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Indus Valley Civilization Discovered in 1921 Belonged to the bronze age An area of about 1.

ut 1.3 mn sq km Existed between 3300-1600 BC in three phases: early, mature and late phases Sites Mature (Harappan) Harappa Mohenjodaro Chanhu-daro Lothal Kalibangan Banawali (Hissar) Sutkagendor (Pakistan) Sukotada (Gujarat) Dholavira Rakhigarhi Late phase (post-urban)

Early (pre-Harappan)

Kalibangan Banawali

Dholavira (Kutch) Rakhigarhi (Ghaggar)

Dholavira Rakhigarhi Bhagwanpura Manda (Jammu); Chandigarh, Shangol (Punjab); Daulatpur, Mitthal (Haryana); Alamgirpur. Hulas (West UP)

Site Sutkagendor Surkotada Mohenjo-daro

Kalibangan

Remarkable Feature Marked by a citadel Great Bath; Large granary Impressive drainage system Piece of woven cotton Mother Goddess Seal of pashu-pati Grain and plough

Town planning Grid system The Indus people were the earliest to produce cotton

Aryans

Male dominated Pastoral Horse was a significant animal Rig veda Consists of 10 mandalas (books): Book 1 and 10 are relatively new Earliest specimen of Indo-European language: 2200 BC inscription in Iran. Later in the Hittite inscriptions in Anatolia 1500 BC came to India Sindhu is the river par excellence for them Saraswati is the best of the rivers in Rig Veda Panchajana five tribes into which Aryans were divided Used ploughshare Land did not form a well-established type of private property Metal working was known Rajan king Samiti, sabha, vidatha,gana tribal assembly

Jainism

24 tirthankaras. First: Rishab Dev 23rd: Parshavnath Mahavir (599 BC 527 BC) or (540 BC 468 BC) In Kundagrama near Vaishali Father Siddartha (Jnatrika clan) Mother Trishala (sister of Lichchhavi chief Chetaka)

Died at Pavapuri near Rajgir Five doctrines: Do not violence, steal, lie, acquire property and do observe brahmacharya Did not condemn the varna system Triratna: right knowledge, right faith, right action Spread to Kalinga in first century BC. King Kharavela Used Prakrit language. Literature written in Ardhamagadhi Prepared the grammar of Apabhramsha Contributed to the growth of Kannada

Buddhism

563 483 BC Lumbini, Kapilavastu, Nepal. Shakya family. Suddhodan and Mahamaya Death: Kushinagar (Kasia in Deoria distt of UP) Eight-fold path (for end of misery) 1. Right observation 2. Right determination 3. Right speech 4. Right action 5. Right livelihood 6. Right exercise 7. Right memory 8. Right meditation Do not 1. Covet others property 2. Commit violence 3. Lie 4. Use intoxicants 5. Indulge in corrupt practices No god or atman exists

Used Pali Main elements of Buddhism: Buddha, Sangha, Dhamma Brahamana ruler Pashyamitra Shunga persecuted the Buddhists Mihirakula (Huna king) killed Buddhists Buddhist text: Suttanipata Gandhara Art First human statues worshipped Barabar hills: Caves for monks

Territorial States

Kingdoms and Capitals Kingdom Kapilavastu Lichchhavis Mahajanpadas Anga Kashi Koshala Mallas Vatsa/Vamsa Avanti Magadha Chedi/Cheti Kuru Panchala Matsya Capital Piprahwa Vaishali Champa Varanasi Shravasti Kushinara Kaushambi Ujjain (North)/ Mahishamati (South) Rajgir (Girivraja)

Surasena Ashmaka Gandhara Kamboja Vriji/Vajji Satvanahanas Pandya Chola Chalyukyas Pallavas Kadambas Gangas

Mathura

Mithila Paithan Madurai Puhar (kaveripattanam) Badami (Bijapur) Kanchi Vijayanti Kolar

First Magadhan Empire Dyansty Haryanka Ruler Bimbisara Ajatsatru Udayin Mahapadma Nanda Remark Contemporary of Buddha Built fort on the confluence of Ganga and Son at Patna Destroyed the power of Avanti

Shishunagas Nandas (most powerful rulers of Magadha)

Mauryas (Patliputra) Mauryas had a very elaborate bureaucracy

Chandragupta Maurya Bindusara Ashoka

Megasthenes visited during his time Links with Greek princes Buddhism Destroyed the Mauryan empire. Killed Maurya king Brihadratha

Shunga Pushyamitra Shunga

Balisadhaka tax collectors during the times of Nandas Shaulkiki or shulkadhyakshas were also toll collectors

Shakyas and Lichchhavis were republics

Literature Book Digha Nikaya Author/Language Pali Remark Buddhist text

North-West India
Menander (Milinda) was the most famous Indo-Greek ruler. Shakas Succeeded the Greeks in North West Rudradaman I : most famous ruler Parthians Followed Shakas Famous king: Gondophernes Kushans Aka Yuechis or Tocharians Kadphises was the first king Kanishka is the most famous ruler Started the Shaka era in 78 AD Held the Buddhist council in Kashmir where the doctrines of Mahayana form were finalized Patronized Ashvaghosa Kushan inscriptions and coins found at Toprak Kala in Khorezm Kushanas were the first rulers to issue gold coins on a large scale Introduced the Satrap system of government They controlled the Silk Route Worshipped both Shiva and Buddha. Some worshipped Vishnu too. Kanishka built a large number of Stupas St. Thomas came during his reign He issued first ever long inscription in chaste Sanskrit His capital at Sakala (Sialkot) Converted to Buddhism by Nagasena (Nagarjuna)

Greek ambassador Heliodorus set up a piller in honor of Vasudeva near Vidisa. Appointed governors called strategos

Deccan
Satavahanas Succeeded Mauryas in Deccan Brahmana rulers Gautamiputra Satkarni (AD 106-130) Vashishthiputra Pulimayi: Capital at Paithan Started the practice of granting tax-free villages to Brahmanas and Buddhist Monks Yajna Sri Satakarni Chaityas (Buddhist temples) and Viharas (monastaries) were constructed during their times Most famous Chaitya at Karle in Deccan Show trace of matrilineal social structure Administration Ahara district Officials amatyas or mahamatras Gaulmika head of a small military regiment and look after administration in rural areas Three grades of feudatories: raja, mahabhoja, senapati Language: Prakrit

South
Pandya Chola Cheras Kerala and parts of TN Senguttavan is the greatest king Elara conquered Sri Lanka Karikala founded Puhar aka Kaveripatnam which was their capital Sent embassies to the Roman emperor Augustus

Roman influence: Muziris. Also built a temple of Augustus

Vellalas rich peasants Arasar ruling class Pariyars agricultural labourers Shrent artisan guilds Chalukyas Pallavas They succeeded the Ikshvakus Kanchipuram was their capital Came in conflict with kadambas Mayurasharman had founded the Kadamba kingdom (Capital: Vijayanti/Banavasi) Assumed the title of Vatapikonda Nasrimhavarman occupied the Chalukya capital Vatapi in 642 AD Constructed a number of temples Ratha temples at Mahabs built by Narsimhavarman who founded Mahabs Pattadakal: Papanatha temple and Virupaksha temple Kailashnath temple at Kanchi Badami (Bijapur) Pulakesin II was the important ruler Court poet Ravikirti wrote his eulogy in the Aihole inscription

One of the major revolt in the south was the Kalabhras revolt. It was so widespread that it could be put down only through the joint efforts of the Pandyas, the Pallavas and the Chalukyas Three types of villages: Ur (commoners), Sabha (Brahmans), Nagaram (traders etc)

Foreign Invasions

Major events 326-325 BC Alexanders invasion

Literature Book Mudrarakshasa (play) Indika Milind Panho Buddhacharita Saundarananda (Sanskrit kavya) Mahavastu (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit) Divyavandan (Buddhist-hybrid Sanskrit) Vatsyayana Kamsutra Charaka Charaksamhita Hala (Satavahana king) Gathasaptasatti (Prakrit book) Tolkkappiyam (deals with grammar and poetics) <Ilango Adigal? (silappadikaram)> Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics Pliny (Roman writer) Natural History (Latin) Shudraka Mrichchhakatika Kalidasa Abhijnanashakuntalam Amarasimha Amarakosha Romaka Sidhanta (Astronomy) Banabhatta Harshacharita Harshavardhana Priyadarshika; Ratnavali; and Nagananda (plays) Panini Astadhyayi Patanjali Mahabhashika A treatise on astronomy. Authorship disputed. Suryasiddhanta Brihatsamhita Varahmira (5th CE) Author Vishakhadatta Megasthenes Buddhist literature of questions of Manender to Nagarjuna Ashvaghosha Ashvaghosha

Sushrut (2nd CE) Sushrutsamhita Charaksamhita Charak (2nd CE)

Travelers Traveler Megasthenes (ambassador of Seleucus) Fa Hein Hsuan Tsang During time of Chandragupta Maurya Chandragupta Vikramaditya Harshavardhana Work Indika

Pliny wrote Naturalis Historia Philosophy Six schools School Samkhaya Philosophy Materialistic. No god. Later turned spiritualistic. Prakriti-Purusha. Salvation through knowledge acquired through pratyaksha, anumana, shabda Slavation through meditation and physical application System of logic. Salvation through acquisition of knowledge. Discussion of material elements or dravya. Atom theory. (beginning of physics). Belief in god. Vedas contain the eternal truth. Reasoning provided for vedic rituals. Perform vedic rites for salvation. Brahmasutra. Brahma is the reality. Atma is identical with Brahma. Major proponent Kapila

Yoga Nyaya

Vaisheshika

Mimansa

Vedanta

Shankara (Advaita) born in Kerala Ramanuja (Vishistadvaita) Shuddhadvaita (Vallabha)

Lokayata

Materialistic philosophy.

Charavaka

Mauryan officers Rajukas a class of officers appointed by Ashoka for administration of justice Dhammamahamatras officers of Ashoka for propagating dharma among various social groups Tirthas important functionaries Samaharta highest officer for tax assessment Sannidhata chief custodian of the state treasury Sangam literature Sangam was an assembly of Tamil poets held under royal patronage in Madurai Compiled around 300-600 AD Can be divided into two groups: narrative and didactic Narrative: Melkanakku (or Eighteen Major Works) Didactic: Kilkanakku (Eighteen minor works) Silappadikaram and Manimekalai are Tamil epics

Misc Shataka was a special type of cloth made at Mathura Artisan guilds were called shrents Uttarapatha was a sea route most frequently in use Gomat wealthy person

Guptas
After the fall of Kushans and Satvahanas in mid 3rd century AD Perhaps of Vaishya origin Chandragupta 1- Samudragupta Chandragupta II Kumargupta - Skandagupta Capital: Patliputra Chandragupta I Started the Gupta era in AD 319-20 Samudragupta (aka Napoleon of India)

Delighted in violence and conquest Court poet: Harishena Exercised indirect influence over the Central Indian kingdom of Prabhavati through his daughter Ujjain was his second capital Navratnas Kalidasa, Varahmira and Amarsimha were at his court Fa-hsien visited India

Chandragupta II (Vikramaditya) [375-415 AD]

Royal seal: Garuda Decline in long distance trade Emergence of priestly landlords Position of shudras improved Subordination of women Buddhism did not receive royal patronage Golden age of ancient India Ajanta Paintings <not by Guptas but mostly during their period> Nalanda university flourished 13 plays written by Bhasa Mrichchhakatika Shudraka Kalidasa Plays were mostly comic Ramayana and Mahabharata compiled Development of Sanskrit Grammar Aryabhatiya Aryabhatta Romaka Sidhanta book on astronomy

Was poor in architecture Huna invasion made the empire weak

Vishti forced labour by peasants for the army officials

Harshavardhana
After the fall of Guptas Capital: Kanauj Banabhatta: court poet (wrote Harshacharita) Ran the administration on similar lines as Guptas Law and order: not well maintained Nalanda flourished as a centre of Buddhist learning Became a great parton of Buddhism (was a Shaiva earlier)

Convened a grand assembly as Kanauj to widely publicise the doctrines of Mahayana Authored three dramas: Priyadarshika, Ratnavali and Nagananda