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UNESCO-NIGERIA TECHNICAL & VOCATIONAL EDUCATION REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN BUILDING TECHNOLOGY

WORKSHOP PRACTICE III


COURSE CODE: BLD 205 YEAR II- SE MESTER III PRACTICAL
Version 1: December 2008

TABLE OF CONTENTS WEEK 6: FACTORY ACTS AND SAFETY REGULATIONS IN PLUMBING WORKSHOP 4.1 Safety and Upkeep of Workshop 4.2 Ventilation for the Workshop 4.3 Tools and First Aid Equipment Storage 4.4 Demonstrate General Safety Habits 4.5 The Layout of an Ideal Plumbing Workshop

WEEK 7: PLUMBING TOOLS, EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS FOR PLUMBING WORKS 5.1 Identify Plumbing Tools and Equipment 5.2 Select Plumbing Tools and Equipments for Use 5.3 Use the Tools in 5.1 and Portable Power Tools and Equipments 5.4 Maintenance the Tools Used in 5.2 Above 5.5 Select Pipes and Tubes Used in Plumbing Work 5.6 Identify their Sizes, Weights and Gauges

WEEK 8: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES 6.1 Method of Manipulation and Jointing of Mild Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes 6.2 Machine Bending to Mild Steel Pipe 6.3 Copper Pipe Machine Bending

WEEK 9: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD) 6.4 Heat Bending to Mild Steel Pipe, Copper Pipe and Plastic Pipe 6.5 Springs Bending to Copper Pipes, Lead Pipes and Plastics Pipes

WEEK 10: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD) 6.6 Joints on Mild Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes 6.7 Joints on Mild Steel Pipes

WEEK 11: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD) 6.7 Joints on Copper Pipes 6.8 Joints on Plastic Pipe

WEEK 12: DIFFERENT METHODS OF INSTALLING AND FIXING APPLIANCES 7.1 Fixing and Installation of Sanitary Appliances 7.2 Installation and Fixing of Soil Appliances

WEEK 13: METHOD OF INSTALLING AND FIXING APPLIANCES CONTD 7.4 Installation and Fixing of Waste Appliances

WEEK 14: WATER SUPPLY 8.1 Properties of Water 8.2 State the Rules to be followed in Piping for Water Supply 8.3 Observe Connection to Water Mains 8.4 Illustrate the Domestic Systems of Cold and Hot Water Supply

WEEK 15: DRAINAGE SYSTEMS 9.1 Show the General Layout and Construction Method of Drainage Systems 9.2 Differentiate Between Private and Public Sewage Systems 9.3 Test Drains and Soil Pipes

WEEK 1: HOUSE KEEPING IN PAINTING

Introduction: Everyone would love to have a beautiful house to live in. In addition to other factors to be considered, paint gives a very pleasant appearance to houses and other painted objects.

Paint is a pigmented liquid that stretches and gives colour and opacity for preserving, protecting and decorating surfaces as well as enabling such surfaces to be cleaned easily.

The liquid (known as a medium or vehicle) is composed mainly of a binder and thinner; the binder fixes the pigment to the surface being painted and is responsible for the gloss and waterproofing characteristics, etc; thinners reduce the viscosity of the paint and aid its penetration; a drier is included in the medium to hasten drying of the paint. The thinner evaporates when paint dries which may take a few hours or days. This evaporation of the thinner causes the characteristic smell of paint which gradually disappears. Paint must be thoroughly stirred to mix the thinner and the solid pigment.

The pigment is the solid colour of the paint. Natural pigments include iron oxides, ochres, umbers, etc; chemically manufactured pigments include chromes, Prussian blue, zinc oxide, etc. Mediums used are oils, varnishes, resin, bitumen and cellulose derivatives. The most common thinner or solvent is turpentine; its substitute white spirit is also used.

TYPES OF PAINT The main types of paint are: Gloss. Undercoats for gloss. Primers. Water-thinned.

Gloss paints are based on resins produced in laboratories which have improved the quality of gloss paint. There are two main types of gloss paint: 1. Paints thinned with white spirit. 2. Paints thinned with water Note: Gloss paints that are thinned with water is easier to use and to clean up after than the white spirit diluted gloss paints.

Undercoats for gloss paints are modified gloss paints that dry with flat finishes. This makes it easier to rub them down and improves the adhesion of the gloss coat. Undercoats also fill in the colour over the primer and consolidate the final colour.

Primers are applied to seal unpainted metal and wood surfaces. The typical wood primers are: 1. Pink primer, which is linseed oil-based white lead with 10% red lead. This is a toxic substance. 2. Aluminium wood primer, which is a metal-based resin. This primer is good for sealing wood surfaces that contain resins. 3. Acrylic primers, which are water-based emulsions with good penetration. They are quick drying and non-toxic. Metal primers are: 1. Calcium plumbate, which is an oil-based primer used on galvanized surfaces; 2. Zinc chromate, which is an oil-based primer that is good for bare metal surfaces.

Water-thinned paints form the bulk of paints today. They are less durable than gloss paints, but they are also easier to apply. Because they do not seal surfaces, you can use these paints on new plaster. Water-thinned paints have the primer, undercoat and finish in the same container. Two types of water-thinned paints are: Limewashes; Emulsions.

Limewashes are made from hydrated lime mixed with water. They are a cheap way to apply a white finish to plaster and render, but they do not adhere well and they brush or wash off easily.

Emulsion paints are made from vinyl, acrylics and polyurethane in water. The dry quickly, leaving a matt, eggshell or gloss finish, depending on your preference. Emulsion paints can also be used as primer and undercoats on unpainted wood surfaces. Painting is the application of a pigmented liquid that stretches thinly across a surface when the liquid dries out. Adequate preparation of the surface to be painted is essential for success. The surface should be smooth (not shiny for this would not give an adequate key), clean, dry and stable

This section on painting is intended to sensitise the students on need for a clean environment that is enhance by painting.

AIM:painting.

To demonstrate the need for a clean environment to ensure successful

MATERIALS:-

i. Duster ii. Thinner iii. Broom iv. Brushes v. Water

TOOLS REQUIRED: i. Ladders

ii. Scaffold iii. Bucket PROCEDURE:i. ii. iii. Clean the environment by ensuring that each tool is applied to the correct surface Use thinner to clean paint Use paper or any protective sheet spread on the floor to reduce falling paint spoiling/staining the floors.

iv. v.

Return materials leftover to the store Sweep the floor of the workshop.

PRECAUTION: There will be the need to be conscious of protecting the body with protective clothing, the hands with hand gloves, the eyes with protective goggles, a dust mask to cover the nostrils and protective shoes to guard against any injury to the feet.

While the above precautions are to the painter, certain factors would cause failure to painting namely; 1. Moisture. 2. Salts and alkali. 3. Unsuitable surfaces. 4. Unsuitable conditions. 5. Wrong choice of paint. 6. Moisture.

RESULT The students would at the end of this exercise appreciate the need for a clean, beautiful and healthy environment enhance by painting and the reasons why surfaces, such as walls, ceilings, woodwork and metal are prepared to be painted, i.e. to provide a decorative appearance, protect the surface from moisture penetration and also prevent the surface from rusting.

EXERCISES: 1. Why would you advise your client to paint his house? 2. Briefly describe the various paint types that you know. 3. Explain the precautions you would take to protect your during in painting. 4. What factors would render the paint operation a failure? 5. Take a look at the workshop and state reasons why painting cannot just commence immediately.

WEEK 2: PAINTING OF WALL INTRODUCTION: It is important that surfaces are prepared adequately to receive coats of paint. Each surface has its peculiar characteristics and the steps to be taken to ensure a successful painting operation and the precautions necessary. In this section, we shall demonstrate how to paint wall and ceiling surfaces. The painting of dry plaster does not present any problems and depending on the time of year and the amount of internal heating in the building, the complete drying out of plasters and brick, concrete or masonry backing walls takes a few days in the tropics to up to twelve months in the temperate regions Where the time to dry out takes very long, it is seldom practicable to wait that long before decorating and a sensible temporary measure is to apply a soft nonwashable distemper which can easily be removed prior to final decorating at a later date. AIMS:surfaces. To demonstrate the technique(s) of painting wall and ceiling

MATERIALS: i. ii. iii. iv Brushes Emulsion paint Buckets Surfaces.

PROCEDURE:Step 1 2 3 4 Action Clean the surfaces by removing all plaster splashes with scraper Fill in and rub down any holes, scratches or grooves. Remove dust with a soft brush. Mix the paint (by diluting the emulsion with 10% additional water and paint it on as a primer. 5 6 7 8 9 Leave it about an hour. Apply the full-strength emulsion. Leave it for 2 or three hours. Paint on the final coat of the emulsion Protect the surface until the paint dries

WEEK 3: SURFACE TREATMENT OF WOOD AND PAINTING INTRODUCTION Wood surfaces, like any other surface, require treatment to ensure a successful operation in painting. New Wood: The moisture content should not exceed 15%, else moisture will cause the paint to blister. After the timber has been cleaned, smoothed, dust removed, any grease cleaned off with white spirit and nails punched down, the usual specification is that it should be knotted, primed and stopped; it is important that these operations be executed in order. In this section we shall see how wood surfaces are prepared for painting. Gloss paint is more appropriate for wood but is more complicated to use than other types of paint. A successful job depends on how well the surface is prepared

AIM:-

To demonstrate to the students how to prepare and paint wood surfaces.

MATERIALS:i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Wood planed 300 x 80 x 21 Bitumen (glue and wood dust) Knotty paint Wood primer Glass paper Wood finishing paint/oil paint

TOOLS REQUIRED:i. ii. Brushes Scaffold

PROCEDURE (NEW WOOD):Step 1 2 3 Action Rub down the wood in the direction of the grain with glass paper. Clean all dust and dirt from the surface. Seal knots to prevent resin leaking through with a mixture of shellac and methylated spirits. 4 5 6 7 8 Seal the bare wood with a primer. Fill holes and cracks with a plastic filler paste. Rub the surface with glass paper to smooth the filler. Brush on the undercoat. Rub down with glass paper after the undercoat dries. It is optional to apply a second coat of undercoat. 9 10 Brush on the gloss coat. Protect the painted surface until it has dried.

Previously Painted Wood: If the paint has not deteriorated too badly it is only necessary to wash the surface and rub it down with waterproof abrasive paper (or wit a patent pumice block) dipped in water. Any bare wood should be reprimed and painting can proceed as on new wood. If the painted surface is in a bad condition or the film is very thick a fresh start should be made by removing the whole of the paint. Removal can be by burning off (actually the paint is merely softened by a blowlamp flame or electrically heated scraper and scraped off) or by the application of a spirit solvent which is brushed on to soften the paint and followed by scraping. The bared surface is then painted as described for new wood.

RESULT: At the end of the lesson, it is expected that the student should be able to carry out practical painting of wood successfully, applying the appropriate steps depending on the state of the wood.

EXERCISES:

1. 2.

Why is gloss paint best suited for wood surfaces? Describe the preparation to new wood to receive paint.

WEEK 4: SURFACE TREATMENT OF METAL AND PAINTING

INTRODUCTION Corrosion is responsible for much damage to, and expensive maintenance bills for, these materials; hence, wherever possible, it is more economical to have them galvanized at the outset and then painted. As with all surfaces, adequate preparation is an important prerequisite; in the case of ferrous materials this includes the removal of mill scale and rust. Workshop preparation can include pickling in hot dilute hydrochloric acid to remove scale and rust and phosphating; a phosphate dip provides good resistance to rusting. On the site there are certain proprietary liquids that can be used which are rust inhibiting; a wire brush is useful for removing rust; an organic solvent will remove any grease. Ferrous metals should be primed before delivery to the site using red lead/linseed oil primer (which give a good foundation) or chromate and zinc primers. Non-ferrous metal surfaces are shiny smooth, which must be roughened before priming. A good key for the paint is essential and can be obtained by etching primers or phosphating; aluminium can be treated by chromate processes. The priming paint differs for the various metals and paint manufactures have types suitable for each AIM: To demonstrate to the students how to treat metals and apply paint to their surfaces. MATERIALS:i. ii. iii. iv. v. Metal Red oxide Oil paint under coat Glass paper Oil paint finishing coat

TOOLS REQUIRED:i. ii. iii. iv. Wide brushes Thinner Container Grinding disc

PROCEDURE Step 1 2 3 Action Use grinding machine to remove or render the surface smooth Remove any rust with wire wool and clean with white spirit to remove grease Paint dry metal with primer (not in damp, cold weather). A second coat of primer is optional. 4 5 6 7 8 Rub down the primer. Brush on the undercoat. Rub down the undercoat. Brush on the gloss. Protect the painted surface until it has dried.

Metal for painting

RESULT It is expected that the student would know the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals and how their surfaces are prepared to receive paint. They should be able to carry out painting operation successfully and be very conscious of the precautions necessary for a successful job and self protection required.

EXERCISES 1. Why is it necessarily important to prime ferrous metals before delivery to site? 2. How would you prepare iron and steel in the workshop to receive paint? 3. A good key for paint is essential. How can you achieve this for non-ferrous metals? 4. What options do you have on the site to prepare ferrous metals to receive paint?

WEEK 5: SPRAYING USING MACHINE INTRODUCTION Painting techniques are either by 1. by brush or 2. by spraying.

Brush Method: Having correctly prepared the surface and using good quality brush (hogs hair bristle is considered to give the best results), the tip of the brush is dipped i9n the paint and the excess removed by drawing it against the edge of the container. Working from right to left a narrow strip of the work is covered with vertical strokes, the area is then crossed (i.e. brushed laterally to ensure even distribution of the paint). The surface is then finally laid off (i.e. lightly brushed vertically once more). A strip must be joined to its neighbor as soon as possible and the work so arranged that the surface is finished without interruption.

Spraying is an alternative technique essential for cellulose paints. Simple spray equipment comprises a motor and fan giving current of air delivered by tube to a container and spray gun. The gun has a nozzle from which the paint is forced out in a fine spray when a trigger is pressed. An air compressor is used in larger equipment.

Painting by spray is quicker for large areas than by brushing; it also uses less paint for this has to be thinner; it is not recommended for the application of primers (except for cellulose ones) because priming by brush gives better penetration and adhesion.

Spray painting demands the use of masking paper or other material to protect surfaces from paint which are adjacent to those being decorated. It is intended that this section will demonstrate the steps taken in paint spraying.

AIM:

To demonstrate to the students how to use the paint spraying machine.

MATERIALS: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii Oil paint Cellotex board Thinner/Kerosene Filter Containers Glass- paper Staring stick

TOOLS USED:

i. ii. iii. iv.

Spray gun Spraying machine Hose Electrical socket

PROCEDURE:Step 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Clean the Cellotex board Mix the Paint Pure paint into spray gun Connect the spray machine Adjust the spray gun Spray the board gradually Clean machine and spray gun after use. Protect the newly painted (sprayed) surface until it has dried. Action

RESULT At the end of this module, it expected that the students would be able to use the paint spraying machine with little or no difficulty adopting the necessary precautionary measures to ensure a successful operation.

EXERCISES 1. Describe the painting operation by the brush method. 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the paint spraying machine? 3. What are the precautions to be taken in paint spraying exercise?

WEEK 6: FACTORY ACTS AND SAFETY REGULATION IN PLUMBING WORKSHOP

4.1 Safety and Upkeep of Workshop

Introduction

Safety can be defined as a condition under which we have gained almost or complete degree of freedom from danger, injury or damage; it should come first in anything we have to do in our everyday life. It is widely known that the construction industry as a whole, of which plumbing is a part, accounts for many of the accident statistics recorded; and what is not often appreciated is the huge cost, both to the individuals ho are unfortunate enough to have an accident and to the industry as a whole in terms of lost manpower, time and materials. In many countries, laws have been introduced to enforce safe practices, as these laws require both employers and employees to observe strict health and safety procedures in the work place such laws help to reduce the number of serious accidents. However, accidents can and do still happen, largely because workers do not think sensibly about what they are doing, or take short cuts, or rush to complete a job, even try to cut corners. The wise plumber works with a care for his own safety, and for the safety for those about him, even if such official health and safety laws are few or non-existent. Using common sense and being aware of potential hazards and taking suitable precautions to avoid or prevent them are more important than the existence of regulations. Sometimes you may need to tell your employer about a particular hazard or problem so that the hazard can be removed, or suitable equipment can be provided to enable you work in safety. The building regulations (for safety, health and welfare) exist to warn and protect building workers against these dangers. The objective here is to cover both general safety hazards and specific hazards associated with common plumbing activities, and suggest ways of dealing with them. Areas involved include protective clothing, safety helmet or hard hat, safety goggles, welding goggles, hand gloves, safety footwear, face mask, ear protectors.

Safety in Workplaces and Environs

Whether you are working on a building site, in a private house or flat, or in a workshop, it is essential to keep the working area tidy this will ensure that jobs are carried out safely and more efficiently. Many accidents can be avoided if you take care to replace tools and materials when you are not using them. Do not allow obstacles and hazards to build up by leaving tools and material lying around. A clean and safe working environment is part of todays quality of life. It increases employee satisfaction, reduces illness therefore contributing to higher productivity and better working conditions. In a well-organised workshop, standard procedures should ensure that the workshop is kept tidy at all times. All too often, however, correct procedures are not followed and the result is usually that the workshop becomes cluttered with tools, materials and scrap, making access to machines and workbenches difficult and dangerous (Figure 4.1).

Safety in the Workshop

It is essential that one should take care when placing materials or tools anywhere, whether overhead or on ground level. Plumbing tools such as pipe wrenches, and hammers, pipe fittings and tins of jointing compounds must never be left balancing on a pipe or ledge.

The same general principles regarding tidiness apply in workshops. In a well-organised workshop, standard procedures should ensure that the workshop is kept tidy at all times. All too often, however, correct procedures are not followed: the result is usually that the workshop becomes cluttered with tools, materials and scrap, making access to machines and workbenches difficult and dangerous. (See Fig 4.1 below).

Keep workbenches and machines clear of unnecessary tools and materials, and free of scraps and off cuts. Remove all combustible materials such as timber, paper and cardboard packaging, because they can be a fire hazard if left around a workshop. Sweep floors and workbenches regularly to remove shavings, metal off cuts and swarf, and general rubbish. If they arc allowed to remain, apart from posing a fire hazard, they could cause workers to trip and fall into machines, bang their heads or stand on sharp objects (see section on fire prevention).

Check benches regularly to make sure that there are no protruding nails, screws or splinters that could cause injury. Workbenches should be solid, secure and level. All bench equipment, such as vices, should be fixed securely. Never leave long pipes protruding from pipe vices as they could cause injury.

Figure 4.1: Safety in the workshop (untidy and cluttered workshops contain many hazards)

4.2 Ventilation for the Workshop

Air Extraction

Ventilating a complete workshop does not prevent hazardous substances from reaching the breathing zone of the welder. During the welding process a variety of gases, fumes and dust is released into the air and endanger human health. Therefore effective protective measures have to be taken to provide clean breathing air at workplaces. The type of substances released during the welding process is deepened on the type of welding being done and the material being welded. Sufficient protection can only be guaranteed by the use of local exhaust and ventilation equipment at the workstation welding fumes and hazardous substance are captured before they reach breathing area of the employee. Local extraction is by far the most effective method for purification at welding workstations, and is there a standard feature in the modern workshop. (Figure 4.2).

Fig 4.2: Welding extractors.

Fig. 4.2a: Dimensions for extractors.

Fig 4.2b: Welding extractor.

Fig 4.2 Movable fume extractors

4.3 Tools and First Aid Equipment Storage

Tools storage is one of the requirements of safety in the workshop. The tools must therefore be properly kept to avoid injuries as well as possible damage to these tools; it is also imperative to ensure that these tools be kept clean, in their right positions, and under the right conditions as specified by the standard requirements for each tool. Despite the great care taken and all safety procedures followed, note that accidents still sometimes happen. In this situation, if an injury occurs, you must be in a position to know what to do, who to contact and how to attend to the injured person until help arrives. These actions fall under what is called First Aid. First Aid is the immediate treatment given to an injured or ill person before professional help and treatment can be given. First Aid is not a substitute for professional help. It is temporary help given whilst waiting for professional help to arrive.

Safety and First Aid Policy It is usual these days, often by law, for all employers to have a safety policy that outlines such things as roles and responsibilities and procedures to follow in the event of an emergency. It is important to find out if such a policy exists and ask to have a look at it to familiarize yourself with it.

Large organizations employing many people there should have a safety officer who has the responsibilities for co-ordinating safety policy. First-Aiders who have been trained should be found in both large and small organizations.

Reporting Safety or Health Hazards: It is the responsibility of all workers to report potential safety or health hazards. This is best done in writing, stating the nature and location of the hazard and the date it was see and hen passed on to someone in authority in the company or to the company safety officer if there is one. Typical hazards include: Faulty, damaged or badly maintained tools and equipment including electrical equipment. Untidy work areas; Obstructions in passageways and other access routes; Poor lighting in the workplace and passageways; No safety guards on machinery; Slippery floor surfaces; Poor ventilation where dust or fumes are present; No protective clothing; Badly stored materials, including substances hazardous to health (gas cylinders, acids, solvents, etc.) Unsupported excavations and trenches.

Reporting Accidents and Emergencies: All accidents and incidents involving injuries should be reported in order to identify the cause of the accident so that steps can be taken to make sure that it does not happen again. The procedure to follow, including who to inform, depends on the nature and severity of the accident/occurrence. Types of incident are usually classified as: Fatal accident; Major injury; Other injury; Dangerous occurrence; Fire or explosion (other than a dangerous occurrence).

All accidents, no matter how small, must be reported and copies of the reports should be kept for inspection by health and safety officers. A typical example of accident report form is shown in Figure 4.2c.

First Aid Box

These should be highly visible, usually coloured green, and clearly marked with a white cross. They should be fixed where easily accessible. In workshops they are often fitted close to wash basins. On building sites they can be positioned in the site offices or workers canteen or shelter. If you work on your own you should carry one in your vehicle. The contents of a first aid box will vary according to where it is fitted, the number of workers employed and the type of work carried out in that place. A typical first aid box, contains the following: * * * * * * * * * Various sizes of bandages; Various sizes of sterile dressings; Sterile eye pads with bandage; Triangular bandage; Various sizes of gauze; Safety pins; Moist antiseptic cleansing wipes; Cotton wool; Disposable plastic gloves.

First aid boxes should not contain any medicines or pills. First aid boxes should be kept in a clean and tidy condition and anything used should be replaced immediately. An up-to date list of contents should also be kept inside.

4.4 Demonstrate General Safety Habits Introduction: The existence of health and safety laws does not guarantee that accidents will not happen; care and common sense in all activities are essential. It is always important to be safety conscious and adopt a responsible attitude where safety is concerned in the workplace. General safety habits would include the following: Protective Clothing Where ever possible, and regardless of the actual job being done, you must wear some form of special work clothing, overalls or boiler suit either instead of everyday clothes or over the top of them. Working clothes prevent your everyday clothing from becoming contaminated by oils, grease, fluxes or general dust and dirt. They also cover loose clothing, ties etc., which could get caught in machines. At the end of a working day, you can leave the overalls or boiler suit at the workplace, which helps to reduce the amount of dirt and dust being brought into the home.(Figure 4.3)

Figure 4.3 Protective clothing.

Eyes Protection

Safety Goggles Working without eye protection causes eye injuries, since one cannot see ones own eyes, and one is apt more careless of there safety. It is wise to wear clear, unsplinterable goggles when working on a job such as cutting away brick or concrete where a chip could easily fly into, and damage the eyes. (Figure 4.4)

Figure 4.4 Safety goggle.

Welding Goggles

Electric arc welding or gas welding also produces an intensely bright light, which can be very damaging to the eyes if viewed without dark protective screens. The reflected light of arc welding can be irritating to the eyesight.(Figure 4.5)

Figure 4.5 Welding goggle

Safety Helmet

You should always wear a safety helmet or hard hat when working on large building sites . Sometimes this is a legal requirement; if so a safety notice at the site entrance will tell you. Safety helmets are usually made of toughened plastic or steel. They give some protection against injury caused by objects falling from scaffolding, for example, and against injury caused by walking into projections on buildings and scaffolds.(Figure 4.6)

Figure 4.6 Safety helmet.

Hand Gloves

Heavy-duty gloves can give protection against a range of things. There are various types Heavy of gloves. Rubber or plastic gloves give protection against skin irritation when handling materials like cement, oils or grease, or they can give general - protection when handling dirty or contaminated materials. Heavy-duty gloves are used when handling materials with sharp edges, like glass or sheet metals, and can also be used when handling hot materials (Figure 4.7)

Figure 4.7 Hand gloves. Safety Footwear

Many injuries result from not wearing appropriate footwear or in some cases from not wearing any footwear. If a job Involves moving or using heavy equipment or handling

heavy materials, wear some form of boots to protect your feet in case something falls on them. Boots with steel toe caps will provide even more protection. Boots also give some protection against standing on sharp objects. Boots with steel inner soles give even better protection, especially if you are working in an area where there is likely to be a lot of metal turnings or swarf, such as a machine shop, or where there could be discarded timber with protruding nails, as on a building site.(Figure 4.8)

Figure 4.8 Safety boots. Face Protector The simplest form of mask is one that covers the mouth and nose. This will give moderate protection against general dust inhalation, where there is a high concentration of dust or fumes, wear some kind of respirator. In some situations, for example when welding in a confined space, some form of fume extraction system must be installed (Figure 4.9).

Figure 4.9 Face mask. Ear Protectors

Plumbers do not often carry out work that involves or brings them into contact with loud and constant noise, but sometimes, particularly in a workshop, some form of ear protection is necessary. On these occasions, wear either cotton ear plugs or full car protectors.(Figure 4.10)

Figure 4.10: Ear protectors

Screwdrivers A screwdriver is one of the most basic of basic hand tools. It is also the most frequently abused of all hand tools. It is designed for one function only-to drive and remove screws. A screwdriver should not be used as a pry bar, a scraper, a chisel, or a punch. Only use the correct size and type of screw driver when fixing screws. Otherwise the screwdriver could slip and cause an injury. (Figure 4.12)

Figure 4.12: Using correct and incorrect size of screw driver.

Chisels They are tools used for chipping or cutting metals. They will cut any metal that is softer than the material that they are made of. Chisels are made from a good grade of tool steel and have a hardened cutting edge and beveled head. The striking surface of all steel chisels used for cutting masonry should be kept free of excessive splay or mushrooming, which creates a hazard not only because of the sharp edges but also because the steel could splinter upon striking and cause an eye injury (Figure 4.13).

Figure 4.13: Correct and incorrect usage of chisel Hacksaws It may either be adjustable, straight or pistol grip handle types. Its used for cutting steel pipes, copper pipes, plastic pipe, metal plate etc. and the blade should be flexible tungsten steel type, 229mm, 254mm, or 305mm long with 24-25mm teeth. Keep all blades and cutting surfaces sharp and, if possible, covered when not in use. A blunt hacksaw may stick or get jammed, The continued force of the cutting action can then cause it to jump off the material and cut into the user's hand or fingers (Figure 4.14).

Figure 4.14: Correct and incorrect usage of hacksaw Files

Never use files and similar tools without handles. The pointed end of the file that fits into the hand i.e., the tang, could stick into the hand or waist if there is no handle fixed (Fig 4.15).

Figure 4.15: Correct and incorrect usage of file.

Hammers

Wedge the heads of all hammers securely to prevent them from flying off during use and causing injury (Figure 4.16).

Figure 4.16 Correct and incorrect usage of hammer.

4.5 The Layout of an Ideal Plumbing Workshop

An ideal workshop must have a very wide entrance and an exit door. In addition to that, it must have enough ventilation and a walking space between the machines and workbenches. Extractors are also very necessary to extract fumes when welding.

Ventilation

Sheet Metal Folding Machine

Sheet Metal Cutting Machine

Copper Pipe Benders

Mild Steel Pipe Hydraulic Benders

Office

Forge Machines Workshop Benches Welding Machines Workshop Benches Workshop Benches Workshop Benches

Entrance

Workshop Benches Workshop Benches

Power Source
Drilling Machines

Oxy-acetylene Welding Equipment Entrance Exit Tools Store Practical Materials Pipe Vices
The layout of an ideal plumbing workshop Main Entrance

Grinding Machines

Result: 1) The student should be able to appreciate the importance of safety; identify and list as many hazards as he can, suggesting ways of removing the hazards, identify hazards associated with each activity and precautions or protection that could be taken. 2) The student should be able to measure out the Plumbing Workshop and draw it to scale, locating the positions of the major equipment, work benches, materials and tools storage.

Assignment

3)

Measure out the Plumbing Workshop and draw it to scale, locating the positions of the major equipment, work benches, materials and tools storage.

4) 5)

Identify and list as many hazards you can, suggesting ways of removing the hazards. Identify hazards associated with each activity and precautions or protection that could be taken.

6)

What can a plumber do to help prevent accidents when working in workshops?

WEEK 7: PLUMBING TOOLS, EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS FOR PLUMBING WORKS 5.1 Identify Plumbing Tools and Equipment

Introduction

There is a saying known the world over by all craftsmen and women, particularly plumbers: a good workman never blames his tools. All too often, however, tools are blamed for jobs that go wrong or for mistakes that are made. Previously we have seen the safe ways of handling tools correctly. This is usually because the wrong tool has been used for a job or because the tools have not been maintained properly. This chapter will show all the common tools used by the plumber, what they are used for and tips on how to get the best out of them. Most plumbing activities involve the following: Measuring; Cutting Bending Jointing Fixing and installing

Furthermore, most of these activities will be related to the installation and maintenance of pipe work systems and components. This chapter will therefore concentrate on the common tools used for the above activities in relation to pipe work systems. All hand tools used in workshops and on site must be kept and maintained in good working condition. They must also be used correctly, that is, for the purpose for which they were designed. Poor maintenance and incorrect use of tools are common sources of injury. Here are some general guidelines:

The tools used for plumbing work are classified into two groups. These groups are as follows: Soft metal tools Hard metal tools

Soft Metal Tools

The soft metal tools are mostly made of hard wood and examples include: flat mallet, bossing mallet, bossing stick, flat dresser, setting stick, bending stick etc, and are used on sheet metals such as aluminium, copper, zinc, lead, etc.

Hard Metal Tools

The hard metal tools are tools made of steel, example hard stock and dies, mild steel pipe cutter, reamer, hacksaw, Stillson pipe wrench, chain pipe wrench, chain pipe etc these tools are mostly used on hard metal such as mild steel pipe, cast iron pipe, stainless steel pipe, copper pipe etc.

5.2 Select Plumbing Tools and Equipments for Use

Plumbing tools and equipment are many but the plumber will likely always come across and/or have need of some of them regularly. It is important for the plumber to own them for easy and speedy accomplishment of tasks without resorting to hiring. These tools include the following:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Tape rule Pipe cutter Pipe vice Metal divider Compass saw Chain pipe wrench Universal multi-position pipe wrench Hammer Electric drill Centre punch Pliers

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Hack saw Pipe wrench Pipe reamer Files Stock and dice Footprint pipe wrench Adjustable spanner Blow lamps Screw driver Cold chisel Spirit level

5.3 Use the Tools in 5.1 and Portable Power Tools and Equipments

All hand tools used in workshops and on site must be maintained and kept in good working order. They must also be used correctly, that is for the purpose for which they were designed. Poor maintenance and incorrect use of tools are common sources of injury.

Measuring Tools

Tools used for measuring include flexible steel tapes and rigid steel rules.

Tapes, Rules and Squares

Tools used for measuring include flexible steel tapes and rigid steel rules, Most are marked off in both metric and British imperial units. Most countries use the metric system of measurement. This has the base unit of a metre (m) which is split up into centimeters (cm) and millimeters (mm). There are 10 mm in a centimeter and 1000 mm in a metre. It is important to know where the graduation of the tape begins from zero on the tape to avoid error in reading the measurements

Figure 5.1 Flexible steel tapes and folding steel rule When measuring lengths of pipe to be cut, it is important to remember to allow for depth of socket on fittings. Dimensions on drawings or plans are often given from centre line to centre line. On site you must take account of any fittings used (Figure 5.2). When in doubt 'measure twice and cut once.

For checking angles on site or in the workshop, large steel squares or wooden set squares are used. Rough workshop drawings and templates can be marked out using wooden protractors and compasses (Figure 5.3).

Figure 5.3 Drawing tools

Cutting Tools

A variety of cutting tools are used by the plumber to cut and bend the various materials used in plumbing installations. Whether cutting, bending, jointing or forming, one item of equipment that is essential is a vice to hold the material in place in order to accomplish the desired task.

Pipe Vices

Various types may be obtained but the chain type is most useful for the plumber, it is very compact, readily fixed to the bench, and may be carried in the tool bag. (Figure 5.4),

Figure 5.4 various types of pipe vice.

Hacksaws

It may either be adjustable, straight or pistol grip handle types. Its used for cutting steel pipes, copper pipes, plastic pipe, metal plate etc. and the blade should be flexible tungsten steel type, 229mm, 254mm, or 305mm long with 24-25mm teeth. Never use blades that are worn or have teeth missing. When you cut pipes with a hacksaw you will notice that it leaves behind small particles of metal or other material that the pipe is made from. This is called swarf and must be removed with a file, otherwise, if it gets trapped inside the pipe, it could damage the system.(Figure 5.5).

Figure 5.5 Adjustable frame hacksaw and hacksaw cutting steel pipe.

The Power Hacksaw Machine


The power hacksaw machine is a machine tool designed to cut material to a desired length. It functions by drawing a blade containing cutting teeth through the work piece. The power hacksaw is faster and easier than hand cutting action similar to the one used in a hand hacksaw.

Figure 5.6 Power hacksaw machine.

Mild Steel Pipe CuttersThese may be obtained with three cutting wheels or with one cutting wheel and two rollers. The former type is useful for cutting pipe in situ where it is impossible to move the cutter through a full turn. The latter type is preferable for cutting pipe on the bench. Like hacksaws, there are also large and small pipe cutters. The larger ones can have 1, 3 or multiple cutting and are adjustable to cut a range of pipe sizes. The 1- and wheel cutters are normally used on steel pipes with the multiple wheel cutters being used on brittle pipes, such as cast iron and earthenware. Small single-wheel cutters are also available for use on small-bore copper pipe. Pipe cutters have advantage of producing a straight cut every time, unlike the hacksaw, which, if you are not careful can produce a long cut which may cause problem during jointing of the pipe.(Figure 5.7).

Figure 5.7: Cutters for Steel

Multiple-Wheel Cutters

These are used on brittle pipes, such as cast-iron, earthenware or clay drains. Each wheel is connected to a separate link which can be added to or removed depending on the size of pipe to be cut. Because of the number of wheels around the pipe, little turning movement is needed. The main cutting action is achieved by increasing the pressure of the wheels on the pipe by turning a large, 'butterfly' nut on the cutter, which eventually causes the 'brittle pipe to break along the cutting lines. Some multiple wheel cutters have a long handle which acts as a lever reducing the physical effort needed to increase the cutting pressure.(Figure 5.8). At the beginning of a cut, make sure that on the first turn the cut meets all the way round the pipe before increasing the pressure, otherwise spiral 'tracking' may occur where the cutter simply 'thread ' its way along the pipe. Increase the pressure gradually to prevent excessive burrs being created on the cut end of the pipe. Although swarf is not produced when using pipe cutters, their action does cause burrs to be created on both the inside and outside of the cut end of pipe. This is the term given to the slightly raised surface of the material both on the outside and inside of the cut end which causes an increase in the outside diameter and a decrease in the inside diameter. This will cause problems of jointing on the outside and a reduction of flow on the inside, and therefore must be removed.

Figure 5.8 multiple cutters for steel pipe. Pipe Reamers

These are used to remove burr from the inside of pipes, it may turned by a Tommy bar or hand brace. A round file may also be use for removing the burr. (Figure 5.9).

Figure 5.9 Reamers for reaming

Files Files are used for general shaping of metal and the preparation of pipes before jointing, including the removal of burrs and swarf Although files come in all shapes and sizes, the ones most frequently by the plumber are the following:.(Figure 5.9). 1. 2. Double-cut flat files for general work, including removal of external swarf and burrs; Bastard cut half-round file for general work, including removal of internal swarf and burrs; 3. 4. Single-cut round file ('rat-tail') for removing internal swarf Dreadnought half-round for heavy work, including removal of internal and external burrs and swarf; 5. 6. half-round rasp for general work on soft materials, including lead pipe. These files are as a general guide, the other single cut files are used for soft materials, such as copper, with the rougher double-cut files being used on steel. The exception to this is the dreadnought for very rough work on steel and the rasp for use with very soft materials, such as lead.

Using a File

Before using a file you should always check that the handle is secure and that the teeth are free from metal swarf. If necessary use a wire brush to clean the file. As with a hacksaw, files only cut on the forward stroke so make sure you are standing in a comfortable position with

your feet slightly spread to form a sound base and apply firm, even pressure on the forward stroke, releasing the pressure on the backward stroke. Never use a file without a handle. Never run your fingers over the edges of pipes to check the cut.

Figure 5.10 Types of files for preparation pipe.

Hole Cutters and Washer/Tank Cutter These are used for cutting holes in plastic soil pipes, and steel or plastic cisterns and tanks, or for cutting holes in sheet metal (Figure 5.11a). Some can also cut out washers from sheet metal. There are several types available. Most have a central guide or pilot drill with an outer cutting blade which may be fixed or adjustable. They can be turned by hand or by powered drill check the manufacturer's instructions. The washer cutter has an outer and an inner cutting; blade, as well as the pilot drill, to cut annular washers.(Figure 5.11b).

Figure 5.11a: Hole cutter

Figure 5.11b: Washer/tank cutter

Padsaw or Compass Saw In these saws the blade is only fixed at one end, in a wooden or metal handle. They are used for cutting holes in sheet materials and sawing in difficult and restricted positions where a hacksaw will not fit. Blades for cutting a range of materials metal, wood or plastic are available.(Figure 5.12).

Figure 5.12 Compass saw for cutting holes in sheet materials.

5.4 Maintenance of the Tools Used in 5.2 Above

All hand tools used in workshops and on site must be kept and maintained in good working order. They must also be used correctly, that is for the purpose for which they were designed. Poor maintenance and incorrect use of tools are common sources of injury.

5.5 Select Pipes and Tubes Used in Plumbing Work

Introduction

In large modern buildings, service pipes of all kinds are neatly and safely housed in purposemade ducts. The space within the duct is often limited, and it is sometimes quite a job to fit all the pipes in straight length of pipe are easy to deal with, but there is a considerable problem when branch pipes have to thread their way from the straight main pipes to the various appliances they serve. From this it can be seen that it is very important for pipes to be made from materials that are fairly easily to work. As a plumber you will use many different kinds of materials and they will come in a variety of forms. Many will be metals, however, and most of these will be in the form of pipes and fittings, taps and valves. Increasingly, because of their ease of use and relatively low cost, synthetic plastics have also become one of the plumber's favoured materials. Other nonmetallic materials, such as ceramics, are also important in plumbing. This Section will introduce you to all of the common plumbing materials that you are likely to come across, both metals and non-metals. It also includes a section on taps, valves and other low-control fittings.

Materials used for plumbing work As stated earlier, the plumber will often come across a variety of materials as he moves from one job site to the other. The under-listed are the common ones:

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Mild steel pipe Copper pipe Polythene pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) Cast iron pipe Asbestos cement pipe Steel pipe

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Galvanised iron sheet Copper sheet Aluminium sheet Brass sheet Lead sheet Bronze sheet Zinc sheet

8. 9. 19.

Stainless steel pipe Galvanised iron pipe Fitch fibre

17. 18. 22.

Ceramic material Glass fibre Plastic components

20. 21.

Clay pipe Concrete pipe

23. 24.

Solder Soldering flux

5.6 Identify their Sizes, Weights and Gauges

Mild Steel Pipes

These are much stronger and lighter than cast iron pipes and are obtainable in large length s thus requiring fewer joints. For protecting the inside surface a bituminous lining is recommended. Note: All the pipes will be black unless galvanized, in which case they will be zinc coloured. The colour codes above consist of a painted band about 50 mm wide on one end of the pipe. Due to its weight great care must be taken when storing steel tubes and fittings. Flooring and shelving may need to be reinforced. Manufacturer's literature always specifies the weight of tubes in kg per metre for pipe and kg per 100 pieces for fittings. Always add 5% for galvanised pipes and fittings. You can joint mild steel by either welding it or using screwed joints. It is unwise to weld galvanised pipe, however, since this generates poisonous fumes and destroys the protective zinc coating.

Figure 5.13: Mild Steel Pipe Fittings

Steel Pipes

As with the irons described above, steel is a metal composed mainly of iron with the addition of varying amounts of carbon. The amount of carbon added to the iron is governed by its use: the higher the percentage of carbon added, the harder the metal wi1l .be, for most pressure pipework, low carbon or mild steel is mainly used, which contains between 0.1 and 0.3 per cent carbon. This makes it malleable to bend yet hard enough to resist impact damage. There are three grades available, each usually identified with a different coloured band near the end of the pipe. The uses of each are shown below. The difference between each is their wall thickness. Because the outside diameter of the pipe must relate to the thread size of the fittings, the outside diameter of all grades is the same, The difference in the bore of the pipe, It is usual therefore to specify the nominal bore for both pipe and fittings. Steel pipe is available in lengths up to 6 m long, already threaded each end (screwed and socketed), or in random lengths, unthreaded and in sizes 6 mm ( inch) up to 150 mm (6 inch) nominal bore.

Copper Tubes

Copper is one of the earliest metals known to man and also one of the most widespread in use today as pipework for hot and cold water supplies, It is reddish brown in colour and is lined from ores including chalcopyrite and bornite. The relative cost of copper in some countries makes its use prohibitive but its high thermal conductivity, resistance to corrosion and ease of use still makes it one of the most popular plumbing materials. Copper is used for the manufacture of boilers, cisterns, heat exchangers, storage vessels, sheet roofing and pipes suitable for carrying water, soil and waste, and gas and oil supplies. It is both ductile and malleable enabling it to be worked easily as work and bent easily as pipework. It will eventually harden during working but can be annealed by heat by heat treatment to soften it. The use of large diameter copper pipes in plumbing for such things as above ground sanitation has now been replaced by other materials due to the cost, but it is still available as large bore up to 159mm diameter, as well as microbore 6-12mm diameter, and small bore which includes 15,18,22, and 35mm diameter. It is usually manufactured in 3 grades or tables for different uses. There are various ways of jointing copper pipe but most plumbers use either compression joints or capillary joints.

Plastic Pipes

The use of synthetic plastics, derived from oil products, has transformed the plumbing industry since the 1960s. They have replaced many traditional plumbing materials for the manufacture of a wide range of products for both the domestic and industrial markets. These include pipes, joints, valves, gutters, cisterns and some sanitary appliances. Although there are several types available, most share similar properties of lightness, resistance to corrosion, being non-contaminating and flexible. Their relatively low production cost makes most plastics available worldwide. Plastics are categorised as either thermosetting or thermoplastic. Thermosetting plastics are very brittle and cannot be resoftened. They are used mainly for the production of work surfaces, bonding agents and glues. Thermoplastics can be resoftened, which makes them ideal for small bore pipework since they can be bent. They are used for above and below ground drainage and hot and cold water supplies, but you must always check the manufacturers literature about a particular product for details of use and never mix different products together in the same system because the fittings may not match.

While plastics have many advantages over more traditional, plumbing materials, they do have limitations. They have a relatively high rate of expansion, so allowances must be made in pipework installations. Most plastics have low impact strength and can fracture, so care must be taken in siting pipe runs, particularly in public places. They can be affected by ultra-violet rays produced by the sun causing degradation; so the plastic becomes brittle and can fail. Most modern: plastics arc treated to prevent this but in extreme conditions the manufacturer's advice must be sought. The following list gives brief details of the main plastic used by the plumber. They are all thermoplastics. This plastic can be moulded and coloured easily and be used to manufacture baths and clear corrugated roof sheeting.

Polypropylene Pipes.

This plastic is used to produce waste pipes, and traps. It is a rigid material, which makes it useful for the manufacture of fittings for other pipework systems. It is high water temperatures for short periods, making it traps to sanitary appliances. Joints and fittings are either 0' ring push-fit or compression joints.

Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes (PVC or UPVC)

This plastic is manufactured as a tough, flexible or rigid material designed to resist light degradation and atmospheric pollution. With these qualities it 1s extensively used for external soil and rainwater systems. It is jointed using push-fit joints.

Polythene Pipes (PE).

Polythene or polyethylene is generally used in water mains and waste pipes. For water mains it is generally jointed using compression fittings and for waste either compression fittings or '0' ring push-fit joints are used, Bends and offsets can be put on polythene water by the application of heat.

Brass and bronze

Brass is an alloy of between 50 and 70% copper and between 30 and 50% zinc. It varies between dull gold and yellow in colour depending on the amount of zinc. It is a strong ductile metal which is manufactured as pipe and sheet but its main use in plumbing is for the manufacture of pipe fittings and vales. In some situations, the zinc in some brasses may corrode. This is known as dezincification. Wherever possible dezincification resistant brass should always be specified. Bronze is an alloy of copper, tin and zinc. It is similar in colour to brass. The commonest bronze used in plumbing is known as gunmetal and contains 88% copper, 10% tin and 2% zinc. The metal is highly resistant to corrosion and possesses high tensile strength. Its main uses in plumbing are the same as for brass.

Fig. 5.14: A selection of brass fittings and valves

Cast Iron Pipes

Cast iron is iron with a relatively high carbon content that contains manganese, phosphorus, silicon and sulphur. Grey in colour, it is very durable and hard, but also brittle. Because of its fluidity when molten it can be cast into intricate shapes. It is used for the manufacture of baths, boilers, cisterns, pipes and tanks. Cast-iron iron for underground water mains is usually spun cast iron, which is stronger than the vertically cast type used for most other pipes. Cast-iron pipes are used for water mains and both above and below ground drainage. Underground water mains and underground drainage pipes are heavier gauge than above ground drainage pipes, with rainwater pipes being the lightest gauge. Most are available with a bitumen-based coating to protect against corrosion.

The pipes are available in various standard lengths and in diameters from 50mm up 600mm, with either spigot and socket or plain ends. They can be jointed using rigid caulked lead

joints, flexible rubber sealing rings in sockets or compression-type mechanical joints, depending on their use.

Lead Pipes

Lead pipe to B.S. 3602 is easily bent. This means that it can be worked with reasonable case to cope with any difference of fall from the outlet of one appliance to the next, and it can also be manipulated to pan other pipes. It is readily adjustable, so that final connections can be made without putting any damaging strain on the appliance to which it is being fixed. The size and weight of lead service pipe will vary according to the purpose for which it is to be used. The size of lead pipe for waste and soil pipes varies according to the fitting to be used. The size ranges from 32mm to 100mm i.e. (32mm, 338mm, 50mm, 75mm and 100mm). The weight of service pipe depends on the thickness of the pipe.

Asbestos Cement Pipes

These are suitable for water that may corrode iron or steel pipes. If made thick enough they will withstand the same internal water pressure as cast iron pipes, but are brittle and more likely to fracture. Asbestos is produced from magnesium silicate which, when split, enables long thin white fibres to be collected. It is manufactured for use in various forms: asbestos cement pipes, fittings and sheet; resin-bonded asbestos sheets; and sprayed asbestos. It has good resistance to acids, alkalis, neutral salts and organic solvents. It is strong in tension but weak in compression.-The main property of asbestos is its heat and fire resistance. As pipework it is produced in heavy and light grades. Heavy grade only is used for water' mains and drains but both grades can be used for rainwater pipes, gutters and boiler flue pipes depending on the diameter. Screwed compression gland joints with rubber scaling rings are used for water mains and rubber push-fit joints are used for drainage and rainwater pipes. Flue pipe spigot and socket joints arc sealed with fire cement. It is a popular roofing material in many countries. Corrugated roofing sheets normally used because they provide added strength. The other main use of asbestos is to fireproof boiler compartments or materials that may be subject to damage by fire or high temperatures.

Concrete

Concrete is a common building material made by mixing tone sand cement together with water in various quantities. Pre-formed concrete pipes are manufactured, mainly for use in large drainage or sewerage projects. Concrete pipes are available in sizes from 150mm diameter - 300mm diameter. Pipes are manufactured with and spigot ends or with rebated ends. The joints are and made with rubber 'D' rings.

Wrought Iron Pipes

Pure iron is too soft to have any practical uses but wrought iron has a small amount of other elements added to it making it a useful and durable metal that is also malleable and ductile. It is black/grey in colour.

Grade Heavy Medium Light

Colour code Red Blue Brown

Uses Steam and underground pipes Water Gas

Stainless Steel Pipes

There are various types of stainless steel available but stainless steel that contains both chromium and nickel is the most popular and is used for the manufacture of pipes and sanitary appliances for public buildings, it is bright silver in colour. Stainless steel pipe is only available as light gauge in sizes up to 35 mm diameter, It is a durable pipe, resistant to corrosion but difficult to bend due to its thin pipe wall. Most fittings used for copper pipe are suitable for stainless steel although compression fittings are easier and preferable. A Special flux is needed if capillary joints are to be used. Glass fibre.

Glass fibre is also known as glass wool or fibre glass. It is produced from thin fibres of glass which are then broken up and sprayed with a binding agent. It is supplied in flexible roll or quilt form and also in rigid sheets or pipe cover form. Its main use in plumbing is for insulation purposes.

Pitch fibre

This material is made by impregnating wood fibre pulp with coal tar pitch. It is used mainly for rainwater and drainage pipes. It is relatively cheap and suitable for most domestic drainage systems but can be affected by some trade effluents, including oils and organic solvents. Continuous hot discharges can also be a problem. It is jointed using push-fit rubber ring joints or taper joints which arc driven on using a lump hammer and a wooden striking plate or "jolly' . Do not drive taper joints on too tightly otherwise the joint may split. Also, do not use any jointing compounds, lubricants or adhesives.

Ceramics

The materials used for sanitary appliances must be durable and easily cleaned and have nonabsorbent surface. The strength and density of these appliances depends on the clay mixture from which they are made and the temperatures at which they are fixed. The following ceramic appliances are used: These are basically vitrified clay products made from a mixture of minerals, usually quartz sand and a clay binder, hydrated aluminium silicate with impurities, such as chalk, and sulphate plasticised with water. The mixture is shaped, dried to remove water, then fired to produce a glass-like material that is hard, impervious and resistant to most acids and alkalis. In plumbing, ceramics are used mainly for Sanitary appliances and underground drainage, pipes. For sanitary appliances a smooth glaze needs to be applied. This glaze need to be carefully matched to the properties of the clay used otherwise cracking or crazing may occur.

Glazed fireclay

This material is very strong and appliance such as skins, urinals and WC pans made from glazed fireclay are often installed in factories and schools where they will withstand rough usage. The material is porous below the glazing and therefore, if the glazing is chipped, the material will absorb water.

Result: The student should be able to identify the plumbing material, their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages and where they are best suited for use in plumbing.

Assignment 1) 2) 3) Why are plastic materials popularly used in plumbing work throughout the world? How does a stop tap prevent back-siphonage of water into the man supply? Which tap, valve or cock should be fitted on a low-pressure cold water pipeline and why? 4) What is the difference between the valve or jumpers in hot and cold water draw-off taps? 5) What flow control device would create water hammer if fitted on a cold water main pipeline? 6) Describe the operation of a Portsmouth ball valve.

WEEK 8: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES 6.1 Method of Manipulation and Jointing of Mild Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Introduction Joints, bends or changes in direction of pipe work can be done using special purpose fittings and joints, but this can work out to be costly on big installations where you need a lot of fittings and some bends cannot be made-up easily using available fittings. In these cases you will have to bend the pipe yourself. The method chosen will be governed by the size and type of pipe used. Some bends on steel, copper and certain types of plastics, for example, can be done by heating. In most situations, however, the easiest way is to use a machine. Each material slated for bending has its procedure and precautions to be observed for such purpose.

6.2 Machine Bending to Mild Steel Pipe

The easiest and most popular method of bending steel pipe is to use hydraulic pipe bender. There are several types available but the simplest is the hydraulic press bender which can bend pipes from 15mm diameter up to 100mm diameter. It consists of a hydraulic ram on which different sizes of former can be put to bend the pipe against a frame containing adjustable pins and stops.

Figure 6.1: Hydraulic Press Bender Procedure of Using a Hydraulic Press-Bender to Make a 90 Bend

To make a 90 bend from a fixed point, say 800 mm from the end of the pipe to the centre line of a bracket fixed on a wall.

Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Hydraulic press bender Try-square Scriber Pipe reamer File Pipe cutter

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Measuring tape rule Sprit level Hack saw Pipe vice Metal divider Straight edge

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. Mild steel pipe.

Any one of the following pipes can be bent using the procedure.

Galvanized iron pipe Steel pipe

Produce a working drawing or template.

Fig. 6.2: Marking out for a 900 bend from the working drawing Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. Measure and cut the required length Mark the pipe 800 mm from the end. Deduct from this the diameter of the pipe, and make a fresh mark on the pipe, for example if you are using 35 mm diameter pipe, your new mark should be 800 minus

35, or 765mm from the end. This will now be the centre of the bend, to allow for the 'gain' in pipe length caused by a bend. 4. Lift up the top bar of the frame on the machine and put the stops and pins in the correct position (35 mm) and put sand, the 35 mm former on the end of the hydraulic ram. Lower the bar on to the top of the pins. 5. Position the pipe in the machine against the stops and with the centre line of the former in line with your mark on the pipe. Gently pump the ram until it locates against the pipe in the correct position and the pipe is held secure. The bleed valve on the hydraulic cylinder must be in the closed position otherwise it will not build up pressure to pump. 6. Pump the machine carefully until the bend is almost at 90, and check this with a setsquare or, template, To allow for " spring-back, you must bend the pipe a few degrees beyond 90, When the pressure is removed it will spring back to the desired angle. 7. When you are happy that the bend is right, making the allowances mentioned, open the valve on the machine body to release the pressure and slowly pump the handle which will pull back the ram. The former will probably be jammed on the pipe, but do not remove it yet. 8. Check with a set-square or working drawing that the angle is correct, then remove the former by holding it with one hand and striking the end of the pipe on a piece of wood on the f1oor; this should loosen it. If it needs bending more, simply return it to the machine and increase the bend. If you have bent it too much, it is possible to open the bend by a couple of degrees by securing one leg of the bend in a vice and carefully applying leverage to the other leg to pull it back slightly. This is not recommended if it needs pulling back much over 5, since it will deform the pipe wall.

6.3 Copper Pipe Machine Bending

Several machines are available for bending light gauge copper pipes and most of them work on the same principle. One of the most popular for general site and workshop use is the floor mounted bender. This is suitable for all sizes up to and including 35mm.

Using a Floor-Mounted Bending Machine to Make a 90 Bend

Floor-mounted copper pipe bending machine

Making offset

Fig. 6.3: Use of a floor-mounted copper pipe bending machine Tools Required: 1. Measuring tape. 2. Metal divider. 3. File. 4. Copper pipe cutter. 5 Sprit level 6. Pipe vice 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Copper pipe bender Try-Square. Hacksaw. Reamer. Scriber Straight edge

Materials Required: 1. Light gauge copper pipe.

Produce a working drawing or template.

Fig. 6.4 Marking the centre of the bend from the working drawing

Operational Steps

1. 2.

Measure and cut the required length. Mark off on the pipe the centre of the bend (y). This will usually be from a fixed point. You can also use the inside or outside of the bend but make sure you position the pipe correctly against the former.

3.

Select the correct size of former and place it in the machine using the centre pin to secure it.

4.

Place the pipe in the machine so that the fixed point leg of the pipe is held against the pipe stop and the other leg is secure in the former.

5.

Select the correct size of guide and place it in position on the pipe and against the former as shown and bring the roller down on to the guide using the bending handle.

6.

Adjust the pipe until the centre (s) is square with the centre of the former.

7. 8.

Adjust the roller until the pressure indicator is parallel with the pipe, Bend the pipe using the lever handle, check for square or 90 using a set-square, then bend a couple of degrees tighter to allow for spring-back,

. Result: The student should be able to use the equipment for bending the pipes given and bearing in mind the following points: Always make sure the roller guide is parallel and feels adequately tight on the guide (not too tight and not slack) as a slack one will make the pipe ripple and kink a too tight one will result in a throating on the pipe.

Assignments 7) 8) State the ten important tools required when using a hydraulic pipe bender. Describe the step by step process of working out the heat length for a 900 bend on a piece of 25mm diameter steel pipe.

WEEK 9: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD) 6.4 Heat Bending to Mild Steel Pipe, Copper Pipe and Plastic Pipe Introduction Previously we had seen the pipes requiring machine bending and how to use them with their precautions. We shall be introduced to those ones that heat treatment can be used on them, such as steel, copper, plastic pipes, etc. Steel pipe, copper pipe and plastic pipe can also be bent by loading the pipe with dry sand, heating it up in a furnace or with a large flame from a blowlamp or oxy-acetylene torch, then bending it round a former or between steel pins on a bending table.

Fig. 6.5: Steel pins and bending table

Fig. 6.5: A simple jig for forming 900 bends

Fig. 6.6: Forming a hot air jet to heat plastic pipes.

Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Forging machine Bending table Measuring tape Reamer Scriber or pencil Protective goggles

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Blow lamps Sand compressor Hack saw/pipe cutter Sprit level Hand gloves Pipe vice

Materials Required Any one of the following pipes can be bent using the procedure

1. 2. 3. 4.

Mild steel pipe Polythene pipe Galvanized iron pipe Brass pipe

5. 6. 7. 8.

Copper pipe PVC pipe Steel pipe Stainless steel

Produce a working drawing or template.

Fig. 6.7: Marking the heat length for a 900 bend from the Working drawing Operational Steps

1. 2.

Measure and cut the required length of pipe. Get fine sand which is clean and dry with no debris or large particles in it.

3. 4.

A cap or wooden plug must be put over one end of the pipe. The sand must then be poured carefully into the pipe, in stages, compacting it by tapping the pipe after each pour.

5. 6 7

When the pipe is almost full place a rag in the end, then drive a tapered wooden plug into the end to compact the sand and hold it in position. Mark the lengths of the bend on the pipe and apply heat to it. Bend the pipe to the required angle and test with try-square or the working drawing.

Points to Remember 1. 2. When copper pipe is heated and allow to cool down the pipe will remain soft (annealing), therefore the pipe can be bent when it cools down. Purpose-made sand compressors, which just fit into the end of the pipe and are tightened up, are also available for this purpose rubber sleeve compressed against pipe wall. The most important thing to do when heat bending is to calculate and mark off accurately on the pipe the actual section of pipe to be heated; this is known as the heat length. If you heat too much pipe the radius will be too big; if you heat too little the radius will be too small and the pipe may kink.

3.

4.

Fig. 6.8 Sand Compressor Calculating the heat length for a 900 bend

Mark off on the pipe the distance from a fixed point, say 5001 mm to the centre of the bend. This is the centre line of the projected bent leg of the pipe. This point will also be the end of the actual travel or length of the bend.

For a 90 bend the actual length or travel of the bend be a quarter of the circumference of a circle made to the radius of the given end. Unless a radius is specified. Use a radius equal to 4 times the outside diameter of the pipe to be bent. If we assume the pipe is 28 mm, the radius will be 4 x 28, which is 112 mm. If the travel or length of bend is equal to a quarter of the circumference of a circle having a radius of 12mm the heat length will be: The circumference of the circle divided by a quarter or D, this will be 2 x 112 x 3.142 which is 181mm, the calculated heat length, then is 181mm. Steel pipe can also bent by loading the pipe with dry sand, bearing it up in a furnace or with a large flame from a blowlamp or oxyacetylene torch, then bending it round a former or between steel pins on a bending table. From the centre line of the bend already marked out on the pipe (500mm), measure back towards the fixed point 181mm, the calculated heat length, and mark off on the pipe. This marks the position of the start of the bend.

Fig. 6.9: Marking out the heat length on a pipe

6.5 Springs Bending to Copper Pipes, Lead Pipes and Plastics Pipes Introduction

These are for use with small-bore light gauge copper pipes, lead waste pipes and certain types of thermoplastic (Figs. 6.10-6.13). They are easy to use and can fit into a tool box or bag. Unlike bending machines which support the outside of the pipe during bending to prevent pipe deformation, most bending springs support the inside of the pipe although external springs are available. Separate sized springs are needed for different sizes of pipe, 15 and 22mm being the commonest sizes bent using this method.

Fig. 6.10 Bending springs

Fig. 6.11 Bending spring showing direction of winding

Fig. 6.12: A simple jig for forming 900 bends pipes

Fig. 6.13: Forming a hot air jet to heat plastic

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Blow lamps Tung Sprit level Metal divider Bending spring Pipe cutter Pipe vice 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Jig for bending of pipes Scriber Tri-square Hack-saw Measuring tape rule Pipe reamer Straight edge

Materials Required Any one of the following pipes can be bent using the procedure.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) Polythene pipe Copper pipe Lead pipe.

Produce a working drawing or template.

Fig. 6.14: Marking the heat length for a 900 bend from the Working drawing

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measure and cut the required length Mark the length of the bend on the pipe and heat it. Simply insert the spring in the pipe to the position where you want to bend. Use the steel pins bending table to bend the pipe. When copper pipe is heated and allow to cool down the pipe will remain soft (annealing), therefore you can use your knee to bend the pipe when it cools down

6.

Test with the working drawing or try- square.

Result: The student should be able to carry out spring bending without difficulty with the operational steps given and be conscious of the following point:

1.

In the case of copper pipe the pipe can be bent when it cools down therefore you can support yourself against a wall and carefully pull the bend using your knee as a

former. 2. It is a quick and easy way to make bends and offsets in small-bore copper pipe on small jobs without the fuss of detailed setting out, for more accurate work

you can set out the bends using the same procedure as that shown for heat bending. 3. Copper pipe above 22mm will need annealing before using a spring. The method of marking out the heat length is exactly the same. The only difference is that the pipe will remain soft even when cooled, so it is bent cold. Others you only need to raised the temperature of the pipes to make them soft before bending.

Assignments 9) 10) Why do you allow for spring-back when using a bending machine? Differentiate between heat bending and spring bending used on light gauge copper pipe.

WEEK 10: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD) 6.6 Joints on Mild Steel, Copper and Plastic Pipes

Introduction: Pipes are made to standard lengths and diameters but the reality on ground does not allow for one pipe length or the same diameter. Distances usually are more than one pipe length and hence pipes have to be connected to each other to achieve the desired result; sometimes we may need to reduce the diameter of flow to increase the pressure, requiring a jointing at that point. In this section we shall identify the joints in use for which pipes and see how these joints are produced along with the necessary precautions to be observed.

6.7 Joints on Mild Steel Pipes

Screwed Joint

Thread or screwed joints are formed on the ends of the pipes to be jointed, one site or in the workshop, using stocks and dies. These are then screwed into proprietary fittings. There are various types of thread but the British Standard Pipe Thread (BSPT) is widely used. The formed thread is tapered but the thread in the fittings is parallel; this ensures a good joint when they are screwed together. The front of the dies will only cut an incomplete tread to enable the dies to mount the pipe at the start.

Fig. 6.15: Parallel thread fitting on to a taper thread

Tools Required

1.

Measuring tape rule

8.

Scriber

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Hack saw Pipe reamer Oil can Chain pipe vice Chain pipe wrench File

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14

Pipe cutter Stock and dice Pipe vice Stilton pipe wrench Wire brush Try-square

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4.

Mild steel pipe Galvanized iron pipe Steel pipe Mild steel pipe fittings

5 6 7 8

Read lead haematite compound. Hemp White tapes. Putty

Operational Steps 1. 2. Measure the required length of pipe. Cut the length required (use reamer to ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). 3. 4. 5. Square the end of the pipe Set stock and dies to the size of the pipe. Form threads on the ends of the pipes to be joined, on site or in the workshop using stock and dies. 6. The front of the dies will only cut an incomplete thread to enable the dies to mount the pipe at the start. 7. 8. As the dies move along, the complete thread is cut by the rest of the die. Before screwing the joints on the pipe, jointing tape or hemp and paste should be applied to the thread. 9. Using a pipe wrench screw the pipe into the fitting or vice-versa.

Result and Points to Remember The student should be able to identify the pipe and the type of threading required and carry out the threading bearing the following points in mind: 1. For low pressure hot water, cold water and gas pipelines, white linseed oil compound should be used with hemp.

2. 3.

For oil and petrol pipelines, red lead haematite compound should be used with hemp. Steam pipelines should be jointed with non-setting black graphite compound but no hemp because it may burn out due to high temperature.

4.

Make sure that the washout section of thread remains outside the fitting when the joint is made otherwise it may result in a leak.

5.

Hemp is wrapped round the thread in a clockwise manner, and graphic, red lead paint or a proprietor jointing paste is applied by means of a brush.

6.

The thread is then screwed into the fitting or vice-verse and is tightened up by means of a still son pipe wrench.

7.

The hemp and the jointing material enter threads and ensure a sound joint (hemp) should not be used for jointing steam pipes as burns away leaving a leaky joint.

Flanged Joint This is an excellent method of jointing large diameter pipe both in boiler houses where easy dismantling is required and for high pressure steam or water pipes. The flanged may be of cast of malleable iron or steel and may be screwed to the ends of the pipe. The usually rings is made from corrugated brass known as the Tailor ring.

Fig. 6.16: Flanged Joints Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Measuring tape rule Hack saw Pipe reamer Oil can Chain pipe vice Chain pipe wrench

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Scriber Pipe cutter Stock and dice Pipe vice Stilton pipe wrench Wire brush

7. 8.

File Acetylene welding equipments

15 16.

Try-square Electric welding machine

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4.

Mild steel pipe Steel pipe Cast iron pipe Hemp

5. 6. 7. 8.

Galvanized iron pipe Mild steel pipe fittings Red lead haematite compound Putty

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4.

Measure the required length of pipe. Cut the length required. (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square the end of the pipe In the case of smaller diameter pipes, thread the ends of the pipe and screw the flanges to them.

5. 6. 7. 8.

With larger diameter pipes weld the flanges to the ends of the pipes. Bring the two ends having the flanges together. Put the jointing ring or gasket between the flanges. Holes around each flange must be aligned to enable bolt to pass through for tightening them together.

9.

Use spanners to tight the bolts and nuts together to make it a water tight joint.

Oxy-Acetylene Welded Joint and Electric Welded-Joint

This means the true welding of pipes, i.e. the filler rod or electrode and pipes are of the same material both are melted together to form a weld. This method of jointing is usually used on pipe 32mm in diameter and over, but it is difficult to make alterations or additions when the installation is complete. With a skilled welder, the stronger then the pipe and the operation is both cheaper and quicker than screwed jointing. In making the joint it is essential that good penetration is made and that weld is given some reinforcement by building up the bead above the outside of the pipe.

Oxy-Acetylene Welding

Fig. 6.17 Oxy-acetylene welding

Tools Required 1. Measuring tool equipment. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Welding goggle Pipe cutter Hack saw Hammer Scriber Try-square 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Hand glove Reamer Pipe vice Pliers Self grip pliers Sprit level 8. Oxygen and acetylene welding

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Mild steel pipe Copper pipe Stainless steel pipe Cast iron pipe Pipes fittings 6 7 8. 9. 10 Galvanized iron pipe Steel pipe Welding flux Aluminium pipe Welding rods

Operational Steps 1. 2. Measure the required length of pipe. Cut the length required. (Use reamer to ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter).

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Square the end of the pipe. Put the ends of the two pipes together and weld using oxy-acetylene welding. In the case of flanges, weld the flanges to both ends of the pipes, Put the two ends having the flanges together. Put the jointing ring or gasket between the flanges. Holes around each flange must be aligned to enable bolt to pass through for tightening them together.

9.

Use spanners to tight the bolts and nuts together to make it a water tight joint.

Electric Welding

Fig. 6.18: Tinted welding goggles Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4 9 10 11 12

Measuring tape rule. Hand welding shield Head welding shield Reamer Pipe vice Pliers Self grip pliers Try-square

5. 6. 7. 8. 13 14. 15. 16.

Electric welding machine. Hand glove Pipe cutter Hack saw Hammer Scriber Chipping hammer Sprit level

Materials Required

1. 2. 3.

Mild steel pipe Steel pipe Pipes fittings

4. 5. 6.

Galvanized iron pipe Cast iron pipe Electrodes

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Measure the required length of pipe. Cut the length required (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square the end of the pipe. Weld the ends of the two pipes together using electric welding machine. In the case of flanged joint weld the flanges to both ends of the pipes. Put the two ends having the flanges together. Put the jointing ring or gasket between the flanges.

8. 9.

Holes around each flange must be aligned to enable bolt to pass through for tightening them together. Use spanners to tight the bolts and nuts together to make it a water tight joint.

Result: The student should be able to carry out the tasks of making the following joints: 1. The srewed joint; 2. The flanged joint; 3. Oxy-Acetylene (gas) joint; 4. The electric weld joint with all the precautions stated being borne in their minds.

Assignment 1) On a screw joint between steel pipes, where would you find the washout thread and why should it be found there? 2) Which type of steel pipe is the most suitable for carrying cold water supplies and why?

WEEK 11: PLUMBING MATERIALS FOR VARIOUS JOBS PURPOSES (CONTD)

6.7 Joints on Copper Pipes Introduction

Copper is one of the earliest metals known to man and also one of the most widespread in use today as pipe work for hot and cold water supplies. It is reddish brown in colour and is obtained from ores including chalcopyrite and bornite. The relative cost of copper in some countries makes its use prohibitive but its high thermal conductivity, resistance to corrosion and ease of use still makes it one of the most popular plumbing materials. Copper is used for the manufacture of boilers, cisterns, heat exchangers, storage vessels, sheet roofing and pipes suitable for carrying water, soil and waste, and gas and oil supplies. It is both ductile and malleable enabling it to be worked easily as sheet work and bent easily as pipe work. It will eventually harden during working but can be annealed by heat treatment to soften it.

Manipulative Compression Joint

Fig. 6.19: Compression fittings for copper pipe

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measuring tape Hack saw Reamer Scriber Pipe vice 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Copper pipe cutter Copper pipe expander File Adjustable spanners Open spanner

Materials Required 1. 2. 3 Copper pipe Copper compression fitting (manipulative). Jointing paste

Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Measuring the required length of pipe. Cut the length required (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square up the edge of the pipe Place the nut over the end of the pipe Manipulate the pipe end by using a special beading tool (swaging tool) and hammer. The cone shaped end of the fitting is then smeared with jointing paste and placed inside the opened end of the pipe. 7. 8. The nut is tightened on to the thread of the fitting body to form a secure joint. You can use an open spanner or adjustable spanner to tighten the nut.

Non- Manipulative Compression Joint:

Fig. 6.20: Compression fitting for copper pipe Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Measuring tape Hack saw File Adjustable spanners Open spanner

6. 7. 8. 9.

Copper pipe cutter Reamer Scriber Pipe vice

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4

Light gauge copper pipe Copper compression fitting (non-manipulative) Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) Jointing paste

Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square up the end of the pipe. Place the nut over the end of the pipe. Place the soft copper ring or cone to the end of the pipe. Jointing paste to be smeared over the cone. Insert the pipe to the fitting

8.

You can use an open spanner or adjustable spanner to tighten the nut.

Capillary Joints There are three types of capillary joints and they are: The end-feed fitting. The integral solder ring or Yorkshire fitting and; The self-formed swaged socket joint.

All rely on the capillary action of molten solder to form a sound bond between the outside of the pipe and the inside of the fitting.

Integral solder ring fitting

End-feed capillary fitting

Self-formed socket joint

Fig. 6.21: Capillary joints for copper pipe

Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Measuring tape Hack saw File Pipe vice Forge machine Pliers

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12

Copper pipe cutter Reamer Scriber Blow lamp Hand gloves Wire brush

Materials Required

1. 2.

Copper pipe Copper capillary fittings (end-feed fitting, integral solder ring fitting and Yorkshire fitting)

3 4

Solder Soldering flux

Integral Solder Ring Fitting

Fig. 6.22: Integral solder ring fitting

Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square up the end of the pipe. Both the outside of the pipe and inside of the fitting must be cleaned with wire wool, purpose made wire brush or sand paper. 5. The cleaned surface should be smeared with a suitable flux to prevent oxidation and to assist the solder to run. 6. Pipe should be inserted into the socket of the fitting and wipe off any surplus flux with a cloth. 7. Using Yorkshire fitting heat up the joint with a blowlamp until you see the solder run around the edge of the fitting and allow to cool for a few minutes.

End-feed Capillary Fitting

Fig. 6.23: End-feed capillary fitting

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4.

Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square up the end of the pipe. Both the outside of the pipe and inside of the fitting must be cleaned with wire wool, purpose made wire brush or sand paper.

5.

The cleaned surface should be smeared with a suitable flux to prevent oxidation and to assist the solder to run.

6.

Pipe should be inserted into the socket of the fitting and wipe off any surplus flux with a cloth.

7.

Using end-feed fittings you will have to feed soft-solder on to the edge of the fitting from a coil when joint is hot enough.

8. 9.

Solder will be drawn up into the joint by capillary action to form joint. Allow to cool for a few minutes.

Point to Remember.

Length of solder off the coil equal to the diameter of the pipe should be enough, any more is likely to end up on the floor around the pipe or inside the pipe where it may cause problems in the system.

Self-formed Sockets

Fig. 6.24: Self-formed socket joint

Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. (Ream the end of the pipe after using pipe cutter). Square up the end of the pipe. Expand the one end of the tube to form a socket end. Both the outside of the pipe and inside of the socket must be cleaned with wire wool, purpose made wire brush or sand paper. 6. The cleaned surface should be smeared with a suitable flux to prevent oxidation and to assist the solder to run. 7. Pipe should be inserted into the socket end of the fitting and wipe off any surplus flux with a cloth. 8. Using end-feed fittings you will have to feed soft-solder on to the edge of the fitting from a coil when joint is hot enough. 9. 10. Solder will be drawn up into the joint by capillary action to form joint. Length of solder off the coil equal to the diameter of the pipe should be enough, any more is likely to end up on the floor around the pipe or inside the pipe where it may cause problems in the system. 6.8 Joints on Plastic Pipe The use of synthetic plastics, derived from oil products, has transformed the plumbing industry since the 1960s. They have replaced many traditional plumbing materials for the manufacture of a wide range of products for both the domestic and industrial markets. These include pipes, joints, valve, gutters, cisterns and some san itary appliances. Although there

are several types available, most share similar properties of lightness, resistance to corrosion, being non-contaminating and flexible. Their relatively low production cost makes most plastics available worldwide.

Push Fit Joint on Plastic Pipe

Fig. 6.25:Compression fitting use on plastic pipes

Tools Required

1. 2. 3.

Measuring tape Hack saw Scriber

4. 5. 6.

Square File Pipe vice

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4.

Polythene pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) O ring push-fit fitting Grease

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. Square up the end of the pipe. Put the rubber ring into the groove of the fitting. Apply grease to the inner part of the fitting and the outer part of the pipe. Push the pipe into the fitting to reach the pipe stopper.

Solvent Cement Joint on Plastic Pipe

Fig. 6.26

Tools Required

1. 2. 3.

Measuring tape Hack saw Scriber

4. 5. 6.

Square File Pipe vice

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4.

Polythene pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) Plastic fitting Solvent cement gum

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4.

Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. Square up the end of the pipe. Apply the solvent cement gum to the inner part of the fitting and the outer part of the pipe.

5.

Put the pipe into the fitting and allow the gum to set.

Compression joints on plastic pipes

Fig. 6.27: Compression fitting use on plastic pipes

Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 4.

Measuring tape Hack saw Scriber Pipe vice

5. 6. 7. 8.

Square File Adjustable spanners Open spanner

Materials Required

1. 2. 3.

Polythene pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe (PVC) Copper compression fitting (non-manipulative)

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Measure the length of pipe required. Cut the pipe length required. Square up the end of the pipe. Place the nut over the end of the pipe. Place the soft copper ring or cone to the end of the pipe. Jointing paste to be smeared over the cone. Insert the of the pipe to the fitting Tightened the nut on to the body of the fitting.

Result:

The student should be able to identify where to use any of the following in copper jointing: Manipulative compression jointing; Non-manipulative compression jointing; Capillary jointing; Integral soldering ring fitting; End-feed capillary fitting; Self-formed sockets and proceed to produce such joints.

The student should also be able to identify the following joints in plastics and when and how to apply them:

Push-fit joint; Solvent cement joint; and Compression joint with the necessary precautions needed for a good and safe job.

Assignment

1) 2)

Brass is a mixture of two metals list and explain Explain why plastic are popularly used as plumbing materials throughout the world.

WEEK 12: FIX PLUMBING SANITARY APPLIANCES IN APPROPRIATE POSITIONS

7.1 Fixing and Installation of Sanitary Appliances

Introduction

The Building Regulations (1976) give the following list of provisions for the entry and ventilation of sanitary accommodation. In this regulation, sanitary accommodation means a room or space constructed for use in connection with a building and which contains watercloset fittings or urinal fittings, whether or not it also contains other sanitary or lavatory fittings. Provided that if any such room or space contains a cubicle or cubicles so constructed as to allow free circulation of air throughout the room or space, then this regulation shall be treated as applying to the room or space as a whole and not to the cubicle or cubicles separately. No sanitary accommodation shall open directly into: A habitable room, unless the room is used solely or sleeping or dressing purposes. A room used for kitchen or scullery purposes A room in which any person is habitually employed in any manufacture, trade or business.

7.2 Installation and Fixing of Soil Appliances

Water Closets

These are designed to receive excreta and to flush it into a drainage system. There are several types but all must have smooth and easily cleaned surfaces and be made in one-piece wherever possible, with an integral water trap with a 50mm minimum seal. They are made from glazed fireclay, vitreous china or stainless steel and must be connected to a manual flushing cistern which may be fitted at low or high closet (WC). Flushing cisterns can be made from ceramic materials or plastics. Hardwood or plastic seats to make WC use more comfortable are usually fitted, with rear brass or chromed pillar hinges. Open-fronted seats are available to reduce soiling in public buildings such as schools.

Low Level Water Closets with Wash Down Pan

Flushing rim
WC seal Putty and hemp outlet joint to brass collar for lead and cast iron soil pipe Rubber push-fit connector for plastic soil pipes

Fig. 7.1 Wash-down water closet

Fig. 7.2: Flush pipe connectors

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hack saw Reamer Measuring tapes Sprit level Hand drilling machine Screw driver Hammer 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Heavy duty multiple cutter File Chain pipe vice Caulking tools Rawl drill Cold chisel Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Simple rubber push-fit connectors Hemp Cement Ceramic WC pan Flushing cistern Cast iron pipes 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Putty Sand Tarred gasket Flush pipe Brass screws Asbestos pipe

7. 8. 9.

Clay pipe Copper pipe Plastic plug

16. 17. 18.

Mild steel pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe Ribbed plug

Operational Steps 1. 2. Mark the position of the flushing cistern. Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Insert the plug to the wall. Pass the screw through the item to be fixed and into the plug. Screw home the bracket for the WC cistern until tight. Place the WC cistern on the bracket and screw home the cistern to the wall. Place the WC on the floor Align the WC flush pipe connectors with the flush pipe of the cistern. Fix the WC to the floor by using the screw and plastic plugs. Connect the flush pipe from the flush cistern to the WC pan. Connect water supply pipe to the flushing cistern. Connect the waste outlet.

Coupled Water Closet with Siphonic Action Pan These rely on siphonic action to empty the contents of the pan; the flushing water is used to clean the pan and refill the trap seal. They are quieter in operation than wash-down pans but can block more easily with constant and rough use. There are two main types, the double-trap or the single-trap reduced outlet.

Fig. 7.3: Double-trap Siphonic WC pan

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Hack saw Reamer Measuring tapes Sprit level Hand drilling machine Screw driver Hammer 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Heavy duty multiple cutter File Chain pipe vice Caulking tools Rawl drill Cold chisel Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Simple rubber push-fit connectors Hemp Cement Ceramic WC pan Brass screws 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Putty Sand Tarred gasket Flushing cistern Cast iron pipes

6.

Asbestos pipe

13.

Clay pipe

7.

Mild steel pipe

14.

Copper pipe

15. 16.

Polyvinyl chloride pipe Plastic plug

17. 18.

Polythene pipe Ribbed plug

Operational Steps

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Place the WC pan on the floor Fix the WC pan to the floor by using the screw and plastic plugs. Place the flushing cistern on the WC pan. Align the holes to connect the cistern and WC pump. Insert bolt to the align holes. Tie the bolt and nuts to connect the WC pan and the flush cistern. Connect water supply pipe to the flushing cistern. Connect the waste outlet.

High Level WC with Squatting Pan

Fig. 7.4: Squatting WC trap

Fig. 7.5: Side section showing

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 7. 8. 9. 10. Hack saw Reamer Measuring tapes Sprit level Hand drilling machine Screw driver Hammer 4. 5. 6. 11. 12. 13. 14. Heavy duty multiple cutter File Chain pipe vice Caulking tools Rawl drill Cold chisel Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Simple rubber push-fit connectors Hemp Cement Ceramic WC pan Flushing cistern Cast iron pipes Clay pipe Copper pipe Plastic plug 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17 18. Putty Sand Tarred gasket Flush pipe Brass screws Asbestos pipe Mild steel pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe Ribbed plug

Operational Step 1. 2. Mark the position of the flushing cistern. Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Insert the plug to the wall. Pass the screw through the item to be fixed and into the plug. Screw home the bracket for the WC cistern until tight. Place the WC cistern on the bracket and screw home the cistern to the wall. Place the WC pan in position to align flush pipe connector and the cistern. Mount the WC pan to the floor having the outlet connection to the trap. Connect water supply pipe to the flushing cistern. Connect the waste outlet.

Urinals

These can be slab, stall or bowl types. They are flushed every 20 minutes, by means of an automatic flushing cistern at the rate of 4.5 litres per stall or bowl. Slab types require a flush of a 4.5 litre per 600mm of slab length. In order to conserve water, the valve supplying the automatic flushing cistern may be a hydraulically operated type, so that the valve is shut off automatically during the hours when the building is unoccupied. Local water authorities usually require water supply automatic flushing cistern to be metered. Channels required for the stall and slab type urinals should be laid to falls and it is usually practice to limit the number of stalls, or the equivalent length of slab, to eight. Surrounding surfaces should be of easy-clean, impervious materials such as tiles or terrazzo. Channel outlets must be trapped and adequate means of access provided by means of a hinged domical grating. Unless a suspended ceiling is provided for services, on upper floors, the depth of the trap accommodation is often provided by laying the channels about 150mm above the floor level on which the urinals fitted.

Stall Urinals

Stall urinals are made in single units complete with a floor channel and have sides which provide some privacy. They can be built up into ranges by bedding them together and covering the joints with a capping piece. They are usually made from glazed fireclay or stoneware (fig. 7.6).
Automatic flushing cistern

pipe Sparge

Fig. 7.6: Stall urinals Slab Urinals Slab urinals can also be built up to any required length but they do not generally have the side pieces except at the ends of the range. Traditional materials are glazed fireclay or stoneware. The floor channel is built up separately and must be made first by laying each piece perfectly level; the fall is in the channel itself so each piece is numbered in sequence at the factory. Once positioned, a weak grout of sand and cement must be poured behind the slabs.

Fig. 7.7: Slab urinals

Bowl Urinals

Bowl urinals are the easiest type of urinal to install, consisting of a wall-mounted bowl with optional separate screens if fitted in ranges. They are available in glazed fireclay, stoneware, vitreous china or stainless steel. Another type of urinal, even cheaper and easier to install than a range of bowl urinals, is the stainless steel trough urinal. Fitted at the same height as bowl urinals, these are available in 4m long one-piece sections.

Fig. 7.8 Bowl urinal

Tools Required (Stall, Slab and Bowl Urinals)

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers Open spanner Sprit level

9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner Scriber

Materials Required (Stall, Slab and Bowl Urinals)

1. 2. 3. 7. 8.

Urinals (slab, stall and bowl) Copper pipe Pipe fittings Cast iron pipes Clay pipe

4. 5. 6. 9. 10.

Mild steel pipe Polyvinyl chloride pipe PVC Brass screws Asbestos pipe Polythene pipe

Operational Steps (Stall, Slab and Bowl Urinals) 1. 2. Mark the position for the flushing cistern. Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. Insert the plug to the wall. Pass the screw through the item to be fixed and into the plug. Screw home the bracket for the urinal flush cistern until tight. Mount the stall and slab urinals up into ranges by bedding them together and covering the joints with a capping piece. 7. In case of bowl urinal, the bowl should be mounted to the wall with optional separate screens if fitted in ranges. 8. 9. Connect cold water supply pipe to the flushing cisterns Connect the waste outlet.

Slop Sink or Hoppers These are installed in hospitals, colleges, hotels and schools for the disposal of slops. A hinged brass or stainless steel grating is provided to make it easy to fill a bucket, and hot and cold water systems, in the form of antis plash taps, are fitted above bucket height. The sketch below shows the installation of slop sink or hopper and the installation of a combined washup sink and slop sink.

Fig. 7.9: Slop sink or hoppers Bed-Pan Washers

These are installed in hospital sluice rooms and are provided with a bed pan and urine bottle jet. Since the jet is below the flooding level of the appliance, there is a danger of pollution of water by back siphonage. The jet should therefore be supplied with water from a cold water storage cistern through a separate pipe.

Fig. 7.10: Bed-pan washers

Tools Required (Slop Sinks and Bed Pan Washers) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner

7. 8.

Open spanner Sprit level

15.

Scriber

Materials Required (Slop Sinks and Bed Pan Washers) 1. Soil appliances (slob sink and bed pan washer) 7. Mild steel pipe

2. 3.

Copper pipe Brass screws

8. 9.

Pipe fittings Cast iron pipes

4.

Asbestos pipe

10.

Clay pipe

5.

Mild steel pipe

11.

Polythene pipe

6.

Polyvinyl chloride pipe

Operational Steps (Slop Sinks and Bed Pan Washers) 1. 2. Mark the position for the flushing cistern. Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Insert the plug into the wall. Pass the screw through the item to be fixed and into the plug. Screw home the bracket for the urinal flushing cistern until tight. The corbel/built in brackets are fixed into the wall. The fittings (bed pan and slob sink) can be placed on the brackets and the flush pipes connected. 8. 9. Connect hot and cold water supply pipes Connect the waste outlets.

Result:

The student should be able to identify the various water closet types, urinals, slop sinks and bedpans and be able to install them and be able to explain possible problems associated with each one and all the precautions necessary in their installation and maintenance.

Assignment

1)

Draw a section through a plunger action siphon in a flushing cistern and describe in simple terms how it works.

2)

Describe two possible results if a bowl valve fails to shut off the water to a flushing cistern with a blocked overflow pipe and a sealed cover.

WEEK 13: CONTD

METHOD OF INSTALLING AND FIXING APPLIANCES

7.4 Installation and Fixing Waste Appliances Introduction Waste appliances are used for the collection and discharge of general washing purposes or food preparation through a system of sanitary pipework or directly to a drainage system where it will be disposed of. These include basins, baths, bidets, drinking fountains, sinks and showers. Wash Hand Basins

Many washbasin designs are available, ranging from large hairdressing shampoo basins to small hand-rinse basins for use in cloakrooms, where space is limited. Basins can be obtained to fit into the corner of a room, or fitted flush to a vanity unit of a bedroom. The fittings are usually manufactured for hot and cold pillar taps, but patterns can be obtained having only one hole for a spray mixer tap and these types do not require an overflow or plug. They also use less water and save fuel. With usual type of basin, the overflow takes the form in the basin to a slot in the waste fitting. Because these channels can be easily fouled, hospital basins are often provided with a stand pipe which also acts as a plug. This type of overflow can easily be removed and sterilized.

Fig. 7.11 Wash basin

Tools Required

1. 2. 3. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers Open spanner File Sprit level

4. 5. 6. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner Scriber Pliers

Materials Required

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Wash hand basins (bracket and pedestal types) Mild steel pipe Plastic pipe Brass screws Plastic plug

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Cantilever basin bracket Copper pipe Pipe fittings Ribbed plug Bolts and nuts

Operational Steps 1. 2. Mark the position for the wash hand basin brackets (in the case of bracket types). Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Insert the plug to the wall. Pass the screw through the item to be fixed and into the plug. Screw home the bracket until tight. Place the basin on the bracket. Connect the hot and cold water supply to the pipe. Connect the waste outlets. In case of the pedestal type mark the position for the bolts and nuts to hold the basin. Place the basin to the wall and align the holes in the basin to the bolts. Tight the bolts and nuts to hold the basin. Fix down the pedestal to the floor with brass screws to support the basin.

Baths

These are a great variety of bath shapes to suit individual needs. The sketch below shows a corner-type acrylic plastic bath, which is now becoming popular and may be regarded as a luxury bath. The bath may be provided with mixer taps with an outlet placed one corner, to make it easier to enter or leave the bath. The bath is provided with adequate supports in the form of a metal cradle with timber inserts. Also a traditional enameled east-iron bath with hand grips and mixer taps is also shown below. If required, the mixer tap may also be provided with a flexible connection for a spray head, which may be used for a shower. Cast-iron baths are very heavy and required adequate supports which are provided by the manufacturer in the form of adjustable feet. Show a detail of a sitz bath which is deep and incorporates a seat. It may also be used where space is limited and is also suitable for old people since the user may maintain a sitting position.

Fig. 7.12: Baths

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 9. 10. 11. Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers Open spanner 5. 6. 7. 8. 14. 15. 16. Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner Scriber

12. 13.

File Sprit level

17.

Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. Baths and shower Copper pipe Pipe fittings Putty 5. 6. 7. Mild steel pipe Plastic pipe Brass screws

Operational Steps 1. 2. 3. 4. Place the bath on the floor. Adjust the legs to make the bath to slop to the outlet. Connect the hot and cold water supply to the pipe. Connect the waste outlets.

Showers

These use only about a third of the water required for a bath and therefore economize in water consumption and also fuel. They are much quicker to use than a bath and take up less space: many people however prefer a good soak in a bath. Two types of shower head available are: The traditional rose type, which discharges water through a perforated disc, and which is fitted at high level, and An adjustable umbrella-spray type, which is usually fitted at chest level. This type is sometimes preferred by women, because the shower may be used without wetting the head. Hot and cold water supplies to a shower are provided by means of 13mm bore pipes, which should be as short as possible in order to reduce frictional resistances to the flow of water. A thermostatically controlled mixing value is recommended to avoid the risk of scalding. The outlet from the mixing value may be by means of pipe behind the tiles, or a flexible chromium-plated pipe to the shower head. With the latter method, the shower head may be attached to a vertical bracket which provides a means of adjusting the height of the head. In schools and factories, one mixing valve may be used to supply a number of shower heads.

Fig. 7.13: Typical shower tray arrangement

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers Open spanner File Sprit level 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner Scriber Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. Baths and shower Copper pipe Pipe fittings Hemp 5. 6. 7. 8. Mild steel pipe Plastic pipe Brass screws Putty

Operational Steps 1. Mount the shower tray on the floor

2. 3.

Connect the hot and cold water supply pipe. Connect the waste outlets.

Sinks: These are available in almost all the materials used for sanitary appliances. Sink serve many functions, including dish-washing, clothes washing and food preparation. There3 are many different designs, including the following: Belfast Sinks: These are made from glazed fireclay and are supported on cantilever brackets or brackets and legs. The sinks have an integral weir overflow. London Sinks: These are very similar to Belfast sinks, but are not provided with an integral weir overflow. Combination Sinks: these are again made from glazed fireclay and are a Belfast-type sink with an integral weir overflow. The sink is provided with an integral draining surface. Cleaners Sink: These are often fitted in schools, factories and hospitals and may be installed inside the cleaners cubicle or the sanitary accommodation room. They are provided with a hinged brass or stainless steel grating, which is used to support a bucket whilst it is being filled. Stainless Steel Sink: These are very popular and are used in all types of building. For domestic buildings, the sink may have single or double bowls. Large sink may be obtained for canteen kitchens, and these may have three bowls, which makes them very useful for food preparation and dish washing.

Fig. 7.14 Typical sinks

Tools Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Measuring tape Pipe cutter Pipe vice Oil can Chisel Screw drivers Open spanner File Sprit level 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. Hack saw Reamer Threading machine Pipe wrench Hammer Adjustable spanner Scriber Pliers

Materials Required 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Sinks (ceramic and stainless steel) Copper pipe Pipe fittings Hemp Ribbed plug 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Mild steel pipe Plastic pipe Brass screws Putty Plastic plug

Operational Steps 1. 2. Mark the position for the sink brackets. Drill a hole of the correct diameter and depths using a suitable masonry drill to receive plastic plug or ribbed plug. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Insert the plug into the wall. Screw home the bracket until tight. Place the sink on the bracket. Connect the hot and cold water supply pipe. Connect the waste outlets. In case of the stainless steel sink the timber drawer and the cupboard unit should be constructed. 9. 10. 11. Place the stainless steel sink on the cupboard unit/timber drawer. Connect the hot and cold water taps Connect the waste outlets.

The students should be able to know the following: Waste appliances are used for general washing purposes and include baths, washbasins, bidets, sinks and showers. All sanitary appliances should have a trap to prevent foul smells from the drains entering the building. The taps on washbasins, sinks and baths should always discharge above the floodlevel of the appliance to prevent back-siphonage. Cold water supplies to mixer taps on baths, showers and bidets should always be fed from storage to prevent back-siphonage. How to install and maintain these waste appliances.

Assignment 3) 4) 5) List three materials from which domestic sinks can be made. List and explain two each of soil appliances and waste appliances What are the qualities of materials used for the manufacture of sanitary appliances.

WEEK 14: WATER SUPPLY


Introduction

A supply of pure and wholesome potable water is essential for healthy living. This section will examine some basic aspects of water supply and treatment and the layouts and principles of both storage and non-storage cold water systems in buildings. All water we use originates from rain, snow or hail produced by the condensation of water vapor in the form of clouds. As the rain, snow or hail passes through the atmosphere it dissolve carbonic acid gas CO2, and this increases its solvent power. Water charged with Co2 will readily dissolves substances like chalk or limestone and will hold them in solution as bicarbonates. Some of the water, on reaching the earth, will percolate through the ground and be held by the impervious stratum. Some will be lost by evaporation or be used by plants and the remainder will form lakes, rivers and streams.

Properties of Water 8.1

Water is a compound of the gases hydrogen and oxygen, its chemical symbol being H2O. When at a temperature of 4C, it is at its maximum density of 1000 kg per m'. At normal atmospheric pressure, water is a liquid between OC and 100C, If' it is .cooled below OC it freezes and becomes a solid (ice). It freezes, it expands in volume by about 10% and this volume increase can burst pipes. If it is heated to 100C, it boils and vaporizes into a gas (steam), with a volume increase of about 1700 times.

Force and Pressure

Water, like all liquids, pushes on the sides and base of the vessel that col1ains it. It is also the case that a liquid at rest presses upwards on to things that arc put into it. This is easy to prove by simply pushing an empty bottle down into some water in a bucket; as the bottle is pushed down the upward thrust of the water can be felt. The push of the water against the bottle is a force and the international unit of force is the Newton (N). One Newton is the force that gives a mass of1 kg an acceleration of 1 m1s2. The acceleration of objects due to gravity near t le surface of the Earth is 9.81 m/s2 so a 1 kg weight has a force of 9.81 N.

We often refer to pressure when discussing water systems; to the layman force and pressure might be thought to be the same thing. Plumbers must be more careful. Pressure is measured by the force exerted divided by the surface area on which the force acts. Take the example of a brick 0.2 m X 0.1(11 X 0.1 minimize with a weight of 1 kg, resting on a bench. The brick is exerting a downward force oft kg X 9.81 = 9.81 N on t the bench due to gravity. If the brick is lying on its side the pressure exerted will be:

=9.81 N/0.2m x 0.l m = 9.81 N/0.02 m2 = 490.5 N/m2

If the brick is then stood on its end the pressure exerted will be: = 9.81 N/01 m x 0.1m = 9.81 N/0.01m2 = 981 N/m2 The force remains the same but the pressure has doubled because the area is now halved. The international unit pressure is the Pascal (Pa); 1 N 1m2 is equal to 1 Pa. Note: pressure can e quote in a variety of other units, such as: kg/m2, kg/cm Ib/ft2; notice that in each case' there, is a unit for force and another for' area. Another useful unit of pressure is the bar; 1 bar is equal to 101.3 kPa or standard atmospheric pressure; 1 bar pressure is approximately equal to 10 m head to water.

Water Pressure

Pressure in liquids is directly proportional to the density of the liquid (in the case 0. water this is normally 1000 kg) but it does vary lightly with temperature) and the depth measured vertically. Imagine a tall vertical pipe sealed at the base. If the area of the base was 1 m and the pipe was filled to a depth of 1 m, the pipe would contain 1 m' of water. This would weigh of 1000kg and exert a force on the base 1000kg x 9.81 x 1m = 9810 N/m2 (or 9.81 kN/lm2) and the pressure on the base would also be 9.81 kPa. If another 1 m3 of water was added, the depth of water would become 2m, the weight acting on the base would be 2000 kg force on the base would double to 19.62 kPa, and so on. Another useful way of expressing water pressure is by the concept of head of water. By noting the height of water in pipework, a value for the pressure can be fixed.

It is important to note that the depth of water has to be vertically from the water surface to the level of the another point in the system even if the pipe slants. The water levels in the tubes are the same even the sizes and shapes are different. The water is at rest and so the pressure at the point where the tubes join must be equal to all sides even though there is a much greater weight of water in the large tube compared to the small one. It is easy to show that pressure increases with depth by drilling a series of holes in the side of a tall container and filling it with water. The water will spray further out of the holes the lower they are.

Fig. 8.1a: Water finds its own level

Fig 8.1b: Pressure increases with depth

Water Purity

As rain falls through the air, it absorbs oxygen and carbon dioxide gases, causing it to become very slightly acidic. This means that its purity and acidity when it reaches the ground will depend on the air quality through which it falls. Also, in urban areas, sulphur dioxide from burning fuel will often be present in rainwater making it slightly more acidic. Once rainwater starts to how along the ground and percolates through the rocks it can dissolve any soluble mineral salts that are present. For example, if water flows through chalk, which is insoluble calcium carbonate (CaC03), the carbon dioxide (CO2) in the \later (H2O) can combine with the chalk and change it to form calcium bicarbonate (Ca(HCO3h) which is soluble, The chemical reaction is:

CaCO3 + CO2 + H2O .--> Ca(HCO3)

And the quantity of calcium bicarbonate that will be dissolved will depend on the amount of carbon dioxide in the water. Salts of calcium, magnesium and sodium are often found in rainwater. These salts prevent soap from forming lather easily. To describe this, the idea 01' hardness and softness of water has been developed to differentiate types of water depending on the presence, or not, of dissolved salts, Rainwater which has been collected directly from roofs or from ground covered in upland vegetation will generally be soft, while river, spring and well water will vary in hardness depending on the type of ground it runs through. Apart from the fact that the user might notice a difference in taste and the amount of soap required to form lather when washing, hard water is not usually a problem in cold water systems. Soft water, on the other hand, being slightly acidic, can be aggressive and corrode metal pipes. For example; certain types of soft water can attack fittings made from brass (a copper/zinc alloy). This is known as dezincification; what happens is that the zinc is corroded away by the water, leaving behind a porous, brittle fitting.

Acidity/Alkalinity of Water

This is measured on the pH scale which has values from 0 (the strongest acid) to 14 (the most alkaline). Pure water is said to be neutral and has a pH of 7.

Sources of Supply

On a small scale, water can be collected as run-off from roofs and stored in cisterns or tanks for later use. Alternatively, naturally occurring springs, a bore hole and pump or a well can be used as a source of water. On a larger scale, the public water supply authority will use river water or water from lakes if these are available. If necessary, they will drill bore holes or construct reservoirs to store water to maintain the supply in period of low rainfall. Often the water supply for a town is pumped from a river or lake up to a water tower, from there it can flow down through the mains and is distributed to the buildings.

Spring water: The nature of the underlying rock strata will determine whether spring water is wholesome. Surface springs are of doubtful quality. Deep seated springs, on the other hand, are more likely to be wholesome because the spring water will have emerged from below an impervious strata through a fault or slip in the rocks (Figure 6.4)

River and lake water: River and lake water must always be regarded as a suspect as it is likely to be polluted by run-off from cultivated fields and by waste water from sewerage or industrial processes.

Wells and bore holes: Wells and bore holes can be classified as either shallow or deep. A shallow well is one where the well does not pass through an impervious rock strata. A shallow well is of doubtful quality. A deep well will have been drilled through an impervious strata and the water that is extracted will have percolated slowly through thee ground over a very long period of time. In doing so, it is likely to have been purified by natural means. Provided the well is lined to prevent surface water entering it, the well water will usually be wholesome. Normally the water from the well will have to be raised or pumped to the surface. However, where the contours of the land happen to form a depression and the surface of the land at the site of the well or bore hole is below the surrounding water table an artesian well is formed. In this case the well water will rise to the surface naturally due to the water pressure in the underlying rocks.

8.2 State the Rules to be Followed in Piping for Water Supply To successfully layout the network of pipes, as with every operation, certain procedures and rules must be observed. It is important to note the following: Before any building can be supplied with water from the main, it is essential to provide adequate notice in writing to the local Water Authority. The tapping of the main and lying of the communication pipe is usually carried out by the local water authority at the building owners expense. Where the Local Water Authority permits a contractor to lay the communication pipe, the connection to the main will usually be made by the authority, also at the building owners expense. Any underground piping should be inspected by the Local Water Authority before being filled back. In order to allow for any settlement of the communication pipe, a bend is made where pipes connection to the main. Distinct types of cold water system are all depending on the Water Authority.

8.3 Observe Connection to Water Mains

The connection to water mains can be through the following:

1. 2.

Under pressure tapping Non pressure tapping.

Under pressure tapping: Main is tapped whilst under pressure by using a special machine called under pressure tapping machine. The tapping machine is attached to the main by chain and the chamber made water tight with a rubber washer. The hole is drilled and tapped and the top cover is revolved to 1800 so that the plug cock is brought directly over the hole into which it screwed and tightened. The machine is removed and the service pipe connected to the plug cock outlet.

Advantages

It doesnt inconvenience other users using the main. It is quicker It avoids wasting the considerable amount of water that would be bound to be lost if the main had to be shut off and drained down for a non-pressure tapping. When a main is drained down and a hole drilled in it, it is possible for impure ground water to get into the main and contaminate it. Tapping made under pressure avoid this danger of water supply pollution.

Disadvantage

The machine is very expensive.

Non-pressure tapping: The main is tapped when the supply is off thereby causing inconveniences to other users of the main. Then the main can be drilled and tapped with a machine called non-pressure tapping machine the machine is attached to the main by using a chain then the plug cock is tapped into the main by using a pipe range.

Advantage

1)

The machine is affordable at a cheaper rate.

Disadvantages

1) 2) 3)

It causes inconveniences to other users. It takes longer time to connect It requires a saddle when using non-metallic pipes i.e. plastics.

Connection of Water Supply to a Building

Before any building can be supplied with water from the main, it is essential to provide adequate notice in writing to the local Water Authority. The tapping of the main and lying of the communication pipe is usually carried out by the local water authority at the building owners expense. Where the Local Water Authority permits a contractor to lay the communication pipe, the connection to the main will usually be made by the authority, also at the building owners expense.

Any underground piping should be inspected by the Local Water Authority before being filled back. In order to allow for any settlement of the communication pipe, a bend is made where pipes connection to the main. Distinct types of cold water system are all depending on the Water Authority.

Fig. 8.2: Service entry details

Water Mains

Large trunk mains are placed under roadway whilst smaller branch mains are placed under the footpath. To avoid damage by heavy traffic or frost the pipe should be laid at least 914mm below ground, preferably on firm ground or on a concrete foundation 152mm thick. A circulating main is preferable to a dead leg where stagnation of the water occurs and frequent flushing out in necessary.

Testing: Before backfilling the trench the main should be tested by a force pump to twice the working pressure. When making the test it is necessary to strut the pipes and bend or the

pipes may move under pressure and joints are broke. A good working pressure for mains is 551.58kn/m2 or approximately 55m head. Types of cold water systems depend on the water authority.

8.4 Illustrate the Domestic Systems of Cold and Hot Water Supply

Direct Cold Water Supply System

In direct cold water supply system all the sanitary appliances are supplied with cold water direct from the main. A cold water feed cistern is usually required to feed the hot water supply apparatus. With certain types of electric or gas water heater that may be supplied directly from the main, a cold water feed cistern is not required and this simplifies the system. The cold water feed cistern is small enough to be housed on the top of the airing cupboard, thus avoiding freezing.

Advantages.

The cold water storage cistern is required solely to feed the hot water cylinder and for this reason need only be equal to the capacity of the hot water storage cylinder. There is a substantial saving in the pipe work especially in multi-storey buildings. This is due to the rising main or supply pipe, which supply all the fittings and a cold distribution pipe from the cistern being omitted.

Disadvantages

There is a tendency to have more trouble with water hammer due to more points being connected directly to the main. There is a danger of foul water from the sanitary fittings being siphoned back into the main.

Fig. 8.3: Direct cold water system layout

Water Supply System

In the direct cold water supply system all the drinking water used in the building is supplied from the main and water used for all other purposes is supplied indirectly from a cold water storage cistern and the cistern also supplies water to the hot water storage cylinder.

Advantages

Large-capacity storage cistern provides a reserve of water during interruption of supply. Water pressure on the taps supplied form the cistern is reduced, which minimizes wear on taps and noise. Fittings supplied with water from the cistern are prevented from causing pollution of the drinking water by back siphonage. Lower demand on the water main.

Disadvantages

Larger and longer pipes are required. Drinking water is not usually obtained at basin.

Fig. 8.4: Storage cold water system layout

Systems of Hot Water Supply

In the hot-water services, there are two systems, Central system and Local system.

In the former, water is heated and stored centrally for general distribution and in the later water is heated or heated and stored locally for local use. Differences between the two Systems

In central system hot water is run to the site of the sanitary appliances from a central heat source while in local system the heat sources, which is gas or electricity is run to the local heater adjacent to the sanitary appliances. The central system is suited to hotels, offices and flats where a central boiler is fixed. Solid fuel, oil, gas or electricity heats the water in the boiler, distribution pipe system drawn to taps

and sanitary appliances on each floor. In large buildings, one heat source may serve two or more hot water storage cylinders to avoid excessively long distribution pipe runs. The local system is used for local washing facilities where the fuel, gas or electricity is run to the local washing facilities in order to avoid extensive and uneconomical connection by eliminating a distributing pipe runs or where local control is an advantage.

Centralized System

The centralized system has a boiler, a hot water storage cistern linked by supply and circulatory pipe work. Ideally the boiler is close to the hot water storage vessel, to reduce pipe work heat lost and to encourage circulation of hot water where gravity or convection is used.

The Central Hot-Water Supply

The centralized system have a boiler a hot water storage cistern linked by supply and circulatory pipe work. Water is heated and stored in a cylinder from which it circulates around a distributing pipe system from which hot water storage cistern linked by supply and circulatory pipe work. The system is therefore designed to supply hot water on demand at all times.

Advantage

Lager quantity of water is heated and stored for use.

Disadvantage

There is some loss of heat from the distributing pipes no mater how adequately the pipes are insulated.

The Local Hot-Water Supply

A water heater is fixed adjacent to the fittings to be supplied with hot water, gas or electricity run to the site of the heater. Fuel for local heaters is generally confirmed to gas or electricity. The water is either heated and stored locally or heated instantaneously as it flows through the heater.

Advantage

There is a minimum of distributing pipes work initial outlay is comparatively low. The control and payment for fuel can be local, and advantage e.g. to the Landlord of residential flats.

Disadvantage

These are only suited to soft water areas, otherwise the chalk or lime stone found in borehole water supplies will precipitate when heated and eventually fur up the boiler and adjacent pipe work. As well as rendering the system inefficient, it could lead to a boiler explosion or considerable damage.

Direct Hot Water Supply System

These are only suited to soft water areas, otherwise the chalk or limestone found in borehole water supplies will perpetuate when heated and eventually fur up the boiler and adjacent pipe work. As well as rendering the system inefficient it could lead to a boiled explosion or considerable damage. Furthermore, the systems are not suited to hot water central heating.

Fig. 8.5: Direct hot water system

Indirect Hot Water Supply System

An expansion and feed cistern is in corporate to supply the boiler, primary flow and return. The hot water storage cylinder or calorifier differs from that of the direct system by incorporating a coil attached to the primary pipe work which enables water circulation between boiler and coil without being drawn off. Therefore the same water circulates persistency. Transferring its heat energy into the coil in the surrounding water. Consequently, as no new water is introduced to the boiler, it cannot fur up. Also water in the calorific do not mix with water in the primary flow and return, so radiators can be supplied from these pipes or from separate connection on the same boiler.

Fig. 8.6: Indirect storage hot water system

Result:

The student should be able to state the sources of water, know the types of water treatment, explain how water is distributed, know and differentiate the cold and hot-water systems, direct and indirect water supply systems.

Assignment

1) 2)

List the factors that should be considered when laying an underground service pipe. Mark a labelled diagram of a direct cold water system to sere a sink, washbasin, bath, WC cistern and the feed cistern for a hot water installation.

3)

A cistern is to be installed to supply water for domestic purposes. a. b. List the requirements for the cistern. What are the specific requirements relating to access to the cistern for repair of the float-valve?

4)

Where should service valves be fitted to the pipework in a cold water system?

WEEK 15: DRAINAGE SYSTEMS


9.1 Show the General Layout and Construction Method of Drainage Systems

Definition of a Drain

The Public Health Act 1936 defines it as a pipe for the drainage of one building or any building within the same cartilage.

Principles of Good Drainage

Adequate support: A granular bed 102m thick is required. Be as straight as possible between points of access, changes of direction where necessary should be obtained by slow bends. Adequate access: Inspection chambers or Roding eyes should be placed in such position that all sections of the drainage system can be inspected and rodded if necessary. Water tightness: The whole system, including inspection chambers should be water tight when subjected to 600mm head of water (measured from above the ground level). Well ventilated: A fresh air should be free to pass through the whole drainage system. This fresh air will dry any foul matter adhering to the inside of the pipe and this foul matter will be washed forward, thus keeping the inside of the pipe clean. Ventilation also prevents accumulation of foul air and preserves pressure equilibrium at atmospheric pressure within the drains. Correct gradient: A self cleansing velocity of 0762m/2 should be obtained by laying the pipes to the correct gradient.

Minimum Gradients

1 in 108 for 102mm drain 1 in 178 for 1532mm drain 1 in 295 for 229mm drain 1 in 425 for 305mm drain

Materials for Drains

Glazed stoneware-cheap, but the labour coast for laying is high, as many joints are required. Cast iron-used for high class work and desirable when drains pass under a building or road. Pitch fibre-flexible, easy to handle and lay and cheaper than either stone ware or cast iron pipes.

Drainage Systems Can Be Classified Into Two Groups.

Above ground drainage below ground drainage

Above Ground Drainage System

Single Stack System

Modern condition and the demand for low cost housing drew attention to the need for a simplified but efficient form of above ground drainage. The Building Research station carried out extensive research on the single stack system and as a result of this many installation have been using single stack system. The system is actually a simplification of one pipe system, the trap ventilating pipes being either omitted or used only in special circumstances. Trap ventilating may; however be required in the following cases. When the branch waste pipes exceed the recommended lengths. When ranges of fittings are installed

On building exceeding 25 storey.

Fig. 9.1 Single stack system of above ground drainage

As there are no trap ventilating pipes, a very high degree of accuracy in planning and workmanship is required to prevent loss of seal in the traps. The main requirements of the system are given below: Sanitary fittings must be grouped closely to the main stack so that branch pipes are as short as possible Traps up to 376mm diameter require a 76mm seal and traps above 76mm diameter a 51mm seal. This guards against evaporation from the trap, which has normal evaporation rate of 23.33540mm per week when not in use. Branch waste pipes must have a fall between 1/48 and 1/12. This reduces the possibility of self siphoning of the traps. The bath, basin and sink must be connected separately to the main stack and be above the W.C. connection or at least 203mm below the centre line of the W.C. connection. A 25mm trap seal must be maintained under the worst circumstances. The bend at the foot of the stack must be a slow radio bend: 1350 bends may be used. This prevents compression of air at the base of the stack. The main stack must be straight below the highest branch.

P traps from sanitary fittings are permeable to S traps and a 9.092 litre flush is better than a 13.63388 litre.

One Pipe System

The one pipe system is a comparatively recent system of above ground drainage. The system was first used in the USA but it took some time before it was accepted. It was however, eventually accepted and has now become usual. Principle: Soil and waste fitting discharges are carried by one main soil and waste pipe connected directly to the drain without trapping. Traps: Since all sanitary fittings are in direct contact with the drain or sewer greater care must be exercised in maintaining the seals than with the dual pipe system. Trap ventilation pipes: With rare exceptions every trap in the system must be ventilated with a pipe not less than 32mm in diameter. This ensures a good circulation of air in the system, preventing siphonage and back pressure. Air compression: To prevent air being compressed at the bottom of the main soil and waste stack and possible disturbance of the water seals of the traps on the lowest sanitary fittings. The main vent stack should be carried down and connected either into the horizontal drain or, at the top of the man hole, if one is used instead of a cast iron inspection chamber.

Fig. 9.2: Two-pipe or dual system of above-ground drainage

The Dual Pipe System

The dual or two pipe system is the oldest of the sanitary systems and the regulations of the practically all local authorities are based on it. In this system the sanitary fittings are divided into two groups, soil fittings and waste fittings. Soil fittings: These are for the disposal of foul mater and these include the following: WCs, urinals, sloop sinks and bedpan washes e.t.c. Waste Fittings: These are for disposal mainly of soapy waste water and they also include: baths, showers, lavatory basins, bidets wash tubs, washing fountains e.t.c. The branch pipes from the soil and waste fittings are connected to separate soil and waste stack hence the term dual pipe system.

Soil stack: This is connected direct; to the drain by means of the bed at the base of the stack. The main points regarding the stack are: The pipe should be carried up to the point of 914mm above the top of any window within a distance of 4.572m and carried up without any reduction in diameter. The internal diameter should be not less than the internal diameter of the outlet of any soil fitting discharging into it and in any case not less than 76mm. Where two or more fittings are connected to the same stack, a 50mm diameter antisiphon pipe should be connected to the branch pipe at a point not less than 76mm and not more than 305mm form the crown of the traps. The top of the pipe should be fitted with a wired copper or galvanized steel cage. A rain water pipe or gutter should not discharge into the soil pipes unless the drainage is combined.

Advantage

Where sanitary fittings are required to be situated at some distance from each other, separate soil or waste stacks may be provided, thus obviating long horizontal runs of pipe to a main stack.

Disadvantage

The provision of a separate waste stack increases initial and maintenance cost. When pipes are fixed externally, the number of pipes required for the system tends to be unsightly. Larger ducks are requited when pipes are fixed internally.

Fig. 9.3: Two-pipe or dual system of above-ground drainage

9.2 Differentiate Between Private and Public Sewage Systems

This System can be classified into three groups:

Separate system Combination system Partially separate.

Separate System

In this system there are two separate drains i.e. one drain to carry away foul water etc. from sanitary fittings and another to carry away rain water from the roofs and paved areas. The drainage cost is higher than with the combined system, but the volume of sewage to be treated at the sewage works is considerably less. This system prevents foul gases escaping through an unsealed rain water gully.

Fig. 9.4: Separate drainage system

Combined System

In this system foul water from sanitary fittings and rain water from roofs and paved areas is carried in a single drain to the treatment area. There is a saving in drainage cost, but treatment at the sewage works cost more.

Fig. 9.5: Combined drainage system.

Partially Separate

This system is a compromise; it usually has a pipe net collect surface water in the newer parts of residential suburbs and a combined system for older developed areas. For individual dwellings which are built on suitable ground a partially separate system will use soakaways or natural water courses to dispose of rainwater.

Fig. 9.6: Partially separate system

9.3 Test Drains and Soil Pipes

It is normal practice to carryout turn Soundness Test on drainage systems, the first before backfilling on the trench followed by second test of the backfilling, which may have to be witnessed by a building control officer. Every drainage system must be tested to ensure water tightness, air tightness and quality of general finish of the system.

Methods of Testing Water Test

Water test Air test Smoke test

The length of drain to be test is blunted out at its lower and by means of a drain stoppers another stopper is fitter at the top of the run of drain with an up-stand pipe of 15m height attached the drain is then filled with water. If testing before backfilling the joints can be inspected for lakes if the trench has been backfilled then the filled drain should be left to stand for up to two hour topping up the water level if necessary to allow for absorption by day more pipe materials.

Fig. 9.7: Water test

Air Test

This is quicker to carry out and more searching than the water test, and should be used in preference to carryout the drain stepper are filled to any open ends and gullies have then these air is pointy blown into the drain until a pressure of up to 5mb is indicated on the monometer provide the act of at least 3 in remain after the 2 minute of the test the dam can be considered sound.

Fig 9 8: Air test

Smoke Test

This test is performed by forcing air Laden smoke into the section of the system under test from a special smoke box, the smoke is produced by burning oily waste in the smoke box, the smoke is forced through the lower ends of the drain and vent pipe soil pipes as well as all traps should be left unsealed until the smoke emerges from them. This ensures that the drain under examination is full of air laden smoke. A few strokes of the bellows of the smoke machine will set up a slight pressure in the system, and the drove over the smoke box should rise and remain in their position if there are no leakages. The advantage in this system is that any smoke escaping through a leakage is easily visible.

Result:

The student should be able to differentiate the separate drainage system from the combined, know the precautions involved in the laying of the two systems, where and how to site inspection chambers with their precautions, carry out water tightness test and air test in pipes, carry out maintenance work and cleaning processes.

Assignment

1)

List the main advantages and disadvantages of the twp-pipe system of sanitary pipe work over the one-pipe system.

2)

List the basic principles that should be followed when planning a drainage system for a dwelling.

3) 4)

Explain one method of protecting a drain passing through a wall. Why is it important to ensure that drains are adequately ventilated?