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Repeated measures design

A repeated measures design refers to studies in which the same measures are collected multiple times for each subject but under different conditions. For instance, repeated measures are collected in a longitudinal study in which change over time is assessed. Other studies compare the same measure under two or more different conditions. For instance, to test the effects of caffeine on cognitive function, a subject's math ability might be tested once after they consume caffeine and another time when they consume a placebo.

Crossover studies, an example of a repeated measures design


A popular repeated-measures design is the crossover study. A crossover study is a longitudinal study in which subjects receive a sequence of different treatments or e!posures". #hile crossover studies can be observational studies, many important crossover studies are controlled e!periments, which are discussed in this article. $rossover designs are common for e!periments in many scientific disciplines, for e!ample psychology, education, pharmaceutical science, and health-care, especially medicine. %andomi&ed, controlled, crossover e!periments are especially important in health-care. 'n a randomi&ed clinical trial, the subjects are randomly assigned treatments. #hen the randomi&ed clinical trial is a repeated measures design, the subjects are randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments. A crossover clinical trial is a repeated-measures design in which each patient is randomly assigned to a sequence of treatments, including at least two treatments of which one (treatment( may be a standard treatment or a placebo") *hus each patient crosses over from one treatment to another. +early all crossover designs have (balance(, which means that all subjects should receive the same number of treaments and that all subjects participate for the same number of periods. 'n most crossover trials, each subject receives all treatments. ,owever, many repeated-measures designs are not crossover studies) *he longitudinal study of the sequential effects of repeated treatments need not use any (crossover(, for e!ample -onesh . $hinchilli/ 0ones . 1enward".

Uses of a repeated measures design

Conduct an experiment when few participants are available: *he repeated measure design reduces the variance of estimates of treatment-effects, allowing statistical inference to be made with fewer subjects. Conduct experiment more efficiently: %epeated measures designs allow many e!periments to be completed more quic2ly, as only a few groups need to be trained to complete an entire e!periment. For e!ample, there are many e!periments where each condition ta2es only a few minutes, whereas the training to complete the tas2s ta2e as much, if not more time.

Study changes in participants behavior over time: %epeated measures designs allow researchers to monitor how the participants change over the passage of time, both in the case of long-term situations li2e longitudinal studies and in the much shorter-term case of practice effects.

ractice effects
4ractice effects occur when a participant in an e!periment is able to perform a tas2 and then perform it again at some later time. 5enerally, they either have a positive subjects become better at performing the tas2" or negative subjects become worse at performing the tas2" effect. %epeated measures designs are almost always affected by practice effects/ the primary e!ception to this rule is in the case of a longitudinal study. ,ow well these are measured is controlled by the e!act type of repeated measure design that is used. 6oth types, however, have the goal of controlling for practice effects.

!dvantages and disadvantages


!dvantages
*he primary strengths of the repeated measures design is that it ma2es an e!periment more efficient and helps 2eep the variability low. *his helps to 2eep the validity of the results higher, while still allowing for smaller than usual subject groups. 738

"isadvantages
A disadvantage to the repeated measure design is that it may not be possible for each participant to be in all conditions of the e!periment i.e. time constraints, location of e!periment, etc.". *here are also several threats to the internal validity of this design, namely a regression threat when subjects are tested several times, their scores tend to regress towards the mean", a maturation threat subjects may change during the course of the e!periment" and an history threat events outside the e!periment that may change the response of subjects between the repeated measures".

References
"esign and analysis of experiments

0ones, 6yron/ 1enward, 9ichael 5. :;;<". Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials =econd ed.". >ondon) $hapman and ,all. -onesh, ?dward F. and $hinchilli, -ernon 5. 3@@A". Linear and Nonlinear Models for the Analysis of Repeated Measurements. >ondon) $hapman and ,all. Bavidian, 9arie/ Bavid 9. 5iltinan 3@@C". Nonlinear Models for Repeated Measurement Data. $hapman . ,allD$%$ 9onographs on =tatistics . Applied 4robability. '=6+ @AE;F3:@E<F3:.

#xploration of longitudinal data

Fit&maurice, 5arrett, Bavidian, 9arie, -erbe2e, 5eert and 9olenberghs, 5eert, ed :;;E". Longitudinal Data Analysis. 6oca %aton, F>) $hapman and ,allD$%$. '=6+ 3-CEF-EEGCE-A. 0ones, 6yron/ 1enward, 9ichael 5. :;;<". Design and Analysis of Cross-Over Trials =econd ed.". >ondon) $hapman and ,all. 1im, 1evin and *imm, +eil :;;A". ((%estricted 95>9 and growth curve model( $hapter A"(. Univariate and multivariate general linear models: Theory and appli ations !ith SAS "!ith # CD-ROM for $indo!s and UN%&'(. =tatistics) *e!tboo2s and 9onographs =econd ed.". 6oca %aton, F>) $hapman . ,allD$%$. '=6+ 3-CEFEE-G<F-H. 1ollo, *Inu and von %osen, Bietrich :;;C". ((9ultivariate linear models( chapter F", especially (*he 5rowth curve model and e!tensions( $hapter F.3"(. Advan ed multivariate statisti s !ith matri es. 9athematics and its applications. $%&. Bordrecht) =pringer. '=6+ 3-F;:;-<F3E-;. 1shirsagar, Anant 9. and =mith, #illiam 6oyce 3@@C". )ro!th urves. =tatistics) *e!tboo2s and 9onographs. '($. +ew Jor2) 9arcel Be22er, 'nc.. '=6+ ;-E:FA@<F3-:. 4an, 0ian-Hin and Fang, 1ai-*ai :;;:". )ro!th urve models and statisti al diagnosti s. =pringer =eries in =tatistics. +ew Jor2) =pringer--erlag. '=6+ ;<EA-@C;C<-:. =eber, 5. A. F. and #ild, $. 0. 3@E@". ((5rowth models $hapter A"((. Nonlinear regression. #iley =eries in 4robability and 9athematical =tatistics) 4robability and 9athematical =tatistics. +ew Jor2) 0ohn #iley . =ons, 'nc.. pp. <:CK<GA. '=6+ ;-FA3-G3AG;-3. *imm, +eil ,. :;;:". ((*he general 9A+O-A model 59A+O-A"( $hapter <.G.d"(. Applied multivariate analysis. =pringer *e!ts in =tatistics. +ew Jor2) =pringer--erlag. '=6+ ;-<EA-@C<FA-A. -onesh, ?dward F. and $hinchilli, -ernon 5. 3@@A". Linear and Nonlinear Models for the Analysis of Repeated Measurements. >ondon) $hapman and ,all. $omprehensive treatment of theory and practice" $onaway, 9. 3@@@, October 33". %epeated 9easures Besign. %etrieved February 3E, :;;E, from http)DDbiostat.mc.vanderbilt.eduDtwi2iDpubD9ainD$lin=tatDrepmeas.4BF 9in2e, A. 3@@A, 0anuary". $onducting %epeated 9easures Analyses) ?!perimental Besign $onsiderations. %etrieved February 3E, :;;E, from ?ricae.net) http)DDericae.netDftDtamuD%m.htm =haughnessy, 0. 0. :;;G". %esearch 9ethods in 4sychology. +ew Jor2) 9c5raw,ill.

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