dalits and Janjatis. However, irrespective of region, women involvement is more in the case of rain-fed agriculture than in irrigated one (Bajracharya, 1994). Women involvement in farm food production also varies with land-holding size. The greater the land-holding size, the lesser women involved in their farming activities. Because in such case, hired labour substitutes women labour of family. This is very much true in the case of Terai region, where the higher castes, Brahmin and Chettris, own greater land-holdings and women involvement is found lesser as compared to men. However, land-holding size of other ethnic and social groups in the same region is smaller therefore women involvement as farm labour is greater. Nevertheless, in overall womens involvement has been reported significant in case 5

of transplantation, weeding, and harvesting of rice irrespective of regions and sociocultural pattern. In food production irrespective of the crops, women share more than 50% of labour work, from planting to maturity such as sowing, manuring, weeding and hoeing, and harvesting. Likewise, in case of post-harvest operations, women involvement is greater particularly in cleaning, grading, storing, and packing for sale. Mens role are much confined in land preparation, digging pits for orchard, ploughing, irrigation, and application of chemical fertilizers, spraying pesticides/insecticides, and pruning of orchards. Livestock, cow, bull, oxen buffaloes, sheep, goat, and pigs farming on small scale in the backyard is widely prevalent in Nepalese farming system. Besides livestock, poultry and fish play a subsidiary role to crops and contribute in meeting human needs both to consumption and sell for income. The socio-cultural, economic, and agro-climatic condition influences the number of holdings and pattern of livestock. In mountains where food production is difficult due to poor geographical condition, raising of livestock head is more as compared to Hills and Terai (Adhikary 2000). However, in all the three ecological regions irrespective of social and ethnic groups, both men and women contribute significantly in livestock production and management. In general, women are more involved in raising small livestock while men for large ruminants. However, women contribution is higher in feeding, collecting fodder, cleaning sheds, and grazing of livestock while men involvement is noticed more in case of management such as disease treatment, milking, and buying and selling of animals and their products. Within the social and ethnic groups, women of Tamang, Gurung, Magar, and Dalits are involved in production of pigs and poultry whereas Bhrahmin/Chhetris and Maithali women do not raise due to cultural restrictions. Likewise, Dalit and occupationally low caste do not raise cow as in Hinduism it is considered a sacred animal. 4.1.2 Labour Management Activities Family labour is one of the farm resource endowments like that of land. In subsistence agriculture, sustainability in agriculture production largely depends on proper management of labour. In labour intensive farming system, where mechanized farming is not practiced, labour availability and their involvement play significant role in enhancing agricultural productivity. Besides farm family labour, exchange labour and hired labour are used depending on the needs in agriculture activities. Labour use in different agricultural activities by gender varies with location, seasons, types of crops and livestock, and socio-economic features of household.

Studies in the past have reported that women work longer hours and have greater workloads than men owing to their double responsibility for reproductive and productive tasks. On an average a Nepali woman works three hours longer a day than does a man (Gautum, 1999). In the three agro-ecological regions, women of hills and mountains work longer hours as compared to women of Terai because of lack of development initiatives in the former. A study carried out by Sharma 1995, revealed that village women have to travel eight to nine kilometres to collect firewood; and 12.36 hours per person per day is spent on agricultural work in the hilly areas of Nepal. In addition, they have to allocate their time for household chores too. A recent study on gender assessment in rangeland conducted by ICIMOD in 2008 revealed that rangeland women work on average of 17 hours per day while most rangeland men work about 8 hours per day. This illustrates that rural women are overloaded. Irrespective of regions, the working pattern of men and women also varies with seasons. In general, men are busy during peak seasons especially during planting and harvesting. In peak seasons, generally labours are either exchanged or hired or both when family labour is insufficient. However, in exchanging labour a day of woman labour is not considered equivalent to a day of mans labour, which is instead considered to be equivalent to a day labour of two women. The difference is taken into account with work efficiency and wage rate. This illustrates, man wage rate is double than that of woman (Shivakoti, 2002). In the case of Terai and large land holding size, labour are hired on the basis of daily wage in either cash or kind (harvested grains). Wage discrimination by gender even for the same activity is very common through out the country. Although government set fixed wage rate throughout the country, it has not been practiced. The differentiation in wage rate between men and women is reported Rs. 20, Rs. 10, and Rs. 5 in Mountain, Hills and Terai regions, respectively. The reason behind this is due to soil topographic and accessibility to market. The lower wage rate for women is disincentives for them to manage their land properly. 4.1.3 Food Security and Nutrition Food Security is multifaceted concept that goes beyond the general definition as access by all people at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. It encompasses a broad range of issues such as population growth, mobility, production, consumption pattern, resource distribution, climate change, environmental degradation, socio-economic status, land ownership right, access to credit, and input services. IFPRI-1995, disaggregated Food security into 3 pillars food production, food access, and food utilization. Women are primary producers of food and livestock, managers of natural resources, preservers of bio-diversity, keepers of traditional knowledge and food processors and 7

providers of food for their family at household. Because of their multiple role, women play key roles in overcoming household food insecurity. As women are involved in food production, they are responsible for family nutrition by ensuring adequate share of food, and if not then earning income to purchase it (PAHO). Poverty is measured in terms of household as a unit. It is generally presumed that enough food production at household will benefit everyone. However, in poor households, women and girls are more likely to suffer from malnutrition. This is true as women and girls are the one who take leftover after meeting food needs of other family members especially men. Thus women have less in-take both in terms of quantitative as well as qualitative aspects. On the top of this, migration of male due to conflict as well as poverty has led abandoned of agricultural land into fallow. This has added burden to women in workload, and no doubt, it has affected further on food security and their health. According to a recent report, Nepal has one of the worlds highest rates of malnutrition with nearly half of all children underweight. A sign of acute malnutrition wasting - is now worse in the Terai than in the hill and mountain areas. In the Terai, 17 percent of children aged 9-11 months suffer from wasting which is higher than the national average of 13 percent (IRIN-2009). It is reported that the discrimination against women, especially daughters-in-law who are at the bottom of family hierarchies in many communities, is an important factor for poor nutrition in Terai. Poorer households headed by women have demonstrated that they often succeed in providing more nutritional food for their children than those headed by men. This demonstrates the importance of gender-based knowledge and roles with regard to food security. Men who lack knowledge about food preparation may not be able to translate food availability into nutritional security for their households (WBank/IFAD/FAO 2009). Statistics show maternal mortality rate of 281/100,000 in Nepal is still one of the highest in the world. It is also revealed that 29 % of urban and 37.5% of rural men aged between 15-49 are suffering with anemic problems. On the top of that due to heavy work load, women are confronted with child birth complications and prolapsed uterus. 4.2 Access to and Decision-making / Control over Resources and Benefits Access is freedom or permission to use resources whereas control is power to decide whether and how a resource is used. In fact decision making and control are synonymous to each other. In reality, person possessing decision-making power have control over resources such as management, buying, selling, etc. Therefore sustainability in agriculture production depends largely on decision-makers. Despite women's important role in agriculture, traditional social norms and customary laws, they are generally biased in favour of men and are barriers to women's equitable access to productive resources (Chaudhary, 2007). In accordance with the other 8

norms of patriarchal society, women also tend to lag behind men in access to almost all available opportunities and resources (HDR 2009). Although women's labour inputs to agriculture are often greater than men's, they rarely have access to extension services, institutional credit, or production inputs (Shivakoti 2002). In agricultural context, land, capital, credit, farm machinery tools, technology, and livestock are major resources. Accessibility to these resources and decision-making on it, however, varies with social and ethnic groups, region, and socio-economic status (Bajracharya 1994). Research studies carried out in past revealed that women of janjatis such as Magar, Gurung, Limbu, and Rai have more access to resources and benefits compared to Brahmin, Cheri and Maithali women. Women in hills have more access than women of terai. Likewise, educated women have greater influence in decision-making as compared to illiterate. Especially in upland locations, women have a significant role in farm decision-making. This is due to dominant ethnic composition (Sherpa, Gurung) in high Mountains. 4.2.1 Land Land is still under control of men due to traditional Hindu law of succession whereby all the male offspring are entitled to the parental property including land. Though a new amendment to the Land Act (in 2002) provided daughter-in-laws and unmarried daughters under the age of 35 the same right but yet to practice (Sapkota, 2002). Under such patriarchal tradition, women exercise limited ownership or control in their right. Lack of ownership right means lack of access to other important resources such as agriculture credit. This refrains women further for purchasing necessary agricultural inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides/insecticides, and quality seed. As a result farm activities suffer from lack of investment and due to not taking account women as farmer. This ultimately brings negative impact in productivity. The pattern of gender differences in access to and control over land are observed more or less similar in all ecological regions of Nepal. 4.2.2 Water Water is essential resource necessary not only for agriculture purpose but also for human beings and animals. Since water is very much linked with land, activities related to irrigation are exclusively under men's domain and their responsibilities. In the gender division of labour, decision with regard to management of water and its distribution are taken care by men whereas meeting household needs for drinking and sanitation (animals and household) are considered responsibilities of women. Despite sanitation is very much important with respect to health of household and animals, it is hardly addressed through gender perspective. This explains that role of

women in management of water and sanitation is still invisible and their need for sustainable water use is yet to be addressed.

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4.2.3 Livestock Livestock is also considered as assets of farm household which are generally kept to cope during adverse situation in the farm household. As women are involved greater than men in caring of farm animals, there is more or less equal access for men and women and involvement in decision-making with regard to management of feed. However, with regard to decision making especially on buying and selling of livestock and veterinary services, men take major decisions, except for small livestock such as goat and poultry. The reason behind this is that small livestock are in general kept as Pewa for rural women, which they got as a gift from their parents. Women are sole decision-makers in those cases. The decision making on livestock is also influenced by social and ethnic group, regions and economic status of farm household. Women of janjatis - Magar, Gurung and poor household have more control over livestock as compared to Brahmin/Chettris, Maithali, and terai women (Bajracharya 1994). 4.2.4 Marketing, Income and Savings It is generally presumed that women do not know about marketing, price information, and calculation and do not have ability of bargaining. The perception limits women to have access of marketing of agricultural products. Since access to marketing is directly linked with income, women are mostly deprived with such opportunities. In rural area, where market is accessible, women are involved in buying and selling of their small produce like vegetables. Even if women have access of marketing and income, decision-making on expenditure of savings are mostly done by men. Nevertheless, access of marketing, income and saving varies with ethnicity, ecological area, and socio-economic status. Research studies showed that women belonging to lower socio-economic status such as dalits participate heavily in such activities as compare to other social groups. This is because dalits are small group or landless poor people who need immediate cash for survival. However, Tharu women are never involved in selling. In the hills, janjatis - Magar/ Gurung/ Newar, and Tamang have access to marketing while this is not prevalent for Brahmin and Chhetri women. A recent study on gender differences in access to and control over resources in agriculture concluded that there is an overwhelming domination of men in gaining access to agricultural and veterinary services, community activities and training, and finances than women. Likewise in the case of control over resources, income generated from off-farm employment was strongly controlled by men. Womens participation to control income generated from cereal crops, cash crops, and large animals were almost none. Nevertheless, domination of women was stated for income from. (Devkota, 2006)

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4.2.5 Extension Service/Training Despite efforts made in recent years in targeting women for extension service and training, the achievement in not satisfactory. Women are still seldom targets of agriculture training unless there is mandate for women participation. It is generally assumed in gender biased and blind development plans that technical knowledge, information, and skill targeted for male farmers automatically trickle down to their wives. Farmers are typically often perceived as male by policy makers, planners, and agricultural service providers. For this reason, agricultural inputs such as technology, extension, training, and services that enhance production capacity often tend to target needs of male farmers. Consequently, women farmers' food production is often insufficient and the productivity of their labour remains low (FAO 2005). A household survey conducted in 2005 revealed that women often even don't know when an extension agent has visited the village. In all the study areas, women consistently gave very high priority to access to education and training, which they see as the first step in improving their lives. It was apparent from the study that women were hesitant to participate in decision-making processes primarily because of their lack of education. They understand that they lag behind men in terms of access to and control over resources owing to their poor educational levels. Besides education, access to extension service and training is also influenced by socioculture of the society. In Terai region, women in general do not meet outsider men. This is also prevalent in rural areas where women feel shy with men. Inadequate women extension agents are identified as one of the major constraints to tackle the problem. Under certain circumstances, even if women have got access to extension and training, decision making for their participation is controlled by men. Women are often the last to benefit from economic growth and development. In some cases women have even been negatively affected (GoN/DANNIDA 2005). 4.2.6 Technology In most of the cases when any new technology is introduced or transferred, it is either gender biased or gender neutral. This is very much true in the case of developing countries like Nepal. Very little efforts have been made to transfer new and improved technology and tools that is geared towards the need of the women. Although womens involvement in farming activities is significantly higher than men, they generally do not have access to and decision-making role on technology as their need of technologies have been ignored. The reason behind this is underestimating women and their work and giving them a low value. Therefore whenever any new technology is introduced, it is mostly for men who have been performing the task such as tractors or ploughing tools.

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Weeding and transplanting which are laborious work and mostly falls under womens domain, are still done manually (Gautam ,1999). Although APP and ninth plan mention the necessity of promoting labour-saving devices, this has been limited to household appliances such as improved cooking stoves and use of Bio-gas etc. Labour-saving technology for women farmers have not been mentioned anywhere. Although some of the rural technology are women-focussed such as improved cooking stove and Biogas for reducing drudgery of women, men were involved in decision-making for installation of such new technology (Shrestha 2006). Shresthas study revealed that in construction and maintenance of plant, men's participation was higher, and they play the dominant role in installation of plant. In most of the cases, new technology fails as they give priority to efficiency vs. equity. 4.2.7 Membership in Informal/Formal Institution Recent study revealed that womens participation in farmer's group was less than 40% and their role in decision-making by being in executive committee was just 23% (1 out of 4). This indicates low level of women's access to development opportunities as compared to men (IDLG/NORMA/SEEPORT 2005). 4.3 Feminization in Agriculture In the last few decades, there has been an increasing trend of involvement of women in the agriculture labour force. Data recorded in the successive census by CBS reflects that womens participation in agriculture labour force has increased from 36% in 1981 to 45% in 1991 and further made a jump to 48.1% in 2001. This indicates that agriculture is being highly feminized in recent years. This is mainly due to the decade-long armed conflict and poverty which resulted high emigration of rural youth and men in search of more lucrative job. Both poverty and emigration of men have added extra work load on women for sustaining household food security. However, due to lack of legal ownership of land, they have restricted access to services and facilities, which ultimately adversely affected in agricultural production. On the top of that, in recent years there has been emerging changes in global climate, resulting poor performance in productivity of agriculture sector, leading to changes in womens role. Poor and illiterate women will continue to be immersed in agriculture and will bear a heavy burden of farming tasks with less access to other income opportunities than men. The elderly and the women left behind will face the challenges of maintaining rice productivity and family food security with less land, less water, and less labour. This would mean extra hardship in farming activities for women and children due to high demand in all production process.

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As women and young children are the one who has to put the burden of dealing with difficult situation, this will adversely affect on their health and their livelihood. One of the ADB study in 2004 reported that womens role in irrigation has become more important as male family members emigrate out of rural areas. Likewise in Vietnam, women have become in charge of tasks formerly performed only by men (e.g. spraying of chemicals, broadcasting fertilizer, irrigating the fields, hauling and marketing products) leading to major health risks related to the unregulated use of chemicals and pesticides.

V. Gender Integration in National Policy and Plans


5.1 Policy and Constitution Interim Constitution (2006) of Nepal has stated "women's rights" under fundamental rights, which is a great achievement of the democratic movement of Nepal 2006. Similarly, constitution has stated "Food Sovereignty" as a fundamental right. Though Interim Constitution of Nepal 2006 has provided equal property rights to son and daughters, in practice women are deprived to enjoy the rights provided by the constitution. There is a lack of general awareness among women and girls. Agricultural Policy (2004) was formulated by government of Nepal with a growing realization of retaining the fundamental aspects of the APP. Further, against the background of the process of economic liberalization, Nepal's commitments at the World Trade Organization and regional organizations, and Millennium Development Goals, the policy was brought into force by government of Nepal in 2004. The policy aims to contribute towards ensuring food security and poverty alleviation by achieving sustainable economic growth through increasing agricultural production and productivity, enabling the sector to compete in the international market, and conserving natural resources. The policy proposes support to resource poor farmers that account for 98% of the farmers in the country (MOAC 2004). Government of Nepal developed a national agriculture policy in 2004 to reform the agriculture sector. In the policy, it is clearly mentioned that the women farmer participation will be 50 percent in the possible areas of agricultural extension program. It has emphasized on arranging on-the-spot farmer's training and collection of gender-disaggregated data to maintain and update record in agriculture sectors. The policy specially targets disadvantaged groups, dalits and other marginal farmers including landless agricultural labourers to engage them in agricultural production operations. This is planned through acquiring agricultural land, ponds, marshes, reservoirs or riverbanks and under contract or leasehold arrangements. In addition, financial institutions including Agricultural Development Bank was planned to mobilize to provide concessional loans to such groups. Further seeds, saplings, and 14

technical services is planed to be provided free of cost to these groups. Looking at the massive emigration of youth from the country, the policy also aims to establish agricultural business and implementation and training management so as to attract them in agricultural sector (MOAC 2008). Agribusiness Promotion Policy (2006) was formulated in order to give momentum of agricultural policy 2004 which has given emphasis of developing business oriented and competitive agricultural system to compete in the regional and world market. The policy will run special program to establish agriculture enterprises and its implementation for disadvantaged group, dalit, and women (MOAC 2008). 5.2 National Development Plans Accelerated agricultural production has always been one of the major concerns of development plans in Nepal. However, until early 1980s virtually all agricultural policies were dominated by the myth that farming is a males activity and woman's homestead farming was not the subject of agricultural policy. Women were only looked at as components of social welfare programs and not as the partners in development. As a consequence, women farmers were left behind the mainstream of development. For the first time in the Sixth Plan (1980-85), the Government of Nepal stated the need to integrate women in its development planning. The plan aimed at increasing participation of women in agriculture development through training and marketing facilities through cooperatives. Priority was also accorded to cottage industry and off-farm activities to empower women. However, the plan could not succeed due to the lack of operational strategy to integrate women. The Seventh Plan (1985-90) considered the issues of women development and figured it prominently. The plan specifically emphasized on policy for womens participation in agriculture. The plan adopted policy of fixing quota in agriculture training and cooperatives to enhance womens participation in agricultural development. However, the plan failed to treat women farmers as economic producers. On the top of that lack of mechanism and strategies to translate policy into action was one of the major shortcomings of the plan. Consequently the achievement was not satisfactory. While looking at Nepals development plans, women's important role and contribution to agriculture remained nearly invisible to policy- and decision-makers in Nepal before the restoration of democracy in 1990 (FAO 2005). After 1990, a large number of national non-governmental organizations were registered; and they gave emphasis on women development and gender concerns in their activities. Donors also gave emphasis on focussing gender in their project. As a result in 1991, Agricultural Development Policy Outline and Immediate Priorities was developed 15

and published by Ministry of Agriculture. The policy outline included a separate section on Programs for the Development of Women Farmers. To operationalize the development programs, the MOAC circulated its directives to formulate income generating programs in agriculture for increasing womens participation. In spite of all efforts made, the outcome of these programs could not be used for planning purpose due to lack of data in gender desegregated forms (MOAC 2000). In the Eighth Plan (1992-97), the Government of Nepal introduced its first efforts by committing an equal and meaningful participation of women. Role of women in general and women farmers in particular was given top priority in this plan. To fulfil its commitment, a Women Farmers' Development Division (WFDD), which at present known as Gender Equity and Environment Division under the Ministry of Agriculture (MOAC) was established in 1992. WFDD's mandate was to mainstream gender issues in all agricultural policies and programmes and to increase the participation of women farmers in MOAC activities and programmes. The WFDD, in consultation with NPC prepared detailed policies for women farmers and that was included in the Eighth Plan. The eighth five-year plan introduced the concept of 'farmers group' for targeting delivery of inputs and technological packages to groups of farmers in production pocket areas. Priority was given to organizing women's group, especially in those activities which may be undertaken in the household yards such as kitchengardening, poultry-rearing, goat-keeping, mushroom production, silk production, nurseries, and bee- keeping. The achievement, however, fall far short of targets. Women farmers groups constituted only 9 percent against 30 percent and the achievement in training program was only 13 percent against the target of 35 percent (MOAC progress report of eight five year plan). Lack of explicit mention of the womens involvement in the annual program and central level training program, which is less accessible to rural women, were the main causes for poor achievements. Agriculture Perspective Plan (1995-2014), a 20-year long term plan, was prepared by the government with the strategy of agriculture led growth with the technical assistance of ADB. The plan was finalized in 1995; however, the full implementation of the APP started in mid 1997 along with the starting of national ninth plan. The plan implemented in coordination with other sectors of rural development aims to accelerate agriculture growth to contribute to achieve three dominant national objectives: eliminating poverty, enhancing the natural environment, and improving the condition of women. In order to achieve the objective, the plan has given emphasis to incorporate gender in all the three focused areas of APP priorities input, output, and impact. Emphasis was given to enhance womens status from agricultural sector by intensifying their involvement in dairy product and other high value cash crops with focusing mainly on women access to credit, training, research, and extension activities. 16

Although it is important to make involvement of women for access to resources, the plan missed the other important aspects i.e. control over resources, decision making role, and gender main-streaming and gender relations. Contribution of women in development process and relationship with men was hardly mentioned. In fact, the plan is silent with respect to exact meaning of gender and equated it with women (IDLG/NORMA/SEEPORT 2005). Therefore the major problem in main-streaming of gender by APP is lack of in-built gender main-streaming mechanism in the plan. In addition, there was no mention of the importance of gender sensitivity to the implementing machinery, rules and regulations, and to the process of development administration (ADB, 1999). In the mean time, a number of gender main-streaming programmes are being implemented by the United Nations and other international agencies, which promote a conducive environment for promoting gender equality. In this connection, UNIFEM in collaboration with the National Planning Commission initiated a project on mainstreaming gender considerations into national development in 1994. The project analysed four major sectors of the Eighth Plan, namely: agriculture, energy, tourism, labour, and industry through a gender perspective. A gender auditing module was delivered as an output of the project. Along with this, main-streaming gender in the entire development plan was recommended into the Ninth Plan. On the top of this, because of a full fledged Gender Equity and Environment Division (GEED) under MOAC, the topic on gender has got considerable attention through reflection in gender disaggregated database. Gender focal point and gender working groups have been formed in the departments of Agriculture, Livestock, and NARC. Thus the present GEED also played an important role in ensuring reorganization of women farmers need in the long term agricultural perspective plan. However, it has been reported that the division and group has no capacity to develop a clear gender strategy and action plan beyond formation of group providing training and working with and through women (IDLG/NORMA/SEEPORT 2005). Apart from this, there is lack of procedural guidelines and indicators for monitoring and evaluation of the agricultural development programs from gender perspective even after several years of implementation of APP (MOAC 2000). The Ninth Plan (1997-2002) was prepared with the aim of poverty alleviation in line with the objectives of the long term APP. To achieve the objective, the plan insisted to develop policy that opted increase in womens participation in agricultural development programs and activities. Emphasis was also laid on womens empowerment through equal rights over land ownership and elimination of gender inequality in farm household decision making process. For the first time in Nepal, gender was raised as an issue under three headings: gender equality, gender mainstreaming, and empowerment of women.

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The Ninth Plan provided a greater scope for promoting gender issues in various development programmes at national level. At the policy level, Government of Nepal has included international concerns and accepted that women as half of the nation's population need to be empowered in their own right and not only for increasing the efficiency of development programs and projects per se. In addition to this, the plan gave emphasis to the formation of women-specific and women mixed groups. It also insisted to incorporate segregate agricultural information and data on the basis of gender involvement. The plan increased the target of womens participation in agricultural trainings up to 1/3rd. Likewise, it also targeted at least 35% women involvement in various agricultural production service deliveries and at least 10% representation from womens group in market development and management activities. In order to strengthen poverty alleviation program, the plan gave emphasis on location specific income generating activities for marginal womens farmers group. Despite provision of different policies and specific targets, the achievement was not satisfactory due to ineffective program implementation strategy. There was no conceptual clarity how policies on women could be integrated into ministerial or departmental programs. Despite committees were formed by the Women's Division in NPC for coordinating sectoral programs, little interest was shown by the sectoral ministries in such committees. Most of the sectoral subcommittees constituted for the preparation of the five-year sub-sectoral plans at departmental level did not have women represented on them. For example, many of the committees responsible for preparing five-year plans on crop, vegetable, fruits, or livestock had no women's representation, despite the overwhelming importance given to women's participation in the Agricultural Perspective Plan (ADB 1999). The Tenth Plan (2002-2007), which is also known as Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan (PRSP), endorsed the APP with renewing governments commitment to it. The tenth plan of Nepal emphasizes on social inclusion, by addressing gender and ethnic/caste related disparities as one of the four pillars of the poverty reduction strategy along with cut across broad based economic growth, social development, and good governance. The plan had spelled need for empowering women by removing social, legal, economic, and other constraints, which have traditionally hampered their access to and use of productive resources. This is because both agriculture and rural development are high priorities for poverty reduction. To support poverty reduction, separate policies and programs on human rights were incorporated through social inclusion of women, children, Dalits, Janjatis, and Adhibasis. In view of reducing poverty, a new institutional approach, District Agriculture Development Fund (DADF) was initiated in 20 districts on the basis of poverty and deprivation index. Of the total, 35% beneficiaries were women along with 37% 18

Janjatis and 30% Dalits. (The tenth plan). However, there was a big gap in between castes/ethnicity, men and women in Nepal in terms of economic, educational and health, administrative, and political opportunities due to the lack of clear mechanism for inclusion in the existing plan and budget formulation directives and processes. The poverty of Brahmin and Chhetris fall more than 45% while that Dalits, Janjatis and Muslims were 21%, 10%, and 6%, respectively as against the national average of 31% (NPC 2005). Likewise the plan could not give adequate attention on food security at the national level; as a result 35% of the population of 55 districts were deprived of food and there exists discrimination in the distribution of food with respect to gender, age and caste/ethnic groups. The food deficit and malnutrition varies with regions. The plan stressed the need for accelerated growth in agriculture by integrated use of inputs and services through involvement of private sectors. Further emphasis was on to incorporate women in the mainstream of agriculture extension and towards their capacity development and professional enhancement. The plan also stated that agricultural growth strategy would help landless women through its production of high value crops and livestock which require less land. Thus the plan set the policy of contribution to gender equity through the involvement of 40% women in the agricultural programs and more than 60 percent in programs such as vegetable farming, horticulture, and silk farming. The plan expected increase in participation because of the enhancement of the skills and expertise of women cooperatives and the women groups in different cooperatives. The tenth plan took women education as an empowerment strategy with making primary education compulsory as underlined in Millennium Development Goals. Efforts were also concentrated to increase the participation of women in higher education. Special programs were planned to be implemented for providing education opportunity to the disabled as well as to the people of backward groups and regions. Different subjects such as women and gender equality were incorporated or revised in curriculum of various levels. However, inequality between men and women and gender and social discrimination were still prevailing in agriculture and other related sector at the national level. Even in the tenth plan, womens involvement was recorded significantly higher (25.1 hours/week) than that of men (9.7hours/wk) in non-economic activities such as subsistence, informal, and care taking. In contrary, in the economic activities, womens involvement was recorded 6 and 4 hours per week lesser than that of men in off-farm and farm activities, respectively. Investment, which is a vital necessity for the economic and social up-liftmen of women who are marginalized and povertystricken, especially in the rural areas, remained stagnant. As a result, Gender Development Index and Gender Empowerment Index of Nepal were 0.391 and 0.452, respectively. As a whole, agriculture sector showed poor performance with a stagnant growth rate of 2.67%, which resulted reduction in contribution to the GDP 19

by about 5% from the beginning of the plan (38%). Nevertheless, some major activities such as action plan on Beijing, CEDAW were prepared. Likewise discriminatory laws against women had been amended. Gender focal points and National Women Commission were formed. Mechanism on gender budgeting as a tool for main-streaming gender was a major achievement of the tenth plan which was initiated by the Ministry of Finance. In addition to this, a report entitled Gender Budget Audit in Nepal was finalized through a collaborative partnership between UNIFEM and UNDP and disseminated to gender focal persons and planning divisions of line ministries for its application at local levels (UNICEF 2006). Womens involvement in the formulation and implementation of local development programs were made mandatory and institutionalized. Attention was given to skill development of single women for their socio-economic empowerment. The awareness among women had been increased through the active engagement of NGOs and civil societies for the protection of the rights of women. In spite of all these efforts, an adequate level of improvement in the legal provisions, development programs, and budgets for gender equality were not realized as expected in the tenth plan. Gender perspective could not be reflected in the overall economic environment, development process, and the budget and policy formation. There has not been any significant improvement in the participation of Dalits and Dibasic Janajatis in the policy formulation, institutions and processes. TYIP (2007-2010) lays the foundation to build a prosperous, modern and just Nepal through economic and social transformation as a main goal. The plan aims to bring changes in lives of people by reducing the existing unemployment, poverty, and inequality in the country. The plan includes engendering macro development framework and making it inclusive of different marginalized group as one of its main agenda. It recognizes the cross sectoral nature of the gender issues. The plan has integrated gender in many more non-conventional sectors than before. One of the most important thrusts of TYIP from a gender perspective is to harmonize national laws and policies in line with the international instruments. The Plan gives continuity to the reforms initiated during the Tenth Plan and to the incomplete projects. The plan has adopted policies to move the development process forward by giving continuity of the successful programs of poverty reduction strategy, commitment towards MDG, and opportunities created after getting WTO membership. Though there were various programs operating in the past for agriculture and rural development, expected increase in production could not be realized. Therefore, the three year interim plan has given attention basically on major constraints faced in agricultural development in the past for increasing agricultural production and productivity. Special emphasis has been given to commercialization of agriculture sector through promotion of credit, improving agricultural roads, research and dissemination of technology, irrigation, rural electrification, and development of 20

market mechanism. With this, the plan targets to reach 3.6 % agricultural growth rate from 2.7% by the end of the plan. Along with this, the plan aims that at least 33 percent of the policy-making and other responsible posts of the public sector will be occupied by women. It also expects that at least 10 percent of the national budget will be allocated to programs targeting women empowerment and there will be an active participation of women by at least 50 percent representation in the local level and by at least 33 percent at the national level. Likewise, the plan ensures participation of Adhibasis, Janajatis and Muslim by increasing their HDI, HEI GEI by at least 10% along with allocation of 10% of national budget for them. In overall, TYIP targets to raise GDI to 0.556 and GEM to 0.450. In meeting the target, the plan sets an overall goal of the agriculture sector as a broad based, gender inclusive and sustainable agricultural growth. To achieve this, the plan has given emphasis on employment opportunities for rural youths, women, Madhesis, persons with disability, Muslims, and deprived groups through launching the rural agriculture employment program with a priority to create opportunities of selfemployment in villages. Special attention has been given to low-income groups and extremely remote areas including Karnali, which so far have been excluded from the economic, social, and regional development processes of the country. In order to provide relief to the general public including the destitute and deprived groups and to bring improvements in their social and economic conditions, this plan has adopted special policy and programs which are:

Proportionate representations of women, Dalits, Madhesis and Aadhibasi Janjatis will be ensured in Service Center and Village agricultural committees so as to ensure farmers' participation in agriculture related activities and decision making processes on plan formulation, implementation and monitoring of projects. Access to and control over of women and all the groups (the poor, the deprived, Aadhibasi Janjatis, Dalits and occupational castes) in agriculture extension, and their active participation will be ensured for their economic empowerment. Entrepreneurship trainings and service provider trainings will be provided for them. High priority will be given in the formation of mixed farmers' groups that includes poor, women and people living below poverty line with proportionate representation of Dalits Madhesis, Aadhibasi, Janjatis, and communities including 60 percent women. Judicious share of the benefits and returns of income generating programs among the poor, Dalits, Aadhibasi Janjatis, Madhesis, Muslims, and persons with disability and disadvantaged groups living below the poverty line, will be ensured. On-site training will be provided to women farmers so as to ensure their participation in agriculture based entrepreneurship trainings. 21

Gender focal points will be developed as fully transparent and functional institutional groups. Suggestions and advices will be included at every level from program formulation to evaluation process on the issues of social inclusion and gender sensitivity. Women and poor farmers below the poverty line will be encouraged to get involved in high value agri-business. Staffs will be evaluated on the basis of the progress made against those targets. All agriculture related policies, sectoral policies, plan and programs and all the documents of public interest related to agriculture will be tested for their gender and social inclusion dimensions. Disaggregated information management system will be developed for gender and social inclusion. Gender-sensitive monitoring and evaluation system will be institutionalized. Gender-sensitiveness indicators will be used to review and monitor programs being implemented by all agencies. Gender related budget of all the ministries concerned would also be evaluated. In auditing the program budget, evaluation from the standpoint of gender sensitivity will be brought into practice. Special concessions and facilities will be provided for the promotion of women managed co-operatives. Land distribution and management will be carried out with top priority to make land accessible to the landless and unmanaged dwellers, including agricultural labour, Dalits, Aadhibasi, Janajatis, Madhesis, and women. Cooperative societies will be set up with the membership of Dalit women and men. Program designed to provide skills of trading as middle man in the value chain of agricultural products will be operated to promote Dalits in such businesses. Land ownership certificate will be issued jointly in the name of both husband and wife while providing land to the freed Kamaiyas and landless and unmanaged dwellers, in order to ensure the right of the female to land access. The provision of 50 percent discount on the registration charge will be provided whenever land is purchased in the name of a female member of the household. Disaggregated data on female and all social groups ownership of land including will be maintained. Special assistance and facilities will be provided to farmer field schools, established and operated by the poor and women based on a fixed criteria, by expanding integrated plant nutrient programs and integrated plant protection programs. Emphasis will be given to develop and use small and appropriate agriculture tools that reduce the workload of women, save labour and add value. Agriculture credit will be provided to the poor and the excluded among the targeted groups at concessional interest rates. 22

Construction of satellite account for measuring household care work. 5.3 Major Issues a. No ownership right Access to resources and ownership right, particularly on land is still a major constraint to women for accessing credit and for its sale (UNIFEM 2008). Because of this women have never been recognized as an autonomous farmer as they do not possess legal entitlement over means of production Legal or social restrictions prevent many women from owning and inheriting land, water rights or livestock, borrowing money or making decision regarding the use of family assets. This has direct and detrimental impact on their ability to manage food production and improve household food security. Right over water that is to use in agricultural purpose is mainly attached with land right. It means those who have land can only enjoy water right. Therefore, right over water is discriminatory in Nepal from gender perspective, as the disparity exists in land distribution Lack of access to Resource, Benefits and Opportunities Although EFA has brought a significant improvement in girls' education attainment in recent years, drop-out rate is still high in grade 4 and above level. Particularly, the low enrolment and high drop outs are more in the case of Madhesi Dalits, Muslims and Adhibasi Janjatis; and girls outnumbered boys. That is why the gender equality index was just remained as 0.61 as against the target of reaching 0.8 in 2006 (NPC 2005). Primary education is said free, but in reality it is not as parents have to pay for admission fee, uniforms and other supplies. As a result girls are given less preferences to boys for education in poor and socio-economically backward groups Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 has provided equal property rights to son and daughters, but in practice, women are deprived to enjoy the rights provided by constitution. Access of women in the assets is less than men. There is a low or no access of women in means of production, land, factories and capital. Lack of access to economic resources, lack of economic opportunities, lack of access to education and services and very low participation of women in the decision making processes are related to the poverty (Bhusal, 2007) Women in rural communities have started effectively adapting their farming practices to weather-related hazards. Moreover, they are clearly articulate about what they need to secure and sustain their livelihoods in the face of a changing climate. However, without access to land, credit and agricultural technologies and services, women farmers face major constraints in their capacity to adapt to climate change.

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Although some of the rural technologies are women focussed such as improved cooking stove, biogas for reducing drudgery of women, decisionmaking is rest on men as they are involved in construction and maintenance of plant and they play predominant role in installation of plant. This is because of giving priority to efficiency vs. equity in technology transfer The scientific land reform and management does not speak about ensuring equitable access of women on land; nor standardization of education system ensures any provision of incentives for female students b. Limited and lack of quality participation The number of women professionals in agriculture and natural resource management sector is very low in all government and private sector (Winrock Agribrief- 38. 1999). Particularly in research and extension care, there are very few professional women who could be gender sensitive in providing necessary information and services to rural farm women. This reflects lack of affirmative action in practice either for preparing critical mass of such professionals or entering into the agricultural profession. Women participation and their position in executive committee of mixed farmers groups is still low. This reflects relative low level of women access to development opportunities (IDLG/NORMA/SEEPORT 2005). Fifty percent participation of women is not enough for main-streaming gender equity in agriculture. There is still lack of meaning full participation or qualitative participation in both grass root and decision making level. Gender equity and social inclusion are not considered at local level planning and budgeting. Women in governance (both in number and position), at all levels and sectors of representation and participation is still very low in comparison with men. As a result there is limited number of women in political parties and their position in party governance at executive level is almost negligible. c. Inadequate/poor database/Information Sharing Gender-sensitive database system in an integrated and coordinated format is still lacking. Gender-sensitiveness test and analysis of sector policies, programs and budget through gender perspective are yet to be realized in the true sense Many agriculture professionals, especially those working in national and international research organizations and those working in government agencies, are unaware of the existence of gender manuals and guidelines or do not use. This is either because of not being easily available or accessible despite being prepared for them; or in most cases, these are not are not translated in the working languages which hugely reduces their applicability (IWMI 2006). 24

Contradictory database on land by source, inconsistency due to movement of people in recent years, and statistics on land are out-of-date Much of the basic information and available data are either in gender aggregated form or have limited sample, which does not allow for sound subnational analysis by caste/ethnicity and gender. Some data collection itself requires further gender and inclusion sensitization- e.g. NDHSs which still focus largely on women's mothering roles Lack of adequate information on migrant male and female workers with regard to their health status, resulted increase in risks of infectious disease which will be barrier for creation and promotion of critical mass of healthy citizens for development of nation The 2009 NLFS, revealed that 30% of the total Nepali population, 38.2% men and 22.8% female, aged 15 years and above is underutilized. However, there is lack of information with regard to their status for future planning and policy implications Lack of knowledge management is one of the biggest issues in recent years in development activities. This is true in case of gender related studies too as a large number of gender training manuals are duplicated and heavy resources are wastage for new preparation. There is lack of mind-set in using of other resources through improvement if necessary. d. Limited resource allocation (budget) Lack of adequate financing in the policies and programmes is another major challenge to mainstream gender and achieve gender equality in agriculture sector. The gender equity and environment division within the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives run under the zero budget in FY 2059/60. (Ghale 2009). Effective implementation of gender equality goal has not been met adequately through limited allocation of financial resources for gender equality (7% of total foreign aid) e. Lack of recognition/low priority In water sector, there is lack of recognition that women are waterstakeholders and actors too and also there exists an undervaluation of the importance of womens skills, knowledge and labour contributions to water management. This is prevalent in other agriculture sectors too (IWMI 2006). The gender division of responsibilities is often unrecognized by development planners. False assumption about house hold as a unit can have detrimental effect on food security. The Beijing Conference 1995 concluded that unless the contribution of women to the environment and resource management is recognized and supported, sustainable development would remain elusive.

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On one hand, imposition of restrictions on womens migration leads to women seeking irregular channels and indulged into various risks, on the other hand, due to the irregular channel, they are unrecorded and their contribution to national economy is unrecognized. In addition to this, it limits in formulation of policies for their benefits. In spite of various Nepali financial institutions (Rural Development Bank, Poverty Alleviation Fund) and various micro-credit facilities providing loan to poor women on the basis of group guarantee, the financial institution still demands the signatory of husband, which restricts women from effective implementation of their own enterprises. In agriculture and related resource management sector, gender is always taken as cross-cutting issue which mostly falls under shadow, particularly if the person in decision-making position is of technical background and gender insensitive in nature. The Nepal Agricultural Research Councils (NARC) research activities do not have specific consideration to women issues. Lack of recognition of women leasehold farmer, tenant, haliya has structurally blocked them to stand as rights holders, organise themselves, claim their rights and enjoy dignified life. Although a range of methodological tool kits exist to describe how to assess vulnerability and adoptive capacity of people to climate change, none specifically focuses on gender dimension of climate change (ICIMOD 2009). The budget of FY 2065/66 has acknowledged the importance of womens contribution in agriculture sector development and economic transformation. There is an increased allocation of resources in agriculture sector i.e. Rs 5.91 billion (69.30 percent higher than the previous fiscal year) in the current fiscal year. However, from the gender perspective, the budget is silent over enhancing womens strategic positions as an autonomous farmers, ensuring womens access to means of production, enhancing their leadership competence and creating acceptance, and improving womens position in different structures of the government, non-government and private sectors(Ghale 2009) f. Lack of conducive environment Despite being sensitive in gender equality and women empowerment concern, limited infrastructure, weak development program and inadequate budget, and inadequate capable staff have caused difficulty to implement gender concerns effectively Fixing of quota for women to have gender-balanced participation in development activities is a necessary condition; however, women are hindered from participation due to long duration of training, training being in cropping season and being outside their village.

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Agriculture and Forestry profession for women are less attractive because of lack of child care and lactating facilities in their office environment. Lack of gender friendly adoption of fuel efficient, drudgery reducing technologies and innovations to address their practical and strategic needs. Despite establishment of rural development banks and various micro-credit programs, women access to institutional credit is still low. g. Weak capacity Monitoring and reviewing of development programs hardly focus on gender related issues mainly due to the weak position of the focal point agencies responsible for gender issues. In general, gender focal point has little resource under its disposal as well as it has no influence in decision making process. Despite institutional mechanisms were established to promote gender equality in various ministries and national women commission, it is ineffective due to lack on gender expertise in these mechanisms. Gender focal persons in the sectoral bodies of government lack gender background or understanding. Consequently, gender sensitive policies, laws and programs are ineffective. . In recent days emphasis has been given on gender and social group inclusive participation in agriculture sector. However, most of the benefits with regard to training and income generation are confined to a few influential women having certain level of education, ignoring many others who are in need of such trainings. Lack of conceptual clarity and operational skills in en-gendering budget among officials of Ministries including Ministry of Women Children and Social Welfare. h. Lack of gender friendly policy and its enforcement Gender friendly policy has not been formulated so far. Especially in agriculture policy, there is no vision and plan. Centrally and ad-hoc basis prepared plan and policy without taking into account of ground reality, hardly reflects grass root level needs and priorities. There are significant gaps in the areas of land reform, forestry and communications, with at least 90 percent of expenditure seen as gender neutral. It is not fair to judge whether Nepals national budget is gendersensitive when gender responsiveness is not taken into consideration during programme planning. Implementation of GRB remains a huge challenge in the grass-root level due to lack of strong local government (Aryal, 2009) If budgets fail to be responsive to the needs and demands of the poor and for women, resources are not being adequately directed

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toward the achievement of equality and equity goals. (GON/DANIDA 2005) It seems GRB is in top down approach, therefore there is a doubt whether it really responds the need of men and women farmers. Institutional incentives and rewards for addressing gender concerns are often lacking, especially in government agencies. Staff is not held accountable for their performance in terms of gender, gender goals are seldom explicitly formulated, planned or budgeted, and their achievement is also not routinely monitored or assessed. Interim constitution has not covered the issues passed in the HoR special resolution on women, e.g. 33 % quota reservation in state mechanism has been limited to 33 % candidacy in the constituent assembly election. (Bhusal 2007) Gender differences in daily wages exist both in agriculture as well as in non-agriculture sector. According to National Labor Force Survey Women, agricultural labours still receive 26% less wage to men despite the workload of both being equal (NNBN, 2009). In case of non-agriculture, the differences is further higher (women receives 31% lesser to men). Feminisation has largely affected the productivity and negatively impacted on household food security. However, there are no substantial efforts from the government and non-government sectors to adopt policies and programmes to respond the contemporary challenges brought by feminisation of agriculture sector No schemes exists for landless or land poor to get credit without land collateral. Minimum farm wages are not enforced in practice Single title system on land, recommended by Land Commission in 1995 has never been adopted. Despite two decades of understanding womens role and their contribution in food production and food security, establishment of gender units and focal points in development agencies, there is still gender bias towards men. Womens needs, perspectives and knowledge are not given sufficient consideration in development of agency's policy, program and projects. Existence of unilateral termination of lease contract by the owners of the fishery pond and owners of land without prior notice have led to uncertain future of fishery and landless group of women. There is no provision for womens participation in budgetary process right from local level to central level. As a result, little budget has been allocated to achieve national policy of gender equity and women empowerment. In most of the development program and projects implemented by government or non-government organizations, either there is no plan or working policies for gender assessment studies to understand their issues and concerns, or there is lack of gender action plans to address the identified issues.

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Lack of gender sensitive recruitment policy such as appointment to office/school closer to home and village, safe and secure quarters etc. i. Lack of gender sensitive monitoring and follow up Most of the agricultural programs do not have regular monitoring and follow up mechanisms. Even if there is, it is poorly conducted without taking into account of participatory discussion with men and women farmers. In most of the cases, farmers are unaware of the program benefits which affects in creation of feeling of ownership of the project in the community. As a result, such projects do not sustain longer. In general, programme achievements are evaluated on the basis of quantitative targets such as number of men and women in farmer's groups, number of women participated in the trainings, etc. Lack of gender disaggregated indicators for monitoring of qualitative attributes and its impact in agriculture sector has not been done so far. The NPC reporting format does not contain gender disaggregated column, i.e. information with regard to male and female are not required to report. As a result, monitoring in gender perspective either does not take place or monitoring format is not under use. Monitoring formats are not adequately process oriented and gender sensitive. In municipalities and district development committees/VDC, checklists do not require gender disaggregated data on beneficiaries of the Local Development Program. Monitoring of gender approach and strategy has not been carried out so far for preparing agricultural policy and plans. Monitoring is done for participation only. 5.4 Challenges To increase the access of the marginal, poor, women, Aadhibasi Janjatis, Dalits, Madhesis and Muslim community to agricultural development opportunities, and also increase their control over it. Ensuring equitable distribution of facilities and services among the target groups and controlling misuse of resources The overall status of human resources is still very weak as there exist extreme differences with respect to women, Dalits, Aadhibasi Janajatis, Madhesis, Muslims and residents of remote regions, in terms of gender, caste and region The need to provide road access to remote areas including all the district headquarters in the context of the difficult geography and inadequate resources to manage skilled human resource capable of adopting new technology and opportunity

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Absence of reliable data of social and economic status of the deprived groups of dalits, Adhibashis, Madhesis and Muslims; real picture of their status is not in view Expand and strengthen co-operatives in remote, hilly and backward areas Implement a scientific land reform program, equitable distribution of agricultural land and rehabilitation of free bonded labourers. Having reliable statistics on land due to movement of people from rural to urban areas. Education is considered as a privilege rather than basic right, particularly when it comes with regard to girls education, in some of the socio-economic groups and mostly in rural areas. Saving credit as a part of development strategies in ensuring social change. However, financial management in most of the case is worst. Credit is utilized heavily in non agricultural sector to a larger degree in social functions and day to day needs than in productive activities. 5.5 Opportunities Availability of the different levels and types of technical human resource. Service takers (farmers/entrepreneurs/traders) becoming gradually organized. Presence of geographical diversities for crops/commodities in the country. Gradual development of agro-based industries. Sufficient possibilities to increase the current productivity level of agricultural crops/commodities. Availability of opportunities to participate in global trade through the production of quality agricultural produce. Increase in the demand for the agricultural produce due to urbanization. Significant increase in rural road networks in the hilly areas too. Gradual increase in the agricultural credit facilities due to increase in the farmers saving habits and the establishment of savings and credit cooperative societies Initiatives towards reduction in poverty of urban poor by formulating poverty reduction strategy and implementing targeted programs. The interim Constitution 2007 has already eliminated all kinds of discrimination against Dalits, with the provision of fundamental rights. Besides, National Dalit Commission and Dalit Development Committee have been set up to undertake Dalit's issues and the inclusion of Dalit is in the agenda of donor community as an important issue of development. Interim Constitution embodies the policy of positive discrimination under the special provision of protection in favor of the economically and socially backward Adhibashis, Janajatis Madhesi and Muslim community.

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For the benefit of Muslim community, initiatives have been already taken with a preparation Vulnerable Community Development Plan in the Ministry of Education and Sports, and the Ministry of Health and Population. Attraction of farmers, forests users, water users and women's groups towards co-operatives and increase in the number of co-operatives managed by women. In addition to this, there is existence of the possibility of mobilizing small savings in rural and urban areas and adequate demand for micro credit and micro enterprise credit. Establishment of the National Co-operative Development Board and the National Co-operative Bank with their interest to make investments in rural areas. Existence of Kamiya labour (prohibition) Act 2002, abolished bonded labour arrangements and canceling debts; Minimum Agricultural wage-2003; Finance Act 2004 giving women, Dalits Janajatis 20% waiver on registration fees, taxation to absentee landlordism, Establishment of High level land reform Commission-2009 (Alden, Chapagain and Sharma, 2009) Concept of rights-based, social equity and environmental justice have been developed and practiced in community forestry, leasehold forest and bufferzone protection programs. Since 2001, several concrete measures have been taken towards gender equality such as gender responsive budgeting, budget audit of many important ministries, strengthening MOWCSW, GEED (agriculture), GEDS (education), appointing gender focal points in major government ministries and departments, women members in NPC and other constitutional bodies, Women Children Service Centres in the Police and gender sensitizing senior police officials. Since the last few years, both GON and development partners have focused on poverty reduction, gender and inclusion. Most development partners also have gender equality and empowerment goals, and the main strategy adopted for achieving these goals is gender mainstreaming. These ensure alignment and coordination at the policy level. A network of gender activist and professional Global gender and climate change alliance Nepal has been formed with the main objective of promoting gender and climate change process in all policy dialogues and decision making processes. The Government of Nepal has adopted the policy of representation of 33% women in different government and political sector Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) with the support of World Bank has been operating in Nepal since 2004 and it has expanded already in 40 districts. It has planned to cover 75 districts in the fiscal year 2009/10. Gender and social inclusion is one of the 4 pillars of PAF for alleviation of poverty. Under PAF 69% community organization members are women.

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Ministry of Finance has introduced policy of tax-exemption on land deeds in womens ownership since 2004 and which has been increased gradually from 10% to 25% in 2008. A large number of micro-finance institutions and development banks and saving credit cooperatives such as Nirdhan Uthan bank, Chimek, DEPROSC Development Bank, Sahara Nepal saving and credit cooperatives, etc are providing various products and services for women micro-enterprises. 5.6 Identified Gaps In spite of all efforts made after the restoration of democracy, a significant change in power relations has not been noticed. Although human development has been improved in the last decade still remarkable gaps exists between the advantaged regions or caste/ethnic groups and women. The level of human development of women is still less than that of men and they still lack fair access to opportunities and resources. The gap widens more in case of Dalit, Muslim and Janajati who have had lower levels of human development for generations, continue to suffer today (HDR 2009) In general, gender main-streaming is considered only in the context of poverty reduction and inclusion. This threatens to overshadow gender goals, which calls for a much broader approach to gender equality, as all women are discriminated, excluded and victimized, not only the poor women. Gender monitoring has been very much program and project specific, with little relationship to the annual budgeting process. As yet, gender related monitoring indicators have not been developed adequately. Gender is still not well integrated in larger infrastructure, economic and financial reform directed programs. Gender monitoring and evaluation is yet to be fully integrated in the macro-economic policy framework and country assessment studies Women's institutions within the GON including MOWCSW, gender units in other ministries and gender focal points are very much under funded, given their responsibilities of gender sensitizing the whole system. Many of the gender focal points are not of high enough status in the bureaucratic hierarchy to have much influence in the sector programs and policies. Information on funds flow to UN organizations, INGOs, NGOs and even to various government wings on specific programs/projects and local government and on TA is very incomplete. Only 50 percent foreign aid to Nepal is estimated to flow through the GON budgetary system. Information on the other 50 percent is very sketchy. GON lacks information on almost 50 percent of the resources coming to Nepal, which is a big gap for accountability. It is not possible to say what proportion of total aid is directed to women's well-being or for gender equality (EU/UN 2009). 32

The knowledge base of the women members of the Constituent Assembly/ Parliament at this stage is very inadequate for proper monitoring of gender main-streaming in actual development planning and programming. Gender budgeting is yet to be operational fully in the GON system. The system itself needs further development. Further, a mechanism to ensure wider dissemination ensuring the understanding of the approved budget to different section of the society- the civil society, INGOs, down to the beneficiary level is needed. Presently climate change is being viewed much as technological problem, which however encompasses larger socio-economic dimension too. Without having sufficient information or database on response of climate change in changing gender roles and relations, it is hard to work out further on gender equality in agriculture and related resource management sectors. Despite short falls of focusing on women in isolation have long been recognized in gender and development discourses, much of the literature on gender and climate change and others focuses on women and their vulnerabilities without acknowledging mens vulnerabilities, their role and capacities to overcome the problem. There has been little gender analyses of climate change mitigation responses. This has not only overlooked womens specific needs and priorities but also undermines to incorporate their knowledge which is effective in responding climate change (World Bank 2009 b). Interim Constitution of Nepal 2007 has provided equal property rights to son and daughters, but in practice women are deprived to enjoy the rights provided by constitution. Gender analysis alone is insufficient to optimize womens contribution to food security. Gender perspectives - views of both men and women - must be taken into account. Women must have opportunity to express their views and bring their perspectives into development and policy and programs of food security In general, gender roles are seen in isolation; however, it intersects and is intertwined with other factors such as race, caste, ethnicity that effect and determine the condition of men and women and their opportunities and choices In spite of feminization of poverty, the national accounting fails to disaggregate poverty by gender. It is well recognized that adequacy of food and nutrient varies within a household family members, in spite of this, poverty analysis still assumes household as a unit. This leads to the gap in measuring intra-household gender discrimination and that will be barrier in reduction of feminized poverty

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Although climate change and migration has already shown negative impacts on subsistence farmers and lead to feminized agriculture, the state has no policy to address the effect of it towards feminized agriculture. Ministry of Finance has already brought into operation of the Gender Responsive Budget allocation since 2007, but the output of the allocation has not been audited yet to understand the impact on reduction of feminized poverty. Gender as well as social groups disaggregated data on internally displaced people due to conflict are yet to be prepared which is essential for policy implications especially to reduce feminization of agriculture that leads to feminized poverty Despite national policies and commitments on international convention, financial resources allocated for gender equality goals (7% of total foreign aid) is very poor or underestimated. This demonstrates the low priority of the government towards the empowerment of women and gender equality. More emphasis has been given on quantitative indicators while taking account of womens participation, which however, do not ensure quality participation and decision making power. Though provisions of affirmative action for disadvantaged group and women for new appointments has been brought into action by The Civil Service Act, recently, the act is silent for the promotion. This results less chances for women and marginal groups to reach the decision making level The Sub Sector Wide Approach (SWAp) modality in education sector to a greater extent has given gender into consideration but it is superficial and partial in nature The capacity of human resources of Gender Equality Division in education sector is not strong enough to influence major decision making in planning, programming, budgeting and training materials. Despite APP and TYIP have given emphasis on the necessity of promoting labour saving devices for reducing work load of women, women are still doing most of the agricultural activities manually such as weeding, grading and packaging. Attention has been given much on technology either that are under men domain or men are focussed while technology is transferred. A number of studies revealed that high student teacher ratio, lack of female teachers and distance school are the major causes of low enrolment or high drop-outs of girls from school, however, attention has not been paid much on these issues so far. Enormous efforts were made by national and international organizations for developing mechanisms relating to gender budgeting in various ministries including MOAC and institutionalizing compulsory involvement of women in local development program, however, there has not been an

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adequate level of improvement in the legal provisions, development programs and budgets for gender equality (TYIP). Lack of coordination and networking among development partners, government line agencies and donors has caused duplication in work on one hand while on the other hand it has reduced effective participation of women and men in development activities.

VI.

Gender Concerns in Donors/INGOs Strategies, Policies and Plans

Since the 1995 Beijing Conference, a number of women focused programs and policies, strategies have been designed by multiple agencies. Multilateral, bilateral donors including UN system is supporting much on Nepals development, specifically much serious in equity and social inclusion issues and concerns in recent days. The study has explored the potential collaborating partners through reviewing their strengths, gaps and their gender strategies and plans. 6.1 The Asian Development Bank (ADB) ADB accepted gender and development (GAD) policy in 1998 and since then adopted gender mainstreaming as a key strategy in promoting gender equality in all ADB-financed activities including macroeconomic, sector work and lending and technical assistance. The key elements of ADBs policy on GAD include gender sensitivity, gender analysis, gender planning and mainstreaming. To operationalize the policy, ADB provide assistance to its developing member countries in the areas of policy support, facilitate gender analysis at all stages of project cycle, promote increased GAD awareness through training workshop and seminars, assists DMCs to fulfill commitments made in Beijing World Conference on women and explore opportunities to address directly on new emerging issues on women. Likewise a number of institutional mechanisms such as appointment of local gender specialists in its ADB resident missions and the development of gender action plans (GAPs)/gender strategies for several loan projects have been adopted to ensure policy implementation as well as to ensure concrete benefits flowed to both women and men from ADB financed projects. ADB has experienced that GAPs not only helped to achieve overall goal of the project but also reduce the vulnerability of women and their families to poverty. This is possible because GAPs help in enhancing participation, increase access to resources and bring practical benefits such as increase in income and improve livelihood choices. One of the example of successful GAPs implemented projects in Agriculture is Third Livestock Development Project (TLDP). In ADB thematic classification of projects, there are 3 levels of gender integration i) Gender equity theme (highly integrated), ii) effective gender mainstreaming theme-does not contain 35

output level indicator iii) some gender benefits, more technical. At least one of them should be mentioned in loan assurance which is a mandatory of ADB. Recently ADB has prepared Strategy 2020, a long term strategic plan for the period of 12 years starting from 2008 to 2020. The plan has a vision of realizing Asia Pacific Region free of poverty by 2020. ADB has specifically stated gender equity as one of the five drivers of change while pursuing its vision and missions. Therefore there is a high level of commitment in results framework and gender integrated target. It is mandatory that 40% of the total budget of ADB loan/grants should be allocated for gender equity theme. However, there is lack of gender budget and audit in GAP. ADB has country partnership strategy for 5 years period and it has road maps of gender equality and social inclusion strategy. In sector road map there is gender indicator for target and achievements. However, there are a number of challenges in mainstreaming gender equity in ADB funded projects. One of the major challenges is development of institutional capacity due to limited number of gender specialist, who has other technical backgrounds as well. Gender focal points have no clarity on gender. Process input depends on hired gender consultant. Since the projects are donor driven, so there is lack of commitment and sustainability is a big question. In case of infrastructure related project, commitments are less in social part due to more technical in nature. Sector level technical specialist is gender sensitive and there is presence of gender committee to review annual program and existence of mechanism for ensuring gender. Although ADB organizes gender sensitization training at regional level for government staff, systematic gender sensitization training is lacking and there is gap of capacity building part for own in house ADB staff. There is lack of affirmative action for women staff at national level. Nevertheless, ADB actively seeks opportunities to cooperate with other development agencies on projects aimed at increasing gender equity, through mechanisms such as co-financing and information sharing (ADB 2005). 6.2 The World Bank World Bank Group's operations in Nepal began in 1969 aiming to assist in Nepals development with funds and analytical and advisory work. Poverty reduction is the main objective underlying the World Bank's activities in Nepal. Over the last several years, the Banks lending operations have been closely linked to macro-level, as well as sector-level, reforms, which are tied together in Nepals national plans, consistent with priorities of the Government of Nepal. The banks method of operation is not to implement directly but to provide financing and advice for projects that have a logical part of comprehensive and efficient overall development agenda and are owned and supported by the Nepali people.

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The ISN of bank is based on three themes that emerged during consultations within the bank group and with the government, donor partners and civil society. Expanding programs and activities that can increase opportunities and well-being, especially for the poor and excluded is one of the three themes of bank for funding. Social inclusion runs across all of these themes as one of the foundations for development. In FY10, the bank approved a project for agriculture commercialization and trade aimed at improving the competitiveness of small-holder farmers and agribusinesses. To achieve the goals of social inclusion, the bank is working with the government and other development partners on strengthening the policy dialogue, reaching out to marginalized groups, which are often overlooked by existing institutions. For example, the bank supported Rural Water and Sanitation, a community based project, and the Poverty Alleviation Fund (PAF) have focused on issues of inclusion more vigorously. With particular attention to excluded groups by reasons of gender, ethnicity, caste, and location, PAF is designed to improve living conditions, livelihoods and empowerment among the rural poor through income generating activities and infrastructure support. With the support of additional 100 million Dollars, PAF II will cover all 75 districts in the country and be accessible to some one million rural households. In infrastructure, the World Bank is supporting demand driven irrigation scheme, managed by local water user groups and water supply schemes which reduce the time women spend collecting water. Likewise, a Food Price Crisis Response Program which was approved in FY08 aimed to support immediate safety net measures to ensure food for vulnerable households in food insecure districts as well as longer term measures to raise agricultural yields and consequently the production of staples. The bank will continue on the issue of social inclusion, state building and growth through strong dialogue with the government as well as a broad range of stakeholders. As opportunities arise, the bank will assist activities related to implementation of the peace process, implementation of reforms, or implementation of the post-conflict program (World Bank 2009 a). As of September 2009, World Bank active credits and grants for Nepal total reached to US$1.03 billion. 6.3 UNDP UNDP supports the development of tools and mechanisms that enable Nepalese women to access, participate and benefit from equitable local planning and governance through programmes that are aimed at empowering women. As a UNDP principle, almost 70 percent of all aid given to relieve poverty in Nepal is directed towards programmes that directly or indirectly benefit women. The year 2007 was important for advancing gender equality and social inclusion in Nepal.

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In its response, UNDP put a particular emphasis on integrating gender and social inclusion into all of UNDPs interventions. As a result, all new project documents and concept notes, regardless of their theme, were carefully examined through a gender and social inclusion lens to ensure that issues of gender inequality and social exclusion were adequately addressed. In UNDP Nepals future programmes, the emphasis will be on ensuring that women and excluded groups are specifically targeted in all UNDP-supported initiatives, especially in the areas of livelihoods, governance and HIV/AIDS (UNDP 2008). 6.4 The Netherlands Government (SNV) SNV is an International organization registered in the Netherlands with a mission dedicated to a society by strengthening the capacity of local organizations. Since 1980, SNV has a long standing field presence, particularly in Mid West and East. The organization receives long tern anchor grant from Dutch ministry for Development Cooperation (2007-15) but statuary independent from Dutch government. SNV helps to alleviate poverty by focusing on increasing peoples income and employment opportunities in specific productive sectors as well as s improving their access to water and sanitation, education and renewable energy. Governance for Empowerment (gender and inclusion) is cross cutting theme of all SNV programs and projects. SNVs strength is its advisory services. Another important aspect of SNV is working to increase the effectiveness of its advisory services. This is done through the development of products - in essence, service packages. Examples are pro-poor value chain development. Since substantial poverty reduction cannot be realized without growth, structural improvements and commercialization in agriculture sector, SNV-in alignment with the government of Nepals national priorities - has developed its programs to benefit the poor, women and socially excluded groups with a strategic focus on commercializing high value agricultural products with overall goal of reducing poverty among small holder farmers. Ensuring equitable sharing of benefits and providing employment opportunities for gender and socially excluded and disadvantaged groups are well specified in the objectives of small holders cash crop programs of SNV. To meet the objectives, SNV identifies gaps in the capacity of the stakeholders and then provide advisory services. SNV Nepal applies value chain development and inclusive business approaches in addition to applying good governance, social inclusion and gender principles. SNV also helps in knowledge development, networking services to create an environment where value chain can flourish. SNV aims to expand its small holder cash crops programs in 2010 by including ginger, and up scaling of pilot programs such as organic farming practices and marketing of organic tea and apple. (SNV 2008)

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Within the organization of SNV, gender mainstreaming is ensured through hiring female gender advisors. Gender expert in program team is mandatory for SNV donor, so gender integration is well reflected in SNV programs and projects. SNV strengths in the perspective of gender apart from advisory role are: assessment, planning and development of special package for training of men and women farmers and key stakeholders. 6.5 FAO FAO was the first UN organization, starting its field work in Nepal in 1951. Since then, it has been actively involved in development of agriculture sector of Nepal. Till 2009, nearly 200 small and larger projects covering various aspects of agriculture such as policies and legislations, crop diversification, vegetable production, dairy farming, small farmer development, aquaculture, community and leasehold forestry development, marketing and post harvest management, empowerment of women and participatory watershed management have been implemented in the country. On the top of this, in co-operation with various agencies it has been involved in various emerging issues and innovative practices to sustain agriculture and rural development. FAO being a technical agency, it has been assisting government of Nepal through technical cooperation to address its immediate priorities through capacity building, institutional improvement, food security-related issues, agriculture and rural development and operationalizing governments major plan and polices such as Agriculture Perspective Plan (APP), three-year Interim Plan (TYIP) or Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2002-2010). Being lead UN agency for agriculture and rural development, FAO has a comparative advantage in addressing issues on gender and social inclusion. For decades, FAO has put efforts on improving rural womens access to resources, to remove the barriers that limit their opportunities, and the full enjoyment of women rights. In recent years, Gender and development as a central category of analysis, it has linked it to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. To promote gender main-streaming in agriculture, it has implanted three key instruments such as awareness raising, capacity building and gender sensitive indicators and statistics. FAO has built the capacity of national policy analyst and development specialist in main-streaming gender in agriculture and rural development through gender analysis training courses which helped in collection and use of sex-disaggregated data, and developed gender-sensitive indicators in technical fields. FAO has promoted gender-sensitive policy and planning in 30 countries. Under the new strategy of FAO it aims to mainstream gender equity and social inclusion in all of its programmes for agriculture and rural development for equal sharing of benefits to men and women, poor, disadvantaged and excluded groups of society. The second 39

GAD Plan of Action (2008-13) has been integrated into FAOs new strategic framework. (FAO, 2009). 6.6 UNICEF In line with the commitment of Government of Nepal in the CRC and CEDAW, UNICEF aims to enhance the status of Nepalese children and women to ensure that their rights are respected. Although UNICEF programs are not directly related with Agriculture, its policy has focused gender concerns on various programs including rural development. UNICEFs strategy states that programs in all major sectors will respond directly to the needs and concerns of girl children and women within the framework of human and social development objectives and programs. A wide range of programs in health, education, income generation, water, and sanitation are supported within this context. Women-specific programs are implemented to enable them to participate equally in development. For instance, UNICEF has supported Production Credit for Rural Women (PCRW) for improving the access of Nepalese women to credit and productive resources. The appointment of female teachers, the provision of incentive for families, and the establishment of day-care centres to release girls child from child-care responsibilities are some of the targeted programs aimed to retain girls in school. UNICEF has also funded the Nepal Multiple Indicators Survey since 1994 for producing basic gender-desegregated data on demographic and social indicators at national, regional, and sub-national levels. 6.7 Swiss Agency for Development and Corporation (SDC) SDC has emphasized the role of women in the process of development through a Gender-Balanced Development Approach to deal equally with women and men. SDC considers social equity and economic efficiency are essential factors to enhance gender-balanced development along with democracy as another element of its strategy. SDC believes that an active society can be developed through choice, diversity, solidarity, and participation. Therefore SDC encourages participation of men and women in the process of development according to their needs and choices. SDC has adopted three guiding principles for the implementation of gender-balanced development in its funded projects and program. These are: (i) highlighting the benefits for men and women to ensure that women are being benefited as much as men; (ii) ensuring social equity; and (iii) empowering women by enabling them to participate in the decision-making process. SDC pays much effort to cater to women's practical and strategic needs.

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6.8 German Agency for Technical Cooperation (GTZ) GTZ-German aid has been actively involved in Nepals development through integrated rural development program since more than 2 decades. The equal participation of women and men in the development process is a key issue in German development cooperation. This is supplemented by certain specific policies and programs to promote women's participation in areas such as vocational training, secondary education, reducing excessive work loads, ensuring access of femaleheaded households to resources, and enabling women to participate in the decisionmaking process at all levels. GTZ has also developed an institutional gender and development strategy for national and regional technical cooperation. Accordingly, gender resource persons have been appointed in its programs and projects. Gender training of project staff, and the preparation of gender status reports and action plans for all GTZ-funded projects are some of the concrete achievements in this field. Gender gap analysis has been already started in its implemented projects such as Churia Forest Development and urban development. 6.9 Department for International Development (DFID) Since 1950, British assistance has been extended to both economic and social sectors development of Nepal. DFID has long standing contribution to Nepals poverty elimination program through improving policies and the actions of the Government. Along with this, it has also direct contribution to protecting the environment especially for women and poor people. DFID assistance covers basically Agriculture and Forest sectors. DFID gender policy is directed at (i) assessing existing gender inequality and addressing it as an integral part of development, and (ii) supporting specific and focused initiative to enhance women's empowerment in all its development assistance areas. Lumle and Pakhribas Agriculture Centers were two examples of its assistance on gender perspective development in Agriculture Sector. Likewise, its contribution to Lease hold forestry and community forestry development program of Nepal provides insight of its initiative in gender and social inclusion. DIFID will continue its effort to ensure that social inclusion remains central to all its actions through promoting the needs of Janajatis, Dalits, Madhesis and other excluded groups. On women specifically, DIFID approach will be to ensure gender equitable policies and plans, focus on increasing their political participation and improve their access to services. DFID by making its best use of areas of comparative advantage, plans to carry out a strategic review on inclusive growth to ensure that the highest priorities of the poor and excluded, including women are being addressed by government and donors. The review will also address youth 41

unemployment and mobilization. In addition to this a strategic environment assessment on climate change will also be carried out. DIFD targets both government and donor group to develop strategy for inclusive growth and develop strategy for youth employment. DIFID plans to work with its wider strategies to increase the effectiveness of the World Bank, ADB and UN (DIFID 2007). 6.10 USAID USAID/Nepal was the pioneer in assisting women's development in Nepal. The first comprehensive study on women, The Status of Women in Nepal (19771980), was sponsored by USAID after the Percy Commission report in the United States. USAID policy for gender development is based on working with Government of Nepal as a partner to equip women with the knowledge and power to make their own choices as active and responsible members of society. USAID is focusing on women's education, the improvement in their legal status, and the increase in their access to economic resources such as access to credit, business skill and empowerment. Women-specific projects are implemented primarily through INGOs, with some assistance provided to NGOs for advocacy. In FY 2008, USAID provided vocational training to 462 women with skills in nontraditional trades such as masonry, plumbing, and wiring in an effort to maximize high-value job training. This vocational training also provided literacy classes that led some back into the formal schooling system. USAID is currently reviewing Agency policy toward addressing gender concerns throughout the portfolio, strengthening requirements for gender analysis at various stages of strategic planning and project design. USAID is drafting guidance for Missions planning to design agriculture programs in 2010. Missions will be requested to document women's equitable access to agricultural and related economic opportunities in their countries. 6.11 UNIFEM UNIFEM is the womens fund at the United Nations, it provides financial and technical assistance to innovative approaches aimed at fostering womens empowerment and gender equality. UNIFEM's work focuses on achieving gender equality in democratic governance and on reducing feminized poverty and exclusion through the realization of women's human rights and human security. Particular emphasis lies on migrant women workers in the whole Asia and pacific region. In Nepal, UNIFEM (in 1994), initiated a project on mainstreaming gender considerations into national development with the National Planning Commission. In the course of that project, four different sectors of the Eighth Plan were analysed through a gender 42

perspective, including agriculture, energy, tourism, labour and industry. Through the project, the Planning Commission developed a gender auditing module. UNIFEM commissioned a study, which focused on gender auditing of the budgetary process, its allocations, expenditure and sources of revenue. UNIFEMs initial Collaboration with UNDP has enabled the latter to take gender budgeting forward with the Ministry of Local Development. This has also led to other ministries approaching UNIFEM to replicate this approach in their respective ministries. UNIFEM supported efforts to revise discriminatory provisions and pass a new law on foreign employment. Because of this, the 2007 Foreign Employment Act not only bans discrimination based on gender but also adopts special measures to guarantee womens security and rights when seeking jobs abroad. Nepali women migrants now receive information about the contractual obligations of the employer and about migrant assistance centres in destination countries. The new law also contains provisions to regulate recruiting agencies and includes programmes for the families of migrant workers. UNIFEM, in partnership with the National Commission for Women and local NGOs, boosted efforts that contributed to a historic 33-percent representation of women in the Constituent Assembly in 2008. UNIFEM has a strong network of experts and policy makers who advocate on gender issues and are trusting of UNIFEMs expertise. 6.12 International Center for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) ICIMOD, was established in 1983 with the dual mandate of reducing poverty and conserving the environment in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region. Since its establishment, ICIMOD together with its National and International partners has been working to develop and provide integrated and innovative solutions for the multitude of problems encountered by the people of the region. From a small documentation and training centre, it has grown into a well recognized mountain knowledge and learning center. Gender and social inclusion are integrated as a cross-cutting issue in all research and development projects of ICIMOD. ICIMOD has strategy to integrate Gender and Social Inclusion from the designing phase of the project through allowing to reviewing by Gender experts of its organization. However, it stands strong in some action areas and low in some cases, depending upon the sensitiveness of leadership of the project. Since ICIMOD is intergovernmental regional organization, it cannot make compulsion of integration of gender and social inclusion in its mandatory. Nevertheless, since, the adoption of its Gender Equity Policy in 2007, ICIMOD has started institutionalizing gender into all its programs. For implementation of new strategic frame work and new Medium Term Action Plan (2008-2013), ICIMOD has involved the whole staff in capacity development 43

intensively under internal change management process. This includes strengthening gender in the whole institution through its mainstreaming in interdisciplinary working team action areas and conducting gender assessments in some of the IFAD projects for improving contracts and policy. It has affirmative action in case of recruitment and participation in training and seminars. Despite this, women professionals are not in proportionate level, but only a few in key position of the organization. Major donors of ICIMOD are EU and Canadian government. In Agriculture sector, ICIMOD has got support from IFAD loan project. 6.13 CARE Nepal CARE is an International Non-Governmental Organization that began its work in Nepal in 1978 as one of the 72 member countries. CARE Nepal's current portfolio implements a range of activities to enable poor and vulnerable people to create and benefit from opportunities that improve their lives and ensure greater gender and caste equity, with lasting impact. Gender equity and diversity is one of the major interventions of CARE program under cross-cutting theme of sector based and area based program. In all projects, CARE strives to involve women as project participants, decision makers and beneficiaries to ensure benefit is equally distributed between men and women. Gender and diversity analysis is used as a tool to ensure inclusion of gender and social groups. On the top of that it reviews partners policy to ensure that the project cycle integrates gender and social groups and in accordance with national plans and policies. CARE Nepal works with rural communities to increase their capacity to plan, manage, and implement activities on their own. These include women's groups, mothers groups, saving and credit groups, user groups that manage shared resources such as water and forests. CARE Nepal places special emphasis on involving women, dalits and marginalised groups in local development processes. At institutional level, CARE, has gender friendly policy such as transport cost for breast feeding during office hours, facility to accompany baby sitter while going out in field work or official work, and additional credit for women in recruitment policy. It also cooperates with other international and national development agencies. 6.14 PLAN PLAN Nepal has been working in Nepal since 1978 and has direct presence in 8 districts while working through partners in more than 35 districts of Nepal. In PLAN programs, gender as such is not a separate component, however, gender and social inclusion is a cross cutting issue in PLAN programs. Gender and social inclusion have been taken into account not only at program level but also at partnership level and organizational level. Most of the population in Plan's target areas depend upon agriculture for their livelihood but only at a subsistence-level. There are very few nonfarming livelihood opportunities because infrastructure, financial and support services 44

are lacking. The most vulnerable are children, women and child-headed families. To address such issues plan promotes gender and social inclusion and community participation towards strengthening the capacity of children, families and communities. The goal of Country Strategic Plan of PLAN has focused girls, excluded group and gender issues. PLAN realizes that gender and power analysis is one of the important tasks, and therefore issues are raised accordingly along with gender sensitive objectives and targets are formulated to get gender disaggregated information. On the top of that gender perspective monitoring is carried out by gender sensitive project team to ensure integration of gender in project cycle. The Country Strategy Plan (2006-2010), continues to focus on improving the health, quality education and household economic security, especially for marginalized group of men and women (PLAN 2006). PLAN has major intervention on: enhancing capability of micro-finance institution by providing borrower friendly service and products for both on and off farm enterprises to ensure gender and social inclusion in their services, increase access of the deprived communities to natural resources especially land, water and forests, promote quick-impact projects - like concessional loans, food-for-work, health insurance, community grain banks, and provisional or short-term assistance in areas of conflict are the other activities of plan to ensure sufficient household economic security. To improve livelihood of landless poor men and women, PLAN supports on skill training such as veterinary training, book keeping, accounting and informing market linkages along with lease hold vegetable, fishery, community forest project. PLAN also supports such families for start up support for entrepreneurship mostly in terms of kind (equipments, paying rent etc.). PLAN facilitates for getting citizenship to men and women so that they could have access to loan and cooperatives. Likewise, girls school campaign in promoting gender equality through scholarship program is another affirmative action of PLAN. PLAN also ensures gender and social inclusion at partnership level through gender orientation training, at least basic is mandatory and even sometimes TOT level is required. At the organization level, there is affirmative action on recruitment for women and socially excluded group. PLAN Nepal has gender friendly human resource policy such as provision of baby sitting for lactating mother, separate toilet for men and women etc. 6.15 CECI CECI, is an international organization actively involved in the development of Nepal since 1987. The main goal of the organization is poverty alleviation and social inclusion. In 1989, CECI with the financial support of Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) implemented Community Participatory Initiative project 45

in Nepal. The project became a good example for community based hill economic development programs. With the learning of CPI, a community based economic development (CBED) project was implemented in remote areas of far-west regions of Nepal from 1995-2002 through the support of CIDA. As a complementary of CBED project, multilevel food support program, poverty, malnutrition and combating against disease related community health initiative was also implemented till 2003. In agriculture sector, Market Access for Rural Development (MARD) was implemented from 1997 to 2003 in Dailekh and Surkhet districts to Nepal. These programmes had contributed particularly in meeting basic community health, local economic upliftment and strengthening of community based organizations. CECI experienced that for remote hill development, community involved in planning, implementing and monitoring of integrated projects were result oriented. With this learning, in view of strengthening further CECI past programs, it has implemented the Sahakarya (Working together in Nepali) project in five districts (Jumla, Dailekh, Surkhet, Baitadi and Dadeldhura) from 2003-08 with gender sensitive policy. Implementation of gender equality and social inclusion policy at the community level enhanced the participation of women in community activities and decision making, allowing inclusion of women and minority groups in all stages of the project. Some examples of such policy are: community level training, subsidizing food allowance for women with small babies, transportation allowance for women and seed grant for CBOs in the condition of 50% women participation and 40% at decision making level (Chaudhary 2008). Since, CECI has faced a number of challenges to reach women and socially excluded groups, therefore it is imperative to make such group aware of their rights at first. In view of this, CECI has developed a number of awareness related educative materials such as gender equity and social inclusion training manual, participatory gender and social inclusion audits manual etc.

VII. Conclusion and Recommendations


General concept of development program and planning is that women need support for their empowerment. In reality, for the success of any development initiative, there is need to empower women. For example, commercialization of agriculture is not possible until and unless production oriented economy is translated into market economy. For that, both men and women need to participate equally into market economy. Because women are the real producers of agriculture sector and they contribute significant proportion of labor force in economy, their access to market means having an opportunity for earnings. Once a woman earns money, she could also make decision on its expenditure. In general women spend their saving for their childrens health and education and thereafter on household welfare. This ultimately gives maximum return by creating a healthy and educated human capital. Thus future quality of human capital can be 46

determined through empowering women. However, the first challenge is how to make as many as women to participate in development program and the second is how to bring them into decision-making level or to ensure their quality. 7.1 Priority Areas for NMTPF to Integrate Gender in Agriculture Sector Specific actions to be considered for NMTPF need to focus on: Ensuring maximum participation of women in agricultural sector Creating a conducive gender friendly environment for women 7.1.1 Ensuring Maximum Participation of Women in Agricultural sector

It is imperative to prepare a critical mass of skilled women farmers in agriculture sector as well as at professional level in view of improving food security and improving the policy related with agriculture and management of natural resources. They should participate at the grass root level and decision making level. This could be attained only through preparing a necessary condition. Specific actions for fulfilling the necessary conditions need to be considered at the two levels: (a) Grass root level rural womens participation Illiteracy impeded the active participation of men and women farmers. Therefore, literacy program should be an essential component in any package program concerned with agriculture development. Organizing agriculture school at the rural area help women in understanding and building self-confidence on adoption of new technology in agriculture, which encourage them to participate in agriculture development program. Conducting community discussion with an assessment of the level of women attendance and how to overcome obstacles to their participation served to create feeling of community responsibility of gender integration Holding women only group discussions allowed women to open up and gain confidence gradually to articulating positions in front of men Recruiting women as facilitators, extension workers and social mobilizers, play an important role in increasing active and meaning full participation of community women. For womens active and effective participation in any process or action, family level sensitization, involvement of male members in the program and seeking their suggestions in joint meetings are essential.

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Involvement of men is vital even in program designing and planning process as their support is essential in reducing gender discrimination and for the successful participation of women. Provision of allowance for women to participate in the training program. Acknowledging and documenting womens traditional knowledge and practices. (b) Decision making or policy level womens participation The initial step is to target for scholarship program for academic degree in Agriculture and resource management disciplines at university level; leadership training; professional development courses, specific skills and trainings concerned with needs of women such as business development, farm business management and cooperative etc. Mentoring of younger women and girls are needed to take leadership in agriculture development. The committed young leaders should be empowered through academic, leadership and gender training and professional development in agricultural and rural development fields. To translate the knowledge of academic degree into practices, women scholars need to be encouraged to conduct their dissertation on the subjects directly applicable to improving the food security and quality of life of female farmers. The research will add to the knowledge base on food crops and food security issues in the country. This will enable them to work at the program planning and policy level, which will directly benefit the rural women farmers through policy implications. Establishment of national, regional and global women professionals working in agriculture sector network provide a plate form for interaction on the national, regional and global level of gender issues and concerns in agriculture sector. This will help women professionals to enhance their knowledge in policy advocacy and its implication for the benefit of women farmers and professionals as well. A small incentive or research grant should be provided to women professionals to address gender issues in agriculture policies. This will provide them an opportunity to take the leadership and action and to become engaged in policy work. The research finding will be useful for planners and policy makers for drafting national level policy in agriculture sector for the benefit of rural men and women farmers. Affirmative actions for women in recruitment, promotion and benefits will attract women in Agriculture related profession. Flexible working hours and for a year of maternity and social events will retain women professionals to continue their profession.

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7.1.2 Creating Conducive Gender-Friendly Environment for Women A meaningful participation of women can only be ensured through building an enabling gender friendly environment. There are a number of ways but it should be socio-culturally acceptable and technically feasible and economically viable. Some specific actions that are recommended for bringing into practice are: Conducting training program at the local areas and off-seasons period of agriculture Involving both men and women of family in agricultural training program to support womens participation Provide day care or baby sitting facilities at the training center Provision of breast feeding break and transport facility for women professionals Providing certain % of village development fund for school support if 50% girls are enrolled and recruitment of 50% female teachers Splitting up of various trainings and designed for comprehensive one day training and flexibility of participation based on their interest Incentives or low tax for women lead small business program Modification in stairs of vehicles for ease loading and unloading by women Develop agriculture tools and technology that are ease to handle by females Support of uniform/school stationary for girl child attending school. Microfinance support or low interest rate for women borrowing loan to work on agri-business Safe and provision of security at the shelter for women at local market. Separate latrine for men and women at working place Employ gender sensitization-an essential practice in organizational policy. Introduce drudgery reducing technologies which can be prepared at local levels such as improved cooking stoves. Strengthen and promote local womens group through mobilization of saving fund at productive activities and linking it with market channels Provide access to information services and in the equitable sharing of benefits will encourage womens participation in agriculture commercialization process. Provision of incentives/awards for organizations/employers promoting equitable representation of gender and social inclusion. Emphasis should be given to gender friendly environment in terms of-i) technology generation policy ii) market policy for commercialization and iii) for security and safety. Since male emigration has led to women to take over their roles and responsibilities in agriculture, technology need to be developed as appropriate to women. For example, in case of transportation of agricultural products, to make on49

loading and offloading of goods easy, modification need to be made in stairs of trucks and buses. Likewise there is need of sufficient and separate toilets and latrines for womens working place, particularly in marketing places. Similarly overnight sheds or rooms for women are necessary in collecting centres and market yards with adequate safety and security. These all are essential for empowering women. NMTPF should first focus necessary condition for mainstreaming gender and social groups in agriculture development. After fulfilling the necessary condition action need to be taken for fulfilling for the sufficient condition. Along with this NMTPF, should take into account all good practices of various agriculture and rural development programs and projects implemented by various developmental partners. The NMTP of Agriculture, need to frame the policy that address the raised issues on gender and social inclusion and bridge the gaps of gender and social inequalities by availing the existing opportunities. This of course has a lot of challenges but it is possible to make it happen through effective coordination and networking with various development partners and stakeholders involved in these sectors. 7.1.3 Policy Level Recommendations Land tenure policy need to be urgently formulated to ensure equal land rights to men and women The government should have affirmative policy to women fishery groups in awarding contract of public fishery ponds Provision should be made in agricultural services to provide certain number of appointments to female in decision making level A system of gender based budgeting and auditing need should be introduced and practised. Ministry of Women Children and Social Welfare should have a division for documentation, reporting, networking and coordinating of women concerned agricultural activities implemented by Ministry of Agriculture as well as I/NGOs Agriculture sector should be made glamorous through its promotion so that it could create opportunities for employment that would attract youth for their occupation and discourage them for migration. For promotion of Agriculture sector, fair trade should be strategy for agriculture which can be done through HIV certification, child labour free certification, organic certification, etc. Gender should be institutionalized in NPC framework in its planning and monitoring unit and it should work as an umbrella for all concerned line agencies An immediate action is recommended for policy linkage on climate change and feminization of agriculture and feminization of poverty.

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Gender budgeting is necessary condition but not sufficient condition to ensure the impact of reduction of feminization of poverty. Therefore it is essential to institutionalize and regularize output and impact assessment of gender responsive budget. Gender budget auditing must be continued as a regular norm along with capacity building in gender planning, implementation and auditing must be continued. The National Planning Commission must come with specific plan and allocate substantial national budget to uplift women. MoAC should post qualified female extension agents to district field sites through their recruitment and deployment through allocation of quotas on subject matter specialist, outreach staff and extension agent posts because female extension agents are more effective in dealing with women farmers' concerns. Necessary step need to be taken to appoint women subject matter specialists to each of MoAC's regional offices to guide the integration of gender into project and program activities and to act as the main agents for gender equity in agricultural development, as well as core members of the regional technical working groups. Organizational linkage between regional-based women agriculture specialists, regional agricultural research services and GEED need to be established which could strengthen technical support of district-level staff and guide their efforts to formulate and provide services to women farmer groups, conduct outreach research in collaboration with NARC staff and help to conduct on-farm activities. It could also be used to help Regional Technical Working Groups to enforce various field program activities related to women and men farmers (FAO 2005) Appropriate technical unit within a rural development or agriculture ministry need to be established to undertake gender related projects. This would demonstrate why there is a need to work with both male and female farmers, and how to carry this work out and bring a greater impact to male and female farmers. Engendered agriculture sector development should be a priority of the government, civil society, development actors and private sectors (Ghale, 2009). National level policy and planning initiatives for reallocation and redistribution of household work between men and women is essential. Economic valuation of womens household work is recommended 7.1.4 Implementation Level Recommendations More extension and training should reach to women. Given women's poor mobility, few can go to service and training centers for training and advice, so short duration-training at same village site and during off-season need to be 51

conducted. Agricultural skills training should include functional literacy programs which would enable women farmers to develop reading, writing, calculating, speaking, listening, interpersonal problem-solving skills while acquiring knowledge about agricultural matters (FAO 2005). Emphasis should be given to strengthening of existing women and mixed farmers group rather than expanding through formation of new groups. Emphasis should be given on women entrepreneurship development through result oriented skill and technical trainings along with necessary services with regard to production and marketing. There should be provision of reward/incentive for addressing empowerment of gender and disadvantaged and socially backward groups and poor in implemented programs and projects of government as well as NGOs/INGOs. There should be affirmative action for women candidates in studying agriculture course and also in joining JTs and JTAs. In view of heavy work load on women, it is essential to identify and implement fuel efficient, drudgery reducing technologies and innovations to address the practical and productive needs of women by development planners and implementers. Intervention is necessary with regard to sharing of gender roles and responsibilities to reduce the workload of women as well as making them access to so called mens domain work. Development initiative such as womens entrepreneurship development program implemented by both government and non-government agencies must ensure that rural poverty reduction takes place in absolute sense rather than relative term. This could be possible through easy access to microcredits, technical know how and marketing facilities. Programs in non-formal education and/ or vocational training will have little value or sustainability unless the targeted beneficiaries are engaged in some form of enterprise development and are supported in undertaking commercially their agriculture and livestock activities. Particular effort should be made to avoid gender stereotyped support where women enter low paid women-friendly professions, while men get higher paid and qualified jobs. (HDR. 2009). The coverage and amount of micro-credit support provided by various financial institutions and banks should be large enough for taking women and disadvantaged group out of poverty trap. Comprehensive training package need to be developed through coordination with agriculture and forest related organizations to avoid duplication of work. This would not only help in proper utilization of resources but also ensures meaningful participation of men and women farmers. Gender issues should be taken as social issue and gender mainstreaming need to be developed as a culture. Since women are directly affected by current global economic recession and climate change which lead them to vicious cycle of poverty, adequate, 52

nutritious food security and employment must be ensured by giving priority to rural and marginal women. Research backed by clear evidence of the greater effect of climate change on women is needed in order to find ways to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Women have knowledge, potential and power to combat against disaster that the climate change will bring. Therefore development program needs to exploit skills of women to overcome the situation of disasters and food insecurity. Womens meaningful participation in formulating and implementing various laws and policies relating to impact of climate change need to be ensured. Gender information system need to be established through strengthening of GEEDs documentation section to serve the needs of policy analysts, planners and field staff and other development workers could find genderdisaggregated information Data on higher education need to be disaggregated and compiled annually based on gender and social groups. Much of the womens activities in informal sector are not documented in official statistics. Recognition of womens productive and reproductive is essential to maintaining their contribution to the global food production and security. Gender analysis alone is insufficient to enable women to optimize their contribution to food security. Gender perspective-views of both men and women must be taken into account. Women must get opportunity to express their views and bring their perspective into development and food security policies and programs. Community based training, orientation and practical sessions which are effective in enhancing women's skills need to be identified so that increased income reduces most of the domestic conflicts and support in household food security. Donors should have a particular role to play in supporting training for local authorities and community leaders to address the justice needs of socially excluded groups, of the poor and of women. (HDR. 2009). Many girls and women joined the Maoist to fight gender discrimination. Reintegration therefore should strive to build on the empowerment they achieved during fighting and avoid that women and girls need to revert to their traditional submissive role. The reintegration strategy must ensure their livelihoods. Unequal human development is both a cause and result of exclusion. There is need of socio-economic transformation along with political. The state has to invest disproportionately more both in the health and education and in income-generating activities of the poor in order to close the gap between excluded and privileged. (HDR. 2009).

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