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IslamicUniversityofGazaEnvironmentalEngineeringDepartment

WaterTreatment
EENV4331

Lecture1: Introduction
Dr.Fahid Rabah

1.1 Water Cycle y and Water Resources

1.2 Water Distribution on Earth

Percent of Usable Water

Usable Water quality q y Isthe1%usablewaterqualitysuitablefordirectuse? Surface S f water t is i mostly tl contaminated t i t d and d not t suitable it bl for direct usage. Surface water has open surfaces, consequently it is subjected to direct pollution from natural and human activities. Ground water is usually suitable for direct usage since it is naturally protected by the geological formations of earth. However, contamination may reach groundwater . In this case it should be purified before usage.
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1.3 Definition of water Pollution Water Pollution is defined as: The presence of impurities in water in such quantity and of such nature as to impair the use of the water for a stated purpose. Pollution = pure water + impurities Notice that pure water H2O does not exist on earth. Water vapor can be considered as pure water. water However, when it rains and runs over the earth surface or through the ground layers many impurities dissolve or stick to it. 6

1.4 Definition of water Treatment Water treatment is defined as: The process of reduction or removal of impurities from water to acceptable concentrations suitable for a stated usage. Types of Impurities in water Dissolved Di l dsolids lid (organic ( i and di inorganic) i ) Suspendedsolids(organicandinorganic) settleable ttl bl Nonsettleable Colloidalsolids(organicandinorganic)
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1.5 Water Treatment Methods Eachtypeofthementionedsolidsrequiresspecial methodtobereducedorremovedfromwater Waterpurification"treatment"methodsareclassified intothreemaincategories: g Physicalmethods Chemicalmethods BiologicalMethods

Water Treatment Methods Examplesoneachtreatmentcategory: Physicalmethods sedimentation Filtration Flocculation Adsorption airstripping Aeration ReverseOsmosesdesalinationRO RO

Water Treatment Methods Chemicalmethods Coagulation Softening Chemicalprecipitations DisinfectionwithchlorineandOzone oxidationreductionreactions DesalinationusingElectodialysis. Electodialysis IonicExchange

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Water Treatment Methods Biologicalmethods Denitrificationnitrateremovalusingbiological reactors. reactors

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Water Treatment Methods Biologicalmethods Denitrificationnitrateremovalusingbiological reactors. reactors

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1.6 Impurities p in Water


Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused Means of Treatment imparts p unsightly g y appearance pp to water; deposits in water lines, process equipment, coagulation, settling, and filtration etc.; interferes with most process uses chief source of scale in heat exchange equipment, boilers, pipe lines, etc.; forms curds with soap, interferes with dyeing, etc.

Turbidity

-----------

Hardness

calcium and magnesium salts, expressed as CaCO3

softening; demineralization

Alkalinity

foam and carryover of solids bicarbonate(HCO3-), with steam; embrittlement of lime and lime-soda softening; 2-), carbonate (CO32 ) and boiler steel; bicarbonate and acid treatment; demineralization hydroxide(OH-), carbonate produce CO2 in dealkalization by anion exchange expressed as CaCO3 steam, a source of corrosion in condensate lines

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Impurities p in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused Means of Treatment

Free Mineral Acid

H2SO4 , HCI. etc., expressed as CaCO3

corrosion

neutralization with alkalies

Carbon Dioxide

CO2

corrosion in water lines

aeration neutralization with aeration, alkalies

PH

hydrogen ion concentration defined as: PH= log[H+]

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Impurities p in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused adds to solids content of water, but in itself is not usually significant, combines with calcium to form calcium sulfate lf t scale l Means of Treatment demineralization, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, evaporation

Sulfate

SO42-

Chloride

Cl -

adds to solids content and increases corrosive character of water

demineralization, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, evaporation

Nitrate

NO3

adds to solids content, high concentrations cause methemoglobinemia in infants;

demineralization, reverse osmosis, Electodialysis, evaporation

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Impurities p in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused Means of Treatment cause of f mottled ttl d enamel li in adsorption with magnesium teeth; also used for control of hydroxide, calcium phosphate, or dental decay: not usually bone black; alum coagulation g industrially y significant adds to solids content of water: when combined with OH-, causes corrosion in boilers under certain conditions

Fluoride

F-

Sodium

Na+

demineralization, reverse osmosis, Electodialysis, evaporation

Silica

SiO2

scale in boilers and cooling water systems; insoluble turbine blade deposits due to silica vaporization

adsorption, demineralization adsorption demineralization, reverse osmosis, evaporation

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Impurities p in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused f deposits d it in i water t source of lines, boilers. etc.; interferes with dyeing, tanning, papermaking, p p g, etc. Means of Treatment aeration; coagulation and filtration; lime softening; cation exchange

Iron

Fe2+ (ferrous) Fe3+ (ferric)

Manganese

Mn2+

same as iron

same as iron

Aluminum

AI3+

usually present as a result of floc carryover from clarifier; can cause deposits in cooling systems and contribute to complex boiler scales

improved clarifier and filter operation

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Impurities p in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused Means of Treatment corrosion of : water lines, heat exchange equipment, boilers, return lines, etc.

Oxygen

O2

sodium sulfite; corrosion inhibitors

Hydrogen Sulfide

H2S

cause of "rotten rotten egg egg" odor; corrosion

aeration; chlorination; highly basic anion exchange

Ammonia

NH3

corrosion of copper and zinc alloys by formation of complex soluble ion

cation exchange with hydrogen zeolite; chlorination;

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Impurities in Water
Constituent Chemical Formula Difficulties Caused Means of Treatment refers to total amount of dissolved matter, determined lime softening and cation by evaporation; high exchange by hydrogen zeolite; concentrations are demineralization, reverse objectionable because of osmosis, electrodialysis, process interference and as a evaporation cause of foaming in boilers refers to the measure of undissolved di l d matter, tt determined by filtration and drying

Dissolved Solids

none

Suspended S d d Solids

none

filtration, filt ti usually ll preceded d db by coagulation and settling

Total Solids

none

refers to the sum of dissolved and suspended solids,

see "Dissolved Solids" and "Suspended Solids"

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1 7 Water 1.7 W t quality lit characteristics h t i ti


a. Physical characteristics: Turbidity Color Taste and odor Temperature

b Chemical characteristics: b. Many dissolved chemicals exist in water and many of them are of concern such as:as: Chloride, fluorides, Iron, lead, manganese, sodium, sulfate, zinc, toxic inorganic substances, toxic organic substances,

c. Microbiological characteristic:Pathogens: viruses viruses, bacteria bacteria, protozoa protozoa, helminthes (warms)
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1.8 Drinking Water Quality Standards

See also the EPA Primary drinking water standards

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Drinking Water Quality Standards (WHO)


Element/Compound p
Total Disolves Solids Total Hardness Detergents Aluminum Iron M Manganese Copper Zinc Sodium Nickel Chloride Fluoride Sulfate Nitrate Silver Magnesium Calcium Potassium

Symbol y
TDS TH (CaCO3) ABS Al Fe M Mn Cu Zn Na Ni Cl F SO4 NO3 Ag Mg Ca K

p Level ( (mg/l) g ) Acceptable


500 100 05 0.5 0.2 0.3 01 0.1 1 5 200 0.05 200 1 200 45 0.01 50 100 10

MCL ( (mg/l) g )
1500 500 1 0.3 1 02 0.2 1.5 15 400 0.1 400 1.5 500 70 0.05 120 200 12
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Drinking Water Quality Standards (WHO)


Chemical Standards (Toxic elements)
Parameter Lead Selenium Arsenic Chromium Cyanide Cadmium Mercury Antimony Nickel Symbol Pb Se As Cr Cn Cd Hg Sb Ni MCL (mg/l) 0.01 0.01 0 05 0.05 0.05 0 05 0.05 0.005 0.001 0.005 0.05
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Palestinian Water Quality Standards


Element/Compound Total Dissolves Solids T t l Hardness Total H d Alkalinity g Detergents Sodium Chloride Fluoride Sulfate Nitrate Nitrite Ammonium Magnesium Calcium Potassium Residual chlorine ABS Na Cl F SO4 NO3 NO2 NH4 Mg Ca K Symbol TDS TH (CaCO (C CO3) MCL (mg/l) 1500 600 400 0.5 200 600 1.5 400 70 0.1 0.5 150 100- 200 12 0.2- 0.8
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1.9 Most common water treatment plants


Watertreatmentplantscanbeclassifiedas: A) Simple disinfection: (Ground water ) Itisadirectpumpingandchlorineinjection.Usedtotreat highqualitywater water. B) Filtration plants: (surface water) Removes:color,turbidity,taste,odor,andbacteria ifthesourcewaterhasbetterqualitywithlowersolids, flocculationandsedimentationcanbeomitted,this modificationiscalleddirect filtration. C) softening plants: (ground water)

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1.9 Most common water treatment plants

Ground Water well

Disinfection

Storage

Distribution

Simple Disinfection Treatment Plant

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1.9 Most common water treatment plants

S Screen Surface water Coagulation Flocculation

Sedimentation

Filtration

Disinfection

Storage

Distribution

Filtration Treatment Plant

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1.9 Most common water treatment plants

S Screen Surface water Coagulation Filtration

Disinfection

Storage

Distribution

Direct Filtration Treatment Plant

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1.9 Most common water treatment plants

Ground Water Rapid Mixing Flocculation

Sedimentation

Recarbonation

Filtration

Disinfection

Storage

Distribution

Softening Treatment Plant Single stage softening

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1.9 Most common water treatment plants

Ground Water well

Aeration

Filtration

Disinfection

Storage

Distribution

Simple Disinfection Treatment Plant


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