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# Computational Fluid Dynamics!

## Classical ! Turbulence Modeling !

Grtar Tryggvason! Fall 2011! cross section of a jet! Most engineering problems involve turbulent ows. Such ows involve are highly unsteady and contain a large range of scales. However, in most cases the mean or average motion is well dened. !

## The drag depends on the separation point!

A modest Reynolds number the separated boundary layer remains initially laminar (left), before becoming turbulent. If the boundary layer is tripped (right) it becomes turbulent, so that it separates farther rearward. The overall drag is thereby dramatically reduced, in a way that occurs naturally on a smooth sphere only at a Reynolds numbers ten times as great. ONERA photograph, Werle 1980.! From "An Album of Fluid Motion," by Van Dyke, Parabolic Press. !

Computational Fluid Dynamics! Examples of Reynolds numbers:! Flow around a 3 m long car at 100 km/hr:! Kinematic viscosity ! (~20 C)! ! Water " = 10-6 m2/s! Air " = 1.5 !10-5 m2/s! ! 1km/hr = 0.27778 m/s!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Re =

LU 3 ! 27.78 = = 5.5 ! 10 6 v 1.5 ! 10"5 LU 100 ! 2.78 = = 2.78 ! 10 8 v 10"6 LU 0.01 ! 1 = = 10 4 v 10"6

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS): Only the averaged motion is computed. The effect of uctuations is modeled! Large Eddy Simulations (LES): Large scale motion is fully resolved but small scale motion is modeled! Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS): Every length and time scale is fully resolved!

Re =

Re =

## Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations !

To solve for the mean motion, we derive equations for the mean motion by averaging the Navier-Stokes equations. The velocities and other quantities are decomposed into the average and the uctuation part !

a = A + a'
This will hold for spatial averaging, temporal averaging, and ensamble averaging!

## Dening an averaging procedure that satises the following rules:!

<a> = A < a' > = 0 < a+ b> = A+ B < ca > = cA < !a > = !A

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

There are several ways to dene the proper averages ! For homogeneous turbulence we can use the space average !

<a> =

## ! 1 u + " # uu = \$ "p + &" 2u !t %

u = U + u' p = P + p'

<a> =

1 T

0

<a> =

r ensambles

! a ( x, t)

a = A + a'

a = A + a'

## Applying the averaging to the Navier-Stokes equations results in:!

Physical interpretation!

< uv >
Fast moving uid particle! Net momentum transfer due to velocity uctuations! Slow moving uid particle!

## ! 1 U + " # UU = \$ "P + &" 2U \$ "# < u'u' > !t %

! < u' u' > < u' v ' > < u' w ' > \$ # & < u'u' >= # < u' v ' > < v ' v ' > < v ' w ' > & # "< u' w ' > < v ' w ' > < w ' w ' >& %
Reynold s stress tensor!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Closure:! Since we only have an equation for the mean ow, the Reynolds stresses must be related to the mean ow. !

2 ! T = l0

## \$ #U #U j ' < u'u' > ij = !" T & i + ) % # x j # xi (

where!

dU dy
1/ 2

l0 = !y
1 " !U i !U j % Sij = \$ + ' ' 2\$ # !x j !x i & \$ "U " U ' j i !i = & & "x # " x ) ) % j i (

Smagorinsky model!

2 ! T = l0 (2Sij Sij )

!T =

2 l0 t0

Baldvin-Lomaz model!
2 ! T = l0 (" i" i ) 1/ 2

## One equation models!

! T = k1/ 2 t 0
Where k is obtained by an equation describing its temporal-spatial evolution! However, the problem with zero and one equation models is that t0 and l0 are not universal. Generally, it is found that a two equation model is the minimum needed for a proper description !

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

To characterize the turbulence it seems reasonable to start with a measure of the magnitude of the velocity uctuations. If the turbulence is isotropic, the turbulent kinetic energy can be used:!

To distinguish between large and small eddies we need to introduce a new quantity that describe! Smaller eddies dissipate faster! Usually, the turbulent dissipation rate is used!

k=

1 (< u' u' > + < v ' v ' > + < w ' w' >) 2

The turbulent kinetic energy does, however, not distinguish between large and small eddies.!

! "#

\$u'i \$u'i \$x j \$ x j

## ! 1 U + " # UU = \$ "P + (& + & T )" 2U !t %

Where the turbulent kinematic eddy viscosity is given by!

## * !k !k !U i ! ' !k 1 ' ' ' 1 +Uj = " ij #\$ + # ui ui u j # p' u'j , )% !t !x j !x j !x j ( !x j 2 & +

where! ! ij = " ui u j
' '

! T = C

k "

The exact epsilon-equation is considerably more complex and we will not write it down here.! ! Both equations contain transport, dissipation and production terms that must be modeled!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

The general for for the equations for k and epsilon is:!

## D! ! &U i !2 = " # (\$ + C3\$ T )"! + C4 % ij ' C5 Dt k &x j k

Turbulent! transport! Production! Dissipation ! Here!

## !" + U # \$" = \$ # D" \$" + production % dissipation !t

These terms must be modeled ! Closure involves proposing a form for the missing terms and optimizing free coefcients to t experimental data!

!T = C

k2 "

and!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Other two equation turbulence models:! !RNG k-epsilon! !Nonlinear k-epsilon! !k-enstrophy! !k-lo! !k-reciprocal time! !etc!

Turbulent transport of energy and species concentrations is modeled in similar ways.! ! For temperature we have:!

!T + " # uT = \$" 2T !t

## u = U + u' T =< T > +T'

!<T > + " # U < T >= \$" 2 < T > %"# < UT > !t

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Model Predictions !

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence. Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence. Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

Results!

## Wall bounded turbulence!

From: C.G. Speziale: Analytical Methods for the Development of Reynolds-stress closure in Turbulence. Ann Rev. Fluid Mech. 1991. 23: 107-157!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Wall bounded turbulence! Fundamental assumption: determined by local variables only! Mean ow!

## Dene a shear velocity: !

v* =

!w "

!w =

du , ", # dy
2 3 2

[kg / ms ], [kg / m ], [m / s]

Normalize the length and velocity near the wall! Only the mean shear rate and the properties of the uid are important!

!w =

dU , ", # dy

u+ =

u v*

y+ =

y v* v

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Thus, the velocity near the wall is! Velocity versus distance from wall!

v* =

!w "

For a practical engineering problem! L = 1m; U = 1m/s; " = 10-6 (water)! The Reynolds number is therefore:!

u+

! = 0.4 C = 5.5

u+ =

u =y
10!

1 ln y + + C !

du !w = dy u + u = * v y v* + y = v

Re =

LU = 10 6 v
where! and!

## For a at plate, the average drag coefcient is!

CD = 0.592Re!1/ 5
Thus!

CD =

1 2

FD !U 2 LW

y+
Outer layer!

## Viscous Buffer sub-layer ! layer!

CD = 0.0037

!w =

FD 2 = CD 1 2 "U = 3.74 LW

And we nd!

v * = 0.06

Computational Fluid Dynamics! The average thickness of the viscous sub-layer is 10 in units of y+:! Thickness of the viscous sub-layer!

y=

## Find the thickness of the boundary layer!

! L

= 0.37Re"1/ 5

! L

= 0.0233m = 23.3mm

To deal with this problem it is common to use wall functions where the mean velocity is matched with an analytical approximation to the viscosus sublayer.! ! For a reference, see: Patel, Rodi, and Scheuerer, Turbulence Models for Near-Wall and Low Reynolds Number Flows: A Review. AIAA Journal, 23 (1985), 1308-1319!

To resolve the viscous sublayer at the same time as the turbulent boundary layer would require a large number of grid points!

## Second order closure!

The k-epsilon and other two equation models have several serious limitations, including the inability to predict anisotropic Reynolds stress tensors, relaxation effects, and nonlocal effects due to turbulent diffusion.! For these problems it is necessary to model the evolution of the full Reynolds stress tensor!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Derive equations for the Reynolds stresses:! The Navier-Stokes equations in component form:!

## The new equations contain terms like!

ui ui u j
which are not known. These terms are therefore modeled! The Reynolds stress model introduces 6 new equations (instead of 2 for the k-e model. Although the models have considerably more physics build in and allow, for example, anisotrophy in the Reynolds stress tensor, these model have yet to be optimized to the point that they consistently give superior results.!

## ! ui 1 + "uiu j = # "p + %" 2ui !t \$

Multiply the equation by the velocity!

## % !u ( 1 ui ' i + "ui u j = - # "p + \$" 2 ui * & !t )

and averaging leds to equations for !

! ui u j !t

For practical problems, the k-e model or more recent improvements such as RNG are therefore most commonly used! !

## Direct Numerical Simulations !

In direct numerical simulations the full unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a sufciently ne grid so that all length and time scales are fully resolved. The size of the problem is therefore very limited. The goal of such simulations is to provide both insight and quantitative data for turbulence modeling!

## Channel Flow! Flow direction! Wall!

Streamwise vorticity!

Streamwise velocity!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

Channel Flow!

Turbulent shear stress! Turbulent eddies generate a nearly uniform velocity prole!

Turbulence are intrinsically linked to vorticity, yet laminar ows can also be vortical so looking at the vorticity is not sufcient to understand what is going on in a turbulent ows. Several attempts have been made to dene properties of the turbulent ows that identies vortices (as opposed to simply vortical ows.! One of the most successful method is the lambda-2 method of Hussain.!

Streamwise vorticity!

## Computational Fluid Dynamics! Visualizing turbulence!

# "u % 2 % "x 1 1 % " v "u T S = (!u + ! u ) = + 2 2 % " x "y %"w "u % + \$ " x "z % ' 0 ' 1 1 # v #u ! = ("u - " T u ) = ' \$ 2 2 ' # x #y '#w #u ' \$ & # x #z

Computational Fluid Dynamics! It can be shown that the second eigenvalue !2of !
S 2 + !2

# " u "u "u & % ( % " x "y "z ( " v " v " v ( !u = % % " x "y "z ( %"w "w "w ( % ( \$ " x "y "z '

"u "v + "y "x "v 2 "y "w "v + "y "z

" u "w & + ( " z "x ( " v "w ( + " z "y ( "w ( 2 ( "z '

dene vortex structures! Referece: J. Jeong and F. Hussain, "On the identication of a vortex," Journal of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 285, 69-94, 1995.! Other quantities have also been used, such as the second invariant of the velocity gradient:!

#u #v \$ #y #x
0

#w #v \$ #y #z

# u #w ( \$ * # z #x * # v #w * \$ # z #y * * 0 * )

Q=

!ui !u j !x j !x i

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

!2 = "0.2

Turbulence models are used to allow us to simulate only the averaged motion, not the unsteady small scale motion.! Turbulence modeling rest on the assumption that the small scale motion is universal and can be described in terms of the large scale motion.! Although considerable progress has been made, much is still not known and results from calculations using such models have to be interpreted by care!!

!2 = "0.3

## Computational Fluid Dynamics!

For more information:! D. C. Wilcox, Turbulence Modeling for CFD (2nd ed. 1998; 3rd ed. 2006). ! The author is one of the inventors of the k-# model and the book promotes it use. The discussion is, however, general and very accessible, as well as focused on the use of turbulence modeling for practical applications in CFD!