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Ana Crespo SoIana and David AIonso CarcIa
(coords.)
CopyrighI 2012 by ScienIiIic Papers and individuaI
conIribuIors. AII righIs reserved. ScienIiIic Papers hoIds
Ihe excIusive copyrighI oI aII Ihe conIenIs oI Ihis |ournaI.
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diIed and prinIed in rance by ScienIiIic Papers @ 2012.
diIoriaI 8oard: Adrian CHNCA, CIaudiu POPA
This pubIicaIion has been sponsored by Ihe Research
Pro|ecI: CeograIIa iscaI y Poder Iinanciero en CasIiIIa"
ReI. HAR2010-1S168, M!C!NN, Spain, and CIobaINeI, ReI.
HAR2011-27694, M!C!NN, Spain.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
5
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1. ]. 8. ]ack" Owens, K:%&054 A"0C',L51: ") A""C,$&15"%<M&6,-
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3. AdoIIo UrruIia Zambrana, MarIa ]ose CarcIa RodrIguez,
MigueI A. 8ernabe Poveda, MarIa Cuerrero NieIo, @,"<9561"$:J
7%4"$C"$&15"% ") .,".$&C954 5%)"$0&15"% 6:61,06 5%1" 9561"$54&'
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&%- 70C',0,%1&15"% ") & 6C&15"<1,0C"$&' 9561"$54 @7;U
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7. David AIonso CarcIa, K&1&P&6, B6, &%- >,1+"$?6 ")
A""C,$&15"% P,1+,,% 1&L )&$0,$6 5% A&615',2 EZGG<EZ[WU
8. AnIonI Picazo MunIaner, \"$162 8$&-, &%- >,1+"$?6U N%,
3L&0C',J 8$&-, 5% /&%5'&U K&1&P&6,6 )"$ & 9561"$54&' ],6,&$49
@7;U
9. RiIa Mukher|ee, O$"0 ;0&'' R"$'- 1" ^&$., B%5V,$6,J
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
6
*&650P&=&$ 5% 35.91,,%19 A,%1#$: M,%.&'U
10. WiIIingIon SiabaIo, MigueI AngeI 8ernabe Poveda and AIberIo
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6#CC"$1 1""' 5% 9561"$54&' &%- 6"45&' $,6,&$49U
11. MarIa Cuerrero NieIo, AdoIIo UrruIia Zambrana, MigueI AngeI
8ernabe Poveda, MarIa ]ose CarcIa RodrIguez, 8"+&$- 1,0C"$&'
&%%"1&15"% 5% @7; ,%V5$"%0,%16U
12. Werner ScheII|ens, 89, "C,$&15"%&' 61$#41#$, ") 9561"$54&'
0&$5150, 695CC5%.J & .,%,$&' $,V5,+ ") ?%"+',-., -564"V,$:
1""'6U
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
7
8&P', ") 4"%1,%16J
Q%& A$,6C" ;"'&%& &%- K&V5- Q'"%6" @&$4`&2 7%1$"-#415"%U
A9&C1,$ EU ]. 8. ]ack" Owens , K:%&054 A"0C',L51: ")
A""C,$&15"%<M&6,- ;,')<N$.&%5=5%. A"00,$45&' >,1+"$?6 5%
19, O5$61 @'"P&' Q., DK:%A""C>,1IJ R9&1S6 5% & %&0,T
!nIroducIion
CooperaIion
CeographicaIIy-!nIegraIed HisIory
OnIoIogy: whaI reaIiIy is Iike
CompIex, Dynamic, NonIinear SysIems
SeII-Organizing CommerciaI NeIworks
Dynamics C!S and KnowIedge Irom CompIicaIed NarraIives
The WorId !s uzzy
DynCoopNeI Norms oI DaIa-Sharing, CoIIaboraIion, and
]oinI PubIicaIion
Overview
A9&C1,$ a Monica Wachowicz and ]. 8. ]ack" Owens2 K:%&0546
") 8$&-, >,1+"$?6J 89, 0&5% $,6,&$49 566#,6 "% 6C&4,<150,
$,C$,6,%1&15"%6U
!nIroducIion
SIaIe oI ArI on Space-Iime RepresenIaIions
Choosing thc conccptucl vicw jor c spccc-timc
rcprcscntction
Choosing thc conjigurction jor c spccc-timc
rcprcscntction
CeographicaIIy-!nIegraIed HisIory
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
8
A surrogctc oj thc rccl world
A sct oj ontologiccl commitmcnts
Rccsoning chout Trcdc Nctworks
A mcdium jor cjjicicnt computction
A mcdium oj humcn cxprcssion
ConcIusions
A9&C1,$ [U AdoIIo UrruIia Zambrana, MarIa ]ose CarcIa RodrIguez,
MigueI A. 8ernabe Poveda, MarIa Cuerrero NieIo, @,"<9561"$:J
7%4"$C"$&15"% ") .,".$&C954 5%)"$0&15"% 6:61,06 5%1" 9561"$54&'
,V,%1 61#-5,6U
!nIroducIion: C!S and hisIory
Three basic probIems oI HisIory-C!S inIegraIion
|ncdcquctc, cmhiguous or incomplctc dctc sourccs
|ncorporcting timc into G|S
Rcprcscntction oj timc
8ibIiographic sources
Spctiotcmporcl dctc modcls
Dctc mining
Gcnctic Algorithm
Design oI a spaIioIemporaI anaIysis IooI
Slcvc trcdc dctchcsc cs dctc sourcc
Usc ccscs cnd clcsscs modcl
Spctiotcmporcl qucrics
Spctiotcmporcl dctc mining
c. Prcpcring thc knowlcdgc hcsc cxpcnsion
h. Sclcction oj Dctc mining tcchniqucs
c. Using gcnctic clgorithms in rcsult
cvcluction
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
9
d. Knowlcdgc hcsc cxpcnsion
c. Dyncmic visuclisction
ConcIusions and IuIure work
A9&C1,$ FU AmeIia PoIonia and Amandio 8arros, A"00,$45&'
)'"+6 &%- 1$&%6),$,%4, C&11,$%6 P,1+,,% 7P,$5&% ,0C5$,6 DEW
19
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TheoreIicaI Iramework
Case sIudy - Iows beIween !berian empires
Discovcrcrs cnd pilots
Slcvc trcdc
migrction jlows
ConcIusion
A9&C1,$ ZU sIher Perez Asensio, !sabeI deI 8osgue, RoberIo
MaesIre, ]uan ManueI Sanchez-Crespo Camacho, Ana Crespo
SoIana, /"-,''5%. &%- 70C',0,%1&15"% ") & 6C&15"<1,0C"$&'
9561"$54 @7;U
!nIroducIion
A review oI Ihe spaIio-IemporaI modeIs Ior C!S appIicaIions
DaIa sources
Thc Spcnish Atlcntic oj thc |ndics Trcdc Dctchcsc
(DynCoopNct Crcspo)
|ndo-Pccijic Trcdc Systcm Dctchcsc (DynCoopNct
Picczo)
Fincncicl Systcm oj thc Hispcnic Moncrchy Dctchcsc
(DynCoopNct Alonso)
ConcepIuaI modeI Ior spaIiaI and IemporaI hisIoricaI daIa:
design and impIemenIaIion
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
10
Thc modcl's spctio-tcmporcl dimcnsion
Modcl componcnts
Socicl Nctwork Anclysis
CeovisuaIizaIion IooIs
ConcIusions and IuIure
A9&C1,$ WU Ana Crespo SoIana2 ;,') "$.&%5=5%.J 89, 4&6, ")
0,$49&%1S6 4""C,$&15"% 5% 19, Y56C&%54 Q1'&%154 ,4"%"0:
DEWHG<EXXHIU
A New xperimenIaI MeIhod in an OId HisIoric ramework
The IuncIionaIiIy oI Ihe merchanI communiIy
NeIworks and SeII-Organising
CooperaIion and Iorms oI Irade
A9&C1,$ XU David AIonso CarcIa, K&1&P&6, B6, &%- >,1+"$?6 ")
A""C,$&15"% P,1+,,% 1&L )&$0,$6 5% A&615',2 EZGG<EZ[WU
An exampIe oI DaIabase Io sIudy IinnaciaI neIworks during
Ihe 16Ih cenIury
A companion oI Ihe worId oI Iax Iarming
Dcmcrcctions: whcrc tcx jcrmcd collchorctcd
Drgcnizctions: how tcx jcrmcrs collchorctcd
ConcIusion
A9&C1,$ HU AnIonI Picazo MunIaner2 \"$162 8$&-, &%- >,1+"$?6U
N%, 3L&0C',J 8$&-, 5% /&%5'&UK&1&P&6,6 )"$ & 9561"$54&'
],6,&$49 @7;
!nIroducIion
Trade in ManiIa
Mcnilc: trcdc volumc
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
11
Mcnilc cnd thc cxport oj silvcr: A myth in trcdc?
A9&C1,$ bU RiIa Mukher|ee2 O$"0 ;0&'' R"$'- 1" ^&$., B%5V,$6,J
*&650P&=&$ 5% 35.91,,%19 A,%1#$: M,%.&'U
!nIroducIion: PIace HisIories
MuIIipIe NeIworks
Smcll Nctworks
Smcll Worlds
Smcll World Systcms
Glohcl Nctworks
RooIing Ihe Space in PIace: Nawabi PromoIion oI Ihe
conomy
The Phase TransiIion aI Kasimbazar: rom SmaII WorId Io a
SysIem Ihrough CommodiIies
From Ricc cnd Sugcr to Silk
Thc Shijt jrom Silk to Scltpctcr:
Ducl Shijt? Thc Ccsc jor Dpium?
Sclt
Ncw Commoditics ct thc Mid Ccntury rcck
ConcIusion
A9&C1,$ EGU WiIIingIon SiabaIo, MigueI AngeI 8ernabe Poveda
and AIberIo ernndez-WyIIenbach, 7%1,.$&15"% ") _5$1#&' /&C
]""06 &6 & 6#CC"$1 1""' 5% 9561"$54&' &%- 6"45&' $,6,&$49U
!nIroducIion
Research conIexI
!mpIemenIaIion oI a VirIuaI Map Room
Historiccl dctc rcpository
Gcogrcphic dctc scrvcr
Scrvicc crchitccturc schcmc
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
12
The earIy carIography Web cIienI
nriched graphic user inIerIace
ConcIusions and IuIure advances
A9&C1,$ EEU MarIa Cuerrero NieIo, AdoIIo UrruIia Zambrana,
MigueI AngeI 8ernabe Poveda, MarIa ]ose CarcIa RodrIguez,
8"+&$- 1,0C"$&' &%%"1&15"% 5% @7; ,%V5$"%0,%16U
!nIroducIion
Time: sIaIe oI Ihe arI
Markup Ianguage TimeML
TimeML: descripIion and characIerisIics
MeIhodoIogy
Corpus proccssing
Tcmporcl cxprcssions in historiccl corpus
Tcmporcl cnnotction oj thc corpus
Towcrds crccting tools jor cutomcticclly cxtrccting
tcmporcl injormction jrom tcxt
|ncorporction oj TimcML cs pcrt oj c gcodctchcsc
ResuIIs and discussion
A9&C1,$ EaU Werner ScheII|ens, 89, "C,$&15"%&' 61$#41#$, ")
9561"$54&' 0&$5150, 695CC5%.J & .,%,$&' $,V5,+ ") ?%"+',-.,
-564"V,$: 1""'6U
!nIroducIion
Case
Case-sIudy resuIIs
DaIaseIs
SIrucIure oI Ihe paper
8asic DaIa series
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
13
nIiIy Dynamic IooIs
|dcntijicction
Clcssijicction
c. ntity stctus clcssijicction
h. Dpcrctioncl pcttcrn clcssijicction
c. Pcttcrn dcnsity rctc
SpaIiaI dynamics IooI
|dcntijicction
Clcssijicction
Comparison
Summary
AssessmenI
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
14
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
15

7%1$"-#415"%
!"# %&'()* +*,#"#
(!nsIiIuIo de HisIoria, CCHS-CS!C, Spain)
-#./0 !,*"(* 1#&23#
(Universidad CompIuIense Madrid, Spain)


Thc collcctcd csscys compriscd in this work crc thc rcsult
oj thc jirst yccrs oj rcsccrch hy thc scicntists who mckc up thc
DynCoopNct work tccm.
1
|n thc jrcmcwork oj thc URDCDRS
Progrcmmc cs pcrt oj thc TCT ccll - Thc volution oj Coopcrction
cnd Trcding - oj thc uropccn Scicncc Foundction, this wcs onc oj
jivc projccts cpprovcd hy this cmhitious, intcrdisciplincry scicntijic
progrcmmc. Thc cim oj this progrcmmc hcs hccn thc study oj
thc cmcrgcncc oj cnd cvolutioncry proccsscs oj cxchcngc cnd
coopcrction thct occur in ncturc, including humcn socictics.
2
This
progrcmmc wcs hcscd on c scrics oj common idccs. Thc phcnomcnon
1 Te Collaborative Research project Dynamic complexity of Self-Based Organized Networks of
the First Global Age, is carried out within the framework of the EUROCORES Programme of the European
Science Foundation, TECT call: Te Evolution of cooperation and Trading, Reference: (06-TECT- FP004),
and co-funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and innovation, by the National Science Foundation in
United States (NSF) and by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT).
2 Richardson, P. J. & Boyd, R. Not by genes alone: How culture transformed human evolution.
(Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 2005). All conclusions about this programme have been highlighted
by Ronald Noe in the Introduction to Te Evolution of cooperation and Trading (TECT). Final Report, edited
by Barry Dixon, Eva Hoogland and Claire Rustat-Flinton (Strasbourg, European Science Foundation,
2011): 3-4.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
16
oj coopcrction csscnticlly hcs, ct vcrious orgcnisctioncl lcvcls, thc
scmc roots cnd rcison d'ctrc in cll cvolutioncry proccsscs whcthcr
gcnctic or historic-culturcl. Scicntists know thct thcsc proccsscs
cmcrgc in vcrious socicl contcxts or ccosystcms, whcrc hcctcric
or humcn socictics in multinctioncl cllicnccs hcvc hccn clcmcnts
involvcd. Howcvcr, in most ccscs, Scicncc is still unchlc to dctcrminc
cnd dcjinc coopcrction cnd why it tckcs plccc. Dcspitc c rclctivc lcck
oj rcsccrch, thc study oj coopcrction hcs hcd numcrous, convcrgcnt
dcvclopmcnts in vcrious jiclds, such cs conomics, iology cnd
Sociology. |t ccn hc scid, in prccticc, thct thcrc is c common thcory
which cxplcins hiologiccl cnd culturcl cvolution. This thcory
highlights jccturcs oj intcrcctions hctwccn cgcnts or cntitics, which
hcvc dcvclopcd cvcn morc in rclction to cconomic hchcviour thcn
Socicl cnd Humcn Scicnccs. |n this ccsc, our projcct hcs hccn grcctly
cnrichcd hy cn cxccllcnt hihliogrcphiccl hcsc.
J
Gcncrclly spccking,
thcorics rclcting to thc cmcrgcncc oj coopcrction mcchcnisms hcvc
hccn cpplicd in vcrious jiclds, jrom Ncuroscicncc (cspcciclly with
rcgcrds to Cognitivc Thcory) to conomic History (Gcmc Thcory).
4

3 Ballard, R. Coalitions of reciprocity and the maintenance of fnancial integrity within informal
value transmission systems: Te operational dynamics of contemporary hawala networks, Journal of
Banking Regulation 6 (2005), (4), pp.319-352; Dendrinos, D. & Sonis, M. Chaos and socio-spatial dynamics.
Applied Mathematical Sciences, vol. 86. (New York, Berlin, Heidelberg, London, Paris, Tokyo, and Hong
Kong: Springer-Verlag, 1990); Faust, K. & Skvoretz, J. Comparing networks across space and time, size and
species, Sociological Methodology, (2002), 32, pp. 267-299; Rosser, J. B. Jr. & Rosser, J. B. From catastrophe
to chaos: A general theory of economic discontinuities. Vol. I. 2nd (ed. Berlin & New York: Springer-Verlag,
2006 [2000]); Sonis, M. & Hewings, G. J. D. Economic complexity as network complication: Multiregional
input-output structural path analysis. Te Annals of Regional Science, 32, pp. 407-436; White, D. R. (2003).
Eds., Networks and complexity: Converging streams of research. Complexity, (1998), 8 (1), p. 14.
4 Broadly explained in: Owens, J. B., Dynamic Complexity of Cooperation-Based Self-Organising
Networks in the First Global Age (DynCoopNet). In Ronald Noe, Rdiger Klein, Julia Bowman, and Claire
Rustat-Flinton (eds.), Te Evolution of Cooperation and Trading (TECT) (Strasbourg, FR: European Science
Foundation, 2008): 23-35 [Te complete, illustrated booklet is available at the URL www.esf.org/activities/
eurocores/programmes/tect.html.]; Owens, J. B., Toward a geographically-integrated, connected world
history: Employing geographic information systems (GIS). History Compass, 5, 6 (October 2007): 2014-
2040, 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00476.x.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
17
Within this hrocd rcsccrch jrcmcwork, "Dyncmic
Coopcrction Nctworks is cn intcrdisciplincry projcct with
historicns, mcthcmcticicns, ccrtogrcphcrs cnd G|S cnginccrs jrom
thc USA, Portugcl, Spcin, Gcrmcny, thc Ncthcrlcnds, |ndic, Swcdcn,
Mozcmhiquc cnd othcr countrics. This collchorctivc rcsccrch tccm
hcs jocuscd on how coopcrction wcs signijiccnt within sclj-orgcnising
nctworks in thc so-ccllcd First Glohcl Agc (1400-1800). Thcrcjorc,
this rcsccrch projcct cddrcsscd cn importcnt collcctivc study chout
historiccl conditions jor cmcrging clcmcnts oj coopcrction in thc
contcxt oj c complcx dyncmic systcm thct chcrcctcriscs World
History jrom cround 1500 AD. Without douht, scvcrcl studics hcvc
hrought to light c ncw thcorcticcl cnd mcthodologiccl hcckground jor
thosc coopcrction mcchcnisms which lcd to thc cstchlishmcnt oj ncw
jorms oj socicl nctworks hctwccn mcrchcnts cnd jincncicrs. Tcking
cdvcntcgc oj thcsc socicl structurcs, commcrcc cnd jincnccs could
hc shcpcd through timc cnd spccc jrom thc 16
th
ccntury onwcrds,
hringing togcthcr mcrchcnt nctions cnd pcoplc cs wcll. |n this
rcspcct, this spccicl issuc ojjcrs dijjcrcnt historiccl rcsccrch on this
topic. Howcvcr, it includcs importcnt ncws chout how our gocls cs
historicns could hc cchicvcd: wc try to show how dctchcscs cnd G|S
ccn hc uscjul jor historiccl rcsccrch. So, contrihutors ojjcr rcsults jor
c dccpcr undcrstcnding oj commcrcc during First Glohcl Agc cnd,
with this, thcy cxplcin how thcy hcvc mcdc usc oj ncw tcchnologics
to rccch thcir ohjcctivcs. G|S hcs hccn drcwn on cs cn intcgrction
dcvicc jor injormction, cs c visuclizction tool, whcrc dctc on world
commcrcc hcs hccn collcctcd. This G|S cxpcricncc hcs crcctcd cn
intcgrctcd cnd shcrcd dctchcsc chout mccns cnd proccdurcs oj
coopcrction during thc First Glohcl Agc. Dthcr dctchcscs hclp to
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
18
comhinc injormction chout cgcnts jrom dijjcrcnt points oj vicw,
ncmcly cgcnts jor commcrcicl, jincncc, politic, idcology, socicty cnd
so on. Dctchcscs clso includc mctcricl chout mccns oj coopcrction,
sciling, mcritimc trcdc, routcs, ports cnd othcr csscnticl cntitics jor
historiccl rcsccrch. Spcticl cnd tcmporcl movcmcnt is cxpcctcd to hc
csscnticl in this projcct, cs migrctory shijts constitutc c kcy issuc jor
undcrstcnding how glohcl phcnomcnc hcvc cmcrgcd. Thc jormction
oj socictics cnd thc intcrconncction oj socicl nctworks during thc
ccnturics oj thc jirst glohcl cgc is c jicld oj study which, hcsidcs
hcing cn ongoing linc oj rcsccrch in thc crcc oj Socicl Scicnccs cnd
Humcnitics, poscs c chcllcngc to thc historicn cs c socicl scicntist
cnd cn cxpcrt in thc Domcin.
5
Anclysis oj thc historiccl cvolution oj
socicl proccsscs is, morcovcr, c chcllcngc to thc cpplicction oj ncw
innovctivc mcthodologiccl pcrspcctivcs. |n ordcr to cpprocch morc
complcx historiccl knowlcdgc, Historicns cnd Scicntists nccd to rcjcr
to lcngucgcs cnd mcthods rclctcd to cnclysis oj humcn hchcviour
jrom cn intcrdisciplincry pcrspcctivc. This projcct ccmc to jruition
cs c rcsult oj c long rcjlcction proccss, cnclysing thc historiccl
cvolution oj c scrics oj historiccl proccsscs thct took plccc duc to thc
cmcrgcncc oj ncw jorms oj humcn hchcviour. Thcsc ncw jorms took
plccc ovcr c long pcriod oj timc (1500-1800) cnd in c trcnsnctioncl
gcogrcphic contcxt, whcrc ncw typcs oj socicl cnvironmcnts wcrc
crcctcd through closc contcct with othcr pcrts oj thc world. jcck
5 Fujita, M., Krugman, P. & Venables, A. J. Te spatial economy: cities, regions, and international
trade. (Cambridge, London: MIT Press; 1999); (Henrich J. 2004).. Cultural group selection, coevolutionary
processes and large-scale cooperation. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 53: 3-35; Hewings,
G. J. D., Sonis, M. & Boyce, D. (Eds.). Trade, networks, and hierarchies: Integrated approaches to modeling
regional and interregional economies. (Heidelberg, New York: Springer Verlag, 2001); Krugman, P. (1996).
Te self-organizing economy. Mitsui Lectures in Economics. (Cambridge, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers,
1996); and Crespo Solana, Ana, ed. Comunidades transnacionales. Colonias de mercaderes extranjeros en el
mundo atlntico, 1500-1800, (Madrid: Doce Calles, 2010).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
19
Dwcns dcjcnds thc idcc oj cstchlishing c thcorcticcl modcl on thc
cmcrgcncc oj ncw jorms oj coopcrction in thc contcxt oj c dyncmic
complcx systcm in which nctworks workcd, cs wcll cs rcvccling thc
mcchcnisms thct cllowcd thc vcrious typcs oj cgcnts to cstchlish
cnd sustcin c cohcsion thct ojtcn spcnncd long distcnccs within
c vcry widc gco-historiccl spccc. Such cnclyscs would hc grcctly
cnrichcd hy thc utilisction oj innovctivc tcchnology to improvc thc
chility to visuclizc cnd cnclysc - Gcogrcphic |njormction Systcms
or G|S (Dwcns & Wcchowicz). As historicns wc hcvc dcvotcd our
timc cnd cjjorts to dcjining this First Glohcl Agc. This spccc - thc
spccc wc study - hcs hccn dcjincd hy thc thcorists oj thc World
Systcm in dijjcrcnt wcys, cnd thcsc thcorists hcvc contrihutcd thcir
pcrspcctivcs oj cnclysis towcrds thc crcction oj dcsignctions such cs
World Systcm or Atlcntic Systcm. Gcncrclly spccking, this spccc is in
jcct c glohcl systcm whcrc intcrcctions occurrcd; thus wc hcvc drcwn
up, jrom World Conncctcd History,
6
c thcorcticcl-mcthodologiccl
jrcmcwork jor this scnsc oj thc tcrm "World Conncctcd History . Thc
conscqucncc oj uropccn cxpcnsion hctwccn thc 16
th
cnd 18
th
ccntury
wcs thc cmcrgcncc oj mcrchcnt socictics - socicl cnvironmcnts -
ccntrcd cround trcdc cctivitics (Alonso Gcrcc, Picczo Muntcncr cnd
Mukhcrjcc). This wcs thc hcginning oj c proccss thct hcd prcccdcnts
in thc Ancicnt World hut which hcd not yct rccchcd thc lcvcl thct
wcs cttcincd jrom thc 15
th
ccntury onwcrds. This proccss lcd to thc
intcgrction oj c glohcl nctwork thct wcs clccrly chcrcctcriscd hy
thc complcxity oj its intcrconncction. At this stcgc, coopcrction cnd
compctition crc two issucs thct crc closc togcthcr cnd not cntircly
6 Frank, A. G. ReORIENT: Global economy in the Asian age. (Berkeley, Los Angeles: University
of California Press, 1998); Ringrose, D. R. Expansion and global interaction, 1200-1700 (New York: Addison
Wesley Longman, 2001).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
20
unrclctcd. |n thc trcnsnctioncl cmpirc oj thc |hcricn moncrchics
(Portugcl cnd Spcin), its complcx cconomic nctwork wcs sustcincd
hy thc trcding cnd jincncicl scrviccs providcd hy cll its cgcnts. Thc
mcrchcnt communitics oj vcrious nctionclitics plcycd c crucicl rolc
in this rcspcct cs thcy jormcd thc jincncicl hcsis oj thc cmpirc cs wcll
cs mcncging Spcin's prospcrous jorcign trcdc. |ntcrcontincntcl trcdc
incrccscd thcnks to thc cmhition cnd cspirctions oj thc mcrchcnts
who, through dicsporcs, scttlcd in vcrious citics cnd orgcniscd
thcmsclvcs into institutions cnd nctworks. This proccss sustcincd
homogcncous trcding prccticcs during thc so-ccllcd commcrcicl
Rcvolution. Thc cmpiriccl dctc cnclyscd in thc ccsc oj thc Portugucsc
mpirc, cvcn ij tckcn only cs scmplcs, is vcry cnlightcning in tcrms oj
thc indisputchlc prcscncc oj Portugucsc in thc Spcnish |ndics, cs it is
truc cvidcncc oj injormcl cnd sclj-orgcniscd Portugucsc intcrnctioncl
nctworks opcrcting in thct pcrt oj thc crly Modcrn colonicl world.
|n thc cxcmplcs oj Polonic cnd crrios, c sort oj glohcl intcrcction is
dcscrihcd hctwccn dijjcrcnt spcccs oj |hcricn Moncrchics. This kind
oj widcsprccd intcrcction wcs not rcstrictcd just to thc Amcriccs
hut sprccd ovcr thc wholc oj uropc, with Mcdinc dcl Ccmpo jcirs,
Mcdrid, Lishon, Scvillc, Antwcrp (cnd lctcr on, Amstcrdcm), Pcris,
cscnon, cnd Hcmhurg, citics whcrc ccpitcl jlowcd. Thcsc nctworks
jrcqucntly involvcd husincss thct conncctcd, oncc morc, Portugcsc
cnd Spcnish ovcrsccs trcdc cnd thcir intcrcsts in intcrnctioncl
jincncicl circuits. Thc conclusions oj this work dcmonstrctc how
this thcorcticcl cnd mcthodologiccl contcxt is uscjul whcn studying
Modcrn History jrom c truly intcrdisciplincry pcrspcctivc, cspcciclly
givcn thct thc First Glohcl Agc wcs notoriously chcrcctcriscd hy thc
cmcrgcncc oj proccsscs oj jormction cnd dcvclopmcnt oj spccicliscd
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
21
mcrchcnt socictics thct mcdc trcdc cnd sccjcring thcir mcin wcys oj
lijc cnd thus providcd thc youngcr gcncrctions with ncw opportunitics
jor growth. This proccss clso cjjcctcd thc vcrious socictics in outsidc
oj uropc.
7
|t is importcnt to cnclysc thcsc communitics hy looking
ct thcir nctwork conncctions jollowing mcrchcnt migrction. Wc
should clso jocus on thc nctwork conncctions oj pcoplc thct livcd on
thcir sccjcring, jincncicl or mcnujccturing skills hcppcncd within c
numhcr oj dicsporcs which occurrcd cround intcrrclctcd historiccl
juncturcs cnd migrctions (Crcspo Solcnc).
Pcpcrs dcvotcd to G|S tcchnologics show how G|S is hcing
cpplicd to dijjcrcnt jiclds in which thc dyncmic modclling oj thc
phcnomcnc rcquircs hoth thc tcmporcl componcnt cnd thc spcticl
contcxt in which thcy dcvclop. Thc tcmporcl vcrichlc implics tcking
into cccount timc scclcs, grcnulcrity cnd thc cycliccl hchcviour
oj ccrtcin cvcnts. |t mckcs thc tcsk somcwhct morc complcx thcn
simply cdding columns to thc dctchcsc to indicctc thc hcginning cnd
cnd oj thc cvcnt (Urrutic Zcmhrcnc,Gcrcc Rodrgucz cnd crnchc
Povcdc). |n othcr ccscs, thc cxtcndcd dcsign oj c G|S-hcscd sct oj
tools to cnclysc spctio-tcmporcl dctc in ordcr to cnchlc rcsccrchcrs
rccognising pcttcrns or hchcviour cctivitics ovcr timc is clso
gcncrclly cxplcincd. To dcsign thc prototypc cnd its implcmcntction
in c G|S, wc uscd cn cxtcnsivc onlinc dctchcsc on trcns-Atlcntic slcvc
trcdc routcs hctwccn thc 16
th
cnd 1
th
ccntury. This dctchcsc contcins
cpproximctcly J5,000 trips idcntijying morc thcn 270 cspccts oj
ccch, cllowing jor cnclysis oj thc spccc-timc hchcviour oj thcsc ships
cnd prcscnts dijjcrcnt dyncmic visuclisctions oj whct hcppcncd.
8

This dcsign is considcrcd c stcrting point jor dcvcloping othcr gco-
7 Curtin, Ph. D, Cross-cultural Trade in World History, (Cambridge University Press, 1984)
8 Te Database is available in: http://www.slavevoyages.org/tast/database/index.faces.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
22
injormction tools to hc cpplicd in studics oj mcrchcnt nctworks cnd
trcding coopcrction (Pcrcz Ascnsio, dcl osquc, Mccstrc, Scnchcz-
Crcspo Ccmccho cnd Crcspo Solcnc).


Spcticl Dctc |njrcstructurcs hcvc hccomc c mcthodologiccl
cnd tcchnologiccl hcnchmcrk, cnchling distrihutcd ccccss to
historiccl-ccrtogrcphic crchivcs. |t is csscnticl, howcvcr, to ojjcr
cnhcnccd virtucl tools which imitctc thc currcnt proccsscs cnd
mcthodologics ccrricd out hy lihrcricns, historicns cnd cccdcmics in
thc cxisting mcp lihrcrics cround thc world. As c gcncric jrcmcwork
jor mcncging, qucrying cnd ccccssing distrihutcd gco-rcjcrcnccd
rcsourccs, support tools to providc cnrichcd hrowsing cnd dyncmiccl
qucrying mcthods hcscd on SD| joundctions cnd thc D|GMAP cnginc,
which cnchlcs ccccss to gcorcjcrcnccd historiccl-ccrtogrcphiccl
crchivcs hcvc hccn dcsigncd cnd dcvclopcd. |n this wcy, it is possihlc
to cchicvc thc intcgrction oj virtucl mcp rooms cnd SD| tcchnologics
hringing support to rcsccrchcrs within thc historiccl cnd socicl
domcins (Sichcto, crnchc Povcdc cnd Fcrnndcz-Wyttcnhcch). Thc
purposc oj this work is to mckc cn indcpth study oj thc incorporction
oj thc tcmporcl componcnt in c G|S jrom c linguistic pcrspcctivc,
spccijicclly jrom c scmcntic cnnotction pcrspcctivc. A mcthodology
is proposcd jor intcgrction oj ncturcl lcngucgc tcmporcl cxprcssions
using thc Ncturcl Lcngucgc Proccssing (NLP). Tcxt documcnts
normclly contcin tcmporcl cxprcssions lctting us know whcn cn
cvcnt occurrcd, how long ccrtcin cvcnts lcstcd, ctc. Undcrstcnding
thc scmcntic oj thcsc cxprcssions, cvcn modclling it in c dctchcsc
jor its incorporction in c G|S (Gcogrcphic |njormction Systcm), is
cn crcc oj intcrcst in mcny jiclds, pcrticulcrly in History. |n this
9 Te project is funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation: Ref.: HAR2011-
27694.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
23
pcpcr wc hcvc uscd TimcML, c progrcm which cnchlcs rccognition
cnd normclisction oj ncturcl lcngucgc tcmporcl cxprcssions, jor
intcgrction oj thcsc cxprcssions into c gco-dctchcsc with cpplicction
to c G|S. |n cddition, systcmctic cnclysis oj thcsc ncturcl lcngucgc
cxprcssions is prcscntcd with thc cim oj cxtcnding G|S ccpchilitics
through introduction oj scmcntics cnd ncturcl lcngucgc, cdcpting
tcxt documcnts jor thc dyncmic rcprcscntction oj injormction in c
G|S (Gucrrcro Nicto, Urrutic Zcmhrcnc, crnchc Povcdc cnd Gcrcc
Rodrgucz).
Atlcntic cnd glohcl history studics hcvc rcccntly hcncjitcd
jrom thc spcticl turn, c thcory which rc-csscsscs spctio-tcmporcl
cnclyscs.
10
|n jcct, timc cnd spccc do truly rcprcscnt c continuous
rcturn oj Atlcntic historiogrcphy, which includcs glohcl, cisctlcntic
cnd compcrctivc gcogrcphic cnclyscs cnd cncompcsscs thc study oj
cgcnts cnd nctworks, jcctors cnd rcgions, jrom c spcticl pcrspcctivc.
Thc gocl oj thc lcst pcpcr is to prcscnt c sct oj gcncrcl cnclyticcl
tools thct crc dccmcd to hclp rcsccrchcrs oj mcritimc history to
discovcr signijiccnt clcmcnts oj thc structurc oj historiccl shipping
thct would othcrwisc rcmcin invisihlc. |t is hopcd thct thcsc tools
will hclp rcsccrchcrs to gcncrctc ncw hypothcscs (Schcltjcns). Thc
tools in this pcpcr crc hcscd on cxisting mcthods jor cxplorctory
dctc cnclysis. Thcir thcorcticcl hcsis is cvolutioncry; thc tools crc
constructcd in such c wcy thct thcy cllow us to disccrn cnd intcrprct
proccsscs oj originction, cdoption cnd rctcntion.
|n summcry, this spccicl issuc proposcs ncw innovctivc wcys
oj trcndisciplincry work jor Socicl Scicntists cnd Historicns, in
10 A study about how spatial turn can be useful for historians, M. Middell and K. Naumann,
Global History and the Spatial Turn: From the Impact Areas Studies to Study of Critical Junctures of
Globalization, Journal of Global History, n 5 (2010), pp. 149-170.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
24
ordcr to tckc cdvcntcgc oj ncw tcchnologics cnd shcrc injormction.
Contrihutors prcscnt thcir conclusions on mcrchcnt cnd jincncicl
coopcrction during thc First Glohcl Agc cnd cxplcin how G|S cnd
dctchcscs ccn hc uscd. Thc DynCoopNct projcct prcscnts c rccl
cnd intcrdisciplincry wcy oj intcgrcting historiccl, cconomic,
ccrtogrcphic injormction, socicl nctworks tools cnd mcthcmcticcl
modcls. Anclysing thouscnds cnd thouscnds oj picccs oj dctc
through computcr progrcms involvcs lcrgc groups oj rcsccrchcrs.
|n othcr words, this spccicl issuc is c proposcl jor unknown lcvcls
oj coopcrction hctwccn scicntists in dijjcrcnt jiclds. As such, wc tclk
chout thc pcst hut, ct thc scmc timc, wc crc thinking chout thc juturc.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
25
K:%&054 A"0C',L51: ") A""C,$&15"%<M&6,-
;,')<N$.&%5=5%. A"00,$45&'>,1+"$?6 5%
19, O5$61 @'"P&' Q.,DK:%A""C>,1IJ R9&1S6
5% & %&0,T
E

Q#19"$J !U MU c!&4?d N+,%6
(UniversiIy oI !daho, USA)
7%1$"-#415"%

8ecause we have IoId in oIher pIaces Ihe sIory oI Ihe creaIion
oI Ihe DynCoopNeI Pro|ecI and Ihe geographicaIIy-inIegraIed
hisIory paradigm underIying Ihe originaI Iunding proposaI,
2
Ihis
chapIer wiII be dedicaIed Io Iwo reIaIed Iasks. irsI, ! wiII underIake
a cIose examinaIion oI Ihe concepIs embedded in iIs Iong IiIIe.
Second, ! wiII expIain how Ihey IiI IogeIher as a Iramework Ior Ihe
inIeracIions oI researchers drawn Irom a varieIy oI discipIines Io
IosIer Ihe emergence oI new scienIiIic ideas, which go beyond Ihe
1 Material in this chapter is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation
under Grants No. 0740345 and No. 0941371. Any opinions, fndings, and conclusions or recommendations
expressed in this material are those of the author and do not necessarily refect the views of the National
Science Foundation.
2 What Historians Want from GIS, ArcNews 29, no. 2 (2007): 4-6, and http://www.esri.com/
news/arcnews/summer07articles/what-historians-want.html (accessed on May 10, 2010); article reprinted
in GIS Best Practices: Essays on Geography and GIS (Redlands, California: ESRI, 2008), 35-46, and in GIS Best
Practices: Social Sciences (Redlands, California: ESRI, 2009), 35-45; Toward a Geographically-Integrated,
Connected World History: Employing Geographic Information Systems (GIS), History Compass 5, no. 6
(2007): 2014-2040; doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00476.x; A Multi-national, Multi-disciplinary Study of
Trade Networks and the Domains of Iberian Monarchies during the First Global Age, 1400-1800, Society
for Spanish and Portuguese Historical Studies: Bulletin 33, no. 2 (2008): 23-30; What kind of system is it?
Te DynCoopNet Project as a Tribute to Andre Gunder Frank (1929-2005), in Networks in the First Global
Age, 1400-1800, ed. Rila Mukherjee (New Delhi: Primus Book, 2011, 3-9).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
26
normaI advances characIerisIic oI work wiIhin a singIe discipIine.
8y providing a concise, cIear sIaIemenI oI Ihese maIIers, ! inIend
Io provide a IoundaIion Ior Ihe IurIher Iunding proposaIs oI my
DynCoopNeI coIIeagues and oIhers Io advance Ihe promising
research direcIion we have esIabIished. Moreover, aII oIher
successIuI pro|ecIs in Ihe granI compeIiIion conIain one or more
researchers who knew abouI Ihe program Irom iIs presenIaIion
in ]anuary 200S, buI ! onIy Iearned abouI iI when ! saw Ihe caII Ior
proposaI Iive weeks beIore Ihe preIiminary, ouIIine proposaI was
due in ]une 2006. !n Ihis Ioo-IimiIed Iime period, we had Io draII
a proposaI and recruiI parIicipaIing researchers Irom a varieIy
oI discipIines in sixIeen counIries on Iive conIinenIs. ThereIore,
Ihis chapIer aIIords me Ihe opporIuniIy Io eIaboraIe aspecIs oI
DynCoopNeI pro|ecI which were noI cIear aI Ihe beginning oI Ihis
invesIigaIion.
A""C,$&15"%
The DynCoopNeI Pro|ecI began iIs IiIe as a response Io a
caII Ior proposaIs Ior Ihe uropean Science oundaIion research
program enIiIIed The voIuIion oI CooperaIion and Trading"
(TCT).
3
As Ihe originaI caII made cIear,
4
Ihe Iopic possesses a viIaI
conIemporary inIeresI. !n 1968, noIed bioIogisI CarreII Hardin
(191S-2003) chiIIed readers wiIh a vision oI a worId in which hu-
3 TECT home page: http://www.esf.org/activities/eurocores/running-programmes/tect.html
(accessed on May 12, 2010).
4 http://www.esf.org/index.php?eID=tx_nawsecuredl&u=0&fle=fleadmin/be_user/activities/
EUROCORES/TECT/TECT%20Call%2010.04.06.pdf&t=1273778972&hash=de6b17bdb74671ab8d3bc25
a6a8e19d4 (accessed on May 12, 2010).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
27
mans IaiIed Io cooperaIe. The Tragedy oI Ihe Commons"
S
used Ihe
masIer meIaphor oI a viIIage's common-use grazing Iand on which,
in Ihe absence oI cooperaIion Ior susIainabiIiIy, each viIIager wiII
graze as many animaIs as possibIe, evenIuaIIy desIroying a viIaI
resource. Hardin's piece caused speciaI concern because onIy Iour
years beIore, evoIuIionary bioIogisI WiIIiam D. HamiIIon (1936-
2000) had demonsIraIed IhaI, in IheoreIicaI Ierms, cooperaIion
wouId aIways be desIroyed by cheaIers, deIecIors, and Iree-riders.
6

Such dramaIic asserIions oI humans' Iendency Io desIroy, raIher
Ihan susIain, naIuraI resources on which Iheir Iives depend
iniIiaIed muIIipIe research sIreams oI considerabIe richness. As a
sign oI Ihe imporIance given Io Ihis work, Ihe NobeI commiIIee Ior
economics presenIed iIs 2009 prize (shared) Io poIiIicaI scienIisI
Iinor OsIrom (b. 1933), IargeIy on Ihe basis oI her work on Ihe
governance oI Ihe commons".
7

! IeII IhaI ! couId assembIe a muIIidiscipIinary, muIIinaIionaI
Ieam, which couId address Ihe TCT caII in a noveI way. ! had
been sIruck in my research by Ihe exIraordinariIy high IeveIs oI
cooperaIion among Ihose invoIved in Ihe commerciaI neIworks oI
Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, 1400- 1800, in siIuaIions IhaI provided IiIIIe
possibiIiIy Ior coercion oI parIicipanI behavior. Much economic
acIiviIy enIaiIed cIandesIine reIaIionships, which did noI permiI
parIicipanIs Ihe easy use oI Ihe weak insIiIuIions IhaI were avaiIabIe
Io seek redress Irom cheaIers. urIhermore, Ihe irsI CIobaI Age
consIiIuIed a diIIerenI sysIem Irom IhaI oI our Iime, oIIering Io
5 Garrett Hardin, Te Tragedy of the Commons, Science 162 (1968): 12431244.
6 William D. Hamilton, Te Genetical Evolution of Social Behaviour. I & II, Journal of
Evolutionary Biology 7 (1964): 152.
7 For example, Elinor Ostrom, Governing the Commons: Te Evolution of Institutions for Collective
Action (Cambridge, UK, and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
28
researchers Ihe possibiIiIy oI examining cooperaIion in Ihe conIexI
oI earIier insIiIuIionaI and personaI reIaIionships and oI unIamiIiar
vaIues and perspecIives oI Ihe worId. As ]oseph R. Levenson (1920-
1969) showed, IoIIowing AIIred NorIh WhiIehead (1861-1947), a
diIIerenI sysIem aIIers even Ihe meaning oI a seemingIy IamiIiar
enIiIy because reIaIionships deIermine meaning raIher Ihan some
essence possessed by an enIiIy iIseII.
8
inaIIy, hisIorians make
IreguenI recourse Io narraIive expIanaIions, and because narraIive
knowIedge consIiIuIes a unigue and vaIuabIe Iorm oI knowIedge
9

seIdom empIoyed in cooperaIion research, a pro|ecI IhaI incIuded
hisIorians wouId make a subsIanIiaI and innovaIive conIribuIion Io
Ihe TCT program.
10
!n a recenI review oI cooperaIion research,
11

8 Joseph R. Levenson, Confucian China and its Modern Fate: A Trilogy (Berkeley and Los
Angeles: University of California Press, 1968); Alfred North Whitehead, Process and Reality: An Essay in
Cosmology, Giford Lectures Delivered in the University of Edinburgh During the Session 1927-28 (London
and New York: Macmillan, 1929). For a discussion of Levensons work and its importance for research in
world history, see Owens, Toward a Geographically-Integrated, Connected World History.
9 Harlene Anderson and Harold A. Goolishian, Human Systems as Linguistic Systems:
Preliminary and Evolving Ideas about the Implications for Clinical Teory, Family Process 27 (1988): 371-
393.; Jerome S. Bruner, Actual Minds, Possible Worlds (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1985);
Cliford Geertz, Te Interpretation of Cultures (New York, NY: Basic Books, 1973); J. H. Hexter, Te History
Primer (New York and London: Basic Books, 1971); Kathryn M. Hunter, Doctors Stories: Te Narrative
Structure of Medical Knowledge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1991); John Launer, Narrative-
based Primary Care: A Practical Guide (Oxford, UK: Radclife Medical Press, 2002).
10 For indications of the state of cooperation research at the time of the DynCoopNet proposal,
see Karen S. Cook, Russell Hardin, and Margaret Levi, Cooperation without trust? (New York: Russell Sage
Foundation, 2005); Joseph Henrich et al., Overview and Synthesis, in Foundations of Human Sociality:
Economic Experiments and Ethnographic Evidence from Fifeen Small-Scale Societies, eds. Joseph Henrich
et al. (Oxford, UK, and New York: Oxford University Press, 2004); Laurent Lehman and Laurent Keller,
Te Evolution of Cooperation and Altruism a General Framework and a Classifcation of Models,
Journal of Evolutionary Biology 19 (2006): 1365-1376; Martin A. Nowak, Five Rules for the Evolution of
Cooperation, Science 314 (2006): 1560-3.Joel L. Sachs, Ulrich G. Mueller, Tomas P. Wilcox, and James J.
Bull, Te Evolution of Cooperation, Quarterly Review of Biology 79 (2004): 135160; Raimo Tuomela,
Cooperation: A Philosophical Study (Dordrecht and Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000); Stuart A.
West, Ashleigh S. Grifn, and Andy Gardner, Social Semantics: Altruism, Cooperation, Mutualism, Strong
Reciprocity and Group Selection, Journal of Evolutionary Biology 20 (2007): 415432; Stuart A. West,
Ashleigh S. Grifn, and Andy Gardner, Evolutionary Explanations for Cooperation: Review, Current
Biology 17 (August 2007): R661-R672.
11 Laurent Lehmann, Kevin R. Foster, Elhanan Borenstein, and Marcus W. Feldman, Social and
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
29
mosIIy done by evoIuIionary bioIogisIs and economisIs inIeresIed
in game Iheory, Ihe auIhors accounI Ior Ihe inadeguacy oI resuIIs by
poinIing Io Ihe IaiIure Io deaI wiIh Ihe roIe oI individuaI inIenIions.
AIIhough Ihe arIicIe's auIhors propose designing new games Io IesI
Ihe impacI oI individuaI inIenIions, hisIorians provide a greaI deaI
oI inIormaIion abouI Ihis IacIor, which wiII permiI researchers
who Iocus on Ihe irsI CIobaI Age Io oIIer innovaIive expIanaIions
Ior Ihe high IeveIs oI cooperaIion during Ihis Iour-cenIury period in
Ihe Iace oI a reIaIive absence oI coercion.
@,".$&C954&'':<7%1,.$&1,- Y561"$:
DynCoopNeI proposed Io deaI wiIh Ihe probIem presenIed
by Ihe presence oI so much cooperaIion Ihrough Ihe appIicaIion
oI geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory. As a research and Ieaching
discipIine, we Iounded geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory on Ihe
idea IhaI Ihe undersIanding oI hisIoricaI processes reguires an
inIegraIion oI pIace, space, and Iime and accompIishing Ihis
inIegraIion poses a chaIIenge, which can be meI wiIh modern
inIormaIion managemenI, especiaIIy geographic inIormaIion
sysIems (C!S), and visuaIizaIion Iechnigues. The underIying
IransIormaIive geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory research
paradigm posiIs IhaI:
1) Ihe hisIory oI any pIace is shaped by Ihe way Ihe pIace
is connecIed Io oIher pIaces and Ihe changes in Ihese connecIions
over Iime;
12

Individual Learning of Helping in Humans and Other Species, Trends in Ecology and Evolution 23, no. 12
(2008): 664-671.
12 Harm J. De Blij, Te Power of Place: Geography, Destiny, and Globalizations Rough Landscape
(Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2009); Organization of American Historians, LaPietra Report: A
Report to the Profession (2000), http://www.oah.org/activities/lapietra/fnal.html (accessed on May 14,
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
30
2) hisIoricaI periods are compIex, dynamic, nonIinear
sysIems, which are spaIiaIIy Iarge, and in more recenI cenIuries,
gIobaI in exIension, and which someIimes become unsIabIe,
Ieading Io a phase IransiIion, biIurcaIion, and Ihe organizaIion oI
new sysIems;
13

3) And wiIhin such sysIems, peopIe and pIaces are connecIed
by seII-organizing neIworks, which are Ihe sources oI innovaIion
and Ihe emergence oI new Iorms.
14

8ecause Ihe emergence oI new Iorms oIIen moves research
Irom a Iopic wiIhin one discipIine Io a Iopic wiIhin anoIher, our
aIIempI Io undersIand Ihe pasI musI be inIerdiscipIinary and
coIIaboraIive. We creaIed CeographicaIIy-!nIegraIed HisIory as a
discipIine" Io encompass Ihose wiIh Ihe wiII and imaginaIion Io
cross esIabIished discipIinary boundaries in an eIIorI Io move Irom
daIa (incIuding IabuIar daIa, images, hisIoric carIography, musicaI
composiIion, eIc.) Io enhanced knowIedge.
2010); Owens, Toward a Geographically-Integrated, Connected World History; Sanjay Subrahmanyam,
Explorations in Connected History (Delhi, IN: Oxford University Press, 2004); Sanjay Subrahmanyam,
Holding the World in Balance: Te Connected Histories of the Iberian Overseas Empires, 1500-1640,
American Historical Review 112, no. 5 (December 2007): 1359-1385.
13 On such systems, see Tnu Puu, Attractors, Bifurcations and Chaos: Non-linear Phenomena
in Economics (2nd ed., Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag, 2003); Tnu Puu, Arts, Sciences,
Economics: A Historical Safari (Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag, 2006); J. Barkely Rosser, Jr.,
From Catastrophe to Chaos: A General Teory of Economic Discontinuities, vol. I. (2nd ed.; Boston, MA:
Kluwer Academic, 2000); Tierry Vialar, Complex and Chaotic Nonlinear Dynamics: Advances in Economics
and Finance, Mathematics and Statistics (Berlin et al: Springer, 2009).
14 Ronald S. Burt, Structural Holes and Good Ideas, American Journal of Sociology 110 (2004):
349- 399; Eiko Ikegami, Eiko, A Sociological Teory of Publics: Identity and Culture as Emergent Properties
in Networks, Social Research 67 (2000): 989-1029; Eiko Ikegami, Bonds of Civility: Aesthetic Networks and
the Political Origins of Japanese Culture (Cambridge, UK, & New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005);
Mark Newman et al, Te Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
2006).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
31
N%1"'".:J R9&1 $,&'51: 56 '5?,
The DynCoopNeI enIerprise, which enIaiIs Ihe use oI
compuIer-driven inIormaIion managemenI and visuaIizaIion
soIIware, demands IhaI researchers careIuIIy IormuIaIe an onIoIogy
IhaI expresses Ihe naIure oI reaIiIy and Ihe reIaIions among enIiIies.
8ecause a IormaI onIoIogy wouId reguire a precision IhaI depends
on research DynCoopNeI is designed Io accompIish, and which
may be impossibIe Io achieve when deaIing wiIh a compIex human
sysIem,
1S
! provide here onIy an ouIIine oI Ihe pro|ecI's IundamenIaI
concepIs and how Ihey are connecIed wiIhin Ihe pro|ecI. Through
Ihe Iinking oI concepIs drawn Irom diverse discipIines, DynCoopNeI
provides a conIexI Ior muIIidiscipIinary coIIaboraIion. rom Ihis
perspecIive we are deriving concepIuaI and compuIaIionaI IooIs
Ior deaIing wiIh Ihe guaIiIaIive inIormaIion so oIIen provided by
hisIorians and hisIoricaI sociaI scienIisIs.

A"0C',L2 K:%&0542 >"%'5%,$ ;:61,06
DynCoopNeI Irames Ihe irsI CIobaI Age as a compIex,
dynamic, nonIinear sysIem. NoIe IhaI we oIIer Ihis modeI as a
15 On the problems of developing ontologies, especially ones that might actually be of use when
dealing with human systems, see Tomas Hofweber, Logic and Ontology, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philos-
ophy (2004), http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ontology/ (accessed May 15, 2010); Wolfgang Knne,
Conceptions of Truth (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2003); Henry Laycock, Words without Objects:
Semantics, Ontology, and Logic for Non-singularity (Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press, 2006). On the issue of
mathematical precision and human systems, I like the view of Herbert Gintis: In fact, physicists generally
judge models according to their ability to account for the facts, not their mathematical rigor. Physicists
generally believe that rigor is the enemy of creative physical insight and they leave rigorous formulations to
the mathematicians. Te economic theorists overvaluation of rigor is a symptom of their undervaluation of
explanatory power. Te truth is its own justifcation and needs no help from rigor. Te Bounds of Reason:
Game Teory and the Unifcation of the Behavioral Sciences (Princeton, NJ, and Oxford, UK: Princeton
University Press, 2009), xvii-xviii.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
32
descripIion, noI as a reiIied enIiIy IhaI causes anyIhing. Such
sysIems exhibiI cerIain characIerisIics oI which one musI be aware
Io grasp Ihe signiIicance oI oIher eIemenIs oI Ihe DynCoopNeI
Pro|ecI's name.
1) irsI, aIIhough many IacIors are invoIved in compIex
sysIems, sysIem sIabiIiIy depends on a smaII number oI variabIes,
someIimes onIy one, which are aIways near insIabiIiIy.
16
The Ierm
sIabiIiIy" does noI mean IhaI noIhing happened during Ihis Iour-
cenIury period, Ior Ihe sysIem was highIy dynamic.
2) Second, such nonIinear dynamic sysIems admiI onIy
IimiIed predicIabiIiIy, and research on Ihem shouId noI be direcIed
Io Ihe sIudy oI Iong sIrings oI Iinear causaIion buI Io idenIiIying
Ihe sysIem's characIerisIics Ior Ihe undersIanding oI iI and oI Ihe
IransiIion Io a diIIerenI sysIem.
17

3) Third, wiIhin Ihe dynamics oI Ihe sysIem, new Iorms
emerged, which couId compensaIe Ior weaknesses in Ihe sysIem
caused by Ihe proximiIy Io insIabiIiIy oI Ihe sIabiIiIymainIaining
IacIors. However, Ihese weaknesses remained, and Ihe compIex,
dynamic, nonIinear sysIem oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age evenIuaIIy
enIered inIo a period oI as yeI poorIy undersIood sysIemic chaos,
phase IransiIion, and biIurcaIion during Ihe period 17S0-18S0. OuI
oI Ihis IransiIion appeared a new sysIem, characIerized by new
Iorms oI worId inIeracIion, insIiIuIionaI organizaIion, vaIues, and
16 Hermann Haken, Advanced Synergetics: Instability Hierarchies of Self-organizing Systems and
Devices (Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag, 1983). Rosser (From Catastrophe to Chaos, 54-61),
afer a thorough review of theories of complex systems, argues persuasively that Haken provides the most
satisfactory understanding of such systems and, therefore, a point of synthesis for them.
17 On the limits of predictability in complex, dynamic, nonlinear systems, I follow the views of
Puu, Attractors, Bifurcations and Chaos, and Rosser, From Catastrophe to Chaos. Elsewhere, Puu has shown
that about 1960, economists moved away from nonlinear and spatial models, leading to distorted forecasts,
the negative efects of which have become evident since he completed his chapter; see Puu, Introduction to
Mathematical Economics, in Mathematical Models in Economics: UNESCO Encyclopaedia of Life Support
Systems, ed. Wei-Bin Zhang (Oxford, UK: Eolss Publishers, 2007), 78-117. Professor Puu is an associate of
the DynCoopNet Project.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
33
perspecIives on Ihe worId.
18


;,')<N$.&%5=5%. A"00,$45&' >,1+"$?6
or Ihe invesIigaIion oI cooperaIion, DynCoopNeI Iocuses
on a Iype oI sociaI neIwork: commerciaI neIworks oI merchanIs
and oIhers invoIved in Ihe movemenI oI producIs, capiIaI, and
inIormaIion IhroughouI an increasingIy gIobaIized economy.
We undersIand Ihese neIworks as IargeIy seII-organizing ones
because in an open sysIem, Iheir parIicipanIs mosI oIIen creaIed
and shaped Ihem Ioward increasing compIicaIion, raIher Ihan
depending on Ihe Ieadership oI some auIhoriIarian enIiIy or
individuaI, independenI oI Ihe neIworks IhemseIves.
19
8ecause oI
Ihis seII-organizaIion, commerciaI and reIaIed sociaI neIworks
consIiIuIed imporIanI sources oI creaIiviIy and innovaIion, which
can be undersIood as Ihe emergence oI new Iorms.
20
AIIhough iIs
18 Te point that afer a phase transition to a new human system, the cultural environment
would be dominated by new values and perspectives about the world, impairing the ability of people to
understand their ancestors in the earlier system, was emphasized for me by the lecture of my DynCoopNet
colleague Michael Sonis of Israels Bar-Ilan University, entitled Te Evolution of Complexity, for Idaho
State Universitys Mathematics Colloquium, 27 February 2007.
19 For an understanding of self-organization in economics, see Friedrich A. Hayek, Law, Legislation
and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy (3 vols. Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press, 1973-1979); Paul R. Krugman, Te Self-Organizing Economy (Mitsui Lectures
in Economics; Cambridge, MA, and Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers, 1996). Smuggling networks provide
particularly striking examples of self-organization; for example, see ngel Alloza Aparicio, Europea en el
mercado espaol: Mercaderes, represalias y contrabando en el siglo XVII (Salamanca, SP: Junta de Castilla y
Len, Consejera de Cultura y Turismo, 2006); Emily Erikson and Peter Bearman, Malfeasance and the
Foundations for Global Trade: Te Structure of English Trade in the East Indies, 16011833, American
Journal of Sociology 112, no. 1 (July 2006): 195230; B. J. Lpez Belinchn, Sacar la sustancia al Reino:
Comercio, contrabando y conversos portugueses, 1621-1640, Hispania 61, no. 209 (2001): 1017-1050;
Zacaras Moutoukias, Contrabando y control colonial en el siglo XVII: Buenos Aires, el Atlntico y el espacio
peruano (Buenos Aires, Argentina: Centro Editor de Amrica Latina, 1988); Hoh-Cheung Mui and Lorna
Mui, Smuggling and the British Tea Trade before 1784, American Historical Review 74 (1968): 44-73;
Ernst Pijning, A New Interpretation of Contraband Trade, Hispanic American Historical Review 81, no.
3-4 (2001): 733-738; George D. Winius, Te Shadow Empire of Goa in the Bay of Bengal, Itinerrio 7, no.
2 (1983): 83-101.
20 In addition to the literature cited in note 13, on social networks and the emergence of new
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
34
caII Io recognize Ihe neIworks connecIing humans Io Ihe naIuraI
worId is useIuI, DynCoopNeI IargeIy re|ecIs 8runo LaIour's AcIor-
NeIwork Theory (ANT) because oI iIs insuIIicienI aIIenIion Io Ihe
variabIe imporIance or weighI oI neIworked connecIions and Io
Ihe pIasIiciIy oI idenIiIy, which permiIs an acIor Io parIicipaIe in
diIIerenI neIworks.
21
PosIuIaIing Ihe exisIence oI poIymorphous
neIwork domains permiIs DynCoopNeI Io capIure Ihe compIicaIions
oI neIworked acIiviIies reveaIed in Ihe surviving documenIs abouI
acIors in Ihe period 1400-1800.
22

WiIhin Ihe sysIem oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, evenIs periodicaIIy
disrupIed Ihese commerciaI neIworks. SomeIimes, disrupIions
forms, see Mark S. Granovetter, Economic Action and Social Structure: Te Problem of Embeddedness,
American Journal of Sociology 91 (1985): 481-501; Torsten Hgerstrand, Innovation Difusion as a Spatial
Process, trans. Allan Pred, with assistance of Greta Haag (Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press,
1967); Janet T. Landa, Trust, Ethnicity and Identity: Beyond the Institutional Economics of Ethnic Trading
Networks, Contract Law and Gif Exchange (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994); Janet T.
Landa, Doing the Economics of Trust and Informal Institutions, in Foundations of Research in Economics:
How Do Economists Do Economics? eds. S. G. Medema and W. J. Samuels (Brookfeld, VT: Edward Elgar,
1996), 143-159; Alan Latham, Retheorizing the Scale of Globalization: Topologies, Actor-Networks,
and Cosmopolitanism, in Geographies of Power, Placing Scale, eds. A. Herod and M. W. Wright (Oxford,
UK: Blackwell, 2002), 115-144; editors introduction, Spinning the Commercial Web: International Trade,
Merchants, and Commercial Cities, c. 1640-1939, eds. M. Schulte Beerbhl and J. Vgele (Frankfurt am Main
et al: Peter Lang, 2004); Michael Sonis, A Territorial Socio-ecological Approach in Innovation Difusion
Teory: Socio-ecological and Economic Interventions of Active Environment into Territorial Difusion
of Competitive Innovation, Sistemi Urbani 1-2-3 (1991): 29-59; Michael Sonis, Innovation Difusion,
Schumpeterian Competition and Dynamic Choice: A New Synthesis, Journal of Scientifc & Industrial
Research (Special Issue on Mathematical Modeling of Innovation Difusion and Technological Change) 51, no.
3 (1992): 172-186; Michael Sonis, Major Actors in Innovation Difusion Process, Complexity, Knowledge
and Innovation Systems, eds. M. Fischer and J. Froelich (Berlin and Heidelberg, DE, and New York, NY:
Springer-Verlag, 2001), 317-341; Michael Sonis, Innovation Difusion Teory: 100 Years of Development,
Tool Kits in Regional Science: Teory, Models, and Estimation, eds. Michael Sonis and Geofrey J. D. Hewings
(Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag, 2009), 243-271.
21 Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Teory (Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press, 2005).
22 Our perspective on polymorphous network domains and the plasticity of personal identity,
which permits individuals to contribute to multiple social networks, is informed by the work of Harrison C.
White (born 1930); see especially his Social Networks Can Resolve Actor Paradoxes in Economics and in
Psychology, Journal of Institutional and Teoretical Economics 151 (1995): 58-74; Markets from Networks:
Socioeconomic Models of Production (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002); Identity and Control:
How Social Formations Emerge (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2008 [1st ed. 1992]).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
35
occurred because oI processes wiIhin Ihe human sysIem iIseII,
such as war, Ior exampIe, buI disrupIions aIso occurred because
oI Ihe inIeracIions oI Ihe human sysIem wiIh compIex, dynamic,
nonIinear sysIems in Ihe naIuraI worId, such as disease epidemics
or earIhguakes, Io pick Iwo disrupIive inIeracIions oI concern in
2010. To some exIenI, we can Ihink oI Ihese disrupIions as noise"
wiIhin Ihe sysIem.
23
To mainIain sysIem sIabiIiIy, acIors, boIh men
and women, had Io counIer Ihe disrupIions by consIiIuIing more
robusI neIworks, buI Ihe resuIIing denser webs oI connecIions
permiIIed even more widespread IuIure cascades oI disIurbances.
!n Ihe IaIer eighIeenIh cenIury, such a cascade oI innovaIion
iniIiaIed a IransiIion Io a new hisIoricaI period, Ihe Second CIobaI
Age in which we now Iive. 8y combining a sociaI neIwork approach
wiIh a worId sysIems anaIysis, we oIIer a worId hisIoricaI accounI
IhaI addresses Iarger issues oI neIwork dynamics and provides a
soIuIion Io Ihe common criIicism oI worId sysIem anaIysis IhaI iI
ignores Ihe reIaIionships beIween Ihe IocaI and Ihe Iarger sysIem.
24
! wiII dweII on Ihis poinI abouI disrupIions oI commerciaI
neIworks because iI is IundamenIaI Ior an undersIanding oI Ihe
nexI secIion oI Ihis chapIer. NonIinear dynamics permiI onIy
IimiIed predicIabiIiIy. Think abouI weaIher IorecasIing. !n oIher
words, changes appeared in Ihe irsI CIobaI Age raIher suddenIy,
23 See Jordi Garca-Ojalvo and Jos M. Sancho, Noise in Spatially Extended Systems (New York,
NY: Springer-Verlag for the Springer Institute for Nonlinear Science Series, 1999).
24 Reviewers have frequently leveled this complaint at major works of those using world-systems
analyses: against, for example, Christopher Chase-Dunn and Tomas D. Hall, Rise and Demise: Comparing
World-Systems (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997); Andre Gunder Frank, ReORIENT: Global Economy
in the Asian Age (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1998); Immanuel Wallerstein,
Te Modern World-System, 3 vols. (New York, NY, and San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1974-89). For a
review that does a particularly good job of exposing these defciencies, see Kalala Ngalamulume, Is Total
History Possible? Review of Donald R. Wright, Te World and a Very Small Place in Africa: A History of
Globalizaion in Niumi, Te Gambia, H-Africa, H-Net Reviews (March, 2009), URL: http://www.h-net.org/
reviews/showrev.php?id=24284 (accessed May 15, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
36
wiIhouI a Iong period oI deveIopmenI. or reasons besI expIained
in narraIives, innovaIions cascaded Ihrough sociaI neIworks
wiIh every disrupIion, IhreaIening Ihe sIabiIiIy oI Ihe exisIing
sysIem and chaIIenging acIors, boIh men and women, Io weave
greaIer neIwork robusIness in an eIIorI Io proIecI IhemseIves
Irom disasIer and enhance Iheir abiIiIy Io survive and prosper,
however Ihey undersIood Ihese concepIs. ThereIore, knowIedge
abouI cooperaIion wiII noI come Irom conIinuous narraIives oI
deveIopmenIs over Ihree or Iour cenIuries. !nsIead, each narraIive
wouId Iocus on Ihe way IhaI a cascade oI disrupIions and
innovaIions prompIed acIions Io creaIe more robusI commerciaI
and oIher sociaI neIworks wiIhin an expanding geographic space,
a process IhaI permiIIed Ihe emergence oI new Iorms in Ihe sociaI
and cuIIuraI environmenIs oI human acIion. This emergence oI
new Iorms susIained Ihe sysIem by deaIing wiIh weaknesses,
which wouId oIherwise have Ied Io sysIem coIIapse. or exampIe,
Ihe IiIIeenIh-cenIury expansion oI Ihe sysIem couId have produced
iIs coIIapse, buI Ihis did noI happen. !n generaI Ierms, Ihis process
increased neIwork densiIy and made Ihe sysIem more robusI or
sIabIe. However, Ihe compIicaIed ways IhaI muIIipIe neIworks
inIerIinked wiIh each oIher over expanding geographic spaces
enhanced possibiIiIies IhaI cascading disrupIions wouId aIIecI ever
Iarger porIions oI Ihe worId sysIem and enIaiI ever more eIaboraIe
eIIorIs, uIIimaIeIy IrusIraIed, Io repair damage and prevenI such
sizabIe disrupIions in Ihe IuIure.
2S
UIIimaIeIy IrusIraIed" because as a conseguence oI Ihe
25 For recent work on such cascades, see Sergey V. Buldyrev, Roni Parshani, Gerald Paul, H.
Eugene Stanley, and Shlomo Havlin, Catastrophic Cascade of Failures in Interdependent Networks,
Nature 464, no. 7291 (April 15, 2010): 1025-28; doi: 10.1038/nature08932; Alessandro Vespignani, Te
Fragility of Interdependency, Nature 464, no. 7291 (April 15, 2010): 984-5; doi: 10.1038/464984a.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
37
naIure oI compIex sysIems, Ihe sources oI sysIemic insIabiIiIy
wouId noI be eIiminaIed by such repairs, Ihe increased neIwork
densiIy and inIerIinking wouId make iI ever more IikeIy, in an evenI
IhaI couId noI have been predicIed, IhaI some disrupIion wouId
cascade so wideIy IhaI Ihe sysIem wouId enIer a period oI chaos
and IransiIion Io a new sysIem. SomeIime in Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury,
one or more oI Ihe sIabiIiIy-mainIaining conIroI" variabIes
became unsIabIe, and Ihis siIuaIion Ied Io sysIem insIabiIiIy and
Ihe deveIopmenI oI a period oI biIurcaIion around which a new
sysIem organized.
The sudden weakness oI a variabIe propagaIed IhroughouI
Ihe sysIem Irom a cIusIer oI individuaIs who couId spread Iheir
inIIuence Ihrough commerciaI and oIher sociaI neIworks by Iheir
impacI on individuaIs who were near Ihem in Ihe nodes oI Ihese
neIworks and wished Io enhance Iheir abiIiIy Io survive and
prosper.
26
Researchers cannoI undersIand Ihe dramaIic suddenness,
in reIaIive Ierms, oI Ihis process unIess Ihey grasp how individuaIs
were invoIved in muIIipIe sociaI neIworks and how Ihis invoIve-
26 See Duncan J. Watts, Six Degrees: Te Science of a Connected Age (New York and London:
W. W. Norton, 2003), 229-44 and 250-2. Also suggestive are: Per Bak, How Nature Works: Te Science of
Self-organized Criticality (New York, NY: Copernicus Press for Springer Verlag, 1996); Philip Ball, Critical
Mass: How One Ting Leads to Another (New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2004). DynCoopNet
assumes that the cooperation-based networks we study were largely self-organizing. In the natural world,
self-organization produces regular patterns, which can be defned mathematically and visualized. Will we
eventually be able to recognize such mathematically defnable patterns in human systems? How do patterns
developing from self-organization in natural systems couple with the human system? On such patterns
in the natural world, see, Philip Ball, Te Self-made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature (Oxford, UK:
Oxford University Press, 1999); Philip Ball, Natures Patterns: A Tapestry in Tree Parts, 3 vols. (Oxford,
UK, and New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2009). In his book Te Tipping Point: How Little Tings
Can Make a Big Diference (Boston, MA: Little, Brown, 2000), Malcolm Gladwell suggests that it is adoption
by the infuential and highly connected that leads to a cascade, but Watts current work shows that such
elite infuence probably does not exist. For example, see Duncan J. Watts and Peter S. Dodds, Infuentials,
Networks, and Public Opinion Formation, Journal of Consumer Research 34, no. 4 (December 2007): 441-
58.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
38
menI reguired Ihem Io shape Iheir sociaI idenIiIies depending on
Ihe variabIe conIexIs oI Iheir inIeracIions wiIh oIhers. The gIobaI
cascade oI sysIem insIabiIiIy depended on Ihe irreguIar Iinkage oI
diIIerenI sociaI neIworks so IhaI Ihe sources oI insIabiIiIy couId be
propagaIed beIore any sysIem-saving repair was possibIe.
K:%&0546 @7; &%- *%"+',-., )$"0 A"0C'54&1,-
>&$$&15V,6
8ecause Monica Wachowicz and ! have wriIIen a chapIer
on geographic inIormaIion sysIems (C!S) Ior Ihis book (see chapIer
2), ! wiII IimiI Ihis secIion Io an expIanaIion oI Ihe roIe oI C!S in
DynCoopNeI Pro|ecI. As Ihe secIion IiIIe, ! empIoy Ihe Dynamics
C!S" phrase invenIed by our DynCoopNeI coIIeague May Yuan,
Ior iI expresses weII Ihe chaIIenge Ior DynCoopNeI researchers.
27

DynCoopNeI demands IhaI Io undersIand cooperaIion in
commerciaI and oIher sociaI neIworks oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, 1400-
1800, we narraIe Ihe sIories oI Ihe deveIopmenI oI Ihese neIworks.
!n order Io produce narraIives IhaI are suIIicienIIy compIicaIed Io
reveaI Ihe bases Ior Ihe high IeveI oI cooperaIion we have observed,
we musI inserI Ihese neIworks in Ihe dynamic geographic conIexI,
27 See May Yuan, Dynamics GIS: Recognizing the Dynamic Nature of Reality, ArcNews 30, no. 1
(spring 2008): 1, 4-5, and http://www.esri.com/news/arcnews/spring08articles/dynamics-gis.html (accessed
May 15, 2010). In her workshop in June 2006, at the summer assembly of the University Consortium for
Geographic Information Science (UCGIS), May Yuan helped me develop the section on spatial-temporal
GIS, which appeared in the DynCoopNet full proposal in September 2006. Based on a position paper that I
had submitted, she and Kathleen Steward Hornsby had already invited me to participate in their workshop
outside of Baltimore, Maryland (USA), in October 2006. On the rich results of the latter workshop, see
Kathleen Stewart Hornsby and May Yuan, eds., Understanding Dynamics of Geographic Domains (Boca
Raton, FL, and New York, NY: CRC, 2008); May Yuan and Kathleen Stewart Hornsby, Computation and
Visualization for Understanding Dynamics in Geographic Domains: A Research Agenda (Boca Raton, FL:
CRC, 2008).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
39
which we wish Io express in a C!S capabIe oI updaIing oI muIIipIe
daIa Iypes. This geographic conIexI accounIed Ior many oI Ihe
neIwork disIurbances, boIh in Ierms oI Ihe nonIinear dynamics oI
naIuraI sysIems and oI Ihe opporIuniIies provided by Ihe increased
space oI human acIiviIy and connecIions among IocaIions oI human
habiIaIion. These disIurbances oI exisIing sociaI neIworks produced
human acIiviIy Io eIaboraIe more robusI neIworks, Ieading Io
Ihe emergence oI new Iorms oI imporIance Ior undersIanding
cooperaIion. !n a broader perspecIive, Ihe inIegraIion oI dynamic
sociaI neIwork anaIysis wiIhin Ihe conIexI oI a dynamic C!S
addresses Ihe needs oI researchers inIeresIed in coupIed naIuraI
and human sysIems, Io use a concepI oI inIeresI Io Ihe U.S. NaIionaI
Science oundaIion (NS).
28

An evoIuIionary C!S wiIh Ihe capaciIy Io updaIe
inIormaIion aI appropriaIe Iime inIervaIs wouId provide Ihe basis
Ior Ihe necessary compIicaIed narraIives. OversimpIiIying a biI, C!S
permiIs us Io IreaI each daIa Iype as a separaIe Iayer, which can, on
Ihe compuIer screen, overIay oIher daIa Iayers Io see reIaIionships
among Ihem. When Iheir inIormaIion is organized in Ihis Iorm,
hisIorians Iind iI much easier Io recombine and disaggregaIe daIa,
Io dispIay seIecIed IeaIures, and Io expIore whaI is known in ways
IhaI expose unexpecIed reIaIionships and IaciIiIaIe anaIysis oI
Ihe inIerreIaIionship oI muIIipIe IacIors characIerisIic oI diIIicuII
probIems. As Ihe auIhors oI Ihe OrganizaIion oI American HisIorians'
LaPieIra ReporI correcIIy emphasize, Ihe hisIory oI no pIace can be
adeguaIeIy undersIood wiIhouI Iaking inIo accounI how IhaI pIace
has been connecIed Io oIher pIaces, and C!S IaciIiIaIes Iinking and
28 For more on this concept, see the web site of CHANS-Net, the International Network of
Research on Coupled Human and Natural Systems, http://www.chans-net.org/default.aspx (accessed May
15, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
40
comparing pIaces wiIhin diIIerenI spaIiaI scaIes. ParIicuIarIy when
a pIace is a counIry or Iarge region, iI is diIIicuII Ior a singIe hisIorian
Io masIer whaI is known abouI muIIipIe IocaIions, and C!S provides
an exceIIenI pIaIIorm Ior muIIidiscipIinary coIIaboraIion among
researchers. inaIIy, C!S permiIs visuaIizaIion oI reIaIionships.
VisuaIizaIion reduces Ihe cogniIive weighI on even Ihe experienced
anaIysI when Ihe guanIiIy oI inIormaIion is greaI, a probIem is
compIex, and aIIernaIive soIuIions are numerous and surpass Ihe
capabiIiIies oI human reason.
29


To Iake advanIage oI Ihe use oI C!S Ior keeping Irack oI Ihe
connecIions oI sociaI neIwork nodes Io pIace and Ior spaIiaI anaIysis
and visuaIizaIion, hisIorians conIronI C!S IechnoIogies are diIIicuII
Ior hisIoricaI researchers and Iheir sIudenIs Io masIer, and Io deaI
wiIh Ihe probIem, DynCoopNeI esIabIished a muIIidiscipIinary,
coIIaboraIive research paradigm, which remains unusuaI wiIhin
Ihe discipIine oI HisIory. WiIhin Ihis coIIaboraIive program,
DynCoopNeI seeks Io IransIorm currenI C!S, which are IargeIy
sIaIic, deaI poorIy wiIh IemporaI IacIors oI change and movemenI,
and do noI permiI deaIing simuIIaneousIy wiIh Ihe inIeracIions
oI more Ihan a Iew variabIes. The assumpIion IhaI opIimizaIion
is Ihe onIy raIionaI goaI disIorIs undersIanding oI human acIion
in iIs sociaI and cuIIuraI environmenIs. YeI bringing aII oI Ihe
necessary IacIors IogeIher reguires maIhemaIics beyond Ihe grasp
oI aImosI aII sociaI scienIisIs, underIining Ihe need Ior a broad,
IransIormaIive, muIIidiscipIinary approach.
30
HisIoricaI sIudy and

29 Tese visualizations of reality are abstractions, and like the articles and books written by
historians, which are also abstractions of reality, cartographic and other visualizations should be judged
on the degree to which they increase our understanding of the real world. Tis point is central to David J.
Staley, Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our Understanding of
the Past (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, 2003).
30 For an idea of the level of mathematics required, see Tnu Puu, Optimality versus Stability:
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
41
Ihe deveIopmenI oI narraIive knowIedge Ihrough Ihe use oI C!S
reguire Ihis IransIormaIion. inaIIy, compuIers reguire numericaI
precision, buI much signiIicanI hisIoricaI daIa are guaIiIaIive,
imprecise, ambiguous, incompIeIe, uncerIain, conIradicIory, and
oIherwise messy and, IhereIore, diIIicuII Io represenI in currenI
C!S.
31
As research exIends Io cenIuries beIore 1800, Ihe daIa
probIems become worse. The maIhemaIicaI modeIing reguired Ior
spaIiaI-IemporaI C!S, dynamic sociaI neIwork anaIysis, anaIyzing
spaIiaI nonIinear dynamics, and deaIing wiIh messy daIa demand
muIIidiscipIinary coIIaboraIion.
32
Pattern Formation in Spatial Economics, in Tool Kits in Regional Science: Teory, Models, and Estimation,
eds. Michael Sonis and Geofrey J. D. Hewings (Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag 2009), 155-
161; Michael Sonis, Teories and Models Inspired by Empirical Regularities of Socio-Economic Spatial
Analysis, in Tool Kits in Regional Science: Teory, Models, and Estimation, Michael Sonis and Geofrey J. D.
Hewings (Berlin and Heidelberg, DE: Springer-Verlag, 2009), 293-302.
31 Ian N. Gregory and Paul S. Ell, Historical GIS: Technologies, Methodologies and Scholarship
(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Ian N. Gregory and Richard G. Healey, Historical
GIS: Structuring, Mapping and Analysing Geographies of the Past, Progress in Human Geography 31, no.
5 (2007): 638-653, DOI: 10.1177/0309132507081495; J. B. Owens, What Historians Want from GIS; J. B.
Owens, Historical Studies, GIS for, in Encyclopedia of Geographic Information Science, ed. Karen Kemp
(Tousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2008), 220-21.
32 Te full value of the DynCoopNet paradigm could not be realized because the collapse of TECT
networking funding in December 2008 made it impossible for DynCoopNet to organize our planned third
TECT strategic workshop. Tis workshop would have brought together animal ecologists, anthropologists,
economists, historians and others interested in cooperation research with geographic information
scientists and mathematical modelers of spatial nonlinear dynamics and social network analysis. To pick
up the pieces, DynCoopNet researchers are submitting funding proposals. So far, the U.S. National Science
Foundation (NSF) has funded the SOCNET Project (Understanding Social Networks within Complex,
Nonlinear Systems: Geographically-Integrated History and Dynamics GIS) through its Cyber-Enabled
Discovery and Innovation (CDI) program for over US$1.7 million for four years, beginning on October
1, 2009 (Idaho State University $1,290.704, lead PI J. B. Owens, OCI-0941371; University of Oklahoma,
$471,193, PI May Yuan, OCI-0941501). Besides Owens and Yuan, the other DynCoopNet members
involved in SOCNET are Emery A. Coppola, Jr., President and Principal Scientists, NOAH, L.L.C.; Aldo
Gangemi, Semantic Technology Laboratory, Italian National Research Council, Rome; Monica Wachowicz,
Center for Geoinformation, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Te Netherlands.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
42

89, +"$'- 56 )#==:
DaIa guaIiIy Iorms a barrier Io precision. However, Ihe
compIexiIy oI Ihe human sysIem oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age and iIs
reIaIion Io geography consIiIuIes a veriIabIe IorIress againsI
numericaI precision.
33
HisIorians IreguenIIy resisI any demands
IhaI Ihey Iorce Iheir inIormaIion inIo Iixed caIegories reguired
by a compuIaIionaI environmenI because so oIIen, Ihey IeeI IhaI
viIaI characIerisIics oI some inIormaIion wiII be IosI when Ihey
do noI IiI preciseIy inIo a parIicuIar box. ven a documenI as
seemingIy precise as a conIracI remains surrounded by imprecise
IacIors, which wiII inIIuence wheIher or noI Ihe agreemenI works
ouI as pIanned as much as Ihe conIracI Ierms IhemseIves.
34
As Ihe
domain" experIs, aIIer years oI reading Ihe surviving documenIs
and examining oIher period ob|ecIs, hisIorians deveIop a sense oI
Ihe sysIem, oI degrees in Ihe characIerizaIion oI human behavior,
and oI Ihe meanings conveyed in Ihe naIuraI Ianguage oI Ihe peopIe
Ihey sIudy. The hisIorians Iind shades oI meaning in Ihe evidence,
which deIy convenIionaI numericaIIy based approaches. AnimaI
ecoIogisIs and geographers oIIen conIronI Ihe same ambiguiIy.
or exampIe, where is souIheasIern Spain? ssenIiaIIy, vagueness
resuIIs in a range oI inIerpreIaIions Ior a pIace reIerence and a range
oI borderIine vaIues Ior Ihe spaIiaI IooIprinI oI each reIerence."
3S

33 Peter A. Burrough and Andrew U. Frank, eds., Geographic Objects with Indeterminate
Boundaries (London, UK: Taylor & Francis, 1996); George A. Miller, Te Magical Number Seven, Plus or
Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information, Psychological Review 63 (1956): 81-
97; Charles C. Ragin and Paul Pennings, Fuzzy Sets and Social Research, Sociological Methods & Research
33, no. 4 (May 2005): 423-30.
34 Stewart Macauley, Noncontractual Relations in Business: A Preliminary Study, American
Sociological Review 28 (February 1963): 55-67; Ian R. Macneil, Te New Social Contract: An Inquiry into
Modern Contractual Relations (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1980).
35 Linda L. Hill, Georeferencing: Te Geographic Associations of Information (Cambridge, MA:
MIT Press, 2006), 28-29 (section Vagueness of Georeferencing).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
43
Came Iheory produces inIeresIing buI oversimpIiIied resuIIs, and
Ihe appIicaIion Io cooperaIion in Ihe reaI worId IaIIs shorI oI Ihe
precision game Iheory proponenIs oIIen cIaim Ior Iheir conIroIIed
experimenIs wiIh human sub|ecIs pIaying games.
36
8uI we have a
way Iorward.
37
!n 1964, some Iriend sIood up LoIIi Zadeh (born 1921), a
8erkeIey eIecIricaI engineering proIessor, Ior dinner. So as noI
Io wasIe Ihe evening, he commenced work on a soIuIion Io Ihe
incompaIibiIiIy oI compIexiIy and precision. The IoIIowing year,
he pubIished his now-cIassic paper on whaI came Io be known
as Iuzzy Iogic or Iuzzy seI Iheory.
38
!n Ihe arIicIe, he proposed a
means Io Ihink preciseIy abouI ambiguous Ihings wiIhouI Iosing
a record oI Ihe ambiguiIy. uzzy Iogic possesses severaI sIrengIhs
imporIanI Ior DynCoopNeI. !I provides an eIIecIive means Io move
eIIicienIIy Irom avaiIabIe daIa Io deveIoping maIhemaIicaI modeIs
as a basis Ior anaIysis and knowIedge. DaIa can be imprecise
or vague. Researchers can empIoy naIuraI Ianguage IinguisIic
variabIes IhaI are sub|ecIive in naIure (Ior exampIe, IrusI"). uzzy
36 For intriguing, suggestive examples of ways that game theory could be used within the
particular context of the complex, dynamic, nonlinear system of the First Global Age, see Ken Binmore,
Natural Justice (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005); Herbert Gintis, Te Bounds of Reason: Game
Teory and the Unifcation of the Behavioral Sciences (Princeton, NJ, and Oxford, UK: Princeton University
Press, 2009). To quote Gintis (p. xv), Tis approach [that which the book champions] holds that human
behavior is most fruitfully modeled as the interaction of rational agents with a social epistemology, in the
context of social norms that act as correlating devices that choreograph social interaction.
37 For the initial DynCoopNet formulation of the use of fuzzy logic, see Emery A. Coppola, Jr.
et al., Fuzzy Rule-Based Modeling of Degrees of Trust in Cooperation-Based Networks: Close Research
Collaboration among Domain Experts (Historians) and Mathematical Modelers (paper presented by
Owens to the TECT strategic workshop, Technical University of Madrid, Spain, September 25-26, 2008),
http://mapas.topografa.upm.es/Dyncoopnet/presentations/Madrid_fuzzy_owens.pdf (accessed May 15,
2010).
38 Lotf A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Sets, Information and Control 8 (1965): 338-353. Zadeh explains well
key elements of fuzzy logic in his articles: Why the Success of Fuzzy Logic Is Not Paradoxical, IEEE Expert
9, no. 4 (1994): 43-45; Toward a Teory of Fuzzy Information Granulation and its Centrality in Human
Reasoning and Fuzzy Logic, Fuzzy Sets and Systems 90 (1997): 111-127.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
44
Iogic uses assessmenI ruIes, which are creaIed by Ihe researcher
and are IransparenI and Ihus readiIy undersIood and evaIuaIed by
oIher researchers. inaIIy, Ihe ruIes can bound Ihe expecIed range
oI sysIem behavior under diIIerenI condiIions, which IaciIiIaIes
eIIecIive modeIing.
uzzy Iogic uses IinguisIic variabIes as IabeIs Ior Iuzzy
seIs Io provide an approximaIe characIerizaIion oI compIex or
iII-deIined phenomena.
39
These IabeIs admiI Ihe use oI hedges"
(predicaIe modiIiers). Thus, humans speak in Ierms oI more or
Iess", sIighIIy", somewhaI", much" (as in, is much heavier"),
is cIose Io", very" (as in, is very young"), guiIe" (as in, is
guiIe aIIracIive"), exIremeIy", and compIeIeIy".
40
These IinguisIic
variabIes represenI expressions in naIuraI Ianguage oI sociaI
norms, which are undersIood by Ihose in communicaIion because
Ihey share Io some degree a common socioIogicaI ciIizenship"
(Io use Ihe Ierm oI ]eIIrey AIexander).
41
We do noI share Ihis
socioIogicaI ciIizenship oI peopIe who Iived in Ihe irsI CIobaI Age,
and IhereIore, we musI represenI and modeI Ihis unIamiIiar human
sysIem in ways IhaI respecI iIs uncerIainIy and imprecision.
Once Ihe Iuzzy seIs are deIined in Ihis manner, Ihe
researcher creaIes membership IuncIions Io characIerize Ihe
degree oI membership in a Iuzzy seI. !n oIher words, Ihe IransiIion
beIween membership in a parIicuIar seI and non-membership
remains graduaI, |usI as iI is perceived by Ihe domain experI.
39 Lotf A. Zadeh, Te Concept of a Linguistic Variable and its Applications to Approximate
Reasoning, Information Sciences 8 (1975): 199-249 (Part I); Information Sciences 8 (1975): 301-357 (Part II);
Information Sciences 9 (1975): 43-80 (Part III).
40 Lotf A. Zadeh, A Fuzzy-set-theoretical Interpretation of Linguistic Hedges, Journal of
Cybernetics 2 (1972): 434.
41 Jefrey C. Alexander, Action and Its Environments: Toward a New Synthesis (New York, NY:
Columbia University Press, 1988).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
45
The researcher preserves Ihe guaIiIies oI daIa IhaI do noI IiI
comIorIabIy in any esIabIished seI, avoiding Ihe sense IhaI an
improper, arbiIrary |udgmenI moIivaIes an assignmenI. So IhaI
oIhers may evaIuaIe Ihe choices made by Ihe researcher, he or she
characIerizes Ihe reIaIionships beIween Ihe IinguisIic variabIes
by a series oI Iuzzy condiIionaI (!I, Then") sIaIemenIs or ruIes",
which can be dispIayed as parI oI Ihe meIadaIa Ior Ihe daIa seI and
in resuIIing papers. The process oI modeIing on Ihe basis oI Iuzzy
Iogic demands Ihe conIinuous, iIeraIive invoIvemenI oI Ihe domain
experI on Ihe hisIoric sysIem IhroughouI Ihe process in order Io
improve, on Ihe basis oI ouIcomes, Ihe axioms or ruIes. To grasp
Ihe meaning oI a given siIuaIion wiIhin a compIex sysIem, Ihe
researcher empIoys a reasoning meIhod or aIgoriIhm Io combine
Ihe Iuzzy ruIes proporIionaIeIy Io Ihe degree Io which Ihey appIy,
and he or she expIains Ihis meIhod.
42
Thus, oIher schoIars can debaIe
Ihe appropriaIeness oI boIh Ihe ruIes and Ihe meIhod, conIribuIing
Io a progressiveIy greaIer undersIanding oI Ihe sysIem and viIaI
aspecIs oI human acIion such as cooperaIion. rom Ihe appIicaIion
oI Ihe meIhod Io Ihe ruIes, Ihe researcher obIains a crisp" vaIue,
which can be uIiIized wiIhin a compuIaIionaI environmenI such as
a C!S or an anaIysis oI a sociaI neIwork.
43

Such a meIhod works beIIer Ihan recourse Io sIaIisIics
42 Lotf A. Zadeh, Outline of a New Approach to the Analysis of Complex Systems and Decision
Processes, IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, SMC-3 (1973): 28-44; Lotf A. Zadeh, A
Fuzzy-algorithmic Approach to the Defnition of Complex or Imprecise Concepts, International Journal of
Man-Machine Studies 8 (1976): 249-291.
43 Fuzzy logic approximates well the goals of those who propose various forms of sof computing
to deal with qualitative data. See, Lotf A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Logic, Neural Networks and Sof Computing,
Communications of the ACM 37, no. 3 (1994): 77-84; Lotf A. Zadeh, Fuzzy Logic = Computing with
Words, IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems 2 (1996): 103-111. For a positive evaluation of the use of fuzzy
logic in another domain, see Eviatar Tron and Michael Margaliot, Modeling Observed Natural Behavior
Using Fuzzy Logic, FUZZ 03. Te 12th IEEE International Conference on Fuzzy Systems, 2003 1 (25-28 May
25-28, 2003): 74 78, DOI: 10.1109/FUZZ.2003.1209340.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
46
or probabiIiIy when deaIing wiIh Ihe irsI CIobaI Age because,
especiaIIy given Ihe IimiIaIions oI our sources oI inIormaIion, we
never know Ihe sIaIisIicaI universe wiIh which we are deaIing.
44

K:%A""C>,1 >"$06 ") K&1&<;9&$5%.2 A"''&P"$&15"%
&%- !"5%1 \#P'54&15"%

rom Ihe beginning oI DynCoopNeI, we recognized IhaI
some oI Ihose being asked Io coIIaboraIe came Irom discipIines such
as HisIory, which Iack any IradiIion or oIIiciaI norms Ior Ihe use oI
shared, disIribuIive daIa, Ior coIIaboraIion, and Ior |oinI pubIica-
Iion. ThereIore, Io buiId Ihe necessary research inIrasIrucIure, we
esIabIished pro|ecI norms and Ihe goaI oI geIIing Ihese norms, or
someIhing simiIar, enacIed as proIessionaI sIandards by ma|or his-
IoricaI and oIher schoIarIy organizaIions IhaI Iack such sIandards.
4S

8ecause DynCoopNeI inIended Io deaI wiIh cooperaIion in com-
merciaI neIworks over Iarge geographicaI spaces, uIIimaIeIy gIobaI,
we based Ihe pro|ecI sIandards on Ihose oI organizaIions whose
reach Iocus is aIso spaIiaI exIensive. The discipIines oI AImospheric
Science and Oceanography deaI wiIh open sysIems covering Iarge
geographic spaces, and pubIicaIion in Ihese IieIds depends on ac-
44 Lotf A. Zadeh, Probability Teory and Fuzzy Logic Are Complementary Rather Tan
Competitive, Technometrics 37 (1995): 271-276; Lotf A. Zadeh, Probability Teory and Fuzzy Logic
(lecture given to the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics, Philadelphia, PA, USA, December 9,
2002), http://www.ieeesmc.org/announcements/Newsletter/JAN2003/Probability%20Teory%20and%20
Fuzzy% 20Logic.pdf (accessed May 15, 2010). Of course, when the data permit, fuzzy logic and statistical
probability can be employed together with proft; see, Michael Smithson, Fuzzy Set Inclusion: Linking
Fuzzy Set Methods with Mainstream Techniques, Sociological Methods & Research 33, no. 4 (May 2005):
431-461; and some of the examples in Michael Smithson and Jay Verkuilen, Fuzzy Set Teory: Applications
in the Social Sciences (Tousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006).
45 Te DynCoopNet standards, which we adopted at our meeting in Budapest in July 2007, can
be downloaded at the URL http://idahostate.academia.edu/documents/0010/2787/Professional_Stand-
ards_DynCoopNet.pdf (accessed May 15, 2010).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
47
cess by scienIisIs Io daIa seIs prepared as a resuII oI research done
by oIhers. ThereIore, DynCoopNeI Iook Ihese IieIds as modeIs Ior
Ihe daIa and auIhorship poIicies. !n parIicuIar, we adapIed secIions
avaiIabIe aI IhaI Iime Irom Ihe IhicaI CuideIines Io PubIicaIion oI
ChemicaI Research oI Ihe American ChemicaI SocieIy (ACS),"
46
Ihe
CuideIines Io PubIicaIion oI CeophysicaI Research oI Ihe American
CeophysicaI Union (ACU),"
47
and Ihe PoIicy on ReIerencing DaIa in
and Archiving DaIa Ior ACU PubIicaIions."
48
The DynCoopNeI daIa
poIicy was adopIed in order Io encourage hisIoricaI researchers Io
make avaiIabIe Ihe underIying daIa on which Iheir papers, arIicIes,
and books are based Ior Iong-Ierm access, Io archive Iheir daIa in
approved daIa cenIers, and Io recognize in Iheir pubIicaIions Ihe
vaIuabIe roIe oI Ihe researchers who coIIecI and prepare imporIanI
daIa Ior use by Ihe gIobaI hisIoricaI research communiIy. The |oinI
pubIicaIion sIandards were designed Io eIiminaIe or reduce con-
IIicIs over who shouId be incIuded as an auIhor oI a paper, arIicIe,
or book and Ihe order in which Ihe auIhors' names shouId be IisIed.
Thus Iar, hisIoricaI organizaIions have noI adopIed
sIandards oI Ihis Iype Io IomenI coIIaboraIive research. or
exampIe, when Owens proposed Io Ihe proIessionaI division oI
Ihe American HisIoricaI AssociaIion (AHA), Ihe organizaIion IhaI
cIaims Io represenI Ihe inIeresIs oI aII hisIorians in Ihe UniIed
SIaIes, he was IoId IhaI (1) hisIorians did noI coIIaboraIe and (2) Ihe
AHA aIready had sIandards Ior coIIaboraIion. OI course, neiIher
sIaIemenI is Irue. The vice presidenI oI Ihe division recognized no
46 A subsequently revised version can be found at the URL http://pubs.acs.org/page/policy/ethics/
index.html (accessed May 15, 2010).
47 http://www.agu.org/pubs/authors/manuscript_tools/journals/pub_guidelines.shtml (accessed
May 15, 2010).
48 http://www.agu.org/pubs/authors/policies/data_policy.shtml (accessed May 15, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
48
conIradicIion beIween Ihe Iwo cIaims.

NV,$V5,+
No singIe discipIine oIIers Ihe necessary concepIs,
meIhodoIogies, and IooIs Io undersIand compIex hisIoricaI
sysIems, Ihe dynamic sociaI neIworks wiIhin Ihem, and Ihe
IransIormaIions oI such sysIems. WiIh geographicaIIy-inIegraIed
hisIory, DynCoopNeI creaIed a IransIormaIive discipIinary
Iramework Io Iocus muIIidiscipIinary research on Ihe diIIicuII
probIem oI cooperaIion among humans. 8y Iraming Ihe irsI
CIobaI Age, 1400-1800, as an open, compIex, dynamic, nonIinear
sysIem, DynCoopNeI chaIIenges Ihe myIh hisIories around which
hisIory and Ihe hisIoricaI sciences were creaIed as academic
discipIines beginning in Ihe mid nineIeenIh cenIury: Ihe rise oI Ihe
SIaIe, oIIen as Ihe NaIion-SIaIe (in urope), Ihe rise oI CapiIaIism
(in urope), and Ihe rise oI Ihe Modern !ndividuaI or !ndividuaIism
(in urope). AII Ihree deveIopmenIs were Iaken as Ihe producIs
oI a speciaI uropean raIionaIiIy and Ihe necessary haIImarks
oI moderniIy," which Ihe peopIes oI CreaIer urope had Ihe
responsibiIiIy Io diIIuse IhroughouI Ihe resI oI Ihe worId. These
organizaIionaI myIhs oI hisIoricaI research emerged as new Iorms
wiIhin Ihe inIense sIruggIes Io shape Ihe Second CIobaI Age, which
was deveIoping Irom Ihe phase IransiIion IhaI ended Ihe irsI
CIobaI Age during Ihe period 17S0- 18S0. To |usIiIy IhemseIves, mid
nineIeenIh-cenIury inIeIIecIuaIs and movemenIs pro|ecIed Ihese
deveIopmenIs back inIo Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, usuaIIy Io abouI 1S00.
8ecause peopIe Iiving in Ihe new sysIem responded Io diIIerenI
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
49
vaIues and perspecIives abouI Ihe worId Irom Ihose oI who
Iived in Ihe earIier sysIem, Ihey had IroubIe undersIanding Iheir
predecessors. Their myIh hisIories guided Ihe IormaIion oI archives
and Ihe search Ior inIormaIion, and as a conseguence researchers
missed Ihe imporIance oI Ihe puzzIingIy high IeveIs oI cooperaIion
among merchanIs and oIIiciaIs and IreguenIIy ignored Ihe roIes oI
women wiIhin Ihe sociaI neIworks, which susIained connecIions
over oIIen huge geographic disIances. 8y IormuIaIing Ihe irsI
CIobaI Age as a speciIic worId sysIem, DynCoopNeI highIighIs Ihe
deIiciencies oI urocenIric Iorms oI hisIoricaI periodizaIion and oI
IeIeoIogicaI noIions, such as Ihe exisIence oI an earIy modern" era
much Ionger Ihan Ihe subseguenI age iI supposedIy prepared.
49
8y sIaIing IhaI Ihe compIex sysIem oI Ihe irsI CIobaI
Age was characIerized by nonIinear dynamics, DynCoopNeI
chaIIenges urocenIric myIh hisIories in anoIher way. CompIex,
dynamic, nonIinear sysIems admiI guiIe IimiIed predicIabiIiIy.
New deveIopmenIs emerged reIaIiveIy suddenIy and cannoI be
accounIed Ior by IeIIing cenIuries-Iong narraIives. !nsIead, reIiabIe
narraIive knowIedge IIows Irom sIories abouI Ihe emergence oI
new Iorms wiIhin Ihe sociaI and cuIIuraI environmenIs and Iheir
impacI on human acIion. Moreover, such narraIive knowIedge
shouId reveaI how Ihe emerging Iorms aIigned wiIh componenIs
oI Ihe human and naIuraI sysIems and which variabIes mainIained
sysIem sIabiIiIy unIiI Ihey enIered inIo a period oI insIabiIiIy,
49 Many writers have exposed the Eurocentric nature of much writing and teaching in history and
historical social sciences. DynCoopNet was directly inspired by one of them, Andre Gunder Frank (J. B.
Owens, What Kind of System Is It?). For a particularly devastating account of Eurocentric historiography,
see James M. Blaut, Te Colonizers Model of the World: Geographic Difusionism and Eurocentric History
(New York, NY: Guilford Press, 1993). On the teleological concept early modern, see Jack Goldstone, Te
Problem of the Early Modern World, Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient 41 (1998),
249-282; Rudolph Starn, Te Early Modern Muddle, Journal of Early Modern History 6 (2002), 296-307.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
50
causing Ihe sysIem Io move inIo chaos, biIurcaIion, and a phase
IransiIion.
To undersIand cooperaIion, Ihese narraIives Iocus on sociaI
neIworks. HisIorians have IroubIe IeIIing Ihese sIories because
human seII-idenIiIy is IIuid enough Ior peopIe Io parIicipaIe
simuIIaneousIy in muIIipIe neIworks. These seII-organizing
neIworks IikeIy produced paIIerns, which musI be deIecIed and
expressed maIhemaIicaIIy iI Ihey are Io be undersIood. PeriodicaIIy,
disrupIions IhreaIened one or more oI Iheir neIworks, and peopIe
Iashioned new neIworks, which Ihey useIessIy hoped wouId be
suIIicienIIy denser and more robusI Io prevenI IuIure IhreaIs. As
neIwork connecIedness became greaIer and exIended over Iarger
geographic spaces, new Iorms, which emerged Ihrough Ihis process
oI neIwork disrupIion and IabricaIion, couId cascade more rapidIy
and more wideIy. DynCoopNeI hypoIhesizes IhaI one or more oI
Ihese new Iorms, chaIIenging in some way one or more sIabiIiIy-
mainIaining conIroI" variabIes wiIhin Ihe worId sysIem, cascaded
so guickIy IhroughouI a Iarge area IhaI Ihe sysIem became unsIabIe.
This vision provides a new scope Ior IeIIing dramaIic narraIives oI
Ihe kind IhaI have made hisIoricaI wriIing so popuIar.
YeI Ihese new narraIives musI be more compIicaIed because
Ihey IeII sIories IhaI connecI IocaI deveIopmenIs Io Ihe gIobaI.
Moreover, Ihey recounI aspecIs oI a human sysIem conIinuousIy
coupIed Io Ihe nonIinear dynamics oI naIuraI sysIems and a compIex
geography. To permiI Ihe IormuIaIion oI suIIicienIIy compIicaIed
narraIives Ior undersIanding cooperaIion, DynCoopNeI proposed
Ihe creaIion oI Irue spaIiaI-IemporaI geographic inIormaIion
sysIems (C!S) Io organize, anaIyze, and visuaIize Ihe daIa abouI such
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
51
processes. !n parI, a dynamic C!S reguired Ihe use oI maIhemaIicaI
expressions oI Ihe various processes and Ihe maIhemaIicaI
inIegraIion oI Ihese expressions inIo a common sysIem. The IeveI
oI diIIicuIIy oI Ihe maIhemaIics invoIved proved Io be weII beyond
Ihe experience oI mosI sociaI scienIisIs.
To increase Ihe research diIIicuIIy oI Ihe pro|ecI, daIa drawn
Irom Ihe surviving sources abouI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age is aImosI
aIways ambiguous, uncerIain, and |usI pIain messy. Moreover, Ihe
inIormaIion abouI human sysIems Iacks Ihe precision Io which
maIhemaIicaI modeIers oI physicaI sysIems are accusIomed. To
puII Ihis messy and imprecise inIormaIion inIo a compuIaIion
environmenI necessary Ior Ihe use oI C!S soIIware and IhaI Ior
sociaI neIwork anaIysis, Ior cooperaIion research, DynCoopNeI
proposed Ihe appIicaIion oI Iuzzy Iogic (or Iuzzy seI Iheory), and we
seI abouI designing a Iorm oI Iuzzy ruIe-based modeIing IhaI wouId
meeI Ihe demands oI hisIorians and hisIoricaI sociaI scienIisIs.
!n concIusion, Ihe diIIerenI componenIs oI DynCoopNeI's
research environmenI and vision opened muIIipIe spaces Ior
inIerdiscipIinary coIIaboraIion in an eIIorI Io generaIe new
scienIiIic ideas. As pubIicaIions conIinue Io emerge in Ihe coming
years IhaI accounI Ior Ihe emergence and mainIenance oI high
IeveIs oI cooperaIion in Ihe seII-organizing commerciaI neIworks
oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, we wiII see iI Ihese radicaIIy new ideas
IransIorm exisIing discipIines and Iead Io Ihe emergence oI new
discipIines, which break down many oI Ihe academic barriers IhaI
now consIrain research, Ieaching, and cogniIive deveIopmenI.
We owe a greaI debI Io Ihe Iounders oI TCT and Io Ihe uropean
Science oundaIion Ior providing us wiIh Ihis spIendid opporIuniIy
Ior IurIhering such an ambiIious research agenda.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
52
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
53
K:%&0546 ") 8$&-, >,1+"$?6J 89,
/&5% ],6,&$49 766#,6 "% ;C&4,<850,
],C$,6,%1&15"%6
ZG

Q#19"$6J /"%54& R&49"+54=
(UniversiIy oI New 8runswick, Canada)
!U MU c!&4?d N+,%6
(UniversiIy oI !daho, USA)
7%1$"-#415"%
Space-Iime represenIaIions deaI wiIh how we humans
undersIand ourseIves and our inIeracIions wiIh Ihe geographicaI
space. They aIso deaI wiIh deveIoping compuIaIionaI modeIs
IhaI are Iinked wiIh Ihe expIoraIory anaIysis oI any geographicaI
phenomena, such as Irade neIworks. The deveIopmenI oI Ihe earIy
space-Iime represenIaIions can be Iraced back Io Ihe earIy iIIeenIh
CenIury, when Ihe Prince Henry Ihe NavigaIor (1394-1460), a
PorIuguese royaI prince, soIdier, and paIron oI expIorers, is oIIen
crediIed wiIh originaIing Ihe Age oI Discovery.
S1
or Ihe IirsI Iime,
Ihe inIormaIion abouI sea voyages and Iand expIoraIions were
compiIed using a sysIemaIic approach IhaI has Ied Io Ihe producIion
50 Material added by Owens is based upon work supported by the U.S. National Science
Foundation under Grants No. 0740345 and No. 0941371. Any opinions, fndings, and conclusions or
recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily refect the
views of the National Science Foundation.
51 P. Longley, M. F. Goodchild, D. J. Maguire, D. W. Rhind (eds.), Geographical Information
Systems: Principles, Techniques, Management and Applications, vol. 1, 2nd edition, Geoinformation
International, 2011.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
54
oI hisIoricaI maps as Ihe main represenIaIion Ior sharing and
communicaIing Ihe knowIedge abouI Ihe new discoveries.
Moreover, Ihe inIormaIion abouI Irade neIworks is
commonIy Iound in IexI documenIs oI any kinds (e.g. commerciaI
IeIIers and noIariaI regisIers). !n IacI, Ihese IexI sources provide
poIenIiaIIy imporIanI inIormaIion IhaI can be used Io coIIecIiveIy
represenI Ihe dynamics oI Ihe Irade neIworks. Dynamics is by
deIiniIion Ihe synergy beIween space and Iime. The 16
Ih
cenIury is
consensuaIIy seen as Ihe Iime oI Ihe worId economies"
S2
or oI Ihe
worId sysIems"
S3
, or even as Ihe irsI CIobaI Age", since a growing
inIerconnecIiviIy has Iaken pIace beIween severaI worId spaces,
being a geographicaI, sociaI, or even in a cuIIuraI and cogniIive
spaces. However, Ihe avaiIabIe IexI sources are usuaIIy guaIiIaIive,
imprecise, ambiguous, incompIeIe, uncerIain, conIradicIory, and
oIherwise messy and, IhereIore, diIIicuII Io be represenIed in any
currenI C!S.
S4

One way oI addressing Ihis probIem is deveIoping space-Iime
represenIaIions based on an expIoraIory process approach IhaI
supporIs aIIribuIe Iinding, concepIuaI inIerpreIaIion, IuncIionaI
inIerence, conIexI shiIIing, hypoIhesis IesIing and searching Ior
IimiIaIions.
SS
!n Ihis paper, we have Iocussed on Ihe main research
issues on deveIoping space-Iime represenIaIions based on an
52 Fernand Braudel, Civilization, and Capitalism, 15
th
18
th
Centuries, 3 vols. (New York: Harper
and Row, 1981-1984).
53 Immanuel Wallerstein, Te Modern World-System, 3 vols. (New York, NY, and San Diego, CA:
Academic Press, 1974-89).
54 Ian N. Gregory and P. S. Ell, Historical GIS: Technologies, Methodologies and Scholarship
(Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2008); Owens, Geographically-Integrated, Connected
World History: Employing Geographic Information Systems (GIS), History Compass 5, no. 6 (October
2007): 2014-40; doi: 10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00476.x.
55 Donna J. Peuquet, Representations of Space and Time. (New York: Te Guildford Press, 2002).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
55
expIoraIory process IhaI supporIs contcxt shijting, which is Ihe
process oI inspecIing a IexI and considering an enIiIy in varying
conIexIs. The deIiniIions oI conIexI IhaI can be Iound in Ihe
IiIeraIure range Irom 'a IocaIion - Iime, pIace, and possibIe worId -
aI which a senIence is said'
S6
Io 'a psychoIogicaI consIrucI, a subseI
oI Ihe hearer's assumpIions abouI Ihe worId',
S7
Io '[Ihe] subseI oI
Ihe compIeIe sIaIe oI an individuaI IhaI is used Ior reasoning abouI
a given goaI'.
S8
HisIorians are guiIe good aI deIermining a conIexI
Ior Ihe inIerpreIaIion oI IexIs. or Ihem, meaning" does noI adhere
Io Ihe words IhemseIves buI reIaIes direcIIy Io whaI is asserIed by
Ihe use oI Ihe words and whaI oIher uses, avaiIabIe in Ihe user's
environmenI, are impIiciIIy re|ecIed. ThereIore, a conIexI" is a
dimension aI which one or more hisIoric acIors (and one or more
domain experI anaIysIs) acI, incIuding by speaking or wriIing, Io
asserI a meaning" IhaI invoIves an inIerpreIaIion oI some enIiIy
oI Ihe worId.
We need conIexI shiIIing Ior considering some IogicaIIy
coherenI siIuaIion or poIenIiaI reaIiIy, where various enIiIies are
IreaIed as Irue, Ihey are assumed Io exisI, and reIaIions beIween
Ihem are supposed Io hoId wiIhinspace-Iime represenIaIions
indicaIing speciIic pIaces, Iimes, siIuaIions, Ihe scope oI cerIain
exisIenIiaI assumpIions expressing generaIisaIions and beIieIs.
When a conIexI is 'expIained' or 'undersIood' iI aIso means IhaI some
speciIic evenIs or siIuaIions are represenIed as an insIanIiaIion oI
56 D. Lewis, Index, Context, and Content, S. Kranger and S. Ohman, eds., Philosophy and
Grammar, (D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1980).
57 D. Sperber and D. Wilson, Relevance: Comunication and Cognition, (Oxford-Malden, Blakcwell,
1986), p. 122.
58 F. Giunchiglia, Contextual Reasoning, Epistemologia. Special Issue on I Linguaggi e le Mac-
chine, vol. XVI (1993), pp. 345-364
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
56
some more IangibIe principIe or concreIe enIiIy using diIIerenI
IeveIs oI compIexiIy. !n IacI, conIexIs pIay an imporIanI roIe in
undersIanding Ihe generaI mechanisms IhaI hisIorians use Io
reason in such a way IhaI a space-Iime represenIaIion can IimiI
or enabIe Ihe kinds oI inIormaIion represenIed, and Ihe kinds oI
guesIions iI can answer abouI Irade neIworks.
;1&1, ") Q$1 "% ;C&4,<850, ],C$,6,%1&15"%6
Over Ihe pasI years, Ihe represenIaIions oI space and Iime
have been exIensiveIy discussed by diIIerenI research communiIies.
!n ArIiIiciaI !nIeIIigence, maIhemaIicaI IoundaIions have been
provided Io supporI Ihe represenIaIion oI changes in space.
S9

TemporaI daIabase approaches have been proposed Io supporI
daIabase modeIs and guery Ianguages Ior Ihe represenIaIion oI
mobiIe ob|ecIs.
60
SeveraI sIudies have been carried ouI by Ihe C!S
communiIy orienIed Io Ihe IemporaI exIension oI currenI spaIiaI
daIabase modeIs.
61

A range oI modeIIing absIracIions have been deveIoped
incIuding Ihe generic cause and eIIecI reIaIionship beIween an
enIiIy IhaI has iniIiaIed a change and Ihe enIiIy IhaI underwenI
59 L. Vieu, Spatial representation and reasoning in artifcial intelligence. In O. Stock (ed.) Spatial
and Temporal Reasoning, (Kluwer Academic Publisher, 1997), pp.5-41
60 L. Forlizzi, R. H. Gtting, E. Nardelli and M. A. Schneider, A Data model and Data Structures
for moving objects databases, Proceedings of the ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of
Data, (Dallas, Texas, 2000).
61 J. P. Cheylan and S. Lardon, Toward a conceptual model for the analysis of spatio-temporal
processes, in: Frank, A. U. and Campari, I. eds., Spatial Information Teory, (Berlin, Springer-Verlag, 1993),
158-176; A. U. Frank, Qualitative temporal reasoning in GIS - ordered time scales. Proceedings of the Sixth
International Symposium on Spatial Data Handling Conference, (Edinburgh, Scotland, 1994); Peuquet, Op.
Cit, Wachowicz, Object-Oriented Design for Temporal GIS. (Taylor and Francis, 1999); M. F. Worboys, A
unifed model of spatial and temporal information. Computer Journal, 1994, 37(1), pp.26-34.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
57
such a change;
62
as weII as modeIIing geomeIric inIormaIion aI Ihe
mosI precise scaIe, and auIomaIicaIIy compuIing aII geomeIries aI
Iess precise scaIes using generaIisaIion.
63
RepresenIing predeIined
paIIerns has aIso been proposed Io describe a process IhaI can
generaIe a change: (i) a pre-IormaIIed compIex aIIribuIe IhaI can
describe Ihe processes accounIabIe Ior changing Ihe vaIue oI an
aIIribuIe, especiaIIy Ihe vaIue oI a spaIiaI aIIribuIe; (ii) a causaI
reIaIionship IhaI can describe Ihe processes invoIving severaI
enIiIies; and (iii) a process enIiIy Iype IhaI can describe compIex
processes IhaI are composed oI oIher reIaIed sub-processes.
64

LeveIs oI deIaiI in space-Iime represenIaIions have been
previousIy addressed by research in muIIi-scaIe daIabases using
hierarchicaI daIabase sIrucIures
6S
and daIabase views.
66
However,
a space-Iime represenIaIion Ior processing and reasoning using
spaIiaI daIa seIs IhaI are heIerogeneous wiIh regard Io semanIic
62 T. Grifths, N. W. Fernandes, K. Paton, B. Mason, M. Huang, C. Worboys, C. Johnson and
J. Stell, Tripod: A Comprehensive System for the Management of Spatial and Aspatial Historical Objects.
Proceedings 9th ACM Int. Symposium on Advances in Geographic Information Systems. (Atlanta, GA,
2001); Pfoser D. and Tryfona, N. Requirements, defnitions and notations for spatio-temporal applications
environments. Chorochronos Tech. Report CH-98-09, November 1998.
63 J. C. Mller,J. P. Lagrange, R. Weibel, and F. Salg, Generalization: state of the art and issues.
In: J.C. Muller, J.P. Salge, and R. Weibel (eds), GIS and generalization: methodology and practice, (Taylor
and Francis, 3-7. 1995); R. Weibel and Gg. Dutton, Generalizing spatial data and dealing with multiple
representations, In P. Longley, M.F. Goodchild, D.J. Maguire, D.W. Rhind (eds.), Geographical Information
Systems: Principles, Techniques, Management and Applications, vol. 1, 2nd edition, Geoinformation
International, 1999.
64 J. Chomicki and J. Marcinkowski. Minimal-change integrity maintenance using tuple deletions.
Information and Computation, 197 (1-2), (2005), pp. 90-121; C. Claramunt, C. Parent and M. Teriault,
Design patterns for spatio-temporal processes. In: S. Spaccapietra and F. Maryanski (eds.), Searching for
Semantics: Data Mining, Reverse Engineering, (New York: Chapman & Hall, 1997), pp. 415-428
65 S. Timpf, Hierarchical structures in map series. Ph.D. thesis, Technical University of Vienna,
1998; S. Zhou and C. B. Jones, HCPO: an efcient insertion order for incremental Delaunay triangulation.
Information Processing Letters, (2005), 93(1), pp. 37-42.
66 Y. Bdard and E. Bernier, Supporting Multiple Representations with Spatial View Management
and the Concept of VUEL. Proceedings of the Joint Workshop on Multi-Scale Representations of Spatial
Data, ISPRS WG IV/3, ICA Communications on Map Generalization, (Otawa, 2002).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
58
and spaIiaI resoIuIion is sIiII a research sub|ecI oI inIeresI and iI
addresses a IimeIy Iopic. Some oI Ihe poIenIiaI research issues aI
Ihis IoundaIionaI IeveI incIude Ihe connecIion beIween spaIiaI and
IemporaI aIIribuIes IhaI sIiII needs Io be cIariIied: iI is aIready
cIear IhaI Iime cannoI be IreaIed as an exIra spaIiaI dimension and,
so Iar, iIs Iinear and unidirecIionaI naIure - as opposed Io Ihe bi-
direcIionaI naIure oI Ihe space dimension - has noI been properIy
invesIigaIed.
67
!n HisIory, ernand 8raudeI has urged Ior Ihe inIegraIion
oI space in hisIoricaI anaIysis poinIing Iowards Io whaI we
caII nowadays a CeographicaIIy-!nIegraIed HisIory". or Ihis
hisIorian, Ihe use oI a space-Iime represenIaIion pIays an
imporIanI roIe in Ihe anaIysis necessary Io comprehend mens
evoIuIion, in Ihe beIieI IhaI change happens in a spaIio-IemporaI
Iramework. RecenIIy, daIabases have been buiII by hisIorians in
order Io gaIher digiIaI daIa sources and IhereIore aIIowing Ihis
inIormaIion Io be anaIysed wiIh new compuIaIionaI IooIs. MosI oI
Ihese daIabases have been deveIoped Ior geomeIricaI conIIaIion
and georeIerencing oI hisIoricaI maps; reconsIrucIion oI pasI
boundaries; and georeIerencing oI hisIoricaI microdaIa (such as
census or parish records). AnoIher exampIe incIudes Ihe gazeIIeer
oI aII oI Ihe IocaIions incIuded in Ihe descripIion oI 139 rouIes
pubIished byViIIuga in 1S46 (and, IhereIore, reIevanI Io movemenI
in Ihe worId oI Simn Ruiz). A high percenIage oI Ihese unknown
IocaIions are waysIaIions (venIas and oIhers), and because many
oI Ihese siIes, parIicuIarIy in Ihe souIhern haII oI Ihe peninsuIa,
67 D. Montello, Scale and multiple psychologies of space. In A. U. Frank and I. Campari (Eds),
International Conference GIS From Space to territory: Te theories and methods of spatio-temporal
reasoning. Lecture Notes Computer Sciences 639, (Springer Verlag, 1993), pp.136-152; and Pequet, Op. Cit,
2002.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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59
were IikeIy used Ior many cenIuries, back inIo Roman Iimes, IairIy
accuraIe approximaIe IocaIions shouId be useIuI Ior hisIoricaI
archaeoIogisIs (Ihink abouI Ihe possibiIiIy oI IocaIing a good siIe
oI a caravanserai Irom Ihe MusIim period, Ior exampIe). AIIhough
ViIIuga's book IaIks abouI Spanish" rouIes, Spain", in Ihe absence
oI a counIry oI IhaI name, meanI Ihe enIire !berian PeninsuIa.
%4**(/"5 64' 2*"2')67#, ./'8 9*& # ()#2':6/;'
&')&'('"6#6/*"
AIIhough space and Iime are concepIs inherenIIy reIaIed,
we encounIer diIIicuIIies in Ihinking and hypoIhesising abouI
Ihem in eguaI Ierms. Langran
68
has coined Ihe Ierm dimensionaI
dominance" Io iIIusIraIe how our reasoning is inIIuenced by space-
dominanI or Iime-dominanI concepIuaI views.
The spccc-domincnt conccptucl vicw Iocuses on Ihe space-
Iime represenIaIions oI enIiIies based on Iheir IhemaIic and
geomeIric properIies (TabIe 1). We sIarI wiIh reaIiIy and decide
on Ihe Iayers we wouId need Io sIore enough observaIions (i.e.
daIa) oI IhaI reaIiIy Io answer Ihe research guesIion or guesIions
we have posed. !n oIher words, we deIine Ihe criIeria IhaI musI
be incIuded Ior our represenIaIion oI an enIiIy Io be useIuI Ior our
purposes, wheIher Io porIray, simuIaIe, or predicI iIs properIies or
behaviour.
69
ach Iayer corresponds exacIIy Io Ihe same absoIuIe
view oI a geographicaI space so IhaI, Ior exampIe, a poinI in Ihe x,y
coordinaIe sysIem oI one Iayer wiII correspond preciseIy Io Ihe
68 G. Langran, Time in Geographic Information System. (London, Taylor & Francis, 1992).
69 Adapted from Jack Horton and Kenneth Smith, Concepts of Geographic Analysis
(presentation at the ESRI International User Conference, San Diego, CA, July 12-16, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
60
same poinI in Ihe x,y coordinaIe sysIem oI every oIher Iayer in Ihe
C!S. !n Ihe C!S, enIiIies onIy exisI iI Ihey are associaIed wiIh a Iayer.
The Iayers are appIied Io some sorI oI map oI a Iype IamiIiar wiIhin
IradiIionaI carIography. ach Iayer is associaIed wiIh a poinI in
Iime. ThereIore, hisIorians can onIy base Iheir anaIysis oI change
Ihrough Ihe use oI C!S on Ihe simiIariIy or dissimiIariIy beIween
Iayers aI diIIerenI insIanIs in Iime. !I Ihe represenIaIion oI an enIiIy
wiIhin a parIicuIar Iayer varies Irom one insIanI oI Iime Io anoIher,
we musI expIain Ihe change; iI Ihe represenIaIion is simiIar, we
musI expIain Ihe conIinuiIy.
70

<#=,' >? Main characIerisIics oI Ihe space dominanI concepIuaI view
When Iime Iakes an expIiciI roIe in a represenIaIion, eiIher
wiIh or wiIhouI reIerence Io space, Ihe Iime dominance is generaIed
and an absoIuIe view oI Iime is used wiIhin a modeI (TabIe 2). This
timc domincnt conccptucl vicw is eIIecIive in domains where Ihe
accuracy oI IemporaI inIormaIion makes iI possibIe Io daIe or order
evenIs, observaIions or inIeracIions. !I presenIs a Iime sIrucIure
(IemporaI Iogic) and Ihe sIaIemenIs abouI an enIiIy are eiIher Irue
70 GIS have become so ubiquitous in contemporary life that the sofware has become the subject
for a book in the famous For Dummies series; see Michael N. DeMers, GiS for Dummies (Hoboken, NJ:
Wiley, 2009).
Space is viewed as a container (usually a 2 dimensional layer)
Entities exist only when associated to a layer
Applied primarily in traditional mapping
Raster or Vector database models
Each layer is associated to a period or point in time
Change based analysis on similarity/dissimilarity between
layers at diferent points of time
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
61
or IaIse aI various poinIs in Iime. AI-Taha and 8arrera
71
presenIed
a IirsI aIIempI Io cIassiIy IimedominanI represenIaIions inIo Ihree
caIegories named as inIervaI-based modeIs, poinI-based modeIs,
and mixed modeIs.
vcnts pIay an imporIanI roIe in Ihese space-Iime
represenIaIions since Ihey are used Io represenI human acIiviIy,
Ihe causes and conseguences oI changes, or Ihe parIs oI a process.
72

However, Ihese represenIaIions have noI been impIemenIed in
C!S yeI. ArchaeoIogisIs and geoIogisIs IreguenIIy use Ihis Iorm
oI represenIaIion Io visuaIise change. These scienIisIs creaIe Ihis
surrogaIe Io heIp Ihem discover paIIerns in Iheir daIa, and Io do
so using a reIaIiveIy Iarge number oI IacIors, enhancing cogniIion
beyond whaI can be accompIished wiIhouI visuaIisaIions. Dynamics
is undersIood Ihrough Ihe anaIysis oI change on Ihe Iineage oI Ihe
evenIs and Ihe resuIIing changes in poIygons.
73

<#=,' @? Main characIerisIics oI Ihe Iime dominanI concepIuaI view
71 K. Al Taha and R. Barrera, Identities through time, M. Ehlers and D. Steiner, eds, Proceedings
of International Workshop on Requirements for Integrated Geographic Information Systems, (New Orleans,
Enviromental Research Institute of Michigan, 1990), pp. 1-12.
72 For a valuable discussion of the concept of event and its relationship to the way that historians
treat processes, see Ruth Mostern and Johnson, From Named Place to Naming Event: Creating Gazetteers
for History, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 22, no. 10 (October 2008): 1091-
1108. Dr. Johnson is a Cooperating Partner of DynCoopNet.
73 Without reference to GIS, this concept was widely introduced to historians in David J. Staley,
Designing and Displaying Historical Information in the Electronic Age, AHA Perspectives 36, no. 9 (1998):
40-44.
Time is viewed as a time line
Events, interactions and actions are associated to a time line
Applied in archaeology, geology and environmental sciences
Interval, point, and mixed models
Space is not an entity in itself
Event-based analysis on the lineage of events, interactions and
actions.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
62
8y deveIoping space-Iime represenIaIions based on an
expIoraIory process approach IhaI supporIs conIexI shiIIing, we
argue IhaI Ihe reIaIive space-Iime view is needed Ior modeIIing Ihe
behaviour oI Irade neIworks, Iaking inIo accounI diIIerenI IexI daIa
sources, oIIen deveIoped independenIIy. The reIaIive space-Iime
concepIuaI view invoIves Ihe inIerpreIaIion oI emergenI properIies
and Ihe IransiIion oI changing paIIerns wiIhin a speciIic conIexI.
TabIe 3 summarises Ihe main characIerisIics envisaged Ior a space-
Iime represenIaIion based on Ihe reIaIive spaceIime concepIuaI
view.
<#=,' A: Main characIerisIics oI Ihe reIaIive space-Iime concepIuaI view
%4**(/"5 64' 2*"9/57&#6/*" 9*& # ()#2':6/;'
&')&'('"6#6/*"
The Iwo IundamenIaI conIiguraIions Io represenI enIiIies
in C!S are usuaIIy known as discreIe ob|ecIs and conIinuous IieIds
(TabIe 1). The discrctc ohjcct conjigurction represenIs enIiIies using
weII-deIined spcticl ohjccts wiIh Iheir associaIed aIIribuIes.
74
The
aIIribuIes IhaI represenI a spaIiaI ob|ecI incIude spcticl rcjcrcncc
74 Longley et al Op. cit.
Space and time are viewed as a coexistence relationship (Time Geography)
Neither time or space exists independently
Applied in studies of forms, patterns, functions, rates and difusion
Topological based models
It may involve non-Euclidean space or linear time (e.g. fractal geometry)
Exploratory analysis of emergent properties
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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63
(coordinaIes, IeaIure names,
7S
codes), spcticl jcctors (scaIe,
resoIuIion, pro|ecIion), spcticl mccsurcs (IengIh, perimeIer, area,
voIume), thcmctic injormction (guanIiIaIive and guaIiIaIive vaIues),
tcmporcl injormction (divisions oI Iime, Iime in Ihe worId, Iime
wiIhin Ihe daIabase), and topologiccl rclctionships (wiIhin, conIains,
Iouches, covers). These aIIribuIes IaII inIo Ihree caIegories. irsI,
Ihere are invariabIe aIIribuIes, which cannoI ever be modiIied or
eIiminaIed. Second, some aIIribuIes are signiIicanI Ior a parIicuIar
version and can be updaIed and sIored in Ihe daIabase. inaIIy,
oIher variabIe aIIribuIes are noI signiIicanI Ior a parIicuIar version
and can aIways be updaIed wiIhouI Ihe necessiIy oI creaIing new
versions Io represenI each change.
Spcticl Dhjccts
B/57&' >C Overview oI possibIe conIiguraIions oI space-Iime

The conIinuous IieId conIiguraIion represenIs enIiIies as
a IiniIe number oI variabIes over a surIace, having each variabIe
75 For historians, this task is complicated by the use of diferent names during diferent periods.
For example, see Antonino Gonzlez Blanco, Inmaculada Garca Garca et al, Repertorio Alfabtico de la
Toponimia de la Regin de Murcia (Murcia, ES: Editorial KR, 1998).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
64
deIined aI every posiIion.
76
The conIinuous IieId view assumes IhaI
Ihe worId is a series oI conIinuous maps or Iayers, each oI Ihem
represenIing Ihe variabiIiIy oI a cerIain aIIribuIe over Ihe arIh's
surIace. There are no gaps in such Iayer: each IocaIion has one or
anoIher vaIue oI an aIIribuIe, e.g. IoresI" or non-IoresI"; high
Iands" or Iow Iands".
Clcsscs IuncIion as conIainers in which Ihe ob|ecIs and
IieIds can be incIuded wiIhin Ihem or noI. Ob|ecIs or IieIds incIuded
wiIhin Ihe same cIass musI have Ihe same aIIribuIes. !n order Io
undersIand whaI Ihis reguiremenI means, consider Ihe diIIerences
beIween Ihe Iand use cIasses in igure 2. Those cIasses IhaI may be
updaIed in a new version conIain IieIds wiIh aIIribuIes which
are signiIicanI Ior Ihe versioning process. or exampIe, in a new
version, Ihe spaIiaI measure oI a gIacier or a poIar ice cap may have
aIIered Irom Ihe Iime period oI an earIier version. Those cIasses
IhaI do noI change in subseguenI versions conIain IieIds wiIh
invarianI aIIribuIes or wiIh aIIribuIes IhaI are noI signiIicanI in Ihe
newer versions. Depending on Ihe anaIyIicaI purposes Ior which
Ihe scienIisI wishes Io use a space-Iime represenIaIion, cIasses
may possess diIIerenI reIaIionships. Such reIaIionships invoIve
inhcritcncc (someIimes caIIed generaIizaIion or sub-cIassiIicaIion,
depending on poinI oI view), cggrcgction, or a join (1:m, m:n, n:1).
B/57&' @. Land use cIasses
76 Longley et al. Op. Cit.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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The choice oI one conIiguraIion over anoIher has an impacI
on Ihe mosI eIIecIive manner oI conveying Ihe meaning oI our
daIa so IhaI Ihey can be undersIood weII by oIhers. or exampIe,
in represenIing popuIaIion densiIy, we mighI do so on Ihe basis oI
counIries, indicaIing Ihe densiIies according Io a seI oI ob|ecIs (in
Ihis case a counIry) porIrayed on a choropIeIh map (see igure 3).
!n Ihis represenIaIion, we provide an absoIuIe view oI space, which
assumes IhaI Ihe popuIaIion densiIy oI a counIry is evenIy spread
IhroughouI iIs IerriIory.
B/57&' AC AbsoIuIe view represenIing popuIaIion densiIy by counIry
+*7&2'? WebsIer-onIine-dicIionary.org

AIIhough such a represenIaIion conveys imporIanI
inIormaIion abouI Ihe siIuaIion oI counIries, iI mighI noI be Ihe
mosI eIIecIive manner oI represenIing Ihe way IhaI human
popuIaIion densiIy is disIribuIed on Ihe arIh's surIace. !I IhaI were
our inIenIion, we mighI empIoy c rclctivc vicw oj spccc, such as IhaI
provided by Ihe use oI Voronoi ceIIs (oIIen caIIed Thiessen poIygons)
Io represenI Ihe spaIiaI disIribuIion oI Ihe popuIaIion densiIy daIa
(see igure 4). This conIinuous IieId conIiguraIion reveaIs someIhing
IhaI is disguised in Ihe absoIuIe view: Ihe variaIions oI popuIaIion
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
66
densiIy wiIhin counIries and aIong poIiIicaI boundaries.
B/57&' D. ReIaIive view represenIing popuIaIion densiIy by Voronoi ceIIs.
+*7&2'? pubIib.bouIder.ibm.com
These Iwo conIiguraIions can be impIemenIed in C!S, and
Ihey are usuaIIy reIerred Io vecIor and rasIer daIabases. AIIhough
Ihere is a common undersIanding IhaI rasIer daIabases are Ihe
impIemenIaIion oI Ihe conIinuous IieId conIiguraIion, and Ihe same
occurring wiIh vecIor and discreIe ob|ecIs, Ihis is noI acIuaIIy Ihe
case. !n principIe, boIh conIiguraIions can be impIemenIed using
rasIer or vecIor daIabases.
@,".$&C954&'':<7%1,.$&1,- Y561"$:
!n proposing an expIoraIory process based on conIexI
shiIIing Ior Ihe geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory paradigm, we
have disIinguished a Iive-sIep process Ior Ihe deveIopmenI oI a
spaceIime represenIaIion:
77

77 Adapted from Randall Davis, Howard Shrobe, and Peter Szolovits, What is a Knowledge
Representation? AI Magazine 14, no. 1 (1993):17-33.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
67
A surrogaIe oI Ihe reaI worId: "Finding thc cpproprictc
rcprcscntction.
A seI oI onIoIogicaI commiImenIs: "Rccognising chout whct
cxists cnd whct crc thc rclctions hctwccn thc conccpts within c
spccijic contcxt.
A IragmenIary Iheory oI inIeIIigenI reasoning: "|dcntijying
which injcrcnccs ccn hc scnctioncd chout thc hchcviour oj trcdc
nctworks.
A medium Ior eIIicienI compuIaIion: Drgcnising, storing,
mcnipulcting cnd rccovcring tcxt oI boIh primary (wriIIen aI Ihe
Iime) and sccondcry (wriIIen by hisIorians).
A medium oI human expression: "Tclling thc othcrs chout
thc dyncmics oj trcdc nctworks.
ThereIore, we oIIer Ior your consideraIion a deIiniIion oI a
space-Iime represenIaIion and iIs reIaIionship Io a conIexI, which
we have adapIed Irom Marvin Minsky.
78

An ohjcct 'A' is c rcprcscntction oj ohjcct '' jor thc ohscrvcr 'C'
ij thc ohscrvcr 'C' ccn utilisc thc rcprcscntction 'A' in ordcr to rcspond
to qucstions thct intcrcst him chout '' (Whcrc: A = Rcprcscntction;
= Contcxt; C = Dhscrvcr, Dcsigncr, Scicntist).
NoIice IhaI in Ihis deIiniIion Ihe represenIaIion is noI
compIeIeIy deIermined by Ihe reIaIive space-Iime concepIuaI view.
or exampIe, you may wanI Io documenI Ihe sources oI each daIum
IhaI you enIer in IieIds associaIed wiIh Ihe diIIerenI cIasses oI ob|ecIs
according Io diIIerenI conIexIs IhaI have been a-priori deIined in Ihe
78 Adapted from Marvin L. Minsky, Matter, Mind, and Model, in Proceedings of IFIP Congress 65
(Vol. 1; Washington, D.C.: Spartan Books, 1965), 45-9. Also, see Tucer I. ren, Directions for the Future
of Modelling and Simulation: A Normative View, International Journal of Systems Analysis, Modelling,
Simulation 1, no. 4 (1984): 293-306; ren, Tucer I., Model-Based Information Technology: Computer and
System Teoretic Foundations, Behavioral Science 29, no. 3 (July 1984): 179-85.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
68
space-Iime represenIaIion. AIso, Ihink abouI whaI addiIionaI daIa
may be reIevanI Io Ihe way IhaI inIeracIions are shaped, such as
sociaI norms IhaI may have chorcogrcphcd inIeracIions diIIerenIIy
in diIIerenI geographic IocaIions.
79
The currenI research chaIIenges
are noI reIaIed Io our abiIiIy Io impIemenI such a space-Iime
represenIaIion in a C!S, buI onIy Io our diIIicuIIy in represenIing
Ihe conIexI shiIIing based on a reIaIive space concepIuaI view,
which in Iurn, can aIIow us an expIoraIory anaIysis oI Ihe dynamics
oI Irade neIworks.
80

! (7&&*5#6' *9 64' &'#, 8*&,0
A space-Iime represenIaIion is a compIex composiIion
oI knowIedge on Ihe basis oI concepIs and Iheir combinaIions.
or exampIe, Ihe movemenI oI a group oI peopIe or oI waIer in a
direcIion mighI be represenIed by a Iine wiIh a direcIionaI arrow aI
Ihe end. !nsIead oI proceeding in a singIe direcIion, Ihis Iine mighI
deIine a cycIe or a spiraI. We couId make Ihe represenIaIion more
compIex by dispIaying direcIion Iine segmenIs beIween nodes, by
having our Iine segmenI divide inIo various branches, each oI which
moves in iIs own direcIion and maniIesIs subseguenI divisions, or
by represenIing Ihe irreguIariIy oI movemenI by breaking up our
Iine segmenI inIo sIashes oI diIIerenI IengIhs.
Our space-Iime represenIaIions resuII in contcxts. The
conIexIs possess vaIue Io Ihe exIenI IhaI Ihey are IaiIhIuI Io Ihe daIa
79 We take the term choreograph to describe the role of social norms from Herbert Gintis, Te
Bounds of Reason: Game Teory and the Unifcation of the Behavioral Sciences (Princeton, NJ, and Oxford,
UK: Princeton University Press, 2009), especially chap. 10.
80 For our recommendations about research lines that should be pursued to deal with this
difculty, see Monica Wachowicz and J. B. Owens, Space-time representation of complex networks: What
is next? GeoFocus 9 (2009): 1-8.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
69
and IeII us someIhing Ihe reaI worId Irom diIIerenI perspecIives.
VisuaIised conIexIs do noI reproduce reaIiIy; however, any more
Ihan Ihe arIicIes and books wriIIen abouI change and conIinuiIy
reproduce Ihe reaI worId.
81
The main research issue here is Ihe scaIe. ScaIe is Ihe
reIaIionship oI Ihe size oI someIhing in Ihe reaI worId and a
represenIaIion oI Ihe same Ihing. or exampIe, we IaIk abouI Ihe
scaIe oI a map" or Ihe scaIe oI a modeI." The issue oI scaIe Iakes on
a parIicuIar imporIance when we discuss inIervaIs oI Iime. These
inIervaIs mighI be expressed in ordinaI Iorm (IirsI Iime period,
second Iime period, eIc.), in discreIe Iorm (Ihe passage oI Iime
measured in some uniI, such as minuIes), or in conIinuous Iorm
(as a IIow represenIed by a conIinuous Iine). When we speak abouI
scclc, we are IaIking abouI a reIaIive guanIiIy.
On Ihe oIher hand, granuIariIy is Ihe measure oI Ihe size
oI componenIs or Ihe descripIions oI Ihe concepIs IhaI make up
a conIexI. The more granuIar Ihe measuremenI or descripIion
becomes, Ihe more speciIic Ihe inIormaIion is. !n order Io undersIand
granuIariIy, Ihink oI Ihe division oI Ihe year inIo monIhs as one
IeveI oI granuIariIy. !I we were Ihen Io divide Ihe year inIo weeks,
we wouId be using a greaIer granuIariIy, and iI we divided iI inIo
days, Ihe granuIariIy wouId increase even more.
!n order Io undersIand Ihe reIaIionship beIween grcnulcrity
and scclc, observe Ihe Iwo maps oI Ihe cenIraI area oI 8erIin as
shown in igure S. The scaIe is idenIicaI in IhaI a kiIomeIre oI
disIance in Ihe reaI word is represenIed in each map by Ihe same
number cenIimeIres. !n Ihis case, Ihe scaIe oI boIh maps is 1:10,000.
81 David J. Staley, Computers, Visualization, and History: How New Technology Will Transform Our
Understanding of the Past (Armonk, NY: M. E. Sharpe, 2003).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
70
However, one oI Ihe maps has a greaIer granuIariIy in IhaI iI shows
a much greaIer number oI Ihe sIreeIs and buiIdings wiIhin Ihe area
dispIayed Ihan Ihe oIher. Depending on Ihe conIexI, Ihe greaIer
granuIariIy may noI be more desirabIe because Ihe increased
number oI componenIs or eIemenIs mighI obscure Irom view Ihose
IeaIures oI greaIesI imporIance given a parIicuIar conIexI. !n Ierms
oI Ihe reIaIionship beIween granuIariIy and scaIe, more does noI
signiIy beIIer!
B/57&' E: CranuIariIy versus ScaIe
Trade neIworks are compIex neIworks IhaI wiIhouI
excepIion are dynamic, non-Iinear, and seIIorganising in naIure,
and have a scaIe-Iree sIrucIure in space (e.g. Irom guarks, aIoms,
moIecuIes, maIeriaI, ob|ecIs, pIaneI, Io gaIaxies) as weII as Iime
(e.g. Irom nano-seconds Io gaIacIic Iime). This scaIe-Iree sIrucIure
reIIecIs a hierarchicaI organisaIion oI naIure IhaI is capabIe oI
Iraming emergenI properIies oI compIex behaviour Irom reIaIiveIy
simpIe micro inIeracIions beIween iIs componenIs over Iime.
The deveIopmenI oI scaIe-Iree sIrucIures is one oI Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
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cenIraI Ihemes wiIhin compIexiIy research because iI goes beyond
Ihe esIabIished duaIism oI conIiguraIions oI discreIe ob|ecIs
versus conIinuous IieIds in C!S and moves IurIher Iowards a more
IopoIogicaI sIrucIure where reIaIionships aIIecI Ihe probabiIiIy
oI Iinking aII componenIs oI a Irade neIwork. ThereIore, a Irade
neIwork is acIuaIIy deIined by iIs space-Iime reIaIionships raIher
Ihan by iIs consIiIuenI componenIs. or exampIe, in an economy,
componenIs mighI be consumers, Iirms and Ihe sIaIe. PredicIing
wheIher Ihe evoIuIion oI cooperaIion in Irade neIworks mighI
coIIapse, or wheIher dense IraIIic wiII congesI, invoIves issues wiIh
respecI Io how emergence, eguiIibrium, and change oI reIaIionships
beIween Ihese componenIs can be modeIIed based on a Iree-scaIe
neIwork paradigm. AppIicaIions oI compIex neIworks in modeIIing
micro-macro phenomena are currenIIy in demand, and a vasI
IiIeraIure can be Iound in physics, bioIogy, psychoIogy, geography,
hisIory, economics and environmenIaI sciences. !n parIicuIar,
Manson provides an inIeresIing eIIorI aI describing Ihe evoIuIion
oI compIexiIy research and iIs appIicaIion in Ihe geographicaI
domain.
82

MosI oI Ihe IheoreIicaI research advances in deveIoping
scaIe-Iree-sIrucIures has reIied on Ihe generaIisaIion oI Ihe 8arabsi-
AIberI modeI oI dynamics oI neIworks.
83
The primary research
assumpIion is based on Ihe use oI a direcIed graph represenIaIion
in which nodes are weighIed in a hierarchicaI sIrucIure buI noI
muIuaIIy connecIed by a high densiIy oI Iinks. DespiIe Ihe IacI
IhaI some oI emergenI properIies are being undersIood, direcIed
82 S. M. Manson, Simplifying complexity: a review of complexity theory Geoforum, 32 (2001),
pp. 405-414.
83 A. L. Barabsi and R. Albert, Emergence of scaling in random networks. Science 286, 509
(1999). http://arxiv.org/abs/cond-mat/9910332
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
72
graph represenIaIions do noI incIude criIicaI Iime windows and
geographicaI consIrainIs among Iheir reaIisIic assumpIions.
or exampIe, Ihe Poincare graph has been appIied Io deIermine
iI a neIwork conIains a sIrange IacIor, a vaIue or a seI oI vaIues
Iowards which Ihe sysIem variabIes Iend Iowards over Iime buI
never guiIe reach.
84
However, Ihe variabIes Iend Io moving aIong
random diIIerenI paIhs IhaI are simuIIaneousIy consIrained Io a
reguIar and geomeIric region oI Ihe graph.
! ('6 *9 *"6*,*5/2#, 2*;;/6;'"6(
A space-Iime represenIaIion is viIaI Io provide a means Ior
expIoring Ihe sIrucIure oI IexI sources simuIIaneousIy wiIh geo-
inIormaIion. The main research chaIIenge is Io creaIe a spaceIime
represenIaIion in which Ihe pIuraIism oI sources can occur based
on onIy one reIevanI conIexI oI Ihe expIanaIion. SchoIars disagree
abouI whaI conIexI acIuaIIy is and in whaI way iI aIIecIs Ihe
processes oI probIem soIving and Iearning in compIex neIworks.
Our IirsI aIIempI was Io esIabIish Ihe onIoIogicaI commiImenIs
was IargeIy based on Ihe Ihree spaces" paradigm IhaI has been
proposed by rnsI Cassirer (1874-194S), a phiIosopher oI Ihe
Marburg schooI, who describes a reasoning process as a IruIy
dynamic acIiviIy oI Ihe mind oI Ihe human experience oI spaces and
Iime. The spaces are Irom an observed space Ihrough sensors and
senses (inIerpreIaIion), Io an absIracI modeI oI space (symboIic), Io
a higher IeveI oI concepIs incorporaIed in an inIernaI and cogniIive
space (synIhesis). Moreover, Ihe space-Iime represenIaIion
84 K. Mainzer, Tinking in Complexity: Te Complex Dynamics of Matter, Mind, and Mankind.
(New York: Springer, 1996).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
73
combines Ihe concepIs oI exIensionaI knowIedge (i.e. IacIs) and
inIenIionaI knowIedge (i.e. axioms) based on PawIak's Iheory on
noIions oI eguivaIence reIaIions and deducIive reasoning. igure 6
iIIusIraIes Ihe proposed space-Iime represenIaIion.
B/57&' F? The muIIi-Iier space-Iime represenIaIion

The ObservaIionaI Space conIains Ihe cIasses IhaI
concepIuaIise Ihe observaIions oI Ihe Ihree dimensionaI IiIed in
space. ObservaIions are measuremenI vaIues aI every poinI in
space, based on some measuremenI scaIe, which can be guanIiIaIive
or guaIiIaIive. 8esides, observaIions are aIways marked by some
degree oI uncerIainIy, which depends on Ihe Iype oI hisIoricaI
sources. On Ihe oIher hand, CeographicaI Space is Ihe IundamenIaI
concepIuaI Iramework where we are abIe Io compare and guanIiIy
ob|ecIs, Iheir sizes and shapes in reIaIion Io Ihe Iandscape. inaIIy, Ihe
behaviouraI space consisIs oI individuaIs, groups and organisaIions
IhaI mainIain reIaIions Ihrough inIenIionaI (cooperaIive) acIiviIies
based upon a more or Iess common seI oI ruIes, norms and vaIues
and acI wiIhin Ihe boundaries oI Ihe insIiIuIions IhaI are derived
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
74
Irom iI.
8S
An imporIanI diIIerence beIween behaviouraI and
observaIionaI spaces is IhaI Ihe IaIIer has been mosIIy described in
geographic Ierms whiIe Ihe IirsI has noI.
G'#(*"/"5 #=*76 <&#0' H'68*&I(

Reasoning reIers Io Ihe process oI making inIerences or
concIusions on Ihe basis oI principIes, IacIs, or prooIs. ScienIisIs
uIiIise reasoning abouI Ihe visuaIised absIracIions Ihey produce Ior
expIoraIion, expIanaIion, predicIion, and pIanning.
As an exampIe oI expIoraIion, imagine IhaI Ihe sub|ecI oI
inIeresI is changes in Irade during Ihe cenIury Irom 1890 Io 1990.
A scienIisI wouId begin wiIh a guesIion such as, whaI paIIerns oI
change in commerce are evidenI in 1890, 1909, 1927, 1968, and 1990
(I=1, I=2, I=3, I=4, inaI SIaIe)? Civen Ihis descripIion oI Ihe worId aI
Ihese diIIerenI poinIs oI Iime, he or she wouId Ihen modeI Ihe ruIes
IhaI govern Ihe observed change in Ihe reaI worId. xpIoraIion oI
Ihis Iype assumes a cenIraI imporIance in geographicaIIy-inIegraIed
hisIory, which posIuIaIes IhaI Ihe undersIanding oI hisIoricaI
processes reguires an inIegraIion oI pIace, space, and Iime.
86

A geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory scienIisI wouId move
Irom Ihe modeI resuIIing Irom expIoraIion Io a modeI oI Ihe
expIanaIion oI Ihe observed changes. oIIowing Ihe above exampIe,
he or she wouId ask a guesIion such as, whaI IacIors wouId be
reIevanI Io Ihe change in Ihe disIribuIion oI commerciaI rouIes
85 F. Kleefmann, Planning als zoekinstrument, (s Gravenhage, VUGA, 1984).
86 J. B. Owens, Toward a Geographically-Integrated, Connected World History: Employing
Geographic Information Systems (GIS), History Compass 5, no. 6 (October 2007): 2014-2040; doi:
10.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00476.x.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
75
observed in hisIoricaI maps over Ihe pasI 100 years? Civen a
descripIion oI Ihe worId during a deIermined period oI Iime and
oI Ihe ruIes IhaI govern change, Ihe scienIisI wouId modeI Ihe
descripIion oI Ihe worId aI diIIerenI insIanIs in Iime.
8ecause human sysIems and Ihose wiIhin Ihe geography
oI human acIion are IargeIy compIex, dynamic, and nonIinear,
scienIisIs cannoI do much Io predicI Ihe IuIure wiIh any Iarge
degree oI conIidence, and Ihe conIidence IeveIs diminish rapidIy as
Ihe Iime inIervaI is exIended ever IurIher inIo Ihe IuIure. However,
because cerIain aspecIs oI geography can onIy be aIIered wiIh greaI
diIIicuIIy and expense -a road neIwork Ior exampIe- some Iypes
oI predicIion yieId beIIer resuIIs Ihan oIhers. The scienIisI wouId
pose a guesIion such as, iI humans harvesI a IoresI in a deIermined
pIace over Ihe nexI year, whaI changes wiII occur in Ihe reIaIions
among species oI IIora and Iauna in one year, in Ien years, and
in IhirIy years? Civen a descripIion oI Ihe worId and a group oI
ruIes IhaI govern Ihe change, Ihe scienIisI wouId modeI Ihe worId
aI some IuIure momenI. CeographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIorians Iind
predicIion mosI useIuI as a means Io IesI Iheir undersIanding oI Ihe
IacIors shaping some hisIoricaI process IhaI produced a resuII in
Ihe pasI. !I Ihis undersIanding cannoI be used Io porIray, simuIaIe,
or predicI, Ior exampIe, Ihe occurrence oI Ihe Russian RevoIuIion oI
1917, scienIisIs have noI yeI deveIoped an adeguaIe undersIanding
oI Ihe reIevanI hisIoricaI processes and wiII know IhaI Ihey musI
underIake IurIher expIoraIion oI avaiIabIe daIa, reIhink Ihe seIecIed
IacIors and Ihe way Ihey are scored or weighIed, and enrich Iheir
expIanaIions in order Io caIibraIe Iheir modeI Io produce accuraIe
resuIIs.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
76
WiIhin Ihe IimiIaIions imposed by Ihe nonIinear dynamics
oI Ihe worId, scienIisIs can engage in more raIionaI pIanning.
or exampIe, a scienIisI mighI ask a guesIion such as, whaI is
Ihe opIimaI combinaIion oI species oI IIora and Iheir spaIiaI
disIribuIion necessary Io mainIain a sIabIe popuIaIion oI owIs in a
deIermined area, conIorming Io exisIing reguIaIions and necessary
economic growIh? Civen a descripIion oI Ihe desired sIaIe oI Ihe
worId in some period oI Iime and oI Ihe ruIes IhaI govern change,
Ihe scienIisI wouId modeI Ihe seguence oI acIions IhaI wouId mosI
IikeIy resuII in Ihe sIaIe described by Ihe guesIion.
! ;'0/7; 9*& '99/2/'"6 2*;)76#6/*"
8ecause Ihe space-Iime represenIaIions deveIoped Ihrough
Ihe reasoning processes described above are IreguenIIy guiIe
compIicaIed, scienIisIs musI devoIe considerabIe aIIenIion Io Ihe
nesIed composiIion oI diIIerenI modeIs. 8y nesIed", we mean IhaI
in order Io make eIIecIive use oI a compuIer-driven inIormaIion
sysIem such as C!S. Moving Irom more compuIer-cenIred modeIs
Io human-cenIred ones, we can have robusI maIhemaIicaI modeIs
nesIed wiIhin socioeconomic ones, which are nesIed wiIhin
behaviouraI modeIs, IhemseIves nesIed wiIhin experimenIaI
modeIs.
87
Among Ihe many reguired Iasks, scienIisIs deIine Ihe
ob|ecIs, cIasses, aIIribuIes, reIaIions, evenIs, daIa Iypes, operaIions,
IemporaI inIervaIs, and idenIiIiers. They seIecI Ihe ruIes conIroIIing
versions, Ihe naIure oI change (conIinuous, discreIe), Ihe naIure oI
agenIs, Ihe IuncIions and behaviour oI modeI componenIs, and
87 On this concept of nesting of models in behavioral geography, see Helen Couclelis, A
Teoretical Framework for Alternative Models of Spatial Decision and Behavior, Annals of the Association
of American Geographers 76, no. 1 (March 1986): 95-113.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
77
Ihe Iype oI gueries Ihe scienIisIs expecI Io reaIise. Civen currenI
possibiIiIies, Ihey musI choose beIween a reIaIionaI daIabase
and an ob|ecI-orienIed one.
88
RecenIIy, in Ihis area, Ihere is Ihe
deveIopmenI oI KanIabuIra's !nIenIionaIIy-Linked nIiIies (!L)
daIabase sysIem.
89
PreIiminary resuIIs suggesI IhaI !L provides
Ihe means Io represenI compIex enIiIies, such as space-Iime
bIocks Iinking inIeracIions IhaI are Irames and eIemenIs wiIhin
which hisIoricaI sociaI scienIisIs can enIer pieces oI inIormaIion
Io buiId up sIories. Moreover, !L can serve Io Iink inIerpreIaIions
Io concepIs and Io esIabIish a reIaIionaI conIexI esIabIishing Ihe
meaning oI a concepI aI diIIerenI Iime periods, Ihus becoming a
conccpthcsc.
! ;'0/7; *9 47;#" 'J)&'((/*"
Space-Iime represenIaIions emphasise human visuaI
Ihinking, graphicaI daIa manipuIaIion, and human compuIer
inIeracIion. Among Ihe IirsI process orienIed perspecIives on
visuaIisaIion is Di8iase's characIerisaIion oI a 4-sIage process IhaI
IaciIiIaIes expIoraIion, conIirmaIion, synIhesis, and presenIaIion.
90

The goaI oI a visuaIisaIion is Io sIimuIaIe a hypoIhesis raIher Ihan
Io porIray a message. !nIormaIion is Io some exIenI consIrucIed
88 For a clear discussion of the use of the object-oriented database for spatial-temporal GIS, see
Michael Goodchild, Combining Space and Time: New Potential for Temporal GIS, in Placing History: How
Maps, Spatial Data, and GIS Are Changing Historical Scholarship, ed. Anne Kelly Knowles (Redlands, CA:
ESRI Press, 2008), 179-97. For a preliminary discussion of the use of a new database scheme, Intentionally-
Linked Entities (ILE), which removes the arity restrictions of the object-oriented database, see Vitit
Kantabutra et al., Using the Newly-created ILE DBMS to Better Represent Temporal and Historical GIS
Data, Transactions in GIS 14, s1 (2010): 39-58; doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9671.2010.01222.x.
89 Vitit, Kantabutra, A new type of database system: Intentionally-Linked Entitiesa detailed
suggestion for a direct way to implement the entity-relationship data model, CSREA: EEE, (2007): 258-263
90 D. DiBiase, Visualization in the Earth Sciences, Earth an Mineral Sciences, vol. 59 (2, 1990),
pp. 13-18.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
78
by Ihe user based on Ihe visuaI dispIay. A compIimenIary view
Iocusing on Ihe percepIuaI-cogniIive process oI inIerpreIing and
undersIanding visuaI dispIays was oIIered in Macachren and
CanIer.
91
OIhers who have adopIed a process orienIed approach
Io visuaIisaIion incIude Monmonier
92
and Openshaw,
93
wiIh Iheir
ideas abouI use oI map animaIion in Ihe process oI spaIiaI anaIysis
and MiIas
94
who emphasise Ihe use oI visuaIisaIion in Ihe process oI
deveIoping and appIying compIex Iandscape simuIaIions and Iand
use opIimisaIions.
The main research chaIIenge is Io deveIop a Iramework
IhaI inIegraIes Ihe IormaIism oI semioIics and cogniIive sIudies
Io deveIop a concepIuaIisaIion oI a space-Iime represenIaIion as a
)&*2'(( IhaI invoIves humans achieving insighI by inIeracIing wiIh
daIa Ihrough Ihe use oI visuaI dispIays IhaI provide represenIaIions
oI hisIoricaI daIa and oI Ihe operaIions IhaI can be appIied Io Ihose
daIa.
9S
rom semioIics, we need intcrcctivc tools Ior undersIanding
space-Iime represenIaIions oI Irade neIworks as weII as how
meaning is broughI Io Ihese represenIaIions by Iheir creaIors and
users. rom Ihe sIudy oI cogniIion, we need intcrjccc tools IhaI
91 A. M. MacEachren and J. H. Ganter, A pattern identifcation approach to cartographic visuali-
zation, Cartographica, n 27 (2), pp. 64-81.
92 M. Monmonier, Authoring graphic scripts: Experiences and principles, Cartography and Geo-
graphic Information Systems, n 19 (4, 1992), pp. 247-260.
93 S. Openshaw, D. Waugh and A. Cross, Some ideas about the use of map animation as a spatial
analysis tool, H. M. Hearnshaw and D. J. Unwin, eds., Visualization in GIS, Chichester, John Wiley & Sons,
1994, pp. 131-138.
94 L. Mitas, H. Mitasova, W. M. Brown and M. Astley, Interacting felds approach for evolving
spatial phenomena: Application to erosion simulation for optimized land use, Proceedings, Tird
International Conference/Worshop on Integrating GIS and Enviromental Modeling, Santa Barbara, 1996.
(http:www.ncgia.ucsb.edu/conf/SANTA_FE_CD-ROM/main.html)
95 A. M. MacEachren et alii, Virtual Enviroments for Geogrpahic Visualization: Potential and
Challenges, Proceedings ACM Workshop on New Paradigms in Information, Visualization and Manipulation,
(Kansas City, 1999), pp. 45.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
79
incorporaIe how hisIorians concepIuaIise probIem domains,
process visuaI dispIays, and Iink menIaI schemaIa Io acIions.

%*"2,7(/*"(
The ob|ecIives oI Ihis paper have been Io discIose Ihe vaIue
oI deveIoping space-Iime represenIaIions and Iheir reIevance
Io modeIIing Ihe dynamics oI Irade neIworks, and Io propose a
Iive-sIep process approach Ior Ihe deveIopmenI oI a space-Iime
represenIaIion IhaI supporIs Ihe geographicaI inIegraIed hisIory
paradigm. New space-Iime represenIaIions wiII be deveIoped in Ihe
near IuIure in order Io supporI IooIs Ior hisIorians Io access, reIrieve,
merge, anaIyse compIex and Iarge daIa seIs in an inIeracIive and
iIeraIive way, invoIving visuaI Ihinking and auIomaIed inIormaIion
processing. The IorIhcoming IooIs wiII IaciIiIaIe conIexI shiIIing,
wheIher Ihis conIexI is used Ior sIeering daIa mining, idenIiIying,
comparing, and anaIysing enIiIies, or Irying Io Iink enIiIies Io a reaI-
worId phenomenon. The key goaI is Io Iind reIaIionships among
enIiIies in a geographic space over Iime using a singIe IransparenI
environmenI IhaI is inIuiIive and supporIive oI Ihe heurisIics oI a
hisIorian whiIe deIining a IIexibIe, adapIive conIroI sIrucIure Ior
aIgoriIhmic process and graphic user inIerIace - Ihe ideaI paradigm
Ior geographicaIIy-inIegraIed hisIory.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
80
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
81
@,"<9561"$:J 7%4"$C"$&15"% ") .,".$&C954
5%)"$0&15"% 6:61,06 5%1" 9561"$54&' ,V,%1
61#-5,6
Q#19"$6J Q-"')" B$$#15& e&0P$&%&
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DUniversidad PoIiIecnica de Madrid, Spain)
7%1$"-#415"%J @7; &%- Y561"$:
Since iIs creaIion, C!S has been used Ior soIving spaIiaI
pIanning, environmenIaI, geographic and sociaI issues. Since
Ihe IaIe 60's Ihe IirsI C!S were used Ior Iasks IhaI inIerreIaIed
geographic areas and Ihe peopIe inhabiIing Ihem, as reIIecIed
in crime sIudies conducIed aI Ihe poIice deparImenI in SI. Louis,
Missouri (USA) which were underIaken using a primiIive C!S caIIed
SYMAP, deveIoped by Harvard UniversiIy
96
. rom Ihe IaIe '80s
on, wiIh Ihe advenI oI compuIers having higher capabiIiIies and
perIormance, C!S has IurIher increased iIs use in various IieIds and
appIicaIions, highIighIing iIs poIenIiaI Ior assessmenI oI human
acIiviIies and sociaI reIaIionships.
97
C!S aIso IaciIiIaIe managemenI
96 David Weisburd and Tom McEwen, Crime Mapping and Crime Prevention, (Monsey: Criminal
Justice PRess, 1997):8; Keith Harries, Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice,(Washington, DC: U.S.
Department of Justice; Ofce of Justice Programs; National Institute of Justice,1999),92;.
97 Michael Goodchild, et al., Toward spatially integrated social science, International Regional
Science Review, 23(2) (2000): 139159.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
82
and represenIaIion oI spaIiaI daIa, modeIIing behaviour in a spaIiaI
conIexI and inIeracIing wiIh IemporaI aIIribuIes. or Ihis reason,
C!S has aIIracIed greaI inIeresI among hisIorians, who have Iarge
daIabases oI evenIs occurring in Ihe IerriIory. !I is cIear IhaI when
hisIorians are compiIing inIormaIion, Ihey are more cognisanI oI
oIher issues Ihan sIrucIuring inIormaIion Io be used by a C!S. or
Ihis reason, Ihe IormaI Iypes in which Ihese hisIoricaI daIabases are
iniIiaIIy sIored are unwieIdy and diIIicuII Io anaIyse in a C!S
98
. This
inadeguaIe sIrucIuring oI hisIoricaI sources and Ihe Iack oI IooIs
Ior discovery and managemenI oI IemporaI paIIerns are IacIors
IhaI increase compIexiIy when appIying geomaIics IooI Ior Ihese
sIudies. !I Ihe IormaI in which hisIoricaI daIa were originaIIy sIored
is noI manageabIe wiIhin a C!S, Ihen iI wiII be necessary Io modeI
Ihem in a way Ihey can be incorporaIed eIIicienIIy. or Ihis reason
diIIerenI sIudies cIaim IhaI C!S musI increase Iheir capabiIiIies Ior
anaIysis oI Ihe IemporaI variabIe.
99
!n Ihe pasI 20 years a varieIy
oI modeIs Io sIore Ihese daIa Iypes had emerged, Ihe IirsI one oI
Ihem being Ihe SnapshoI ModeI
100
in which IemporaI inIormaIion
is incorporaIed inIo Ihe spaIiaI daIa modeI across IimesIamped
Iayers, which show Ihe diIIerenI sIaIes oI geographicaI disIribuIion
aI diIIerenI Iimes wiIhouI an expIiciI Iink beIween Ihem. There
are oIher modeIs IhaI have improved Ihe IirsI proposaI made by
Ihe SnapshoI ModeI; however, as iI wiII be shown beIow, each
has iIs pros and cons. Some oI Ihem may be simpIe Io impIemenI
98 J. B. Owens, What Historians Want from GIS? GIS Best Practices: Essays on Geography and
GIS, Redlands, California: ESRI,( 2008): 35-46.
99 Donna Peuquet, Making Space for Time: Issues in Space-Time Data Representation,
GeoInformatica 5 (1) (2001): 11-32. Stefano Spaccapietra., Editorial: Spatio-Temporal Data Models and
Languages, GeoInformatica, 5 (1), (2001): 5-9
100 Gail Langran and Nicholas Chrisman, A framework for temporal geographical information
systems, Cartographica, Vol. 25, No. 3, (1988):1-14.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
83
wiIh currenI IooIs, buI do noI provide suIIicienI capabiIiIy Ior
anaIysis, whiIe oIhers, much more IIexibIe when guerying, are
exIremeIy compIex when impIemenIed in soIIware. The research
work oI hisIorians can resuII in daIa reposiIories wiIh hundreds or
Ihousands oI evenIs IocaIed boIh geographicaIIy and IemporaIIy.
8uI having many records in a daIabase does noI IransIaIe direcIIy
inIo inIormaIion.
101

C!S has been sIowIy incorporaIing Ihe Iime variabIe in Iheir
represenIaIion and anaIysis capabiIiIies
102
, aIIhough iIs IuncIionaIiIy
in Ihis IieId has aspecIs Io be deveIoped as yeI. ueries abouI daIes
and Iimes in which a parIicuIar evenI happened shouId give way Io
anaIysis oI how an evenI has changed over a period oI Iime. ThaI
is parI oI Ihe ob|ecIive oI Ihe recenI IieId oI spaIioIemporaI mining
daIa, which aims Io anaIyze paIIerns IhaI are impIiciI in Ihe daIa.
TaIking abouI space-Iime gueries in a C!S invoIves more
Ihan being abIe Io design aIgoriIhms Ior daIa processing. WhiIe
providing new IeaIures Io anaIyse Iime and space seems Io be a
Ieap Iorward, Ihe visuaI IormaI in which Ihese IooIs are presenIed
is aIso parI oI Ihe probIem Io be considered
103
. The daIabase cIearIy
does noI undersIand naIuraI Ianguage, and in Iurn knowing com-
puIer Ianguage sIaIemenIs is noI a reguiremenI Ior Ihe end user.
WiIh Ihis scenario, a soIuIion in Ihe Iorm oI graphicaI guery inIer-
Iace can be Ihe Iink beIween Ihe C!S and consumers oI geographic
inIormaIion; Ior Ihis reason Ihe way evenIs IhaI occur in Iime and
101 Jiawei Han, Micheline Kamber, Data Mining: Concepts and Techniques Second Edition. (Morgan
Kaufmann Publishers, 2006):5 22, 291-359.
102 ArcGIS Tracking Analyst, http://www.esri.es/index.asp?pagina=199 (Accessed February 27th,
2010); Google Earth Blog, http://www.gearthblog.com/blog/archives/2006/09/google_earth_4_time.html
(Accessed February 27th, 2010)
103 Natalia Andrienko et al, Exploratory spatio-temporal visualization: An analytical review,
Journal of Visual Languages & Computing (2003) 14 (6) (12): 503-541.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
84
space are presenIed, and Ihe IaciIiIy Ior gueries have some impor-
Iance.
Thus, Ihe visuaI represenIaIion in Ihis work is imporIanI
and shouId poinI ouI IhaI a paper or digiIaI map is aImosI aIways
Ihe end producI oI a process IhaI begins wiIh Ihe IirsI coIIecIed
daIa. However, Ihe visuaI inIormaIion shouId noI be viewed onIy
as a represenIaIion oI Ihe daIabase, because Ihis Iype oI daIa
ouIpuI can be used boIh Ior visuaI anaIysis, visuaI Ihinking, and
Ior discIosure, visuaI communicaIion.
104
!n Ihe IirsI case Ihe map
is used Io generaIe ideas and hypoIheses abouI Ihe probIem under
sIudy, whiIe Ihe second Iocuses more on Ihe creaIion oI synIhesis
and presenIaIion oI daIa Io a wider audience.
ramed beIween Ihese Iwo paradigms -visuaI anaIysis and
disseminaIion- Iime and iIs presenIaIion in maps has been a Iopic oI
inIeresI Ior many years. A cIassic exampIe oI Ihese represenIaIions
daIes Irom 1861, when ]oseph Minard represenIed Ihe advance and
reIreaI oI NapoIeon in his Russian campaign oI 1812 on a map.
10S

Nowadays Ihere is a varieIy oI modeIs oI space-Iime
represenIaIion: space-Iime sIice, space-Iime sIab, Iime series
animaIion, and so on
106
. One oI Ihe mosI used modeI is Ihe spaceIime
cube, where Iime is seen as a dimension orIhogonaI Io Ihe map,
where pasI evenIs are cIoser Io Ihe map and Ihe more recenI evenIs
are IurIher away. This IirsI modeI oI presenIaIion is direcIIy based
104 Alan MacEachren, Some Truth with Maps: A Primer on Symbolization and Design. (Washington,
DC: Association of American Geographers,1994)
105 Princeton University QED website: http://qed.princeton.edu/images/thumb/0/0e/Minard_
carte_fgurative.jpg/800px- Minard_carte_fgurative.jpg (Accessed February 27th, 2010)
106 Alan MacEachren, How Maps work: Representation, Visualization and Design, (New York: Te
Guilford Press, 1995), 252, 254.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
85
on Ihe idea oI Time Ceography
107
. This modeI has been impIemenIed
in socaIIed CeoIimes soIIware which is avaiIabIe aI www.ocuIusinIo.
com.
AnoIher imporIanI Iorm oI Iime represenIaIion is by
means oI Ihe dynamic animaIion oI maps Ihrough Ihe appearance
and disappearance oI eIemenIs as you move across a IimeIine).
CurrenIIy more and more commerciaI soIIware is incIuding Ihis
device, one oI Ihe pioneering works on Ihis Iopic being TimeMap.
108

8oIh approaches have Iheir pecuIiariIies when anaIysing and
presenIing inIormaIion; Ihis Iopic wiII be addressed again as we
expIain iIs repercussion on our work IaIer.
The IooI being designed in Ihis pro|ecI, which is invoIved
in DynCoopNeI", wiII enabIe hisIorians Io enguire and anaIyse
a space-Iime daIaseI, obIaining a dynamic represenIaIion oI Ihe
resuIIs. The generaI ob|ecIive is Io discover paIIerns oI behaviour
in dynamic evenIs IhaI shed IighI on hisIoricaI IacIs wiIh IiIIIe or no
veriIicaIion. The nexI secIions wiII deaI wiIh a presenIaIion oI Ihe
issue. SubseguenIIy, we wiII show Ihe IiIeraIure sources Iooked up,
Ihe meIhodoIogy Ior IooI design and appIicaIion Io Ihe sIudy case.
inaIIy Ihe concIusions and IuIure work wiII be presenIed.
89$,, M&654 \$"P',06 ") Y561"$:<@7; 7%1,.$&15"%
K"#0'L7#6'M #;=/57*7( *& /"2*;),'6' 0#6# (*7&2'(
As menIioned in Ihe inIroducIion, mosI daIa sources used
by hisIorians are designed Irom Ihe sIarI Io be sIored in a daIabase,
107 Torsten Hgerstrand, What about people in regional science? Papers of the Regional Science
Association, 24, (1970):7-21
108 Ian Johnson, Mapping the fourth dimension: the TimeMap project Proceedings of the
Computer Applications in Archaeology Conference, Birmingham, UK. BAR International Series (1997).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
86
noI wiIhin a C!S. One reason Ior Ihis is Ihe hisIoricaI conIexI oI Ihe
daIa, which, in mosI cases, IasI Ionger Ihan Iheir originaI purpose.
AI Ihe Iime oI being coIIecIed, in mosI insIances Ihere were no
anaIyIic IooIs (compuIerised or noI) IhaI we wouId wish Io appIy
aI Ihe presenI Iime. or Ihis reason iI is imporIanI Io consider Ihe
processes IhaI wiII be needed Io IransIorm Ihe vaIues in order Io
inIroduce Ihem inIo a C!S. !I is noI suIIicienI Io change Ihe IiIe
Iype, buI iI is necessary Io IiII Ihe daIa gaps or design a meIhod
Io work wiIh Ihem. And IinaIIy a sysIem has Io be creaIed Io deaI
wiIh ambiguous inIormaIion or deIine a IoIerance range Ior Ihe
IoIerabIe hisIoricaI inaccuracy wiIhin Ihe reposiIory Io be incIuded
in Ihe geographic inIormaIion sysIem.

K"2*&)*&#6/"5 6/;' /"6* 1K+

As answers Ior Ihe guesIion oI how Io incorporaIe Iime inIo
C!S, severaI modeIs have emerged. As aIready menIioned, Ihe IirsI
modeI was Ihe SnapshoI, and Ihen IoIIowed by oIher modeIs oI
which a deIaiIed reIerence wiII be made IaIer. !I shouId be noIed,
IhaI so Iar no modeI is known Io have been impIemenIed in a
comprehensive way by a C!S. ven Ihe simpIesI oI Ihese modeIs,
menIioned in Ihis paragraph, has a parIiaI incorporaIion Ihrough
Ihe IimeIine. or Ihis reason, added Io Ihe seIecIion oI Ihe daIa
modeI Io be used, one musI aIso consider how Io impIemenI iI using
currenIIy avaiIabIe geomaIic IooIs. Taking as an exampIe Ihe SpaIio
TemporaI nIiIy ReIaIion (STR) and Ihe SpaIioTemporaI Ob|ecI
OrienIed modeIs, boIh have goI a greaI capabiIiIy Io represenI
reaIiIy
109
; Iheir anaIysis operaIions are IairIy comprehensive and
109 Nikos Pelekis et al., Literature review of spatio-temporal database models, Te Knowledge
Engineering Review 19 (2005): 235-274
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
87
Ihey are aIso based on very soIid oI compuIer science IoundaIions.
However, IuIIy operaIionaI spaIioIemporaI daIabases in which Ihe
STR modeI or iIs ob|ecIorienIed counIerparIs were impIemenIed
are unknown.
This Iack oI DaIa 8ase ManagemenI SysIems (D8MS) wiIh
more spaIioIemporaI capabiIiIies, makes Ihe incorporaIion oI Iime
inIo C!S more diIIicuII, Ieaving Iwo ways Io address Ihis Iack. The
IirsI wouId be Ihe consIrucIion oI a C!S IhaI naIiveIy supporIs Ihe
seIecIed spaIioIemporaI modeI. The second wouId be Io design and
impIemenI a soIIware Iayer IhaI expands exisIing capabiIiIies Ior
managing Iime and space.
G')&'('"6#6/*" *9 6/;'
Time is no sIranger Io Ihe maps and IhereIore noI Io C!S
eiIher; as Iigures IhaI change coIour, shape or IexIure Io show pasI,
presenI or IuIure evenIs over a geographicaI area, Iime has been
around Ior many years in boIh Iorms oI represenIaIion
110
. or
Ihis reason, Ihe diIIicuIIy Iime presenIs is noI abouI iIs incIusion
in Ihe visuaI ouIpuI oI Ihe C!S, buI in Iinding a more versaIiIe
represenIaIion IhaI enabIes a visuaI anaIysis IaciIiIaIing Ihe
undersIanding oI phenomena by experIs, and aIso preparing Ihe
daIa Ior presenIaIion Io Ihe generaI pubIic.
OI Ihe Iwo modeIs commonIy used Io represenI Iime, Ihe
space-Iime cube, has goI weII known characIerisIics Io anaIyse Ihe
behaviour oI enIiIies, aIIhough Iheir IeveI oI anaIysis decreases as
Ihe number oI ob|ecIs under sIudy is increased. This is Ihe resuII oI
110 Keith Harries, Mapping Crime: Principle and Practice,(Washington, DC: U.S. Department of
Justice; Ofce of Justice Programs; National Institute of Justice,1999).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
88
Ihe very Iorm oI Ihe modeI, represenIing Iime as an orIhogonaI
dimension on Ihe map; despiIe aIIempIs Io give Ihe impression
oI a Ihird dimension, Ihe reaIiIy is IhaI aII inIeracIion is seen on
a Iwodimension pIane in which poinIs IhaI shouId be suspended
over Ihe map hide oIhers IhaI are, in Iheory, above or beIow Ihem.
Regarding Ihe oIher modeI, Ihe map animaIion (IimeIine),
iIs abiIiIy Io presenI Iime in iIs puresI Iorm resuIIs in an inIeresIing
advanIage over oIher approaches
111
, i.e. Ihe abiIiIy Io pIay Iorward
and backward on a Iime Iine and Ihe IacI IhaI Ihe map or ob|ecIs
on iI change as a reacIion Io Ihe user acIions; iI is one oI Ihe unigue
IeaIures oI Ihis modeI. However, Ihe animaIion by iIseII does noI
easiIy respond Io spaIioIemporaI guesIions or aIIow discovering
space-Iime paIIerns impIiciI in daIa, aIIhough Ihe animaIion can
be sIopped and noIes oI Ihe Iime in which a parIicuIar change
happened can be Iaken. The inIeracIiviIy reguired Io change Ihe
visuaI and anaIyIic perspecIive is a Iopic yeI Io be deveIoped.
WhaI is Ihe mosI eIIicienI way Ior a user Io perIorm a
spaIioIemporaI guery and see iIs resuIIs? This guesIion is an
exampIe IhaI summarizes Ihe probIem oI Iime dispIay in a C!S,
which is a process oI IaciIiIaIing new visuaI IooIs Ior anaIysis and
deIermining Iheir eIIecIiveness in meeIing pubIic expecIaIions; aII
oI Ihis inIegraIed in Ihe C!S environmenI, which is boIh source and
enIry oI daIa, in order Io Iurn Ihem inIo visuaI inIormaIion.
111 Menno-Jan Kraak et al., Cartographic animation and legends for temporal maps: exploration
and or interaction, In Proceedings of the 18
th
ICA/ACI International Conference. Stockholm, Sweden
(1997):1
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
89
M5P'5".$&C954 ;"#$4,6
The purpose oI Ihis secIion is noI Io presenI a deIaiIed sIaIe
oI Ihe arI oI each Iopic, buI a brieI inIroducIion Io concepIs used
in Ihe various sIages oI design oI Ihe IooI Ior anaIysis and dynamic
visuaIisaIion oI Iime. A IisI oI sIorage modeIs has been made, an
imporIanI poinI aI Ihe momenI oI preparing Ihe daIa oI hisIorians
Ior Iheir incorporaIion inIo C!S. An inIroducIion Io daIa mining and
iIs deveIopmenI Io Ihe incIusion oI spaIioIemporaI daIa are exposed,
presenIing Ihe basis oI Ihe IooI anaIysis moduIe in a IaIer sIage.
As a compIemenI Io daIa mining are geneIic aIgoriIhms, whose
IuncIion is Io aIIow Ihe opIimisaIion oI Ihe IuncIions responsibIe
Ior discovering impIiciI daIa paIIerns.
+)#6/*6';)*&#, 0#6# ;*0',(
The probIem oI Iime in C!S may be due Io Ihe IacI IhaI C!S
and D8MS deveIopmenIs have IoIIowed individuaI and separaIe
paIhs, aI IirsI onIy spaIiaI daIa being considered, Ihen hiIIing many
barriers regarding Ihe incorporaIion oI spaIioIemporaI componenIs.
!n Ihe earIy 1990's, various sIudies were based on Ihe addiIion oI
IemporaI capabiIiIies in D8MS.
112
!n recenI years, C!S research
has been Iocused on spaIiaI-IemporaI modeIIing, visuaIisaIion and
anaIysis. However, researchers oI space-Iime modeIs in C!S have
primariIy approached Ihis Iopic Irom a concepIuaI and IechnicaI
112 John Roddick and Jon Patrick, Temporal semantics in information systems-A survey,
Information systems, Vol. 17, (1992): 249-267; Abdullah Uz Tansel et al., Temporal databases: theory,
design, and implementation, (Redwood City, Calif, Benjamin/Cummings series on database systems and
applications Benjamin/ Cummings Pub. Co.1993).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
90
perspecIive and modeI impIemenIaIion
113
.
Many C!S daIa modeIs have been proposed Io incorporaIe
IemporaI inIormaIion inIo spaIiaI daIabases. TemporaI inIormaIion
is generaIIy associaIed wiIh Iime reIIecIed in individuaI Iayers such
as modeIs IhaI use Ihe space-Iime cube
114
, Ihe SnapshoI ModeI,
11S
or
individuaI spaIiaI ob|ecIs such as Ihe Space-Time ComposiIe ModeI
and base sIaIe wiIh amendmenIs
116
. MosI recenI sIudies in Ihis Iine
advocaIe Ior modeIIing spaIioIemporaI phenomena via evenIs:
evenI-orienIed approach,
117
evenI-based spaIiaI IemporaI daIa-
STDM,
118
processes, Ihe evoIuIion oI geographic IeaIures/ob|ecIs
or acIiviIies.
119
OIher sIudies impIy advances in spaIioIemporaI
daIabase sysIems such as !nIenIionaIIy-Linked nIiIies (!L) IhaI
provides Ihe means Io represenI compIex enIiIies and esIabIish a
reIaIionaI conIexI.
120

CreaI eIIorIs have been made Io buiId geographic daIabases
113 Gail Langran, Time in Geographic Information Systems, (Taylor & Francis, 1992); Donna
Peuquet, Representations of Space and Time. (New York: Guilford Publications 2002).
114 Hgerstrand, 197026
115 Marc Armstrong, Temporality in spatial databases, Proceedings, GIS/LIS88, San Antonio,
Texas, USA, Vol. 2, (1988): 880-889
116 Gail Langran and Nichoas Chrisman, A framework for temporal geographical information
systems, Cartographica, Vol. 25, No. 3, (1988): 1-14.
117 Christophe Claramunt and Marius Teriault Managing time in GIS: an event oriented
approach, In: Recent Advances on Temporal Databases, Eds.: Cliford, J. and A., Tuzhilin, Zurich: Springer-
Verlag, Switzerland, (1995): 23-42
118 Donna Peuquet and Niu Duan, An event-based spatiotemporal data model (ESTDM) for
temporal analysis of geographical data, International Journal of Geographical Information Systems, Vol. 9,
(1995): 7-24; Jun Chen and Jie Jiang, An event-based approach to spatio-temporal data modeling in land
subdivision systems, Geoinformatica. 2, (1998): 387-402
119 May Yuan, Temporal GIS and spatio-temporal modeling, Proceedings, Tird International
Conference on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, NCGIA, CDROM. Santa Fe, New Mexico,
USA (1996); Lynn Usery, A feature-based geographic information system model, Phtogrammetric
Engineering &Remote Sensing. 62, (1996):833-838; Monica Wachowicz, Object-oriented design for temporal
GIS. (London: Taylor & Francis 1999); Wang and Chen, A spatio-temporal data model for activity-based
transport demand modeling International Journal of Geographic Information Science,15, (2001):561-585
120 Vitit Kantabutra, A new type of database system: Intentionally-Linked Entitiesa detailed
suggestion for a direct way to implement the entity-relationship data model, CSREA: EEE, (2007): 258-263
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
91
and a proIoIype inIended Ior space-Iime daIa, such as Ihe
concepIuaI and iIs impIemenIaIion issues Ior cerIain appIicaIions;
however Ihere is no overaII Iramework IhaI can be exIended Io
any appIicaIion.
121
8uI Ihe big guesIion is how C!S can undersIand
Ihe IemporaI concepI and manage Iime-reIaIed inIormaIion?
Some Iheories have been suggesIed aIIempIing Io simuIaIe human
undersIanding oI Iime and spaIioIemporaI reasoning.
122
OIher
approaches have used Ihe Iuzzy seI Iheory.
123
The Iuzzy modeI
expIains Ihe uncerIainIy in geographicaI daIa and iI is used in
deaIing wiIh cIassiIicaIion oI speciIic IocaIizaIion oI ob|ecIs. Some
oI Ihe sIudies are based on Iuzzy Ior modeIIing Iime in C!S.
124

-#6# ;/"/"5
!n a simpIe way, iI may be said IhaI daIa mining consisIs
in Ihe exIracIion oI impIiciI inIormaIion Irom a Iarge amounI oI
daIa. CeneraIIy Ihese meIhods can be divided inIo Iwo caIegories:
cIassiIicaIion and predicIion. The IirsI characIerises Ihe daIa key
aIIribuIes, whiIe Ihe IaIIer is used Io anaIyse Ihe IuIure behaviour
based on known IacIs. Regarding cIassiIicaIion meIhods Ihere is
121 Donna Peuquet, Making Space for Time: Issues in Space-Time Data Representation,
GeoInformatica 5 (1) (2001): 11-32.
122 James Allen, Toward a general theory of action and time, Artifcial Intelligence, 23 (2), (1984):
123- 154; Antony Galton, Temporal logics and their application, (San Diego. Ed. Academic Press 1987);
Andrew Frank, Diferent types of Times in GIS, Egenhofer MJ, Golledge RG (eds) Spatial and temporal
reasoning in Geographic Information Systems, New York-Oxford: Oxford University Press1998): 40-62.
123 Lofi Zadeh, Fuzzy sets. Information and Control, 8(1965): 338-353
124 Fangju Wang et al., Fuzzy information representation and processing in conventional GIS
sofware: database design and applications, Int. Jl. Geographical Information Systems 4, (1990): 261283;
Dieter Pfoser and Nectaria Tryfona Fuzziness and Uncertainty in Spatiotemporal Applications, Lecture
Notes In Computer Science; Vol. 2151; Proceedings of the 5
th
East European Conference on Advances in
Databases and Information Systems (2001): 112 126; Suzana Dragicevic and Danielle Marceau, A fuzzy
logic approach for modeling time in GIS, International Journal of Geographic Information Science, vol. 14,
no. 3, (2000): 225-245.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
92
a wide range: Decision Trees !nducIion, 8ayesian cIassiIicaIion,
cIassiIicaIion !-THN ruIes, 8ackpropagaIion (Iearning aIgoriIhm
based on neuraI neIworks), SupporI VecIor Machines (cIassiIicaIion
by associaIion ruIes anaIysis), Lazy Learners (Iearning Irom
neighbours), CeneIic AIgoriIhms (aIIempI Io incorporaIe ideas
Irom naIuraI evoIuIion), rough seI approach (used Io discover Ihe
sIrucIuraI reIaIionships wiIhin inaccuraIe previousIy unprocessed
daIa), uzzy SeI Approaches (insIead oI appIying precise ruIes,
choice oI a Iuzzy cIassiIicaIion).
As daIa mining became beIIer known, enIiIies wiIh spaIiaI
and IemporaI componenIs were incIuded in iIs scope, creaIing new
speciaIisaIions in impIiciI knowIedge discovery. !n Ihe spaIiaI IieId,
daIa mining is Ihe process oI discovering previousIy unknown
paIIerns in Iarge spaIiaI daIaseIs
12S
. !n Ihe IemporaI IieId, daIa
mining Iocuses on anaIysing Iarge seguenIiaI daIaseIs, which by
Iheir naIure are arranged in reIaIion Io an index, in Ihis case Iime.
126

SpaIioIemporaI daIa mining arises Irom Ihe union oI
Ihe Iwo previous approaches, whose aim is Io reveaI Ihe spaIiaI
and IemporaI reIaIionships in Ihe daIa.
127
This combinaIion oI
approaches has iIs own Iechnigues. The mosI reIevanI Iechnigues
incIude: discovery oI spaIioIemporaI associaIions, generaIisaIions,
Iime and space, space-Iime cIusIers, eIc
128
. !n order Io provide our
IooI wiIh Ihese capabiIiIies, we have decided Io Iake a IirsI approach
in which we wiII design a cusIomised Decision Trees !nducIion and
125 Shashi Shekhar et al., Spatial Data mining, Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Handbook,
(Springer US, 2005): Chapter 39
126 Srivatsan Laxman and P.S. Sastry, A survey of temporal data mining, Sdhan Acad Proc Eng
Sci 31,( 2006): 173198
127 Xiaoba Yao, Research issues in spatio-temporal data mining, presented at UCGIS workshop
on Geospatial Visualization and Knowledge Discovery, Lansdowne,Virginia. 2003.
128 Harvey J . Miller and Jiawei Han, Geographic data mining and knowledge discovery, & Francis
Inc, 29 West 35th Street, New York, (2001): pp 35.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
93
SupporI VecIor Machines Io give supporI Ior IemporaI and spaIiaI
componenIs oI Ihe daIa in our sIudy case abouI IransaIIanIic sIave
Irade.

1'"'6/2 !,5*&/64;
The basic idea behind Ihe so-caIIed geneIic aIgoriIhms is Io
IesI a myriad oI possibIe soIuIions Io a probIem IhaI iniIiaIIy one
does noI know how Io deaI wiIh. The source oI Ihese soIuIions
comes Irom whaI is caIIed iniIiaI popuIaIion (seI oI soIuIions), which
conIains a IirsI approximaIion oI whaI is probabIy Ihe answer Io
Ihe probIem. 8ased on Ihis iniIiaI popuIaIion, Ihe suiIabiIiIy oI
each individuaI Io soIve Ihe probIem is IesIed, and depending on
iIs success, some soIuIions (individuaIs) are discarded and Ihe mosI
successIuI are repIicaIed Ihrough operaIions IhaI impregnaIe Ihem
wiIh smaII changes caIIed muIaIions, which are used Io generaIe a
second popuIaIion and resIarI Ihe process again.
The Ierm geneIic aIgoriIhm was coined by ] H HoIIand in
his pubIicaIion made in 197S under Ihe IiIIe AdapIaIion in NaIuraI
and ArIiIiciaI SysIems". CurrenIIy, geneIic aIgoriIhms are parI oI a
much broader IieId known as evoIuIionary aIgoriIhms, which are
grouped in diIIerenI branches such as evoIuIionary programming,
arIiIiciaI IiIe, cIassiIicaIion sysIems, geneIic programming and
more recenIIy Ihe concepI oI evoIuIionary hardware. 8ecause
oI Ihe way geneIic aIgoriIhms work, Ihey are used mosIIy in
opIimisaIion probIems where one seeks Io maximize Ihe vaIue oI a
variabIe whiIe minimizing Ihe vaIue oI a second one. AppIied Io Ihe
sIudy case seIecIed, iI wiII consisI in Ihe opIimisaIion oI vaIues IhaI
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
94
wiII aIIow cIassiIying Ihe diIIerenI movemenI paIIerns oI vesseIs
Ihrough Ihe diIIerenI areas where Ihe sIave Irade Iook pIace. The
conIiguraIion oI Ihese vaIues couId be done manuaIIy, buI Irying aII
possibIe soIuIions wouId resuII in a very Iong-Ierm work IhaI couId
be done much IasIer and more eIIicienIIy by geneIic aIgoriIhms.
K,65.% ") & 6C&15"1,0C"$&' &%&':656 1""'
+,#.' 6&#0' 0#6#=#(' #( 0#6# (*7&2'
The source oI daIa chosen is based on a daIa seI regarding Ihe
IransaIIanIic sIave Irade. This daIa seI is IreeIy open Io Ihe pubIic on
Ihe www.sIavevoyages.org websiIe
129
. The daIa are compiIed by an
inIernaIionaI group oI researchers associaIed wiIh Ihe UniversiIy
oI mory and are very weII suiIed Io Ihe sIudy Io be underIaken.
!I comprises a regisIer oI around 3S,000 voyages made by sIave
Iraders beIween 1S19 and 1867, in which more Ihan 270 aspecIs oI
Ihe voyages are speciIied (Ihe name oI each ship, Ihe porIs where
Ihey sIopped, Ihe number oI sIaves embarked and disembarked,
Ihe duraIion oI Ihe voyage, Ihe desIinaIion oI each ship, eIc.) which
wiII aIIow spaIioIemporaI anaIysis oI Ihe behaviour oI Ihese ships
and perIorm diIIerenI visuaI represenIaIions oI evenIs.
The IormaI oI Ihe inIormaIion in MS xceITM consisIs oI
a singIe IabIe oI 274 coIumns and 3S,000 rows, which is noI very
pracIicaI Ior Ihe inIended purpose. !I was IhereIore necessary Io
IransIorm Ihe sIrucIure using daIabase normaIisaIion ruIes. We
Ihen proceeded Io carry ouI an exhausIive revision oI every coIumn
Io Iry Io undersIand Ihe impIiciI reIaIionships beIween Ihem and
129 Cf. David Eltis & David Richardson, coords., Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade, (New
Haven, 2010).
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Io idenIiIy Ihe enIiIies IhaI wouId IaIer Iorm IabIes in Ihe daIabase.
These enIiIies were Iar Irom uniIormIy expressed. AIso,
iI musI be sIressed IhaI Ihe resuIIing sIrucIure musI be Iocused
on appropriaIe sIorage and on IaciIiIaIing IuIure spaIioIemporaI
gueries. A IragmenI oI Ihe normaIised modeI in UML (UniIied
ModeIIing Language) is shown beIow (igure 1).
B/57&' >C ragmenI oI sIave Irade daIabase mode oI Ihe ConcepIuaI ModeI
in UML. The coIours indicaIe Ihe diIIerenI parIs in which Ihe daIabase can
be anaIysed (VesseI, Ceographic pIace, OperaIion, aIe, AIrican resisIance,
Owner, CapIain, Voyage and Source). This is Ihe resuII oI normaIising Ihe
MS xceITM worksheeI described above.
ThaI was Ihe design and impIemenIaIion oI a soIIware
IooI capabIe oI undersIanding Ihe ruIes oI normaIisaIion
130
oI
130 Clare Churcher, Beginning Database Design, (Apress, 2009): 146-155.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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Ihe reIaIionaI daIabase, appIying Ihem Io a parIicuIar daIaseI,
and whiIe moving inIormaIion Irom one pIace Io anoIher, iI was
necessary Io review Ihe consisIency and inIegriIy oI whaI was
being IransIerred. We had Io avoid Ihe inIroducIion oI redundanI
inIormaIion abouI Ihe porIs, ships names, capIains' names and
owners' names, Io menIion a Iew vaIues. CIeansing beIore sIarIing
Ihe daIa inIroducIion was needed and iI had Io be moniIored
aIIer being admiIIed, in order Ior Ihe new daIabase noI Io conIain
dupIicaIe vaIues in Iorm or meaning.
AI Ihis poinI oI Ihe research work, Ihe IooI has enIered a
suIIicienI number oI Irips Io sIarI Ihe proIoIype IesI. The moduIariIy
obIained Irom Ihe ob|ecI-orienIed design
131
, wiII bring abouI Ihe
beneIiI oI some degree oI reuse oI Ihe IooI iI iI was Io be appIied
Io simiIar cases.The sIrucIure oI Ihe normaIised daIabase sorIs
ouI Ihe main enIiIies sIudied by hisIorians who had creaIed Ihe
MS xceITM sheeI. However, Ihis is onIy Ihe sIarIing poinI oI any
compuIer appIicaIion. The nexI sIeps consisIed oI Ihe Use Cases and
design cIass modeI IhaI wouId provide Ihe IuncIionaIiIy.

N(' 2#('( #"0 2,#(('( ;*0',
!n paraIIeI wiIh Ihe anaIysis oI Ihe IabIe IhaI originaIIy
conIained Ihe daIa, we began Io modeI Ihe use cases. These use
cases had Io reIIecI Ihe reguiremenIs IhaI Ihe proIoIype was Io IuIIiI,
speciIying in wriIing and graphic Iorm Ihe ideas IhaI moIivaIe Ihe
creaIion oI Ihis appIicaIion. The deIiniIion oI each oI Ihe moduIes Io
be designed was recorded in Ihis modeI (igure 2), which is divided
inIo eighI use cases, covering Ihe ediIing and guery componenIs
131 Grady Booch et al.,: Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications Tird Edition,
(Pearson Education, Inc 2007):54-56
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wiIh graphicaI ouIpuI in boIh cases (TabIe 1).
B/57&' @C Use Case Diagram. Craphic deIiniIion oI Ihe reguiremenIs oI Ihe
designed IooI
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Table 1. Use cases description
Taking as a sIarIing poinI Ihe reguiremenIs deIined in Ihe
use cases (igure 2), we conIinued wiIh Ihe design oI Ihe cIasses
Io saIisIy Ihem. !niIiaIIy we reused Ihe design oI Ihe daIabase,
in which cerIain deIined properIies oI Ihe cIasses were Iound.
However, Ihese properIies were enIireIy Iocused on Ihe persisIence
oI Ihe daIa, such IhaI in order Io provide Ihe dynamics reguired Ior
Ihe IuIure visuaIisaIion and Ihe spaIioIemporaI guery capabiIiIy,
we had Io incorporaIe new properIies and meIhods.
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B/57&' A. ragmenI oI cIass diagram
igure 4 shows Ihe cIass cIsVesseI which has a number
oI meIhods IhaI iIIusIraIe more cIearIy how Ihe discovery oI
knowIedge wiII be presenI in Ihis soIIware Iayer. MeIhods: CapIains,
CeographicPIaces, Owners, Voyages, invoIve Ihe IemporaI variabIe
in each oI Iheir execuIions. A vesseI couId have IhroughouI iIs IiIe
one or more capIains, one or more owners, pass Ihrough muIIipIe
porIs and / or parIicipaIe in one or more voyages. The compIexiIy
oI Ihese IemporaI and spaIioIemporaI gueries is hidden in Ihe
meIhods oI Ihis and oIher cIasses.
B/57&' D. CIass cIsVesseI. The meIhods wiII provide supporI Ior daIa mining
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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+)#6/*6';)*&#, L7'&/'(
!n Ihis conIexI, one ob|ecIive wiIhin Ihe Iramework oI
Ihe DynCoopNeI pro|ecI is Io design a user inIerIace IhaI aIIows
hisIorians asking simpIe guesIions based on a number oI variabIe
parameIers, Ior exampIe: ohjcct, locction, timc, stctc, qucntity cnd
logic opcrctors (TabIe 2).
<#=,' @. xampIe oI scheme oI user inIerIace based on a seI oI parameIers
variaIion
!n Ihis pro|ecI we are working Iowards deveIoping simpIe
user inIerIaces manageabIe by hisIorians in which one can creaIe
a series oI coherenI guesIions wiIh aII oI Ihe possibiIiIies IhaI Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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impIemenIed C!S daIabase oIIers. or exampIe, we mighI ask How
mcny ships trcvcllcd nccr Cuhc hctwccn 1750 cnd 1800, how mcny
slcvcs wcrc thcy ccrrying cnd whct wcs thc stctc oj thc slcvcs cnd
whct wcs thcir ccrgo cnd thc stctc oj thc slcvcs ccrricd in ccch
oj thcsc ships? !I we Iook aI TabIe 1, we wouId use Ihe IoIIowing
parameIers: vesseI (ob|ecI), Cuba (IocaIion), beIween 17S0 and 1800
(Iime) and one couId aIso deIine Ihe sIaIe oI Ihe sIaves according
Io Ihe morIaIiIy raIe (sIaIe) and summarize Ihe number oI sIaves
IransporIed on each oI Ihe ships (guanIiIy).
8ased on an incremenIaI iIeraIive modeI oI Ihe cIasses,
in which each oI Ihe design sIages receives Ieedback Irom each
impIemenIaIion underIaken, Ihis modeI has been graduaIIy reIined
Io be abIe Io respond Io aIphanumeric and visuaI gueries.
The cIasses are behind each oI Ihe inIerIaces which have
been designed, bringing IiIe Io Ihe appIicaIion. ach buIIon, grid
or enIiIy which represenIs Ihe movemenI oI a ship on Ihe map
is conIroIIed by an ob|ecI which serves as an inIermediary Iayer
beIween Ihe graphic inIerIace and Ihe daIabase where Ihe daIa is
sIored and where iI is exIracIed Irom (igure S). However, Ihe cIasses
are noI onIy responsibIe Ior Ihe Iasks oI inpuIIing and ediIing Ihe
inIormaIion. They aIso provide Ihe answers Io Ihe spaIioIemporaI
gueries which are Ihe basis oI Ihis appIicaIion (igure 6).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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B/57&' E. Design oI Ihe user inIerIace. 8ehind Ihe buIIons or menus, Ihere
are cIasses providing Iheir IuncIionaIiIy Io Ihe end user

SpaIioIemporaI gueries IesI aII parIs oI Ihe IooI, Irom Ihe
daIabase Io Ihe Iogic encapsuIaIed in Ihe cIasses. 8eing abIe Io
respond Io a reguiremenI, which in naIuraI Ianguage wouId be
expressed as: DispIay aII ships capIured on Ihe way Io Cuba Irom
17S0 Io 1800" invoIves (a) spaIiaIIy IiIIering Ihe voyages or ships
wiIh Cuba as Iheir desIinaIion, (b) IemporaIIy IiIIering Ihe voyages
in Ihe daIe range, (c) IiIIering Ihe voyages by desIinaIion and IasIIy
crossreIerencing Ihese Ihree IiIIers Io idenIiIy Ihe resuII oI Ihe
guery.
B/57&' F. Design oI Ihe visuaI resuII oI Ihe spaIioIemporaI guery abouI Ihe
vesseIs capIured in Cuba during Ihe period 17S0-1800
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The guery above couId be approached Irom various sIarIing
poinIs: Irom Ihe Voyages, Irom Ihe Ships oI Irom Ihe geographic
PIaces. One couId begin IiIIering Ihe voyages IhaI Iook pIace during
IhaI period (17S0-1800), aIIhough Ihere exisIs Ihe opIion oI IiIIering
IirsI by geographic pIace - Cuba in Ihis case - Io idenIiIy Ihe ships
desIined Ihere. And IasIIy one couId begin by IiIIering by Ihe IaIe oI
Ihe ships and Ihen go ahead wiIh Ihe oIher sIeps.
The design process Iook inIo accounI IhaI Ihe user shouId be
abIe Io approach Ihe guery Irom any oI Ihe diIIerenI poinIs oI view
described above and IhaI, above aII, Ihe IuncIionaIiIy encapsuIaIed
in each one shouId compIemenI aII Ihe oIher reIaIed cIasses, as we
have seen in Ihe case oI Ihe clcsscs clsVcsscl, clsGcogrcphicPlccc
cnd clsVoycgc. The number oI gueries wiII conIinue expanding as
Ihe design is impIemenIed and Ihe proIoIype is IesIed, Ieeding back
inIo Ihe sysIem inIormaIion received Irom users, programmers
and researchers.
B/57&' OC CIasses VesseI and CeographicPIace. The cIsVesseI cIass has Ihree
meIhods reIevanI Io answer Ihe guery: aIe, CeographicPIaces and Voyages
and cIsCeographicPIace has one, Voyages. TogeIher Ihese Iour meIhods
show Ihe inIer-reIaIionship IhaI Ihe cIasses have in order Io IackIe compIex
spaIioIemporaI guesIions.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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+)#6/*6';)*&#, 0#6# ;/"/"5
#C P&')#&/"5 64' I"*8,'05' =#(' 'J)#"(/*"
Once Ihe daIa Io be anaIysed have been seIecIed, Ihe
user has Io idenIiIy Ihe IabIe coIumns (aIIribuIes) IhaI mighI be
impIiciIIy reIaIed in order Io have Ihe opIion oI exIending Ihe
knowIedge base in case daIa mining does noI provide resuIIs wiIh
Ihe currenI aIIribuIes. !n our sIudy case a sampIe oI 1,200 records
conIaining inIormaIion on IraveIs deparIing Irom Spain has been
Iaken. One way Io anIicipaIe impIiciI reIaIionships IhaI daIa mining
couId noI deIecI by iIseII wouId be by seIecIing a SIarI-daIe IieId
and an nd-daIe IieId. SubIracIing one Irom Ihe oIher resuIIs in
a new aIIribuIe: DuraIion. This new aIIribuIe wouId IaciIiIaIe Ihe
discovery oI paIIerns in a daIa re-anaIysis.
=C +','26/*" *9 -#6# ;/"/"5 6'24"/L7'(
Two Iechnigues, decision Irees and associaIion ruIes
wiII be appIied in our sIudy case. Decision Irees aIIow Ihe user
expIoring Ihe inIormaIion conIained in Ihe daIabase Ihrough a
cIassiIicaIion process. AIIer seIecIing aIIribuIes, researchers couId
deIermine which one is, Ior exampIe, Ihe mosI signiIicanI |ourney
IhaI deparIed Irom Spain and reIurned successIuIIy, or whaI were
Ihe characIerisIics oI porIs whose aIIendance was greaIer Ihan a
cerIain number oI ships per year. 8esides, considering Ihe Iime as
an aIIribuIe, Ihe characIerisIics IhaI aIIowed Ihe boaIs deparIing
Irom Spain again successIuIIy in cerIain periods oI Iime may be
idenIiIied or which IeaIures become aIIracIive Ior some porIs aI
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cerIain Iimes.
The associaIion ruIes wiII guide Ihe user in spaIioIemporaI
paIIerns searching. As each voyage generaIes a Ira|ecIory Ihrough
Ihe various porIs Ihrough which Ihe vesseI IransiIs, Ihe geographic
pIaces are passed over in some order aI cerIain Iimes, and whiIe noI
presenI in Ihe daIabase, Ihis Iour has duraIion. The combinaIion oI
Ihese aIIribuIes produces a spaIioIemporaI paIIern in every sense
oI Ihe word, because each oI Ihese paIIerns can be disIinguished
Irom Ihe oIhers, considering spaIiaI and IemporaI aspecIs. or
exampIe, in Ihe case oI Iwo ships IhaI IraveI Ihrough Ihe same rouIe
and one makes Ihe |ourney in haII Ihe Iime Ihan Ihe oIher, aIIhough
Ihe Ira|ecIory is spaIiaIIy idenIicaI, Ihe discrepancy in Ihe Iime
variabIe is cIearIy disIinguishabIe. However, boIh Ihe paIIerns and
Ihe characIerisIics oI Ihe diIIerenI enIiIies sIored in Ihe daIabase
wiII uIIimaIeIy be assessed by researchers using Ihe moduIe IhaI
wiII impIemenI geneIic aIgoriIhms.
2C N(/"5 5'"'6/2 #,5*&/64;( /" &'(7,6 '.#,7#6/*"
The appIicaIion oI daIa mining on Ihe sampIe wiII generaIe a
seI oI cIassiIicaIions and paIIerns. The decision abouI Ihe reIevance
oI each wiII depend on Ihe researcher using Ihe IooI. However, Ihe
conIiguraIion oI cerIain parameIers is a diIIicuII opIimisaIion Iask
in which Ihe user couId beneIiI Irom Ihe use oI geneIic aIgoriIhms.
A coupIe oI our reasons Ior choosing geneIic aIgoriIhms reIy on Ihe
abiIiIy Ihey have based on an iniIiaI popuIaIion, a seI oI ruIes and
a goaI Io reach; Ihey wiII reconIigure IhemseIves unIiI Ihey Iind
Ihe opIimaI soIuIion. AnoIher advanIage is Iheir useIuIness and
usabiIiIy Ior end users because Ihey do noI need new compuIer
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
106
skiIIs Io moniIor Ihe progress oI Ihe aIgoriIhms.
As menIioned in Ihe previous sIep, in deIermining whaI
consIiIuIes a spaIioIemporaI paIIern oI Ira|ecIories, Iime and
space shouId be considered. !I Ihe duraIion oI a Iour Ihrough some
porIs is speciIied in a very rigid manner (/ - 1 day), Ihere wiII be
an overwheIming number oI paIIerns. On Ihe conIrary, when Ihe
range is very IIexibIe useIuI inIormaIion couId be hidden behind
a group oI daIa. or Ihis reason an opIimisaIion process in search
oI vaIues is whaI gives Ihe besI resuII. Our proposaI is Io heIp Ihe
user wiIh geneIic aIgoriIhms IhaI IaciIiIaIe Ihe seIecIion Irom a
paIIern seI. The sIarIing poinI wiII be a seI oI paIIerns considered
suiIabIe; Ihe aIgoriIhms wiII be abIe Io muIe and Io presenI new
opIions Irom which Ihe user wouId seIecI Ihe mosI suiIabIe paIIern,
Ihus achieving an approximaIion based on resuIIing paIIerns
insIead oI a Iong manuaI caIibraIion oI cIassiIicaIion or associaIion
parameIers.
0C Q"*8,'05' =#(' 'J)#"(/*"
SomeIimes iI is noI possibIe Io Iind cIassiIicaIions or
paIIerns reIevanI Io a cerIain research sIudy. As menIioned above,
having a coIumn wiIh Ihe sIarI daIe and anoIher wiIh Ihe end daIe
do noI impIy knowIedge oI Ihe evenI IiIespan; iI a IiIespan coIumn
is Iacking, Ihen iI is noI possibIe Io use knowIedge discovery
Iechnigues. or Ihis reason, once Ihe inIormaIion IhaI couId be
discovered in a daIaseI seems Io have been exhausIed, Ihe user
couId proceed Io expand Ihe aIIribuIe number oI Ihe daIaseI in
order Io re-anaIyze iI in a new IighI.
The expansion is noI a random process; iI wiII be based on
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whaI Ihe researcher has deIined in issue 1. The user may append
coIumns abouI voyage duraIion, disIance IraveIIed, and Irom Ihese
new aIIribuIes and new inIormaIion couId be inIerred, as is Ihe case
oI Ihe average speed, which wouId be Ihe resuII oI Ihe division oI
Iwo aIIribuIes IhaI were noI presenI aI Ihe beginning (duraIion and
disIance IraveIIed). AIIer daIa re-anaIysis Ihe user couId choose Io
creaIe new aIIribuIes based on Ihe resuIIs oI Ihe previous anaIysis,
Ihen re-re-anaIyse again, see Ihe resuIIs and creaIe new derivaIive
aIIribuIes and so on. !I is a recursive process IhaI couId expand Ihe
daIaseI as Iong as Ihe user needs.
'C -R"#;/2 ./(7#,/(#6/*"
The spaIioIemporaI C!S proIoIype has been designed Io
work in a web environmenI, Io IaciIiIaIe Ihe disseminaIion and
scope oI Ihe pro|ecI Io anyone connecIed via Ihe !nIerneI. The
spaIiaI daIa are IypicaIIy visuaIized using maps; Ihis is known
as sIaIic" represenIaIion. However, Ihe spaIioIemporaI daIa, as
hisIoricaI daIa, reguire advanced Iechnigues Io achieve a dynamic
visuaIisaIion such as symboIogy in space-Iime maps and carIographic
animaIion. Dynamic visuaIisaIion IooIs in a C!S environmenI can
be very eIIecIive in Ihe anaIysis and represenIaIion oI compIex
daIa in a wide range oI discipIines. AI presenI, Ihe pro|ecI is in Ihe
process oI designing a seI oI inIeracIive IooIs inIegraIed in a web
appIicaIion consisIing oI a Iime manager, anaIysis and animaIion
IooIs. The Iime manager is connecIed Io a map dispIay, so Ihe user
can inIeracI wiIh Ihe Iime and visuaIise Ihe evenIs seIecIed in a Iime
period or insIanI view (igure 8). As a resuII Ihis appIicaIion shouId
be a heIpIuI IooI Io represenI Ihe pasI hisIoricaI evenIs occurring in
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
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seIecIed IocaIions wiIh smooIh Iiming Io IeI users undersIand Ihe
changes oI hisIoricaI siIes cIearIy and discover behaviour paIIerns.
!n addiIion, iI aIIows guerying spaIioIemporaI daIa and dispIaying
Ihe hisIoricaI resuIIs accuraIeIy and guickIy.
B/57&' SC Design oI Ihe dynamic visuaIisaIion is one oI Ihe main
IuncIionaIiIies IhaI Ihis IooI wiII provide Io Ihe end user. Using Ihe daIa
sIored in Ihe daIabase, an animaIed represenIaIion wiII be creaIed oI a
singIe or muIIipIe voyages and Iheir IinaI IaIes
A"%4'#65"%6 &%- )#1#$, +"$?
xaminaIion oI daIa Ihrough space and Iime is a cruciaI
Iask Ior hisIorians, because Ihis Iype oI anaIysis Ieads Io an
undersIanding oI Ihe moIives IhaI Iriggered Ihe occurrence oI pasI
evenIs or processes. Nowadays, Iew commerciaI programs have
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deveIoped C!S capabiIiIies Io incorporaIe Ihe IemporaI componenI.
Advances have been mainIy direcIed Io Ihe design oI daIabases IhaI
supporI IhemaIic componenIs, space and Iime, buI IhaI is onIy Ihe
IirsI sIage oI Ihe process.
The managemenI oI Ihese Iypes oI daIa and Ihe anaIysis
IhaI is appIied Io Ihem, Iike changes in a phenomenon over Iime
(inIerpoIaIion and uncerIainIy assessmenI) represenI a very
signiIicanI sIep in Ihis Iype oI research. 8eing abIe Io discover
paIIerns oI behaviour, IIow oI Iime-space acIiviIies, rouIes, eIc.
and Io predicI Iheir IuIure deveIopmenI conIinues Io drive our
research. This sIudy hopes Io provide useIuI inIormaIion Ior
buiIding more robusI Iheories abouI Ihe inIeracIion oI dynamic
enIiIies in diIIerenI seIIings and space-Iime conIexIs. AIIer Ihe
designing sIage Ihe impIemenIaIion inside a C!S wiII proceed. irsI,
Ihe modeI wiII be impIemenIed in commerciaI soIIware, in view
oI Ihe ease oI cusIomisaIion oIIered in ArcC!STM. LaIer, when
Ihe capabiIiIies oI Ihe design have been proved, Ihe modeI wiII be
migraIed Io OpenSource C!S (gvS!C) wiIh Ihe aim oI reaching a wider
audience. The nexI sIep wiII consisI in a process oI vaIidaIion and
usabiIiIy, making Ihe appropriaIe IesIs wiIh end users, hisIorians
and inIeresIed researchers, in order Io anaIyse Ihe user inIerIace,
Ihe usabiIiIy, Ihe IooI perIormance on diIIerenI pIaIIorms and Io
suggesI improvemenIs in individuaI cases.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
110
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
111
A"00,$45&' )'"+6 &%- 1$&%6),$,%4,
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89,"$,154&' )$&0,+"$?
!I is guiIe usuaI IhaI Ihe anaIysis oI uropean empires in
Ihe arIy Modern Age is Iocused on cenIraI power sIraIegies and
imperiaI rivaIries. On Ihe conIrary, our percepIion is IhaI a Iarge
number oI individuaIs or groups conIribuIed exIensiveIy Io Ihe
deveIopmenI oI overseas expansion dynamics, someIimes Io an even
greaIer exIenI Ihan Ihe cenIraI power or cenIraI governmenI did. !n
Ihis chapIer, based on Ihe sIudy oI !berian mariIime expansion, we
susIain IhaI a widespread co-operaIion was in pIace and was abIe
Io Iink and Io connecI PorIuguese and Spanish overseas IerriIories
Ihrough seII-organized neIworks. !n parIicuIar when we Iook aI Ihe
perIormances which were deveIoped in Ihe AIIanIic, during Ihe
arIy Modern Period, individuaI iniIiaIives were cruciaI Io Ihose
achievemenIs.
This approach is reIaIed wiIh Ihe muIIi-discipIinary
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
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coIIaboraIive research pro|ecI, DynCoopNeI.
132
The IheoreIicaI
ouIIine oI Ihis pro|ecI conIends IhaI beIween Ihe IiIIeenIh and
eighIeenIh cenIuries Ihe worId economy was increasingIy
characIerised by widespread coIIaboraIion which wenI beyond
Ihe boundaries oI counIries and conIinenIs; such sIep was possibIe
Ihanks Io new means oI gIobaI communicaIion as weII as Io Ihe
buiIding up oI IormaI and mosI oI aII oI inIormaI neIworks IhaI
were oIIen muIIinaIionaI. Among Ihe primary assumpIions we
inIend Io puI Iorward and sIudy, Ihere are a Iew-ones IhaI can be
emphasised:
1. Co-operaIion Iinked severaI seII-organized neIworks.
2. The worId economy became, aI Ihis period, a dynamic,
open, compIex, and non-Iinear sysIem.
The hisIory oI any pIace wiIhin Ihis worId cannoI be
undersIood wiIhouI examining how iI was connecIed Io oIher
IocaIions and Io Ihe sysIem as a whoIe.
There are variaIions among sub-sysIems which seI up a view
or undersIanding (expIain or sampIe) oI Ihe sysIem's compIexiIy.
Some oI Ihese IheoreIicaI premises may have noIorious
poIenIiaI impIicaIions Ior Ihe anaIysis oI our sub|ecI. According Io
DynCoopNeI, co-operaIion-based neIworks acIed as a source Ior
Ihe creaIiviIy and innovaIion necessary Io respond in a IIexibIe
manner Io Ihe disrupIions in commodiIy, inIormaIion, and capiIaI
IIows; Ihus very acIive IormaI and inIormaI neIworks consIiIuIed
eiIher by insIiIuIions and individuaI agenIs, respecIiveIy, were key-
IacIors in Ihe mainIenance oI Ihe sysIem.
132 DynCoopNet (Dynamic Complexity of Cooperation-Based Self-Organizing Commercial
Networks in the First Global Age) submitted to the ESF (European Science Foundation) EUROCORES
(European Collaborative Research Programme) Te Evolution of Cooperation and Trading (TECT).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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These ideas presenI IhemseIves as a ma|or IooI Io re-
evaIuaIe worIdwide dynamics Irom a new poinI oI view, IhaI is
cenIred on individuaIs and in Ihe way Ihey were connecIed wiIh
each oIher Ihrough neIworks. We wiII Iry Io appIy and discuss Ihese
assumpIions Iocusing on Ihe !berian PeninsuIa overseas expansion
case.
This IheoreIicaI approach reguires Ihe use oI concepIs and
meIhodoIogies IreguenIIy imporIed Irom oIher sciences raIher Ihan
HisIory. We couId menIion Ihe concepI oI neIworks; Ihe concepI
oI cooperaIion or, in Ihe meIhodoIogicaI IieId, Ihe sociaI neIwork
anaIysis and Ihe agenI-based anaIysis meIhodoIogy. AbundanI
secondary IiIeraIure has been produced on Ihese sub|ecIs by a
wide range oI discipIines which run Irom socioIogy Io economy,
maIhemaIics, and anIhropoIogy.
133
SociaI neIwork Iheory views sociaI reIaIionships in Ierms
oI nodes and Iies. Nodes are Ihe individuaI acIors wiIhin Ihe
neIworks, and Iies are Ihe reIaIionships beIween Ihe acIors. There
133 For network theories, see for instance, the works of Duncan J. Watts, Te Structure and
Dynamics of Networks (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006); Linton C. Freeman, Te Development
of Social Network Analysis: A Study in the Sociology of Science (Vancouver: Empirical Press, 2004); Alan
Latham, Retheorizing the Scale of Globalization: Topologies, Actor-Networks, and Cosmopolitanism, in
Geographies of Power, Placing the Scale, ed. Andrew Herod, and Melissa W. Wright, (Oxford: Blackwell,
2002), 115-144; Models and Methods in Social Network Analysis, ed. Peter Carrington, John J. Scott and
Stanley Wasserman (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005); David Knoke and Song Yang, Social
Network Analysis, (2nd ed. London: Sage , 2008); Spinning the Commercial Web: International Trade,
Merchants, and Commercial Cities, c. 1640-1939, ed. Margrit S. Beerbhl and Jrg Vgele (Frankfurt am
Maim: Peter Lang, 2004), 11-23; Albert-Lszl Barabsi, Linked: Te New Science of Networks (Cambridge:
Perseus, 2002). In what concerns the Economy approach on this subject see Gernot Grabher, Trading
Routes, Bypasses, and Risky Intersections: Mapping the Travels of Networks between Economic Sociology
and Economic Geography, Progress in Human Geography, 30 (2006), 163-189; Russell Hill and Robin I. M.
Dunbar, Social Network Size in Humans Human Nature 14, No. 1 (2002), 5372; Matthew O. Jackson, A
Strategic Model of Social and Economic Networks, Journal of Economic Teory, 71 (2003), 4474. In what
refers the concept of cooperation and the models of analysis, cf. the accurate panorama provided by the
international conference Evolution of Cooperation Models and Teories (Luxemburg, 15-18 September
2009)
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
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can be many kinds oI Iies beIween Ihe nodes. !n iIs mosI simpIe
Iorm, a sociaI neIwork is a map oI aII oI Ihe reIevanI Iies beIween
Ihe nodes IhaI are being sIudied".
134
AppIying Ihis broad deIiniIion Io our case sIudy, which
inIends Io anaIyse Ihe presence and acIion oI neIworks in !berian
empires
13S
, Ihose couId be, and IreguenIIy are, boIh IormaI and
inIormaI, Ihe Iormer being consIiIuIed by insIiIuIions. This goes, Ior
exampIe, Ior Ihe adminisIraIive and IinanciaI neIworks esIabIished
in Ihe IerriIories under PorIuguese ruIe wheIher wiIh Ihe sIaIus
oI IacIories on Ihe WesI CoasI oI AIrica; capIaincies in Ihe AIIanIic
ArchipeIagos; CeneraI CovernmenI in 8raziI, or in Ihe Iorm oI a
sIaIe, such as in Ihe SIaIe oI !ndia. Those are reIaIed Io IormaI and
insIiIuIionaI neIworks which come Io incIude inIernaI neIworks
based on individuaIs.
Among Ihese IormaI and insIiIuIionaI coIoniaI neIworks, we
have Io consider, in Ihe IirsI pIace, aII Ihe adminisIraIive, IinanciaI
and miIiIary sIrucIures which represenIed Ihe crown. They incIuded
a wide range oI oIIicers: viceroys (in Ihe asI), governors (in 8raziI
and !ndia), ambassadors (in AIrica and Ihe asI), |udges, baiIiIIs,
capIains, Iax coIIecIors, purveyors, noIary oIIicers, accounIanIs,
eIc. urIhermore, we musI keep in mind Ihe insIiIuIionaI Irame-
134 John Scott, Social Network Analysis: A handbook (London: Sage, 2000).
135 Tis is another dual concept that should be analysed in a more detailed approach. Firstly,
because we must clarify what variables we have to deal-with in order to identify and defned an empire in
the context under study; in the second place because there was hardly such thing of an Iberian empire, even
during the political union between Portugal and Spain during Philippe II, III and IV of Spain (1580-1640).
Furthermore, the models and frameworks of Portuguese and Castilian overseas empires are quite diferent
and need to be understood and studied in diferent basis. Tis will have to be, however, object of another
paper and theoretical development. For practical reasons, well use in this paper some apparently accepted
concepts, as the one of empire, departing from the study of the Portuguese case and analysing how the
strategies and models put in place by the Portuguese afect and project themselves on the Castilian empire,
modelling it, as well, by the performances and actions of Portuguese agents.
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work provided by Ihe missionaries: ranciscans, ]esuiIs, Dominicans,
8enedicIines, or even Ihe eccIesiasIicaI neIworks IhaI were kepI
by Ihe sIrucIures oI Ihe overseas parishes, which roIe cannoI be
IorgoIIen. The !nguisiIion acIing overseas, someIimes depending on
reguIaIions senI Irom Lisbon, presenIs iIseII as a neIwork as can be
acknowIedge Ihrough Ihe inIormaIion IransIerence iI perIormed.
SIiII aI an insIiIuIionaI IeveI, we have Io consider as weII
Ihe Iinks esIabIished beIween municipaIiIies, basic ceIIs oI poIiIicaI
and adminisIraIive IocaI power, which reproduced Ihe same
modeI oI Ihe PorIuguese meIropoIiIan IerriIory. !n Ihe same Iine
oI IhoughI, Ihe Iramework provided by Ihe Miscricordic Houses
136

in Ihe PorIuguese coIoniaI seIIIemenIs shouId be Iaken inIo
accounI. RuIed by Ihe same sIaIus, each one was aImosI a copy oI
Ihe oIher, aII oI Ihem based on Ihe moIher-house oI Miscricordic
in Lisbon. These insIiIuIions provided noI onIy spiriIuaI and sociaI
assisIance Io PorIuguese seIIIers and Iheir IamiIies, and inheriIors,
buI acIed as a new way oI conveying news, goods and money Irom
Miseridordia Io Misericordia unIiI Ihey reached Ihe mosI eccenIric
pIace in PorIugaI. !nIense IIows oI news, goods, IorIunes, IasI-wiIIs
and addiIionaI privaIe documenIaIion were cared and dispaIched
by Ihis insIiIuIionaI Iramework, running side by side wiIh Ihe
oIIiciaI papers, and IreguenIIy in a more eIIicienI way Ihan iI Ihey
were maiIed Ihrough Ihe adminisIraIion sIrings.
8esides Ihis seIup, based on IormaI and insIiIuIionaIized
neIworks, ruIed by IormaI powers oI Ihe crown or oI Ihe CaIhoIic
Church, we oughI moreover Io consider Ihe individuaI connecIions
136 Misericordias were civil confraternities introduced in Portugal by the queen Leonor, at the end
of the ffeenth-century (circa 1498). As we stated, the overseas Misericordias duplicated and emulated the
organization of their metropolitan counterparts.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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beIween agenIs overseas; Ihese are more compIex neIworks, which
become increasingIy diIIicuII Io idenIiIy and sIudy. Three main
Iypes oI agenIs can be recognized: seamen, covering an enIire range
oI caIegories Irom saiIors Io capIains; seIIIers and Iabour migranIs;
merchanIs and advenIurers. The abovemenIioned compIexiIy
in Ihe idenIiIicaIion oI Ihese neIworks comes Irom Ihe IacI IhaI
since pIuriacIiviIy/muIIi-acIiviIy seemed Io prevaiI among Ihese
groups, aI a IirsI sighI iI wouId be accepIabIe noI Io esIabIish deep
boundaries beIween Ihem.
However, iI we Iook careIuIIy, Ihey aII are IreguenIIy
members oI inIormaI and someIimes unconIroIIed neIworks,
which emerge, disappear, reIormuIaIe and inIeracI according Io
casuaI, conIexIuaI and someIimes regardIess oI Ihe cusIomary IegaI
paIIerns. !n Ihis sense, Ihe concepIs and Ihe meIhodoIogies oI sociaI
neIworks are noI aIways abIe Io IuIIy undersIand Ihe perIormances
oI Ihese agenIs. !nsIead, we have Io appIy, in iIs anaIysis, Ihe acIor
neIwork Iheory principIes
137
or, more accuraIeIy, Ihose oI Ihe agenI-
based modeIIing.
138
AgenI based modeIIing is reguired when individuaI
behaviour is non Iinear; agenI inIeracIions are heIerogeneous and
137 About actor-network theory see, among others, Saonee Serker and Anna Sidorova, Actor-
Networks and Business Process Change Failure: An Interpretive Case Study, Journal of Management
Information Systems (JMIS), 23, No. 1 (Summer 2006), 51-86; Actor-Network Teory and Afer, ed. John Law
and John Hassard (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999); Te structure and dynamics of networks, ed Mark Newman,
Albert-Lszl Barabsi, and Duncan J. Watts (New Jersey and Woodstock: Princeton University Press,
2006); Bruno Latour, Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Teory (Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2005); Jonathan Murdoch, Te Spaces of Actor-Network Teory, Geoforum, 29 (1998),
357-374.
138 Caroline Haythornthwaite, Social network analysis: An approach and technique for the study
of information exchange. Library and Information Science Research, 18, No. 4 (1996), 323-342: 323-342, and
Stanley Wasserman and Katherine Faust, Social Network Analysis. Methods and Applications, (New York:
Cambridge University Press, 1994).
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middIing wiII noI work, because Ihe sysIem is generaIIy unsIabIe
139

- which are aII condiIions recognised in Ihe hisIoricaI reaIiIy under
sIudy.
One oI Ihe main IheoreIicaI assumpIions oI Ihis Iheory is
IhaI deparIing Irom Ihe posiIion oI Ihe individuaI in a neIwork
and Iooking aI his connecIions, one can be abIe Io characIerize
and undersIand Ihe sysIem, e.g., Io undersIand Ihe IuncIioning oI
a given sociaI phenomenon. oIIowing Wasserman and ausI, iI is
possibIe Io accepI IhaI neIwork modeIs concepIuaIize sIrucIures
(sociaI, economic and so IorIh) as IasIing paIIerns oI reIaIions
among auIhors".
140
!I means IhaI Ihe uniI oI anaIysis is noI, in
IacI, Ihe individuaI, buI Ihe enIiIy consisIing oI an assorImenI oI
individuaIs and Ihe exisIing Iinks beIween Ihem.
141
The use oI agenI-based neIwork Iheory impIies deparIing
Irom a diIIerenI IheoreIicaI Iramework when anaIysing Ihe buiIding
oI overseas empires, nameIy in Ihe !berian PeninsuIa, and more
speciIicaIIy in Ihe PorIuguese case. This approach has Iurned ouI Io
be useIuI Io expIain counIIess phenomena in PorIuguese expansion
which cIassic and IradiIionaI hisIoriography seems Io have missed
or, very oIIen, misundersIood.

A&6, 61#-: i O'"+6 P,1+,,% 7P,$5&% ,0C5$,6

!n Ihe year 1494 Ihe kings oI PorIugaI and Spain (Ihen
CasIiIe) signed Ihe TordesiIIas IreaIy raIiIying Ihe agreemenI
139 Bonabeau, Eric, Agent-based modeling: Methods and techniques for simulating human systems.
Paper presented at the Arthur M. Sackler Colloquium of the National Academy of Sciences, Adaptive
Agents, Intelligence, and Emergent Human Organization: Capturing Complexity through Agent-Based
Modeling, held October 46, 2001. Available in http://www.pnas.org/content/99/suppl.3/7280.full
140 Wasserman and Faust, Social network, 5.
141 Ibid, 5.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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negoIiaIed aIIer CoIumbus' voyage Io Ihe Americas in 1492. 8y Ihis
dipIomaIic seIIIemenI Ihe overseas worId was divided beIween Ihe
Iwo crowns, and Irom Ihen-on boIh sIaIes were very keen Io proIecI
Iheir possessions poIiIicaIIy and economicaIIy Irom one-anoIher;
neverIheIess no-maIIer Iheir besI eIIorIs, inIense, unconIroIIabIe,
and unsIoppabIe IIows occurred beIween Ihem. The anaIysis oI
Ihese dynamics, supporIed by empiricaI evidence, wiII be aI Ihe
Iocus oI Ihe presenIaIion we inIend Io provide in Ihis chapIer.
Our ob|ecIive is Io prove IhaI, Irom Ihe earIy days oI discovery
and seIIIemenI, PorIuguese agenIs or oIher Ioreign agenIs Iramed
by Ihe PorIuguese mariIime experience were acIive conIribuIors
Io Ihe shaping oI Ihe Spanish mpire. ChrisIopher CoIumbus and
MageIIan are Ihe obvious and more paradigmaIic exampIes, buI Iar
Irom being Ihe onIy ones. The acIiviIies oI PorIuguese shipbuiIders,
seaIarers and piIoIs, mosI oI Ihem generaIIy ignored, presenI a
much more represenIaIive Iramework.
AI a diIIerenI IeveI, Ihe absence oI a weII-deIined IronIier,
or beIIer yeI, Ihe porosiIy oI Ihe IronIier beIween 8raziI and
Spanish possessions in SouIh America aIIowed permeabiIiIy as
weII as IransIers oI goods and peopIe beIween Ihe Iwo coIoniaI
spaces.
AI Ihe same Iime, an inIense commerciaI acIiviIy Ied by
PorIuguese Iraders in order Io suppIy sIave Iorce Iabour Io Spanish
America made possibIe Ihe exisIence oI economic dynamics
on a reguIar basis. WhiIe Ihe sIave Irade was Ihe IirsI exIensive
exchange beIween Ihe !berian overseas IerriIories, very soon a
wider range oI acIive IIows aIIowed and inspired in every possibIe
way a more signiIicanI parIicipaIion oI PorIuguese agenIs in Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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Spanish sysIem.
inaIIy, emigraIion IIows, even when Ihey were iIIegaI as
Ihey IreguenIIy were during Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury, aIso Ied Spanish
coIoniaI seIIIemenIs. PosI-morIem invenIories oI PorIuguese crown
sub|ecIs kepI in Ihe !ndia Archives in SeviIIe, as weII as !nguisiIion
proceedings againsI PorIuguese New-ChrisIians seIIIed in Lima,
Peru, ouIIine Ihis migraIory currenI. The same reaIiIy can be
veriIied on oIher documenIaI corpora, nameIy Ihe noIary records
Irom severaI PorIuguese seaporIs.
These IIows succeeded in overcoming insIiIuIionaI and
poIiIicaI IerriIoriaI boundaries, and Ihey produced signiIicanI
dynamics which worked beyond poIiIicaI IronIiers and coIoniaI
rivaIries.
They had a ma|or impacI on Ihe worIdwide Iramework oI
Ihe so-caIIed irsI gIobaI age" (1S00- 1800). We inIend Io provide
evidence Io Ihese asserIions, aI diIIerenI IeveIs, Ihrough empiricaI
daIa invoIving discoverers and piIoIs, merchanIs and seIIIers.

-/(2*.'&'&( #"0 )/,*6(
ven iI Ihe anaIyIicaI Iocus is IradiIionaIIy Iixed on Ihe
rivaIry and Ihe compeIiIive sIraIegies beIween coIoniaI empires and
geographicaI expansion aI a uropean IeveI, we beIieve IhaI none
oI Ihe Iheir expansionisI pro|ecIs couId have succeeded wiIhouI an
acIive permeabiIiIy beIween Ihem, which Iavoured Ihe exisIence oI
an inIense circuIaIion oI individuaIs, as weII as oI inIormaIion and
knowIedge exchanges beIween diIIerenI poIiIicaI and IerriIoriaI
spheres.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
120
The incIusion oI Ioreign seaIarers and merchanIs in
PorIuguese expansion goes a Iong-way back inIo Ihe MiddIe-
Ages. Some oI Ihose individuaIs even came Io be key-agenIs in Ihe
PorIuguese discoveries. The navaI accompIishmenIs oI Ihe Cenoese
LuIs de CadamosIo and AnIonio da NoIi during Ihe PorIuguese
expIoraIion oI Ihe WesI CoasI oI AIrica and Ihe discovery oI Cap
Verde are weII known. Their presence comes Irom a Iong Iine oI
co-operaIion paIIerns which incIuded Ihe previous presence oI
Cenoese seaIarers commanded by ManueI Pessanha, appoinIed
admiraI oI Ihe PorIuguese navy during Ihe reign oI Dinis !. (1279-
132S) They were responsibIe Ior PorIuguese navy reIorms and
Ior Ihe inIroducIion oI innovaIive saiIing Iechnigues, as ]come
Loureno, 8usIamanIe and Damio 8rsio were, IaIIer on, Ior Ihe
inIroducIion and improvemenI oI Ihe shipbuiIding indusIry.
142

They onIy announced Ihe conIexI in which ChrisIopher CoIumbus
had aIIerwards a Ieading roIe. CoIumbus can be poinIed ouI as
a ma|or exampIe oI knowIedge diIIusion: he broughI Io PorIugaI
boIh Ihe merchanI and saiIing experience oI Ihe Cenoese RepubIic
and Io Spain Ihe addiIionaI knowIedge he accumuIaIed during his
sIay among Ihe PorIuguese, parIicuIarIy during his sIay in PorIo
SanIo.
143
!n Ihe same way, his advenIure in Ihe service oI Ihe Spanish
CaIhoIic Kings onIy anIicipaIes Ihe hisIory oI Ihe IorenIine Amerigo
142 Amndio Barros, Porto: a construo de um espao martimo nos alvores da poca Moderna,
2 vols, (PhD diss. Faculdade de Letras do Porto, 2004), I, 764, 766-767, 795, although the origins and
provenance of Bustamante are not very clear more likely he came from Biscay, which was another area
connected with Portugal very closely. A presentation of this PhD thesis is available in English: Oporto: the
building of a maritime space in the Early Modern Period, e-Journal of Portuguese History (e-JPH), 3, No. 1
(Summer 2005), 3-13.
143 Armando Corteso, Cartografa e cartgrafos portugueses dos sculos XV e XVI, (Lisboa: Seara
Nova, 1935), 225.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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Vespucci under Ihe ruIe oI Ihe same monarchs, or even Ihe one
oI Ihe PorIuguese erdinand MageIIan, Irom whose acIion Ihe
more obvious ouIcome was Ihe IirsI circum-navigaIion voyage.
MageIIan is one oI Ihe cIearesI exampIes oI PorIuguese agenIs
acIing under Ihe service oI CasIiIe. However, abundanI simiIar
cases can be recounIed, such as Ihe one oI sIevo Comes, Irom
PorIo, MageIIan's piIoI on Ihe same expediIion, who IaIer expIored
Ihe NorIh American conIinenI Ior CharIes V
144
. AIso, ]oo Dias de
SIis, expIorer oI Ihe River PIaIe, nominaIed head piIoI oI Spain
(PiIoIo Mayor de spaa),
14S
and Ihe Iamous Henrigue Carces, Irom
PorIo, one oI Ihe IirsI - iI noI Ihe IirsI-one - who discover mercury
in some oI Ihe Peruvian mines
146
, couId be menIioned as weII.
Such are individuaI cases which emerge Irom a very
signiIicanI IIow oI Iechnicians, IogisIics and knowIedge. or
insIance, case sIudies cenIred on PorIuguese seaporIs prove Ihe
exisIence on an inIense IIow oI smuggIed ships. Crown deIiberaIions
bIunIIy Iorbade seIIing ships buiII in PorIuguese shipyards Io oIher
uropean sIaIes, nameIy Spain, under moIives such as Ihe crown's
needs oI aII Ihe navaI resources she couId hoId;
147
Ihe rivaIries wiIh
oIher sIaIes and, above aII, Ihe IiscaI exempIions or Ihe subvenIions
invesIed in Io promoIe shipbuiIding. SeveraI IawsuiIs and IocaI
IesIimonies prove, on Ihe conIrary, Ihe exisIence oI an acIive smug-
144 Amndio Barros, A naturalidade de Ferno de Magalhes revisitada (Porto: Afrontamento,
2009), 38.
145 Rolando Laguarda Tras, Pilotos portugueses en el Rio de la Plata durante el siglo XVI, (Lisboa:
IICT, 1988), 6-7.
146 Besides the experimentation of revolutionary methods for silver extraction using mercury, in
1558, he also discovered a few of the most important mines in what had by then become Spanish Peru:
A.J.R. Russell Wood, Te Portuguese Empire, 1415-1808, (Baltimore: Te John Hopkins University Press,
1992), 100; see also Gonzalo de Reparaz Ruiz, Os portuguezes no vice-reinado do Per (Sculos XVI e XVII)
(Lisboa, Instituto de Alta Cultura, 1976), 147.
147 Not to mention technical secrets the crown meant to be unveiled.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
122
gIing oI ships buiII in PorIugaI Io Spain and oIher counIries. This
ship's exporI can be proved boIh Ior NorIhern PorIugaI and Ihe
AIgarve
148
. Such proIiIabIe commerce greaIIy reinIorced IocaI
shipbuiIding acIiviIy, improved Ihe ouIpuIs oI sIraIegic individuaI
invesImenIs, buI can be inIerpreIed as weII as a cause oI signiIicanI
damages and Iosses Io Ihe PorIuguese crown.
149
These dynamics
presenI IhemseIves as a ma|or exampIe oI seII-organised neIworks
and Ihe way Ihey overIooked poIiIicaI IronIiers and cenIraI power
sIraIegies.
The same couId be sIaIed Ior shipbuiIders or a signiIicanI
number oI PorIuguese piIoIs IhaI can be Iound enIisIed and working
on Ihe Spanish !ndies mariIime run. The sIaIisIicaI anaIysis oI piIoIs'
examinaIions Io Ccrrcrc dc |ndics by Ihe Ihe Casa de Ia Contrctccin
dc Scvillc oIIiciaIs, reveaIs IhaI beIween 1S74 and 16S0, e.g., beIore
and aIIer Ihe !berian Union
1S0
Ihere were eighI !IaIian, one Iemish
and 41 PorIuguese in a IoIaI amounI oI 8S1 piIoIs. ThaI corresponds,
in Ihe PorIuguese case, Io S oI Ihe IoIaI
1S1
.
The mosI sIriking observaIion is IhaI S1 oI Ihe PorIuguese
piIoIs IhaI were examined came Irom Ihe AIgarve, as shown in
148 Amlia Polnia, Expanso e Descobrimentos numa perspectiva local. O porto de Vila do Conde
no sculo XVI, (Lisboa: INCM, 2007), I, 340-342; Barros, Porto: a construo, 338, 680, and Joaquim Romero
Magalhes, Para o estudo do Algarve econmico durante o sculo XVI (Lisboa: Cosmos, 1970), 191.
149 Amlia Polnia, Self organising networks in the construction of the Portuguese overseas empire.
Paper presented to the 5th International Congress of Maritime History, sponsored by the IMEHA
(International Maritime Economic History Association) (Greenwich, 23-27 June 2008); Amlia Polnia
and Jack Owens, Cooperation-Based Self-Organizing Networks in Portuguese Overseas Expansion in the
First Global Age. International Journal of Maritime History (submitted in February 2009).
150 A.G.I. - Contratacin, leg. 5783.
151 Te same result can be obtained by research in Spanish archives; even a plain search of records
on the on-line data bases of the General Archives of Indies (Seville), or in the General Archive of Simancas
for instance, will be enough to prove this assertions: by introducing the variables Portuguese pilots or
Portuguese seamen between 1500 and 1600 it is possible to obtain a fair collection of mentions recording
the presence of Portuguese acting under Spanish rule or, alternatively, acting on their own within colonial
territories of Spanish America.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
123
graph 1. A very diIIerenI paIIern can be seen in anoIher sIaIisIicaI
approach, Ihis Iime based on Ihe piIoIs' examinaIions heId in Lisbon
beIween 1S96 and 1648 under Ihe responsibiIiIy oI Ihe PorIuguese
High Cosmographer. Here, Ihe piIoIs Irom Ihe AIgarve make up
onIy 1.2 oI Ihe PorIuguese IoIaI (6 in 3S3 examinaIions). This is
greaIIy iIIusIraIive oI Ihe inIenIionaI decision oI Ihe AIgarve piIoIs
Io seek new carrier opporIuniIies in Spain raIher Ihan in PorIugaI,
moving Io SeviIIe raIher Ihan Io Lisbon.
1&#)4 >.PorIuguese piIoIs examinaIions in Ihe Casa de Ia ConIraIacin"
(SeviIIa (1S74-16S0). +*7&2'? Archivo CeneraI de !ndias - ConIraIacin, Ieg.
S783. Apud PoInia, 2007, !!, p. 46
The impacI oI individuaI decisions can be observed in a
diIIerenI approach oI Ihe same daIa. Craphs 2 and 3 show IhaI
during Ihe period oI DuIch aIIacks on 8raziI and Ihe 8raziI rouIe,
mosIIy Irom 1630 Io 1637, Ihe PorIuguese candidaIes gave up Ihe
exam Ior IhaI rouIe, cIearIy preIerring Ihe Spanish America's one.
1S2

!n IacI, Ihe king's cosmographer was aIIowed Io examine, in Lisbon,
piIoIs Io Ihe Ccrrcrc dc |ndics during Ihe !berian Union period.
1S3

152 Amlia Polnia, Mestres e Pilotos das Navegaes Ultramarinas (1596-1648). Subsdios para o
seu estudo, Revista da Faculdade de Letras-Histria, II Srie, XIII (1995), 135-217, Annex A.
153 Amlia Polnia, Mestres e pilotos, 135-217. Tis can also be proved by the analysis of the
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
124
This scenario aIso reveaIs Ihe capaciIy oI Ihese men Io choose or
seek aIIernaIives Io Ihe rouIes which were considered eiIher Ihe
mosI promising or Ihe Iess risky. We can Ihus observe IhaI, aI a Iime
when Ihe one Io 8raziI was by Ihen considered dangerous, seamen
proposed IhemseIves Io be examined Ior Ihe rouIes Io Spanish
America, where Iheir presence was IegaIIy recognized.
1&#)4 @. PiIoIs' exams in Lisbon. DisIribuIion by mariIime rouIes
(1 6 1648) +*7&2'? ANTT - Lv. menIas, Lv. 1-1S. Apud PoInia,
199S: Annex A
1&#)4 AC ChronoIogicaI disIribuIion oI piIoI's exams (1S96-1648 +*7&2'?
ANTT - Lv. menIas, Lv. 1- 1S. Apud PoInia, 199S, Annex A.
pilots examinations to the Spanish Indians maritime carriers held at the Casa de la Contratacin de Seville,
for the period between 1574 and 1650. In this sample, 5% of the candidates were Portuguese, mostly from
Algarve (Amlia Polnia, O Porto nas navegaes ultramarinas quinhentistas. Embarcaes e nuticos,
Revista da Faculdade de Letras-Histria, 3 Srie, 1 (2000), 29-52.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
125
These concIusions are conIirmed by Ihe resuIIs obIained
in a case sIudy cenIred on ViIa do Conde, a smaII seaporI IocaIed
abouI 30 km norIh oI PorIo, on Ihe norIh-wesIern coasI oI PorIugaI,
during Ihe period Irom 1S60-1620, as we can see in Craph 4 and
Map 1.
1&#)4 DC ViIa do Conde's navigaIion rouIes (1S60-1620)
+*7&2'? PoInia, 2007: 33
T#) >C NavigaIion desIinaIions Irom ViIa do Conde (1S60-1620)
+*7&2'? PoInia, 2007: !!, 38
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
126
These represenIaIions show IhaI 8raziI and Spanish America
were Ihe main overseas desIinaIions Ior Ihe ships and seamen Irom
ViIa do Conde. A simiIar Irend can be sIaIed Ior PorIo, even iI wiIh a
guiIe minor incidence on Spanish America
1S4
. The apparenIIy Iower
Iigures Ior PorIo which couId be inIerpreIed as Iesser parIicipaIion,
are in IacI a conseguence oI Ihe Iack oI documenIaI evidence Irom
Ihe IirsI decades oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury, a period Ior which a
growing parIicipaIion oI PorIuguese agenIs on Ihese IraIIic circuiIs
is weII documenIed eIsewhere, boIh in Ihe PorIuguese archives and
in Ihe CeneraI Archive oI !ndies in SeviIIe.
T#) @C NavigaIion desIinaIions Irom PorIo. 16Ih. CenIury +*7&2'? 8arros,
2004: 709

154 In terms of navigation routes from the city, ship charts to that destiny were generally not
reported, which additionally proves that the maritime contacts were performed at a private and individual
level; however, if we take a close look at the emigration trends and also at the number of ships from
Porto arriving in Spanish America from Brazil or the coast of Africa, these fgures increase and reveal
the same tendency. From those informations (especially from the news about emigrants), there can be no
doubt about Portos commercial trade networks in the Spanish overseas empire whose merchandise was
commonly traded in the city. See Barros, Porto: a construo, I, 108, 398, 468.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
127
The sIudy oI Ihe daIa avaiIabIe makes cIear IhaI Ihese
opIions did noI resuII Irom absIracI decisions, based, Ior insIance,
on preIerences Ior a given mariIime rouIe. On Ihe conIrary,
seaIarers and ship-owners had a very concreIe and weII deIined
goaI: Ihey were Iooking Ior empIoymenI and Ihey were aImosI
enIireIy aI Ihe service oI merchanIs and Irade circuiIs. The sIaIisIic
and carIographic represenIaIions reIIecI preciseIy Ihose Irade
circuiIs.
As can be proved in Ihe ViIa do Conde and PorIo case sIudies,
such Iendencies and business opIions are direcIIy connecIed and
Iramed by Ihe AIrican sIave Irade Io Spanish America.
+,#.' 6&#0'
LegaI Irameworks are essenIiaI Io comprehensiveIy
undersIand Ihe sIave Irade circuiIs which crossed PorIuguese and
Spanish empires, since Ihe IraIIic depended on Ihe concession oI
Iicenses which sIipuIaIed Ihe number and Ihe porIs oI arrivaI oI Ihe
sIaves going Io Ihe WesI !ndies. However, Ihe presence oI individuaI
agenIs, privaIe iniIiaIives and seII-organised neIworks aIso Iook
parI in Ihis domain, boIh inside and ouIside Ihe IegaI Iramework,
Ihrough business arrangemenIs and smuggIing
1SS
.
AI IirsI, Ihe Spanish crown inIended Io adopI a rigid
monopoIy over Ihe navigaIion and Irade circuiIs Io America, by
155 On this subject, besides the earlier works of Maria Manuel Torro, Trfco de escravos entre a
Costa da Guin e a Amrica Espanhola. Articulao dos Imprios Ultramarinos Ibricos num espao Atlntico
(1466-1595), 2 vols. (PhD diss. Universidade de Lisboa), and Maria da Graa Ventura, Negreiros Portugueses
na Rota das ndias de Castela (1541-1556), (Lisboa: Colibri, 1999), recent contributions for the period 1580-
1674 were made by Filipa Ribeiro da Silva, Te Dutch and the Portuguese in West Africa. Empire building and
Atlantic system (1580-1674), (PhD diss., University of Leiden, 2009).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
128
seIIIe-on excIusive deparIures Irom SeviIIe.
1S6
ThaI shouId incIude
Ihe sIave Irade as weII, in which Ihe PorIuguese were Ihe main
agenIs and Ihe PorIugaI's AIrican possessions Ihe main suppIier
markeIs. However, such inIenIion hardIy succeeded in generaI, and
cerIainIy noI Ior as sIave Irade was concerned. As CarcIa-8aguero
sIresses, Ihe monopoIisIic sIrucIure oI Ihe coIoniaI economy was one
Ihing; IiIIing Ihe sIave Irade inIo IhaI sIricI sIrucIuraI organisaIion
was guiIe anoIher.
1S7

This inadeguacy was responsibIe Ior noIorious evoIuIions
on Ihe regime oI IhaI speciIic IraIIic. !n Ihe IirsI decades oI Ihe 16
Ih
cenIury Ihe IegaI sIave Irade deIermined IhaI sIaves Irom AIrica (aI
IirsI mosIIy Irom Cap Verde) shouId be broughI direcIIy Io SeviIIe
and Irom here Ihey wouId be re-disIribuIed Io Spanish America.
The compIexiIy oI Ihe sysIem and Ihe disadvanIages (and awIuI
discomIorI) oI Iaking sIaves Irom AIrica Io Lisbon, Irom Ihere Io
SeviIIe and IinaIIy acros Ihe AIIanIic, encouraged direcI Irade
rouIes Irom Cap Verde Io Ihe AnIiIIes. The growing number oI sIaves
IransIerred -very oIIen iIIiciIIy, Ihrough convenienI conIracIs wiIh
Spanish parIners- beIween Ihose worIds was an addiIionaI eIemenI
which pushed in Ihe same direcIion.
rom 1S13 onwards crown Iicenses Io inIroduce sIaves Io
America were mandaIory and impIied previous IaxaIion. mperor
CharIes V (CharIes ! oI Spain) changed Ihe sysIem by granIing an
eighI-year monopoIisIic conIracI oI 4000 sIaves Io be senI Io WesI
!ndies by Lorenz de CouveneI, a Iemish Irader. When CouveneI in
Iurn soId severaI sub-Iicenses Io Ihird parIies, Ihe sysIem became
156 Garca-Baquero Gonzlez, La carrera de Indias: suma de la contratacin y ocano de negocios,
(Sevilla, Algaida Editores, 1992)
157 Garca-Baquero Gonzlez, La carrera, 234.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
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open Io exIernaI Irade agenIs, iniIiaIIy mosIIy Cenoese. This regime
heIped Io seI up Irade, and aIIracIed IinanciaI and adminisIraIive
neIworks which were abIe Io creaIe Iobbies and very soon Iook
over Ihe conIroI oI Ihe sysIem. PorIuguese agenIs, who run Ihe
AIrican markeIs and Ihe AIIanIic navigaIion, became a parI oI Ihose
Iobbies. The new sysIem aIso opened Ihe IirsI direcI connecIions
beIween AIrica and Spanish America, aIIhough Ihe indirecI rouIes
via SeviIIe (or, aI IeasI, Ihe Canary !sIands) remained in use.
1S8

AI Ihe same Iime, Ihe PorIuguese crown, which inIended
Io improve seIIIemenIs in Cape Verde and in San Tome, granIed
priviIeges Io sponIaneous seIIIers abIe Io Irade wiIh IocaI merchanIs
on Ihe AIrican CoasI. These priviIeges moIivaIed Ihe esIabIishmenI
oI IocaI neIworks which were bound Io produce signiIicanI damage
Io Ihe PorIuguese crown's IiscaI righIs. Aware oI heavy Ioss in
Iheir revenues, Ihe PorIuguese king removed Ihose priviIeges and
subseguenIIy creaIed a Crown IacIory in SanIiago (Cap Verde).
However, Irade neIworks were aIready IirmIy esIabIished and were
abIe Io mainIain Iheir enIerprises wiIh signiIicanI gains.
1S9
rom
IhaI momenI-on, seII-organized and powerIuI neIworks couId aIso
Iake parI in and proIiI Irom Ihe sIave Irade.
LaIer Irade circuiIs, deparIing Irom Ihe CuII oI Cuinea,
Congo and AngoIa, were direcIed Io CarIagena, in Spanish !ndies.
They were added Io, and very soon IargeIy overIake, Ihose aIready
exisIenI, deparIing Irom Cap Verde and arriving in Ihe AnIiIIes.
158 A summarized approach to this scenario can be checked at Torro, Trfco de escravos, 199-223.
159 Marlia Lopes, A explorao econmica da Guin e Cabo Verde nos sculos XV e XVI in
Portugal no Mundo, dir. Lus de Albuquerque (Lisboa: Alfa, 1989), 1, 250-263; Carlos Riley, Ilhas Atlnticas
e Costa Africana in Francisco Bettencourt and Kirti Chauduri, dir. Histria da Expanso Portuguesa,
(Lisboa: Circulo de Leitores, 1998), 1, 137-162.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
130
iIher way, and mosI imporIanI, parIicipaIion in Ihe IraIIic was
onIy possibIe Ihrough means oI co-operaIion beIween PorIuguese
and Spanish coIoniaI and poIiIicaI agenIs: whiIe Ihe king oI Spain
provided Iicenses Io Irade sIaves in WesI !ndies, Ihe PorIuguese
king conIroIIed Ihe AIrican markeIs. 8usiness neIworks and
corporaIions oI PorIuguese, Spanish, Iemish and Cenoese brokers
Iook pIace, and Ihey cumuIaIed resources in order Io meeI Ihe
IinanciaI, adminisIraIive, IegaI, and IransporIaIion means IhaI
were reguired by Ihe IraIIic.
160
ven Ihe PorIuguese king ]ohn !!!
|oined as a parIner in some oI Ihese conIracIs, and iI is imporIanI
Io sIress IhaI Ihe kings' associaIes in Ihese business venIures were
eiIher PorIuguese or CasIiIian merchanIs aIready invoIved in Ihe
sIave Irade.
161

SigniIicanI changes were inIroduced by Ihe Union oI Ihe
PorIuguese and Ihe Spanish Crowns (1S80-1640). 8y Ihen, Ihe king's
courI sIayed in Madrid, where Ihe asienIos (Ihe Spanish Iicenses Io
Irade sIaves) were granIed and Ihe conIracIs were negoIiaIed and
signed. This Ied Ihe PorIuguese Io Madrid; gave Ihem easy access
Io Ihe Spanish asienIos and aIso reinIorced Irade and IinanciaI
neIworks beIween empires
162
, as can be seen by Ihe roIe oI Ihe Iirm
oI Rodrigues de vora in Ihe second haII oI Ihe cenIury.
163

urIhermore, in 1S86, PhiIip !! oI Spain (PhiIip ! oI PorIugaI)
decided Io reIorm Ihe Iicences' sysIem.
164
His decision derived Irom
160 Torro, Trfco de escravos, I, 205-232.
161 Ibid, 224
162 Silva, Te Dutch, 214-215.
163 J. Gentil da Silva, Stratgie des afaires Lisbonne entre 1595 et 1607. Lettres marchands des
Rodrigues dvora et Veiga, (Paris: S.E.V.P.E.N.,1957).
164 Concerning the evolution of the supply system of slaves to the Spanish Americas see, for
instance, Leslie B. Rout, Te African Experience in Spanish America (Cambridge: Cambridge University
Press, 1976), pp. 37-61: Henriqueta Vila Vilar, Los asientos portugueses y el contrabando de negros,
Anuario de Estudios Americanos, 30 (1973), 557-599.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
131
Ihe increasing need oI manpower Io Ieed Ihe sugar pIanIaIion in
Ihe AnIiIIes, nameIy in Cuba, as weII as Ihe huge reguiremenIs Irom
Ihe growing expIoiIaIion oI siIver and goId mines in Ihe Caribbean,
New Spain, CenIraI America and mosI oI aII PoIosi.
16S
ConseguenIIy,
beIween 1S86 and 1640, Ihe Habsburg Kings negoIiaIed conIracIs
Ior Ihe reguIar suppIy oI AIrican sIaves Io Ihe Spanish American
coIonies - Ihe so-caIIed asienIos de negros.
166

!n Ihis new conIexI, iI was no Ionger iIIegaI Io send PorIuguese
ships, wiIh PorIuguese crews, Irom Ihe WesI CoasI oI AIrica Io
Ihe Spanish Americas
167
, even iI Ihey weren'I IegaIIy aIIowed Io
disembark.
168
The mosI sIriking prooI IhaI Ihese resIricIions were
oIIen disregarded remains Ihe repeaIed correspondence beIween
oIIiciaIs and Ihe iIIegaI emigraIion oI PorIuguese in !ndies, as we
wiII see beIow.
vidence on sIave Irade Irom PorIuguese seaporIs, which
can be conIirmed Irom PorIo and ViIa do Conde case sIudies
169
, heIps
us Io undersIand how Ihese commerciaI venIures reinIorced an
AIIanIic sysIem, connecIing urope, AIrica and America, and buiII
coIoniaI economic neIworks on a gIobaI basis, which necessariIy
crossed empire IronIiers.
165 Frederik Browser, Los Africanos en la sociedad de la America Espaola Colonial in Leslie
Bethel, coord. America Latina Colonial (Barcelona: Crtica, 2003), 79-98; Peter Bakewell, Minera y sociedad
en el Mxico Colonial. Zacatecas (1546-1700), (Mxico: Fondo de Cultura Econmica, 1986); Peter Bakewell,
Estado y menera en la Hispanoamerica colonial, in Industria y estado en la vida de Mxico, Patricia Arias,
coord. (Zamora: El Colegio de Michoacn, 1990), 43-55 La minera en la Hispanoamrica colonial in
Nicolas Snchez-Albornoz et. all - Amrica Latina na poca Colonial, (Barcelona: Critica, 1990), 2, 79-98.
166 Cf. Rout, Te African experience, 23-59; Vila Vilar, Los asientos, 23-59.
167 Silva, Te Dutch, 215
168 Fernando Serrano Mangas, La encrucijada portuguesa. Esplendor y quiebra de la unin ibrica
en las Indias de Castilla (1600-1668) (Badajoz: Diputacin Provincial, 1994), 18
169 Barros, Porto: a construo, I, 401; Polnia, Expanso e descobrimentos, II, 171-188.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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132
T#) AC SIave Irade circuiIs Ied by PorIo merchanIs (16Ih. CenIury)
+*7&2'? 8arros, 2004: 678

The growing parIicipaIion oI PorIuguese seaporIs in
mariIime rouIes Io Ihe WesI !ndies is proved boIh by Ihe aIready
menIioned examinaIion oI ship's piIoIs and Ihe daIa resuIIing Irom
Ihe case sIudies we've |usI been Ihrough. The massive inIroducIion
oI PorIuguese crews and merchanIs on Ihese circuiIs creaIed new
Irade opporIuniIies, even iI iIIegaI, and resuIIed in a signiIicanI
presence oI PorIuguese seIIIers in Spanish American coIoniaI
dominions.
Some empiricaI evidence oI Ihese maIIers can be visuaIised
by Ihe IoIIowing graph and map, based, again, on Ihe ViIa do Conde
case sIudy Ior Ihe period 1S60-1620.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
133
1&#)4 EC ViIa do Conde's overseas Irade circuiIs (1S60-1620)
+*7&2'? PoIonia 2007: !!, 177.
T#) DC ViIa do Conde's overseas Irade circuiIs (1S60-1620)
+*7&2'? PoIonia, 2007: !!, 176
The 1640's PorIuguese ResIoraIion War (1640-1668)
inIroduced a new conIexI and a new Iramework wiIh conseguences
Ior Ihis IIow. !n IacI, Ihe commerciaI rouIes beIween PorIugaI and
Ihe Spanish WesI !ndies were suspended. Moreover, Ihe embargoes
imposed by Ihe PorIuguese and Ihe Spanish kings on each oIher's
vesseIs during Ihe conIIicI, and Ihe DuIch Iakeover oI AngoIa
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
134
and So Tome in 1641, shouId have rendered impossibIe Io carry
on wiIh Ihese commerciaI and navigaIion rouIes. NeverIheIess a
guesIion arises - shouId we Iake IhaI Ior granIed? We are noI abIe
Io give a deIiniIive answer Io Ihis guesIion, since Ihe research daIa
avaiIabIe reporI mosIIy Io Ihe period previous Io 1640. However,
based on oIher exampIes oI simiIar siIuaIions in Ihe PorIuguese
coIoniaI dynamics, incIuding Ihe sIudies on smuggIing sIraIegies
and Irends, we wouId argue IhaI Ihe Irade neIworks somehow
managed Io keep going on.
irsIIy, Ihe mosI imporIanI PorIuguese merchanI bankers
seIIIed in Madrid remained Ihere
170
, in person or represenIed,
and were abIe Io mainIain very dynamic webs oI business, capiIaI
and Irade. SecondIy, an immediaIe repIacemenI oI Ihe PorIuguese
as sIave suppIiers wouId have been impracIicabIe whiIe Ihe need
Ior AIrican sIaves remained a IorceIuI eIemenI in Ihe Spanish
Americas. ven iI Ihe DuIch Iook San Tome and AngoIa, in 1641,
Ihey heId Ihem onIy brieIIy and IosI Ihem Io Ihe previous seIIIers
- Ihe PorIuguese. As Ior Imina, kepI by Ihe DuIch Irom 1637
onwards, which is oIIen considered a suppIier sIave markeI, iI
never had, in IacI, a signiIicanI impacI on IhaI Irade during Ihe
PorIuguese dominaIion.
171
!n Ihe Ihird pIace, Ihe undeIined and
unconIroIIed IronIiers beIween 8raziIian and CasIiIian !ndies
IerriIories generaIed an unsIoppabIe IIow oI Irade, capiIaI and
business which was noI aIIecIed nor reversed by Ihe shorI period
oI a disIanI war in urope (1640-1668). !n IacI, as sIaIed by Ribeiro
170 Carmen Sanz Ayn, El crdito de la corona y los hombres de negocios en los ltimos aos del
reinado de Felipe IV, in Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, 9 (1988), 63-94
171 J. Bato Ballong-Wen-Mewuda, So Jorge da Mina. 1482-1637. La vie dun comptoir portugais en
Afrique Occidentale. 1482-1637, (Lisboa Paris: Fundao Calouste Gulbenkian, 1993.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
135
da SiIva, unIiI Ihe mid-16S0s, Ihe SouIhern 8raziIian capIaincies
worked as a re-disIribuIion cenIre Io suppIy sIaves Io Ihe PIaIa
region, whiIe unIiI 16S4, DuIch 8raziI IuncIioned as a re-disIribuIion
cenIre Ior Ihe Spanish CenIraI American mainIand and Ihe WesI
!ndies.
172

More recenIIy, a research by CIeydi SuIIn abouI Ihe
PorIuguese in Piura, Peru Iound IhaI aIIhough wiIh resIricIions
(Ior exampIe conIiscaIion oI weapons and cIoser surveiIIance by
Ihe IocaI !nguisiIion), Ihe presence oI seIIIers and Iraders coming
Irom oIher parIs oI Peru and even Irom urope remained very
noIiceabIe aIIer 1640. AcIuaIIy, mosI oI Ihem remained in business,
beneIiIing Irom Ihe sIraIegic posiIion oI Piura (bisagra comerciaI)
on Ihe Irade rouIe beIween uiIo and Lima.
173

inaIIy, even iI wiIh addiIionaI resIricIions and bIockades,
Ihe very acIive navigaIion and Irade circuiIs which numerous smaII-
Io-medium enIrepreneurs IocaIed in severaI PorIuguese seaporIs
guaranIeed in a seII-organized and inIormaI way did noI disappear
immediaIeIy. These neIworks Iended Io subsisI despiIe Ihe changes
oI Ihe poIiIicaI conIexI, even iI we cannoI deny IhaI navaI war couId
aIIecI Ihem in a signiIicanI way.
Those are Ihe very same agenIs who usuaIIy kepI in
pIace iIIegaI neIworks and mechanisms, incIuding smuggIing, a
phenomenon which couId onIy be carried ouI wiIh co-operaIion
beIween IronIiersmen and beIween sub|ecIs oI diIIerenI and
IreguenIIy opposing kingdoms. WhaI we aim Io sIaIe is IhaI Ihey
172 Silva, Te Dutch, 218.
173 Gleydi Sulln Barreto, Portugueses en el Per y los padrones de registro de 1642. Piura y Trujillo,
(Unpublished paper), (Piura, 2009), 6, 10. Between several merchants, Sulln refers the arrival in Piura, in
1645, of Gaspar da Silva, from Porto, Portugal, a trader of cloth doing business. Resident in Guaura, he
made his testament and last will in Piura.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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136
were, evenIuaIIy, sIabIe neIworks IhaI keep IuncIioning whiIe Ihe
gains remain bigger Ihan Ihe Iosses, despiIe Ihe oIIiciaI poIicies
which imposed a breakdown Ior Iong or shorI Ierm cooperaIive
neIworks.
The coIoniaI powers and auIhoriIies seemed Io be and
probabIy were aware oI IhaI, so iI expIains Ihe massive harassmenI
oI Ihe PorIuguese New ChrisIian merchanIs in Ihe Spanish American
coIonies, by Ihe Spanish crown, Ihrough Ihe !nguisiIion, Iorcing
Ihem Io Ieave and Io break up a wide web oI IamiIiaI and business
neIworks, nameIy in Ihe PIaIa region, where Ihey heId a dominanI
posiIion in Ihe siIver Irade. These webs aIso comprised Ihe circuiIs
IhaI connecIed some oI Ihe main Spanish American porIs (CarIagena
and Vera Cruz) Io Ihe mining cenIres in Ihe hinIerIand, and Io Ihe
porIs on Ihe PaciIic CoasI. According Io Daviken SIudnicki- CizberI,
aII Ihese circuiIs were aIIecIed by IhaI persecuIion.
174


U;/5&#6/*" 9,*8(
There are noI many sIudies based on seriaI daIa and oIIiciaI
indicaIors abouI PorIuguese emigraIion IIows Ior Ihe period beIore
Ihe eighIeenIh and even Ihe nineIeenIh cenIuries. The Iack oI
sources consIiIuIes an obsIacIe impossibIe Io overcome. As regards
PorIuguese emigraIion Io Ihe WesI !ndies, Ihis deIiciI exIends Io Ihe
oIIiciaI records oI Ihe Casa de Ia ConIraIacin, which managed Ihe
concession oI emigraIion Iicenses.
The resIricIive emigraIion poIicy pursued by Ihe CasIiIian
crown since Ihe very beginnings oI Ihe American coIoniaI seIIIemenI
174 Daviken Studnicki-Gizbert, A nation upon the ocean sea. Portugals Atlantic diaspora and the
crisis of the Spanish empire. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007), 15-174.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
137
is weII known. The IegaI paIIern was based on Ihe conIroI over Ihe
reIigious orIhodoxy, so IhaI aII non-CaIhoIics, incIuding MusIims,
]ews, Conversos/New ChrisIians, and IaIer-on aII oI Ihose convicIed
by Ihe !nguisiIion, were excIuded
17S
. !niIiaIIy, Ihese measures
aIso imposed resIricIions on Ihe inIroducIion oI sIave AIrican
Iabour Iorce, based on Ihe reIigious pracIices need Ior conIroI.
176

rom 1S0S onward Ihe immigraIion oI Ioreign agenIs was aIso
Iorbidden, even iI beIween 1S26 and 1S38 iI was aIIowed Ior
!IaIian and Cerman Hapsburg sub|ecIs. Since iI was iIIegaI, Ihe
enIry oI any Ioreign immigranI, incIuding PorIuguese sub|ecIs, was
noI regisIered; and IhaI expIains Ihe absence oI daIa - mainIy
sIaIisIic- abouI PorIuguese emigraIion Io Spanish !ndies.
177

This IegaI Iramework represenIed an impedimenI Io
emigraIion. 8uI someIimes Ihis obsIacIe was diminished since
Spanish auIhoriIies onIy imposed cerIain reguiremenIs
concerning Ihe permission Ior PorIuguese immigranIs by aIIowing
married men and women Io seIIIe in Ihe Americas. Such IegisIaIion
- vasI and IreguenIIy aIIered - shows greaI compIexiIy and asks
175 Histria de Iberoamerica. Tomo II: Historia Moderna, Manuel Lucena Salmoral, coord. (Madrid:
Ctedra, 1992); Richard Middleton, Colonial America. A History: 1585-1776. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997);
Leslie Bethel, Amrica Latina Colonial, (S. Paulo: Edusp, 1998).
176 Frederic Bowster, Te African slave in Colonial Peru. 1524-1650 (Stanford: Stanford University
Press, 1972), 27-28; Rozendo Sampaio Garcia, Contribuio ao Estudo do aprovisionamento de escravos
negros na Amrica Espanhola (1580-1640), in Anais Paulista, XVI (1962), 13-14, and Esteban Mira
Ceballos, Las licencias de esclavos negros a Hispano America (1554-1555), in Revista de Indias, LIV, 201
(1994), 273-297.
177 Te study of this phenomenon can, although, be achieved through local archives in Portugal,
from municipalities to notary and parish records. For a brief discussion of this subject, see Helena Osswald
and Amlia Polnia, No reverso do Tratado das Tordesilhas: Portugueses nas ndias de Castela durante o
perodo de unio dinstica, in Vrtice, second series, No. 63 (November-December 1994), pp. 45-54. See
also Maria da Graa A. Mateus Ventura, 1996 Portugueses nas ndias de Castela. Percursos e percepes,
in Viagens e viajantes no Atlntico Quinhentista (Lisboa, Colibri, 1996), 101-132, and Maria da Graa A.
Mateus Ventura, Portugueses no descobrimento e conquista da hispanoamrica: viagens, expedies e trato
(PhD diss. Lisboa: Universidade de Lisboa, 1997).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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138
Ior a more comprehensive sIudy. !n Ihe presenI case we were abIe
Io acknowIedge sevenIeen royaI provisions (or decrees) granIed
beIween 1S10 and 1S40 in which immigraIion endorsed by Ihe king
aI Ihe reguesI oI Spanish capIains invoIved in overseas enIerprises.
The oIIiciaI Spanish poIiIicaI IhoughI abouI immigraIion, baIanced
beIween prohibiIion (which was in any case Iess evidenI) and
aIIowance, which depended on ma|or coIonizaIion needs. The
sIandpoinI was generaI resIricIion, oI course, buI in view oI Ihe Iack
oI peopIe in Ihe coIonies (or even in Ihe ships) Ihe auIhoriIies had Io
compromise, and even Iavour Ihe PorIuguese immigraIion.
178

We musI be aware IhaI Ihese migraIory sIreams documenIed
by Ihe empiricaI daIa under anaIysis occurred even beIore Ihe
greaI NorIhern PorIuguese porIs movemenI Iowards 8raziI, aI Ihe
IirsI decades oI Ihe sixIeenIh-cenIury
179
. And yeI, some empiricaI
evidence oI Ihe same Iendency can be susIained by Ihe IoIIowing
graph and map, based, once more, on Ihe ViIa do Conde case
sIudy, now appIied Io anoIher chronoIogicaI period and a diIIerenI
conIexIuaI Iramework.
The avaiIabIe Iigures Irom ViIa do Conde beIween 1S60 and
1640 resuII in Ihe IoIIowing charIs:
178 For instance, in the 27th April, 1528 Charles the Fifh allowed Garca de Lerma to take with him
to Santa Marta, Venezuela, 50 married Portuguese settlers; however as it was impossible for Cabrera to fnd
them, in the 30th June, another royal provision changed the number of married men to an half and allowed
other 25 unmarried Portuguese to embark with him. AGI Audiencia de Panam, 234, liv. 3, f. 172-172v
and AGI Audiencia de Panam, 234, liv. 3, f. 174-175v.
180 Te most part of them (ffeen) occurred between 1520 and 1536.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
139
1&#)4 FC ViIa do Conde's seIIIers overseas. Diachronic and spaIiaI
disIribuIion (1S60-1640) +*7&2'? PoInia, 2007: !!, 240.
T#) EC ViIa do Conde's emigraIion IIows overseas (1S60-1640 +*7&2'?
PoInia, 2007: !!, 242.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
140
rom Ihe diachronic disIribuIion oI Ihe daIa iI is guiIe
evidenI IhaI Ihe Spanish !ndies were incIuded among Ihe desIinies
oI emigraIion oI ViIa do Conde's peopIe. This Iendency seems Io
be connecIed wiIh Ihe approvaI oI Iicenses Ior direcI navigaIion
deparIing Irom AIrica resuIIing Irom sIave Irade venIures, preciseIy
in Ihe 1S90s, |usI Ien years aIIer Ihe !berian Union.
AddiIionaI research in Ihe CeneraI Archive oI !ndies,
in SeviIIe, conIirms Ihis Iendency, Ihrough Ihe cutos dc hcns dc
dcjuntos (properIy invenIories Irom uropeans who died in coIoniaI
IerriIories). According Io Ihese accounIs, Ihe iIIegaI sIaIus oI Ihe
deceased IreguenIIy deIermined high penaIIies in Iheir Iegacies.
This appIies Io rancisco 8arroso, a piIoI and merchanI Irom ViIa
do Conde who died in Peru aIIer he concIuded a sIave Irade conIracI
Irom which resuIIed Ihe considerabIe sum oI 2.2S0.000 PorIuguese
rccis
180
. According Io Ihe IawsuiI IhaI IoIIowed his decease, abouI
haII oI Ihe amounI was reIained by Spanish oIIicers arguing IhaI
he sIayed in Peru iIIegaIIy. However, as iI was recognized by IocaI
IesIimonies, he mainIained a Iong-Ierm residence in Peru, as weII
as anoIher one in Lisbon, where his IamiIy Iived aI IhaI Iime.
He was |usI onIy one among Ihe severaI ViIa do Conde
inhabiIanIs IhaI we couId idenIiIy in a pIain research in Ihe Spanish
Archives. 8esides Ihis muIIi-acIive sea piIoI, iI is possibIe Io Iind
anoIher one who died in Cordoba, in Peru
181
; a Iew seaIarers
182

, some oI Ihem becoming mechanicaI craIIers
183
; shipbuiIders
184
,
Iarmers and caIIIe producers
18S
, among oIhers whose proIessionaI
180 A.G.I. - Contratacin, 384, n. 3, r. 10.
181 A.D.P. (Porto District Archive) Fundo Notarial. V. Conde, 1 cart., 1 sr., lv. 30, f. 19-21.
182 A.G.I., Contratacin, 5576, n. 2.; A.G.I., Contratacin, 273, n. 13.
183 Idem, 941 B., n. 12.
184 A.D.P. Fundo Notarial. V. Conde, 1 cart.,1 sr., lv. 21, f. 10v.-13.
185 Idem, 237, n. 3, r. 21; Idem, 526, n. 1, r. 1.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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141
occupaIion was impossibIe Io be idenIiIied.
186
SimiIar paIIerns are
spoIIed in PorIo where Ihe documenIaI sources reveaI Ihe deparIure
oI men speciaIized in craIIs such as ship carpenIers, rope-makers,
cauIkers, and coopers, which were in greaI demand overseas.
187

The overaII IerriIoriaI disIribuIion oI Ihese peopIe is guiIe
impressive (see map S concerning ViIa do Conde's emigraIion): Ihey
spread over an area which incIudes Ihe AnIiIIes, Mexico, incIuding
Los AngeIes; Peru mosIIy Io Lima; CarIagene, in nowadays CoIombia;
Tru|iIIo on Honduras, Panama and uiIo, in guaIor. The same
Irend and direcIions were aIso IoIIowed by Ihe PorIo overseas
emigranIs, whose presence is documenIed in Ihe AnIiIIes (PuerIo
Rico, Cuba, SanIo Domingo), Mexico, Peru, Honduras, CoIumbia,
ChiIe, and severaI oIher Spanish American regions.
188

This web demonsIraIes a paIIern oI disIribuIion which
presumes a Iarge dominium and inIIuence spread over a signiIicanI
IerriIory, conIIuenI wiIh Ihe hypoIhesis IhaI one oI Ihe main ways
Io gain enIry inIo Ihe WesI !ndies was by navigaIion. The enroImenI
oI PorIuguese emigranIs and saiIors in Ihe Spanish WesI !ndies
carrera, and Iheir invoIvemenI in sIave Irade circuiIs beneIiIed
Irom Ihe accessibiIiIy provided by sea rouIes, and unconIroIIed
IraIIic, as oIher documenIaI corpus repeaIedIy IesIiIies
189
. However,
IurIher and abundanI case sIudies need Io be scruIinised in order
Io anaIyse Ihis sub|ecI in depIh.
WiIh Ihe excepIion oI piIoIs and sIave Iraders, Ihe individ-
186 A.G.I., Contratacin, 513 B., n. 4, r. 6.
187 Amndio Barros, Porto: a construo, 242.
188 Ibid., 399, 401, 426, 600, 680, etc.
189 Another way to reach the Spanish Indies was to sail from Brazil as it is mentioned in the notary
records of Porto in legal documents concerning the confscation of sugar by the Spanish authorities in Porto
Rico. See Amndio Barros, Porto: a construo, 818.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
142
uaIs IhaI were idenIiIied on a casuaI basis had IimiIed weaIIh or
IorIunes, according Io Ihe deaIh regisIers and invenIories. This is
noI however, Ihe case oI Ihe Iarge Sephardic communiIies, wheIher
observanI ChrisIians or ]ews, many oI whom Irom PorIuguese an-
cesIry, which sIand ouI as being guiIe weaIIhy. This Irend is weII
proved by Ihe persecuIions Ied Io Ihose communiIies by Ihe Lima
!nguisiIion, despiIe Ihe reguIaIions oI Ihe CasIiIian Crown which, as
we |usI saw, Iorbade Iheir emigraIion Io Ihe American domains.
190

Their presence provides anoIher exampIe oI Ihese IransnaIionaI
and Irans-reIigious Iorms oI cooperaIion, seIIIed by inIormaI and
seII-organised neIworks, IreguenIIy in an iIIegaI way.
This paIIern is weII documenIed, however noI IimiIed Io
Ihe period oI Ihe !berian Union. !I was cerIainIy wiIh emigraIion
and business on Iheir minds IhaI Ihe PorIuguese deIegaIes in Ihe
parIiamenI IhaI recognized PhiIip !! as king oI PorIugaI sIrongIy
demanded him Io recognize and IegaIize Iheir IeIIow counIrymen in
Ihe WesI !ndies.
191
As we saw previousIy, Ihe Spanish immigraIion
Iaws since Ihe beginning oI Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury were oIIen
permissive regarding Ihe accepIance oI PorIuguese married
coupIes. OIher exampIes can be guoIed - a documenI Irom 1S68 in
Ihe CeneraI Archive oI !ndies menIions PorIuguese seIIIemenIs on
Ihe Iorida coasI, where Ihey were buiIding IorIresses
192
; anoIher
daIed 1S73 granIed Iicenses Io 100 PorIuguese Iarmers Io go Io
Iorida wiIh Iheir IamiIies, despiIe Ihe IegaI resIricIions.
193
ven
190 On this matter, see: Gonzalo de Reparaz Ruiz, Os Portuguezes no vice-reinado; Fernando
Serrano Mangas, La encrucijada portuguesa, 19-23.
191 Amndio Barros, Histria do Porto. (O tempo dos Filipes. A cidade e a construo do mundo
global), vol. 6. (Matosinhos: QudiNovi, 2010), 43-46.
192 AGI, Indiferente, 425, lv. 24, f. 380-381.
193 AGI, Indiferente, 426, Lv. 25, f. 242v.-243.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
143
beIore, in 1S64, a PorIuguese died inIesIaIe in Ihe Lima DisIricI, and
anoIher-one was kiIIed by Ihe !ndians in Cuane Province.
194
These
are casuaI reIerences which emerge Irom a much more consisIenI
IIow which, even in Ihe earIy days oI Ihe Spanish seIIIemenIs,
resuIIed in documenIary evidence Ior Ihe presence oI numerous
PorIuguese, as poinIed ouI by Serrano Mangas.
19S
or a IaIer period
(1642), Ihe same auIhor considers IhaI Ihe number oI PorIuguese
IamiIies was underesIimaIed by abouI 1600 (cc. 4000 inhabiIanIs aI
IeasI, considering Ihe demographic paIIerns oI Ancien Regime) in
Ihe Province oI New Spain onIy.
196

A"%4'#65"%
To sum up, Ihe empiricaI daIa anaIysed in Ihis chapIer,
even iI Iaken onIy as sampIes, is very enIighIening eiIher Ior Ihe
indispuIabIe presence oI PorIuguese in Ihe Spanish !ndies, as Ihey
are a IruIhIuI evidence oI inIormaI and seII-organized PorIuguese
inIernaIionaI neIworks acIing in IhaI parI oI Ihe arIy Modern
coIoniaI worId. Through Ihe exampIes we |usI came Io describe, we
come across Io a sorI oI gIobaI inIeracIion. This kind oI widespread
inIeracIion was noI onIy IimiIed Io Ihe Americas - iI was aIso
exIended Io Ihe IinanciaI and commerciaI conIacIs spread aII over
urope such as Ihe ones IhroughouI Ihe !berian PeninsuIa, nameIy
Ihrough Ihe Medina deI Campo Iairs, Madrid, Lisbon and SeviIIe, or
Ihe oIhers which were IocaIed in Ihe NorIhwesIern uropean ciIies
such as AnIwerp (and IaIer-on, AmsIerdam), and aIso in Paris,
194 AGI, Contratacin, 202 B.
195 Fernando Serrano Mangas, La encrucijada portuguesa , 1994: 17
196 Ibid, 20.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
144
8esanon, and Hamburg, Irom where capiIaIs IIowed. Those
neIworks invoIved IreguenIIy business IhaI connecIed, again,
PorIuguese and Spanish overseas Irade and Iheir inIeresIs in
inIernaIionaI IinanciaI circuiIs.
!ndividuaI agenIs managed Io esIabIish vaIuabIe conIacIs
wiIh parIners abroad and wiIh Ioreign Iraders, and became
associaIed in overseas commerciaI venIures, which wenI Iar beyond
naIionaI boundaries and resIricIions. When we check cIoseIy Io
Ihe way Ihose agenIs acIed, Ihey proved Io be abIe Io disregard
IiIeraIIy Ihe insIiIuIionaI, poIiIicaI and IerriIoriaI boundaries, and
inIroduced signiIicanI dynamics Io merchanI, demographic and
sociaI acIiviIies. They deIiberaIeIy ignored coIoniaI rivaIries, and
Ihrough a unyieIding acIiviIy Ihey were in IacI acIive parIicipanIs
and buiIders oI Ihe so-caIIed AIIanIic empires. rom Ihe modesI
emigranI, Ihe craIIsman, Ihe seIIIer, and Ihe seaman acIing as
coIonizer, Ihe shipbuiIder, Ihe piIoI, Io Ihe Irader or Ihe banker
who Iinanced overseas enIerprises, aII oI Ihem produced a ma|or
impacI on Ihe worId economy and conIribuIed exIensiveIy Io Ihe
irsI CIobaI age".
197

197 Te authors acknowledge and thank the contributions of Winfried Heinemann and Nuno
Jennings Tasso de Sousa for the fnal English version of this chapter.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
145
/"-,''5%. &%- 70C',0,%1&15"% ") & 6C&15"<
1,0C"$&' 9561"$54 @7;
Q#19"$6J 3619,$ \f$,= Q6,%65"
76&P,' -,' M"6j#, @"%=k',=
]"P,$1" /&,61$, /&$1`%,=
(Unidad S!C, CCHS-CS!C, Madrid, Spain)
Q%& A$,6C" ;"'&%&
!#&% /&%#,' ;k%49,=<A$,6C" A&0&49"
(!nsIiIuIo de HisIoria, CCHS-CS!C)
7%1$"-#415"%

The appIicaIion oI C!S in HisIoricaI research is a reIaIiveIy
new IieId since C!S IechnoIogy has been mainIy appIied Io naIuraI
sciences. However, Ihere exisI severaI exampIes oI Ihe uIiIizaIion oI
C!S, wiIh an increasing Ireguency, where Ihe use oI Ihis IechnoIogy
has been appreciaIed Ior Ihe anaIysis oI hisIoricaI daIa oI a very
diverse naIure. A IieId where Ihe use oI C!S is becoming increasingIy
common is Ihe demographic sIudies,
198
as weII as in archaeoIogicaI
research
199
. Owing Io Iheir abiIiIy Io anaIyze spaIiaI componenIs,
C!S have been proven very useIuI in Ihe sIudy oI mapping hisIo
198 George William Skinner, Mark Henderson and Yuan Jianhua, Chinas Fertility Transition
through Regional Space: Using GIS and Census Data for a Spatial Analysis of Historical Demography,
Social Science History 24 (2000): 613-652.
199 Kathleen M. Allen, Stanton W. Green, and Ezra B.W. Zubrow, eds., Interpreting Space: GIS and
Archaeology (London: Taylor and Francis, 1990), 398.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
146
ricaI boundaries
200
, as weII as in migraIion anaIysis
201
or urban
Iorm sIudies. xampIes oI Ihe use oI C!S are aIso Iound in regionaI
economic anaIysis.
202

OIher IieIds where C!S are wideIy used are Ihe deveIopmenI
oI educaIion-orienIed eIecIronic aIIases, such as de CA! Pro|ecI
- IecIronic CuIIuraI AIIas !niIiaIive. !I is worIh menIioning oIher
iniIiaIives IhaI approach new Iopics such as Ihe poIenIiaI uses oI
C!S on Ihe hisIory oI prinI cuIIure.
203
Those are onIy a Iew exampIes
oI Ihe wide range oI appIicaIions oI C!S in hisIoricaI research.
8uiIding a spaIiaI daIabase impIies an absIracIion process in order
Io go Irom reaI worId compIexiIy Io a simpIiIied represenIaIion IhaI
is accessibIe Io Ihe compuIer's Ianguage; in Ihis case, Ihe reaIiIy
hisIorians Iry Io reconsIrucI based on daIa gaIhered Irom diverse
sources is reIaIed wiIh SeII-Organizing NeIworks oI Ihe irsI CIobaI
Age (1400-1800).
The decision Io creaIe a Ceographic !nIormaIion SysIem
(C!S) Io handIe such greaI voIume oI heIerogeneous inIormaIion
Irom Ihe DynCoopNeI pro|ecI (Dynamic CompIexiIy oI CooperaIion-
200 Onno Boonstra, Mapping the Netherlands, 1830-1994: Te use of NLKAART, in Coordinates
for Historical Maps, ed. Michael Goerke (Gttingen, Germany: Max-Planck Institute, 1994). 156-61. Loren
J. Siebert, Using GIS to Document, Visualize, and Interpret Tokyos Spatial History, Social Science History
24 (2000): 537-574; Ian Gregory and Humphrey R. Southall, Putting the past in its place: Te Great Britain
Historical GIS, in Innovations in GIS 5, ed. Steve Carver (London: Taylor & Francis, 1998), 210-221.
201 Ian Gregory, Longitudinal Analysis of Age- and Gender- Specifc Migration Patterns in
England and Wales: A GIS-Based Approach, Social Science History 24 (2000): 471-503. Steve Hochstadt,
Outdated geographical models of migration (paper presented at the Social Science History Association
conference, Fort Worth, TX, November 13, 1999); Moch, L. P., Overcoming inmobility: Source, method,
and ideology in the study of French migration (paper presented at the Social Science History Association
conference, Fort Worth, TX, November 13, 1999)
202 Richard G. Healey and Trem R. Stamp, Historical GIS as a Foundation for the Analysis of
Regional Economic Growth Teoretical, Methodological, and Practical Issues, Social Science History 24
(2000): 575-612.
203 Bertrum M. MacDonald, and Fiona, A. Black, Using GIS for spatial and temporal analysis in
print culture studies: some opportunities and challengues, Social Science History 24 (2000): 505-536.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
147
8ased, SeII-Organizing NeIworks in Ihe CIobaI irsI Age) was based
on Ihe daIa's spaIio-IemporaI componenI. ThaI is Io say, mosI oI Ihese
daIa can be georeIerenced Io a speciIic daIe and IocaIion, which
wiII IaciIiIaIe Io carry ouI compIex anaIyses wiIh Ihe C!S which
wiII heIp Io undersIand Ihe organizaIion oI Ihose neIworks, Iheir
operaIions and impacIs in a Iime period covering Iour cenIuries
oI hisIory, as weII as Io represenI Ihe resuIIs graphicaIIy Ihrough
IhemaIic carIography by making use oI Ihe C!S geovisuaIizaIion
poIenIiaIs. UndersIanding Ihe IuncIioning and Ihe mechanisms IhaI
Ied Io Ihe evoIuIion oI seII-organizing, compIex, sociaI neIworks in
Ihe irsI CIobaI Age necessariIy impIies an undersIanding oI Ihe
changes IhaI occurred in Ihese neIworks IhroughouI space as weII
as IhroughouI Iime. Hence Ihe need Io approach Ihese guesIions
Irom a spaIio-IemporaI concepIuaI Iramework IhaI can be
IransIaIed inIo a C!S IhaI is capabIe oI handIing boIh dimensions.
!n Ihis sense C!S, which have been mosIIy used so Iar in Ihe IieId oI
naIuraI sciences, are beginning Io greaIIy appeaI Io researchers in
Ihe IieId oI human and sociaI sciences owing Io Iheir poIenIiaI Ior
handIing greaI voIumes oI inIormaIion as weII as Iheir visuaIizaIion
and anaIysis.
204

The creaIion oI a C!S impIies a series oI phases,
such as concepIuaIizaIion, design, or impIemenIaIion. The
conccptuclizction phase is one oI Ihe mosI imporIanI since in iI
we deIine, among oIhers, Ihe ob|ecIs or enIiIies IhaI wiII make up
Ihe sysIem, Iheir aIIribuIes and Iheir reIaIionships; Ihey are aIso
hierarchicaIIy sIrucIured, codiIied when necessary and assigned a
way oI represenIaIion. !n C!S, a daIa modeI is Ihe absIracIion oI Ihe
204 J. B. Jack Owens, Toward a geographically-integrated, connected world history: employing
geographic information systems (GIS), History Compass 5 (2007): 2014-2040.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
148
reaI worId phenomena according Io a IormaIized, concepIuaI
scheme, which is usuaIIy impIemenIed using Ihe geographicaI
primiIives oI poinIs, Iines and poIygons or discreIized conIinuous
IieIds.
20S
ThereIore, a daIa modeI shouId deIine daIa Iype,
reIaIionships, operaIions and ruIes Io mainIain daIabase inIegriIy.
206

8esides, Ihe way daIa are accessed aIso has Io be deIined. The
IundamenIaI piIIar on which Io buiId a hisIoricaI C!S such as IhaI
in Ihe presenI pro|ecI is Io design a soIid, consisIenI concepIuaI
daIa modeI IhaI inIegraIes aII daIa and is scaIabIe and wiIh greaI
poIenIiaI, capabIe oI responding Io any guesIions and scienIiIic
ob|ecIives raised by Ihe end user. ThereIore, Ihe abiIiIy oI Ihe C!S
Io expIoiI Ihe inIormaIion sIored wiII depend on Ihe design oI Ihe
daIa modeI, hence Ihe imporIance oI devoIing Io Ihis phase as
much Iime as needed and oI working in a Ieam wiIh hisIorians and
speciaIisI Iechnicians IhaI are proIicienI in Ihis Iype oI IechnoIogy.
The IoIIowing phase is Ihe dcsign one, where Ihe anaIyIic
operaIions Io be carried ouI in Ihe sysIem are deIined and a
physicaI daIa modeI is creaIed which maIeriaIizes inIo a speciIic
daIabase and a daIa sIrucIure Ior Ihe spaIiaI daIa. !n Ihe case oI
DynCoopNeI, since Ihe issue is IhaI neIworks and Iheir dynamics
have Io be sIudied IhroughouI Iime, during Ihe pIanning sIage Ior
Ihe deveIopmenI oI Ihe C!S a vecIoriaI modeI has been chosen since
iI is more eIIicienI Ihan Ihe rasIer modeI. The vecIoriaI modeI is
based on spaIiaI ob|ecIs which are represenIed as poinIs (e.g.: porIs,
ciIies), Iines (e.g.: rouIes oI ships) or poIygons (e.g.: mercanIiIe
areas, counIries), on Iheir properIies and Ihe IopoIogicaI reIaIion-
205 Peter A. Burrough and Rachael A. McDonnel, Principles of Geographical Information Systems
(New York: Oxford University Press, 1998).
206 S. Nadi and and M. R. Delavar, Spatio-temporal modeling of dynamic phenomena in GIS, in
ScanGIS 2003 Proceeding (2003), 215-225.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
149
ships esIabIished among Ihem, whereas Ihe rasIer modeI pIaces
Ihe emphasis on IocaIizaIions IhemseIves, dividing Ihe space inIo
eguaI-size pixeIs Io which diverse aIphanumeric inIormaIion is
aIIached.
207
The vecIoriaI modeI is more adeguaIe Ior hisIoricaI
anaIyses since iI handIes evenIs beIIer Ihan Ihe rasIer modeI and
Ihus represenIs in a beIIer way human acIiviIy and Ihe causes
and conseguences oI Ihe changes in a speciIic process, eIc. The
vecIoriaI modeI aIso aIIows Ior a more deIaiIed granuIariIy when
approaching reaIiIy, such as, Ior insIance, in Ihe represenIaIion oI
Ihe rouIes oI Ihe ships' Irips in which a compIeIe anaIysis can be
carried ouI Iaking accounI oI Ihe porIs oI deparIure and arrivaI, or
make approaches Io each sIage oI Ihe |ourney down Io Ihe highesI
IeveI oI deIaiI by modiIying Ihe scaIe oI anaIysis, sIopping aI Ihe
porIs oI scaIe where evenIs, deaIs or reIaIions oI cooperaIion Iook
pIace.
208

The IasI phase is Ihe implcmcntction, Ihe sysIem creaIed,
which is a physicaI IransIaIion oI Ihe concepIuaI modeI, iI is perIecIIy
inIegraIed wiIh ArcSD, a IooI IhaI sIands haII way beIween a
daIa modeI and a geo-visuaIizaIion and space anaIysis IooI used in
Ihis pro|ecI, ArcC!S. The IechnicaI Ieam has chosen PosIgreSL Io
sIore daIa, a sophisIicaIed open source Ob|ecI-ReIaIionaI DaIabase
ManagemenI SysIem (D8MS). This sysIem aIIows, once Ihe modeI is
impIemenIed in a daIabase, an immediaIe connecIion by Ihe user
and Ihe possibiIiIy Io carry ouI sIudies and anaIysis on Ihe daIa seIs.
CerIain sIudies and anaIyses wiII be avaiIabIe direcIIy Irom Ihe
207 Donna J. Peuquet, Its about time: a conceptual framework for the representation of temporal
dynamics in Geographic Information Systems, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84
(1994): 441-461.
208 Mnica Wachowicz, Modelos Conceptuales de Base de Datos Espacio-Temporales, (paper
presented at I Seminario de Historia y SIG, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, Madrid, July 3,
2009).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
150
sysIem whereas oIhers wiII reguire cerIain preparaIion oI Ihe daIa
seIs based on auxiIiary IabIes and exIernaI IooIs. The maIeriaIizaIion
oI Ihe concepIuaI modeI in a spaIiaI daIabase and Ihe poIenIiaIiIy
oI Ihe C!S wiII aIIow, among oIher Ihings, Io modeI Ihe cooperaIion
reIaIionships among agenIs, Ihe commerciaI IIows, Ihe dynamics oI
Ihe commerciaI neIworks and Iheir degrees oI cohesion.
Q $,V5,+ ") 19, 6C&15"<1,0C"$&' 0"-,'6 )"$ @7;
&CC'54&15"%6
One oI Ihe earIy conIribuIions IhaI approaches Ihe
guesIion oI inIegraIed Iime in C!S is IhaI by CaiI Langran. This
auIhor conIribuIes exampIes oI appIicaIions where Ihe IemporaI
componenI becomes very imporIanI.
209
SpaIioIemporaI daIa is
spaIiaI daIa IhaI changes wiIh Iime, so spaIioIemporaI daIa is a
series oI spaIiaI daIa changes.
210
C!S have aI Iheir disposaI a greaI
deaI oI IooIs Ior anaIyzing greaI voIumes oI inIormaIion. Any
daIa IhaI is Io be inIegraIed inIo a C!S is made up oI Ihree inIer-
reIaIed componenIs - aIIribuIes, space and Iime.
211
The aIIribuIes
or properIies oI ob|ecIs answer guesIions Iike 'WhaI?', Ihe space
repIy Io 'Where?' and Ihe Iime Io 'When?' ones
212
(PeugueI, 1994).
However, mosI commerciaI soIIware does noI impIemenI IemporaI
209 Gail Langran, Time in Geographic Information Systems (London, Washington, DC: Taylor &
Francis, 1992).
210 Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Sharif, Shattri Mansor, and Ahmad
Rodzi Mahmud, A review on spatiotemporal data model for managing data movement in geographical
information systems (GIS), Jurnal Teknologi Makluma, 17 (2005): 91-100.
211 Ian N. Gregory, A Place in History: a Guide to using GIS in Historical Research (Oxford and
Oakville: Oxbow Books, 2003).
212 Donna J. Peuquet, Its about time: a conceptual framework for the representation of temporal
dynamics in Geographic Information Systems, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84
(1994): 441-461.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
151
IuncIionaIiIies; IradiIionaIIy, C!S have made approaches oI Ihe
modeIizaIion oI reaIiIy which are sIaIic since incIuding Ihe Iime
IacIor greaIIy adds Io Ihe sysIem's compIexiIy. The IemporaI
componenI cannoI be dissociaIed Irom Ihe spaIiaI one hence Ihe
need Ior Ihe Ceographic !nIormaIion TechnoIogies Io deveIop new
spaIio-IemporaI modeIs and soIIware IhaI are capabIe oI handIing,
expIoiIing and visuaIizing Ihose daIa IhaI comprise boIh componenIs
in a mosI eIIicienI manner. SeveraI auIhors aIready express Ihe
need Ior creaIing 'dynamics C!S' IhaI can represenI, anaIyze, and
modeI geographic dynamics reaIiIy is dynamic, noI sIaIic, and
which are capabIe oI handIing more compIex daIa seIs
213
as weII
as give answers Io spaIioIemporaI guesIions on ob|ecIs and Ihe
inIormaIion seIs IhaI deIine Ihese ob|ecIs, IhaI is, Iheir posiIion,
Iheir Iime and Iheir aIIribuIes. !n Ihis auIhor's opinion, a dynamics
C!S needs Io make Ihe connecIions across muIIipIe Ihemes and
scaIes Ihrough spaIioIemporaI inIegraIion. One oI Ihe mosI recenI
proposaIs aIong Ihese Iines is whaI PuIIar eI aI have denominaIed
Ihe dynamic C!S based on space Iime poinIs.
214

According Io D. ]. PeugueI a C!S IhaI inIegraIes Ihe IemporaI
componenI shouId be capabIe oI answering guesIions oI Ihree
diIIerenI Iypes - IhaI reIerring Io Ihe ob|ecI iIseII or spaIiaI enIiIy
(e.g. 'where did merchanI Mr. carry ouI his commerciaI acIiviIy
beIween 1737 and 178S?'); Ihose reIaIed Io Ihe changes in Ihe spaIiaI
disIribuIion oI Ihe ob|ecIs (such as 'aIong whaI rouIes did Ihe DuIch
IrigaIe 'I ]acobo' IraveI beIween 17S1 and 17SS?'); and IasIIy Ihose
reIerring Io Ihe changes in Ihe spaIiaI reIaIions among muIIipIe
213 May Yuan, Dynamics GIS: recognizing the dynamic nature of reality. In GIS best practices:
essays on geography and GIS, ArcNews 30 (2008), http://www.esri.com/library/bestpractices/essays-on-
geographygis.pdf.
214 Edward Pultar, Tomas J. Cova, May Yuan and Michael F. Goodchild, EDGIS: a dynamic GIS
based on space time points, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 24 (2010): 329-346.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
152
phenomena oI a greaIer compIexiIy (e.g. 'in Ihe !ndo-PaciIic sysIem,
whaI was Ihe reIaIionship beIween Ihe percepIion oI Ihe porIs
gained by Ihe uropeans Ihrough Ihe carIography aI Ihe Iime and
Ihe acIuaI commerciaI voIume aI Ihe porIs used by Ihe DuIch asI
!ndia Company - VOC in Ihe 17
Ih
cenIury?'.
The eIIorIs made Ior Ihe IasI Iwo years Io inIegraIe Ihe
IemporaI componenI in convenIionaI C!S have Iocussed on
addressing some oI Ihe IoIIowing aspecIs in order Io improve gueries:
Spctio-tcmporcl Dctc Modcl, qucry lcngucgcs, gcovisuclizction, or
indcxing. 8uI whaI have been Ihe reaI advances Ior Ihe IasI Iew
years?
Regarding spaIio-IemporaI daIa modeIs, Ihe ma|oriIy oI
Ihose proposed have been deveIoped Io soIve speciIic issues, hence
Ihe diIIicuIIy Io adapI Ihem Io address oIher issues. ConvenIionaI
C!S have mosIIy used reIaIionaI-daIabase managemenI sysIems Ior
daIa managemenI, buI Ihese have proven ineIIicienI when handIing
space and Iime simuIIaneousIy. One oI Ihe ma|or IimiIaIions Iies
in Ihe inabiIiIy Ior Ihe reIaIionaI modeI Io undersIand Iypes",
IhaI is, combinaIions oI simpIe daIa IhaI conIorm a singIe uniI,
known as ob|ecI. The deveIopmenI oI spaIio-IemporaI modeIs
invoIves incIuding more compIex ob|ecIs as weII as Ihe handIing
oI muIIi-dimensionaI concepIs. The way ahead has been, Ihen, Ihe
inIegraIion oI Iime in ReIaIionaI DD88 and Ihen in Ob|ecI ReIaIionaI
DD88, which are more eIIicienI in Ihis regard. Mohd Rahim eI aI
have carried ouI a review oI Ihe main modeIs and a comparaIive
anaIysis IhaI comprise nine oI Ihem:
21S
CN-STC!S, CeII TupIe 8ased
SpaIioIemporaI DaIa ModeI, Cube DaIa ModeI, AcIiviIy 8ased DaIa
215 Mohd Shafry Mohd Rahim, Abdul Rashid Mohamed Sharif, Shattri Mansor, and Ahmad
Rodzi Mahmud, A review on spatiotemporal data model for managing data movement in geographical
information systems (GIS), Jurnal Teknologi Maklumat, , 17 (2005): 91-100.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
153
ModeI, Ob|ecI 8ased DaIa ModeI, DaIa ModeI Ior Zoning,
Ob|ecI OrienIed SpaIiaI TemporaI DaIa ModeI, MuIIigranuIar
SpaIioIemporaI DaIa ModeI, and eaIure-8ased TemporaI DaIa
ModeI. A IurIher proposaI Ior a modeI has been made by PeugueI
and Duan which is based on Iime as iIs organizaIionaI basis, and
Ihereby inIends Io IaciIiIaIe anaIysis oI IemporaI reIaIionships and
paIIerns oI change Ihrough Iime; iIs name is venI-based SpaIio
TemporaI DaIa ModeI (STDM).
216

OIher research Ieams are making progress in Ihe sub|ecI
oI spctio-tcmporcl visuclizction IreaIing iI as a scienIiIic discipIine
in iIseII. The space-Iime cube, as propagaIed by HgersIrand and
oIhers,
217
is Ihe IirsI concepI. Andrienko eI aI
218
review some oI Ihe
approaches IhaI are mosI wideIy used in Ihe IieId oI geovisuaIizaIion
oI series oI spaIio-IemporaI daIa, and Andrienko and Andrienko
219

propose new deveIopmenIs IhaI are a combinaIion oI IieIds such as
carIography or sIaIisIics - Ihe so-caIIed timc maps, which represenI
Ihe vaIues oI a speciIic aIIribuIe aI a precise momenI buI which
have conIroIs IhaI enabIe Ihe user Io modiIy Ihe Iime Iine and move
Io Ihe desired momenI in Iime. The evoIuIion is visuaIized in a mcp
cnimction, in map series IhaI visuaIize in a common Iramework
various Iheme maps in diIIerenI Iime spoIs in order Io compare
Ihem visuaIIy, or in vcluc jlow mcps, which represenI Ihe evoIuIion
216 Donna J. Peuquet and Niu Duan, An event-based spatiotemporal data model (ESTDM) for
temporal analysis of geographical data, International Journal of Geographical Information Science 9 (1995):
7-24.
217 Torsten Hgerstrand, What about people in Regional Science?, Papers of the Regional Science
Association 14 (1970): 7-21.
218 Natalia Andrienko, Gennady Andrienko and Peter Gatalsky, Exploratory spatio-temporal
visualization: an analytical review, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 14 (2003): 503-541.
219 Natalia Andrienko and Gennady Andrienko, Interactive visual tools to explore spatio-
temporal variation, in Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces (Gallipoli, Italy:
ACM, 2004).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
154
oI a speciIic aIIribuIe IhroughouI Iime in speciIic IocaIions Ihrough
Ihe incIusion oI charIs in Ihose IocaIions. These are exampIes oI
approaches.
When an ob|ecI's evoIuIion is sIudied IhroughouI Iime, iIs
changes can be in Ierms oI gcomctry - such as Ihe modiIicaIion oI a
region's adminisIraIive IimiIs - which in Iurns modiIies Ihe ob|ecI's
IopoIogicaI reIaIion Io iIs neighbours; iI can change in Ierms oI
posiIion - when, Ior insIance, an agenI moves IocaIions or a ship
IraveIs aIong a rouIe; or iI can change in Ierms oI clphcnumcric
cttrihutcs - e.g. Ihe change oI an agenI's adminisIraIive IuncIions
IhroughouI Iime, or oI his/her IiIIes oI nobiIiIy or neighbourhood
220
.
On oIher occasions, changes impIy modiIying Ihe combinaIions
oI Ihose basic IypoIogies, increasing Ihe modeI's compIexiIy, iIs
anaIysis and represenIaIion, because aII Ihese changes have Io
be sIored in Ihe spaIio-IemporaI daIabase. SomeIimes changes
are reIerred Io as cvcnts. 8oIh space and Iime are conIinuous
variabIes, buI in order Io be sIudied Ihey musI be simpIiIied and
divided inIo discreIe uniIs Ior ease oI anaIysis; ouI oI Ihis necessiIy
arise Ihe concepIs oI scaIe and resoIuIion.
221
The spaIiaI side has
been resoIved carIographicaIIy, and in Ihe case oI Ihe IemporaI
componenI iI is usuaIIy caIIed granuIariIy as iI reIers Io Ihe degree
oI deIaiI wiIh which we approach daIa, and iI wiII aIways depend
on Ihe daIa coIIecIed and Ihe purpose oI Ihe invesIigaIion.
8y using a IemporaI granuIariIy deIined on a monIh-year
scaIe and a spaIiaI granuIariIy deIined in kilomctrcs we wiII be abIe
220 Agnar Renolen, Temporal maps and temporal geographical information systems Review of
Research, Te Norwegian Institute of Technology, 1997.
221 Donna J. Peuquet, Its about time: a conceptual framework for the representation of temporal
dynamics in Geographic Information Systems, Annals of the Association of American Geographers 84
(1994): 441-461.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
155
Io observe and represenI daIa on a reIerence carIographic base
Ihrough a spaIio-IemporaI window deIined by Ihe user. Through
Ihis window a visuaIizaIion wiII be possibIe oI Ihe mariIime rouIes
passing Ihrough a porI in a cerIain momenI in Iime as weII as Ihe
goods IransporIed or Ihe roIes pIayed by Ihe diIIerenI agenIs on a
Irip. !n order Io IaciIiIaIe Ihis Iype oI gueries Ihe modeI reIies on a
geographicaI-poinI IabIe IhaI sIores Ihe space coordinaIes and some
IemporaI aIIribuIes on Ihe IabIes oI Ihe modeI's main enIiIies: sIage,
ship, agenI, cooperaIion which provide Ihe IemporaI coordinaIe.
!n DynCoopNeI Ihere are a number oI observaIions reIaIed Io Ihe
dynamics oI an ob|ecI (e.g. ship, agenI) or ob|ecI group (e.g. IIeeI,
company) IhroughouI Iime which show Iheir gcospcticl cctivity'.
222

These are compIex evenIs and can be cIassed as sIaIionary when
Ihe ob|ecI does noI change iIs posiIion in Iime buI does change some
oI iIs sIaIes or aIIribuIes (e.g. an agenI carries ouI severaI reIaIions
oI commerciaI cooperaIion wiIh anoIher agenI wiIhouI modiIying
Ihe Iown where Ihey carry ouI Iheir Irading acIiviIy); or as dynamic
or mobiIe when Ihe ob|ecI modiIies iIs posiIion in Iime as weII as
perhaps iIs sIaIe (e.g. a ship on a rouIe making sIopovers where
commerciaI exchanges are made changes iIs cargo oI goods). The
record oI aII Ihe IocaIions IhaI an ob|ecI has occupied over a period
oI Iime is known as gcospcticl lijclinc.
223
The ob|ecIs' movemenI
can be modeIIed in various ways depending on Ihe chosen
granuIariIy
224
. !n Ihis sense, Ihe modeI proposed Ior inIegraIing Ihe
222 May Yuan, Toward Knowledge Discovery about Geographic Dynamics in Spatiotemporal
Databases, in Geographic Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery eds. Harvey J. Miller and Jiawei Han, 2 ed.
(CRC Press, 2009).
223 Mark, D., Egenhofer, M., Bian, L., Hornsby, K., Rogerson, P. and Vena, J., Spatio-temporal
GIS analysis for environmental health using geospatial lifelines (paper presented at the 2nd International
Workshop on Geography and Medicine, GEOMED99, Paris,France, 1999).
224 Kathleen Hornsby and M.J. Egenhofer, Modeling moving objects over multiple granularities,
Annals of Mathematics and Artifcial Intelligence 36 (2002): 177-194.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
156
pro|ecI's daIabases aIIows us Io Iaunch gueries abouI Ihe gcospcticl
IiIeIine oI each agenI, commerciaI company, ship, eIc. ach one oI
Ihese ob|ecIs has an idenIiIier IhaI deIines iI univocaIIy during iIs
whoIe IiIe.

K&1& 6"#$4,6
ThereIore Ihe C!S wiII inIegraIe, based on daIa Irom
various researchers, Ihree spaces cIearIy diIIerenIiaIed by Iheir
geographicaI IocaIizaIion and by Iheir behaviour as commerciaI
neIworks: Ihe Spanish AIIanIic oI Ihe !ndies Trade and iIs Iinks
wiIh oIher mercanIiIe areas (DynCoopNeI Crespo DaIabase), Ihe
!ndo-PaciIic Trade SysIem (DynCoopNeI Picazo DaIabase), and Ihe
IinanciaI sysIem oI Ihe Hispanic Monarchy (DynCoopNeI AIonso
DaIabase); each one pIaced in speciIic Iime Irames. AII gaIhered
daIa are Iinked Io a spaIiaI IocaIion as much as Io a speciIic momenI
in Iime.
The inIegraIion oI independenI hisIoricaI daIa seIs in order
Io make gIobaI anaIyses IhaI provide new knowIedge in reIaIion Io
Irade in such a vasI period oI Iime - 1S
Ih
Io 18
Ih
cenIuries - has posed
a number oI IechnicaI and concepIuaI probIems. irsIIy, when Ihe
daIa were originaIIy coIIecIed Ihere was no inIenIion oI inIegraIing
Ihem inIo a C!S, which means IhaI no geographic coordinaIe was
coIIecIed oI Ihe enIiIies capabIe oI being georeIerenced - porIs, ciIies,
sIopovers, eIc. This Iask has been underIaken aI a IaIer sIage. As
Iar as Ihe IemporaI componenI is concerned, in hisIoricaI research
Ihere exisIs Ihe concepI oI IemporaI indeIerminacy Ior Ihe case
oI an evenI Ihan cannoI be assigned Io a speciIic momenI in Iime.
On oIher occasions IemporaI reIerences in source documenIs are
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
157
expressed in naIuraI Ianguage and are IhereIore uninIeIIigibIe Io
compuIers. A IurIher probIem is Ihe Iair degree oI uncerIainIy IhaI
hisIoricaI sources have where inIormaIion gaps make iI diIIicuII
Ior Ihe IaIer anaIysis oI daIa. !I Ihere is one Ihing IhaI deIines aII
Ihree daIabases IhaI have been inIegraIed in Ihe proposed modeI,
IhaI is Iheir high degree oI heIerogeneiIy; each one was compiIed
by hisIorians wiIh a speciIic, independenI scienIiIic aim and by
using diIIerenI !T IooIs (IexI documenIs, spreadsheeIs, daIabase
managemenI sysIems, eIc.). This has Ied Io a greaI eIIorI being
made Io deveIop a singIe modeI IhaI is common Io aII oI Ihe originaI
DD88, as weII as Io deveIop a pIaIIorm (DynCoopNeI DaIa Provider)
Ihrough which hisIorians are abIe Io migraIe Iheir respecIive daIa
Irom Iheir own sysIems Io Ihis new, proposed one (ig 1).
B/5 >C Craphic inIerIace oI Ihe DynCoopNeI DaIa Provider appIicaIion. !I
IaciIiIaIes daIa migraIion Irom Iheir originaI IormaI Io Ihe new sysIem's
singIe daIa modeI.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
158
Here IoIIows a deIaiIed descripIion oI Ihe conIenIs and Ihe
originaI compiIaIion process oI one oI Ihe Ihree DD88 inIegraIed so
Iar in Ihe modeI - DynCoopNeI Crespo DaIabase, wiIh inIormaIion
on Ihe AIIanIic and iIs connecIion wiIh oIher areas, such as Ihe
Caribbean.
<4' +)#"/(4 !6,#"6/2 *9 64' K"0/'( <&#0' -#6#=#('
V-R"%**)H'6 %&'()*W

This daIabase conIains inIormaIion on commerciaI
individuaIs, Iheir reIaIions oI commerciaI cooperaIion, and
ships, where mosI oI Ihis cooperaIion Iook pIace wiIhin a speciIic
chronoIogicaI Iramework (1648-1778) and a wide geographicaI
Iramework (e.g. a ship couId seI saiI Irom CoIhenburg and sIop in
Cadiz on her way Io ManiIa).
The choice oI sources used Ior compiIing Ihe massive
amounI oI inIormaIion sIored in Ihis daIabase has been cenIraI Io
Ihe process. As we are aware IhaI noI aII inIormaIion avaiIabIe in Ihe
sources can be coIIecIed, especiaIIy IhaI on archivaI sources, onIy
Ihe inIormaIion reIevanI Io Ihis invesIigaIion
22S
has been chosen
as a greaIer amounI oI inIormaIion does noI necessariIy guaranIee
Ihe success oI Ihe research.
226
A greaI varieIy oI documenIs have
been used aIIhough Ihey aII have in common Iheir reIerence Io
commerciaI agenIs - aII documenIs have been consuIIed provided
IhaI Ihere is a reIerence Io an agenI parIicipaIing in a commerciaI
acIiviIy or cooperaIion, be iI IegaI or noI. SpeciaIized works on
merchanIs have been used as weII as more generaI works, IogeIher
225 Francisco Fernndez, La Historia Moderna y Nuevas Tecnologas de la Informacin y las
Comunicaciones, Cuadernos de Historia Econmica 24 (2000): 11-31.
226 Jean Pierre Dedieu, Un instrumento para la historia social: la base de datos Ozanam,
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna 24 (2000): 185-204.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
159
wiIh originaI documenIs daIing back Io Ihe 16Ih, 17
Ih
and 18
Ih

cenIuries, such as regisIers oI ouIbound and inbound Irips oI IIeeIs,
IisIs oI passengers Io Ihe !ndies, regisIries oI merchanIs, seaIaring
dicIionaries, eIc. !n Ihe process oI source seIecIion speciaIisI auIhors
were consuIIed
227
as weII as Ihe NACOM bibIiographic reposiIory,
which is kepI consIanIIy up-Io-daIe.
The IirsI premise Ior seIecIing sources was primariIy IhaI
Ihey conIained daIa on reIaIionships among merchanI communiIies,
and secondIy IhaI Ihey IeaIured biographic as weII as proIessionaI
inIormaIion on Ihe agenIs IhaI Iormed parI oI Ihose communiIies
or were somehow reIaIed Io Ihem. The same agenIs can appear on
diIIerenI sources, which make iI compIex Io idenIiIy Ihem as Ihey
can be easiIy misIaken Ior someone eIse who bears simiIar IirsI or
IamiIy names. This diIIicuIIy couId Iead Io daIa dupIiciIy or even
Io Ihe inpuI oI conIradicIory inIormaIion (e.g. one agenI couId be
caIIed Whitc in AmsIerdam and have his name changed Io lcnco -
Spanish Ior WhiIe - when seIIIed in Cadiz. OIher hisIoricaI daIabases
have aIso been consuIIed which deaI wiIh commerce-reIaIed Iopics,
such as 'The Trans-AIIanIic SIave Trade DaIabase'
228
, 'The SoundIoII
RegisIres'
229
, Ihe CoIegio San TeImo daIabase in SeviIIa
230
, and Ihe
'Van ]ohannson daIabase Ior 1784-1800'
231
; urIher, unpubIished
ones have aIso been consuIIed as weII as oIhers compiIed by our
conIribuIors. They aII deaI wiIh Irade, Irips and agenIs, aIIhough
227 Enrique Chvarri and Jess Sobrn, Base de datos histrica a texto completo Revista General
de Informacin y Documentacin 4 (1994): 165-186.
228 Vid. Ut supra chapter 3.
229 http://www.soundtoll.nl
230 Marta Garca Garraln, Taller de Mareantes: El Real Colegio Seminario de San Telmo de Sevilla
(1681-1847), 2 vols., Sevilla, 2007.
231 Cf. Werner Scheltjens, Te volume of Dutch Baltic shipping at the end of the eighteenth century:
a new estimation based on the Danish Sound Toll Registers, http://www.rug.nl/staf/w.f.y.scheltjens/
SCHELTJENS_ICHS_paper.pdf
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
160
Ihey are aII pecuIiar in Iheir own way. CIassic works
232/233
conIaining
IisIs oI vesseIs and agenIs have been used Ioo. OriginaI daIa were
sIored in an Access daIabase. !Is main sIrucIure hinges on Ihe
primary IabIe, named AGNTS, where Ihe individuaIs', or agenIs',
biographic daIa are sIored Iaking inIo accounI Ihe various worIds
Ihey beIong Io, be Ihem sociaI, economic, eIc, as expounded by ]ean
Pierre Dedieu
234

A sIudy and an individuaI cIassiIicaIion have been done so
IhaI a IaIer undersIanding oI Ihe coIIecIiviIy can be gained based
on Ihe sum IoIaI oI individuaIs since, as can be gaIhered Irom Ihe
daIabase, such individuaIs were reIaIed Io each oIher, as raIiIied
by 8ernd Hausberguer
23S
and ]ean Pierre Dedieu
236
- even Ihough
one merchanI is seIIIed in Veracruz and anoIher in AnIwerp,
Ihe neIworks bring Ihem IogeIher under communicaIion, which
means IhaI Ihis sIudy arises Irom Prosopography. !n reIaIion Io
agenIs, whaI is new abouI Ihis earIy daIabase is IhaI Ihe research
conducIed did noI IimiI iIseII Io Ihe merchanI proIession buI Iried
Io encompass every reIevanI piece oI daIa reIaIed Io every agenI
invoIved in cooperaIion, such as represenIaIives, corsairs, piraIes,
capiIaIisI parIners, agenIs, consignees and brokers, eIc. AII Ihese
are agenIs parIicipaIing in cooperaIion and who are parI oI a
gIobaI neIwork invoIved in Irade, conIraband, IooIing or any oIher
cooperaIion or commerciaI acIiviIy Iound in Ihe sources.
232 Pierre Chaunu, Seville et lAtlantique, 1504-1650, (Paris: Librairie Armand Colin, 1955).
233 Michel Morineau, Incroyables gazettes et fabuleux mtaux. Les retours des trsors amricains
daprs les gazettes hollandaise, (Paris: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
234 Jean Pierre Dedieu, Les grandes bases de donnes: une nouvelle approche delhistoire sociale.
Le Systeme Fichoz, Revista da faculdade de Letras HISTORIA, 5. Serie III (2004): 101-114.
235 Bernd Hausberger, La conquista del empleo pblico en la Nueva Espaa. El comerciante
gaditano Toms Ruiz de Apodaca y sus amigos, siglo XVIII Historia Mexicana 56 (2007): 725-778.
236 Jean Pierre Dedieu, Un instrumento para la historia social: la base de datos Ozanam,
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna 24 (2000): 185-204.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
161
A second IabIe named CDDPRAC|DNS was seI up where
aII ways oI possibIe commerciaI reIaIionships beIween agenIs
were inpuI, such as business, Company, SocieIy, eIc. WhaI is new
abouI Ihis daIabase is IhaI every Iype oI goods exchange - wheIher
IegaI or oIherwise and in sIaves, meIaIs or oIher commodiIies or
merchandise - where Iwo or more agenIs are invoIved has been
incIuded in Ihe IabIe. The aim is Io be abIe Io Irack any Iypes oI
commerciaI neIworks, hence Ihe IacI IhaI agenIs are noI onIy
individuaIs buI aIso socieIies, insIiIuIions, companies eIc.
A IurIher IabIe caIIed ACC|DNS was creaIed where aII
acIions and acIiviIies - Iending, represenIaIion, eIc - IhaI occurred
wiIhin Ihe Iramework oI any reIaIions oI cooperaIion were recorded
when Ihe hisIoric source provided deIaiIs on Ihem. This IabIe was
Iinked Io a IurIher weighIy one, IhaI oI NAV|DS -vesseIs. 8y means
oI using Ihe inIormaIion reIaIed Io every ship based on Ihe various
Irips in which Ihe ship was invoIved, IogeIher wiIh Ihe sIudy oI Ihe
reIaIionships among Ihe various agenIs IhaI parIicipaIed in Ihose
Irips, a number oI cooperaIive neIworks have been idenIiIied.
237

Many oI Ihe originaI Access daIabase's remaining IabIes
sIore IypoIogies such as pIaces, proIessions, eIc. Choosing Ihe
Iour aIoremenIioned IabIes as primary - AGNT, CDDPRAT|DN,
ACT|DN cnd VSSL - enabIes us Io anaIyze Ihe various reIaIions
among agenIs aI commerciaI, proIessionaI and inIerpersonaI
IeveIs, pIacing greaI emphasis on Iheir geographic IocaIion, Iheir
chronoIogic momenI and Iheir degree oI kinship, Ihus deIining
Ihe cooperaIion neIworks Iormed by Ihose agenIs - such as Ihe
imporIance as a merchanI oI NichoIas Magens, or Ihe reIevance
237 Jeroen van der Vliet, Watching the Ships Sail Out. Linking Shipping Data from Amsterdam
and the Baltic (paper presented at the Sound Toll Registers, First proof, Groningen, June 10-11, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
162
oI such IamiIies as Ihe Roos or Ihe Amsicks whose inIIuence couId
span Irom Iche Io AIicanIe (Iwo Iowns very cIose IogeIher) or Irom
Cadiz Io ManiIa via Mexico-TenochIiIIan.
A cruciaI aspecI oI Ihe daIa used is Iheir IemporaI
componenI. !n Ihe ma|oriIy oI cases Iwo diIIerenI IieIds were
aIIocaIed, one in daIa IormaI and a second, IexI-IormaI, one, Ior when
Ihe source did noI provide a precise daIe or Ihis was inconcIusive,
as indicaIed by ]ean Pierre Dedieu.
238
The same siIuaIion exisIs
as Iar as Ihe spaIiaI componenI is concerned; Iwo IieIds were seI
up, one Io sIore Ihe name oI Ihe pIace and a second one Ior any
reIevanI remarks, such as 'IransiIory sIay in Cadiz', or when we
know Ihe oId name oI Ihe pIace buI noI Ihe currenI one. However,
in Ihe originaI daIabase geographic coordinaIes - IongiIude and
IaIiIude - were never recorded. !n reIaIion Io Ihis componenI, Ihe
geographic range oI Ihis pro|ecI is someIhing new, originaI. DespiIe
being based on Ihe AIIanIic area, once Ihe sources were consuIIed
- speciaIIy Ihose reIerring Io Irips and IamiIy and commerciaI
reIaIionships, Ihe neIworks spread ouI inIo Ihe MediIerranean, Ihe
PaciIic and even Ihe !ndian Ocean - Ihis is parIicuIarIy Irue when
Ihe agenIs under sIudy are piraIes. The imporIance oI Ihis is IhaI
despiIe sIarIing Irom one pre-deIined spaIiaI range, Ihere has been
no resIricIions in Ierms oI Ihe area covered, Ihus highIighIing Ihe
imporIance oI Ihe cooperaIive neIworks IhaI deveIoped in Ihe era
under sIudy as weII as Ihe high degree oI gIobaIizaIion aIIained.
The IieId noIes and sources can be Iound in every IabIe so
IhaI every record is Iurnished wiIh iIs own remarks and source
ciIaIion. ven in Ihe IabIes IhaI simpIy conIain IypoIogies Ihere
238 Jean Pierre Dedieu, Un instrumento para la historia social: la base de datos Ozanam,
Cuadernos de Historia Moderna 24 (2000): 185-204.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
163
are IieIds Ior noIes and deIiniIions Ior Ihose obsoIeIe, disused or
simpIy unknown Ierms, in order Io assisI undersIanding in Ihe Iace
oI doubI and uncerIainIy.
K"0*:P#2/9/2 <&#0' +R(6'; -#6#=#(' V-R"%**)H'6
P/2#X*W
This daIabase sIores an enormous amounI oI inIormaIion
reIaIed Io commerciaI neIworks, porIs and mariIime rouIes in
Ihe !ndo-PaciIic area during Ihe irsI CIobaI ra (1400-1800).
Trade reIaIions oI Ihe various porIs oI Ihe MediIerranean Io Ihe
!ndian Ocean during Ihe IaIe MiddIe Ages show IhaI Irom 1400 we
can speak oI a Irue IirsI gIobaI age. The economies oI boIh areas
were compIeIeIy inIerIinked, cooperaIing wiIh one anoIher wiIh a
common purpose: Ihe increase in business and Ihe spreading oI
commerciaI neIworks Io suppIy markeIs.
rom Ihe daIa inIegraIed in Ihe C!S Ihe sysIem wiII anaIyze
Ihe commerciaI deveIopmenI oI Ihe PhiIippines, iIs main porIs
suppIying Ihe various IoreIands" IhaI were connecIed Io ManiIa,
according Io IhaI cIassic deIiniIion oI Weigend.
239
We wiII aIso sIudy
whaI was sIrucIured as hard mercanIiIism oI Ihe meIropoIiIan
auIhoriIies oI Ihe Hispanic Monarchy, Ihe coercion IhaI was
perIormed on Ihe merchanIs and residenIs in ManiIa and Ihe
reason Ior iI. We wiII presenI in deIaiI Ihe connecIions wiIh oIher
areas in Ihe PhiIippines, Ihe economic dynamics IhaI IoIIowed
Irade, iIs evoIuIion and, indeed, Ihe changes suIIered. Some oI Ihe
daIa sIored in Ihe daIabase are: boaIs and skippers, naIionaIiIy oI
239 Guido G. Weigend, Some elements in the study of port geography, Geographical Review 48
(1958): 185-200.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
164
Ihe porI oI origin, goods, Iype oI producIs (siIk, iron...), Ihe vaIue
oI Ihe Ioad, cooperaIion and coIIaboraIion aboard Ihe ship, and so
on.
240

The ob|ecIives pursued Ihrough Ihe inIegraIion oI Ihis
daIabase in DynCoopNeI C!S are as IoIIows.
CreaIe a daIabase oI porIs.
Make a daIabase oI Ihe PhiIippine Irade reIaIions wiIh Ihe
porIs in Ihe !ndian and PaciIic Oceans.
Linking Ihe porIs Io Iheir respecIive hisIoricaI carIography,
whenever possibIe.
xpIore Ihe visibIe coIIaboraIion and cooperaIion (IegaI
Irade) and Ihe invisibIe one (iIIegaI Irade).
AnaIyze Ihe uropeans' percepIion oI disIanI markeIs and
Iheir main porIs, comparing Ihe porIs depicIed on Ihe hisIoricaI
maps wiIh Ihe ships recorded in Ihe daIabase reIaIed wiIh Ihe !C
(asI !ndia Company) and Ihe VOC (DuIch asI !ndia Company).
AnaIyze Ihe imporIance oI a speciIic porI - ManiIa -
beIween 1600 and 1700: producIs, Iraders, vaIues, and porIs oI
Irade.
AnaIyze Ihe episIoIary reIaIions beIween Ihe agenIs Irom
Ihe !C and Ihe VOC in order Io undersIand how Ihe inIormaIion
IIow was devised and evoIved among agenIs seIIIed in Asia, as
weII as how Ihe various neIworks were sIrucIured and Ihe IeveI
oI acIiviIy susIained beIween Ihe various members oI Ihe neIwork
and wiIh Ihe companies' cenIraI oIIices.
240 Cf. Chapter 8 of this book.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
165
B/"#"2/#, +R(6'; *9 64' Y/()#"/2 T*"#&24R -#6#=#('
V-R"%**)H'6 !,*"(*W
This daIabase conIains inIormaIion reIaIed Io power and
Ihe Iax sysIem in Modern-Age Spain - 16
Ih
cenIury. !I was originaIIy
buiII in Access IormaI. !I is basicaIIy a daIabase wiIh exIensive
inIormaIion on high-rank peopIe IhaI had deaIings wiIh Ihe
Ireasury, such as IiscaI oIIicers, coIIecIors, Ienders, IacIors, eIc. The
geographic IocaIion assigned Io Ihese agenIs - essenIiaI Ior Iheir
C!S incIusion - was deIermined by Ihe pIaces Ihey Iived in buI aIso
by Ihe pIaces in which Ihey carried ouI Iheir proIessions.
241

AI Ihe Iime oI coIIecIing inIormaIion greaI imporIance was
given Io Ihe sIoring oI personaI reIaIionships or Iinks among aII
Ihese agenIs as weII as Iheir commerciaI deaIings; among oIher
Ihings, Ihe kinds oI Iaxes Ihey Ievied - saIes Iax, cusIoms duIies,
IoIIs, IiIhe, eIc - or Ihe reIaIionship's IypoIogy - debIor, Iinancing
parIner, crediIor, owner, eIc. ach agenI's hisIoricaI proIessionaI
record IhroughouI Iime and space has been sIored - hence Ihe
combined spaIio-IemporaI componenI; and, among oIhers, IiIIes oI
nobiIiIy, proIessions underIaken, oIIiciaI posIs heId, adminisIraIive
posiIions heId, Iheir sIaIes (and Iheir sIaIes' source, such as purchase,
inheriIance, donaIion, eIc.) have aIso been speciIied. To sum up,
in Ihis daIabase Ihe sIudy oI Ihe individuaIs and Iheir reIaIions
are on Ihe Ioreground. And in order Io exIensiveIy anaIyze such
compIex sociaI neIworks, a greaI deaI oI daIa has been sIored on Ihe
episIoIary reIaIionships among Ihe various agenIs and insIiIuIions
aI Ihe Iime - e.g. Ihe RoyaI CounciI oI CasIiIe, Ihe Contcdurc Mcyor
241 Cf. Chapter 7.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
166
dc Hccicndc (Treasury's AccounIancy Agency), eIc. The IoIIowing are
Ihree oI Ihe scienIiIic ob|ecIives pursued wiIh Ihe impIemenIaIion
oI Ihis hisIoric C!S.
CreaIion oI a compIeIe regisIry oI Ihe evoIuIion oI Ihe
agenIs' income IhroughouI Iime.
AnaIysis and visuaI represenIaIion oI cooperaIive
inIeracIions beIween agenIs as weII as Irade IIows and neIwork
dynamics.
AnaIysis oI Ihe reIaIion beIween Ihe commerciaI acIiviIies
oI Ihe IinanciaI sysIem in Ihe Hispanic Crown in Ihe 16
Ih
cenIury,
space - a wide geographic range - and Iime.
A"%4,C1#&' 0"-,' )"$ 6C&15&' &%- 1,0C"$&' 9561"$54&'
-&1&J -,65.% &%- 50C',0,%1&15"%
The approach Irom which Ihe DynCoopNeI sysIem has been
designed is IhaI oI SoIIware ngineering, which is an !T discipIine
IhaI oIIers meIhodoIogies and Iechnigues Ior deveIoping and
mainIaining high guaIiIy soIIware.
The modeI uIiIized Ior deveIoping Ihe needed soIIware is Ihe
spiraI IiIecycIe one. This modeI represenIs Ihe various deveIopmenI
sIages in cycIes. ach cycIe means a miIesIone wiIhin Ihe pro|ecI; Ior
insIance, Ihe innermosI cycIe may reIer Io Ihe sysIems' IeasibiIiIy,
Ihe IoIIowing cycIe ouI wouId be Ihe deIiniIion oI reguiremenIs,
nexI wouId be Ihe designing oI Ihe sysIem, eIc. ach cycIe is divided
inIo Iour secIors or phases.
242

DeIiniIion oI main ob|ecIives.
242 Ian Sommerville, Ingeniera del sofware (Pearson Educacin, 2005).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
167
Risk assessmenI and reducIion Ihrough careIuI pIanning.
DeveIopmenI and vaIidaIion: once risks are indenIiIied
Ihe appropriaIe modeI is IoIIowed Ior Ihe deveIopmenI oI Ihe
sysIem.
PIanning: Ihe pro|ecI is reviewed again and a decision is
made Io move on Io Ihe IoIIowing sIage.
The design oI Ihe modeI has been done by means oI
successive approaches, by Iechnicians and hisIorians working in
cIose coIIaboraIion, wiIh Ihe ob|ecIive oI deIining Ihe scienIiIic
necessiIies oI Ihe IaIIer so Ihey can be IransIerred Io Ihe concepIuaI
modeI. Periodic inIerviews and working sessions have been heId
in order Io ouIIine Ihe IuncIionaI reguiremenIs, IhaI is, Ihe IisI oI
operaIions Ihe sysIem shouId handIe as weII as Ihe guesIions iI
shouId answer, as Iar as possibIe. WiIh Ihis Ieedback a proIoIype
has been designed IhaI wiII grow and be modiIied as meeIings
progress. Once a sIabIe modeI has been achieved, IhaI is Io say IhaI
Ihere wiII be no Ionger new IuncIionaI reguiremenIs, a proIoIype
has been creaIed IhaI has Io be vaIidaIed by Ihe user in order Io
assess iI Ihe modeI reaIIy IuIIiIs Ihe iniIiaI IuncIionaI reguiremenIs.
WiIhin Ihe IypoIogies oI daIa modeIs we have chosen Ior
Ihis pro|ecI one oI Ihe mosI popuIar modeIs - Ihe so-caIIed cntity-
rclctionship modcl (RM)
243
. !I is a concepIuaI daIa modeI - aIso
caIIed semanIic modeI - used Ior represenIing daIa sIrucIures
wiIhin a sysIem. !I is Ihus named because iI dispIays daIa in Ierms
oI enIiIies and reIaIions deIined by Ihose daIa.
!n order Io arrive aI an RM severaI previous sIages musI
be compIeIed.
243 Peter-Pin Chen, Te Entity-Relationship Model: Toward a Unifed View of Data ACM
Transactions on Database Systems 1 (1976): 9-36.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
168
!denIiIy Ihe sysIem's prereguisiIes Ihrough Ihe so-caIIed
usc ccscs.
uIIiI Ihe use cases IhaI have been idenIiIied by describing
Ihe cIasses or enIiIies IhaI supporI Ihose cases; such enIiIies can be
control, cntity or intcrjccc, depending on Iheir semanIic purpose
wiIhin Ihe sysIem.
LasIIy, Ihe daIa modeI is obIained by IoIIowing cerIain
IransIormaIion ruIes - mctric J.
DaIa are Ied inIo Ihe C!S; buI in order Io gain access Io Ihose
daIe Ihey have Io be modeIIed inIo a speciIic physicaI sIrucIure
Ihrough an RM. ThereIore Ihe IuIure operaIion oI Ihe C!S wiII be
direcIIy Iinked Io Ihe guaIiIy oI Ihe sysIem's daIa modeI previousIy
designed, hence Ihe cruciaI signiIicance oI an eIIicienI design.
One oI Ihe design sIages oI Ihe RM is Ihe normaIizing oI
Ihe daIabase, which consisIs in appIying a series oI ruIes in order
Io ensure daIa inIegriIy Ihrough Ihe prevenIion oI daIa redundancy
and/or dupIiciIy. !n DynCoopNeI daIa modeI daIa normaIizaIion
compIies wiIh 8oyce-Codd NormaI orm - 8CN
244
in order Io reach
Ihorough conIroI over daIa and Ihus ensure Ihe sysIem's guaIiIy
and oI Ihe end resuII.
The reIerenIiaI inIegriIy has aIso been designed Io ensure
IhaI Ihe reIaIionships are saIe in Ihe evenI oI deIeIions or aIIeraIions
on Ihe daIabase as Ihese can aIIecI Ihe IogicaI inIegriIy oI Ihe modeI.
!n Ihis sense, Ihe modeI has been provided wiIh cIassiIicaIion IabIes,
which hoId IirsI and IasI names, ship IypoIogies, merchandise Iypes,
eIc. This kind oI IabIes aIIow Ihe user Io veriIy wheIher Ihe record
he/she is Irying Io inserI is uneguivocaIIy in Ihe daIabase or noI,
244 Cristopher J. Date, An Introduction to Database Systems (Addison-Wesley, 2004).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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169
Ihus aIIowing Ihe deIecIion and prevenIion oI an incoherence (Ior
exampIe Hannah" is diIIerenI Irom hannah").

<4' ;*0',Z( ()#6/*:6';)*&#, 0/;'"(/*"
As previousIy expIained, Ihe modeI IhaI has been deveIoped
comprises boIh Ihe spaIiaI and Ihe IemporaI componenIs. The
Iormer is IocaIed in Ihe IabIe named geographic IocaIion, which IabIe
provides, under PostG|S, Ihe basis Ior geo-reIerencing geographic
enIiIies oI a poinI or poIygon Iype (zones). This moduIe adds supporI
Ior geographic ob|ecIs Io Ihe Ob|ecI- ReIaIionaI DaIabase IhaI
has been chosen Io sIore daIa in Ihis pro|ecI - PostgrcSL
24S
. This
spaIiaI moduIe has been chosen as iI has been cerIiIied by Ihe Open
CeospaIiaI ConsorIium (OCC), which guaranIees iIs inIeroperabiIiIy
wiIh any oIher inIeroperabIe sysIems.
The modeI's main enIiIies - agenIs, ships, companies, eIc -
are reIaIed Io speciIic geographic IocaIions (ig 2). The IemporaI
componenI is aIIached as an aIIribuIe IieId Io cerIain enIiIies wiIh
an annuaI granuIariIy Ior Ihe IemporaI range oI Ihe hisIoricaI
anaIysis - 1400 Io 1800, Ihus enabIing iI Io be
uIiIized in Ihe daIa anaIysis as one mere variabIe |usI as Ihe spaIiaI
componenI is in Ihe sIudies usuaIIy conducIed wiIh C!S.
245 Stephan Holl and Hans Plum, Powerful GIS Functions in the Database System PostgreSQL.
PostGIS, GeoInformatics 12 (2009): 34-36, http://fuidbook.microdesign.nl/geoinformatics/03-2009/#0.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
170
B/5 @C UML diagram showing Ihe modeI's spaIiaI componenI
T*0', 2*;)*"'"6(
The physicaI modeI presenIed by Ihe C!S-DynCoopNeI Iinks
Iwo Iarge bIocks oI hisIoricaI inIormaIion compiIed Irom very
heIerogeneous sources: on Ihe one hand Ihe IiIe-cycIe oI Ihe ships
invoIved in Ihe commerciaI operaIions aI Ihe Iime, which incIudes
every singIe Irip deIaiIing porI oI deparIure, sIopovers and porI oI
arrivaI as weII as Ihe commerciaI IransacIions carried ouI on each
oI Ihose porIs and Ihe incidences IhaI Iook pIace on each Irip; and
on Ihe oIher hand Ihe cooperaIion reIaIionships esIabIished by
Ihe diIIerenI agenIs in speciIic geographicaI pIaces - cgcnts here
are eiIher privaIe individuaIs IhaI esIabIished various Iorms oI
associaIion Iorms, or Iarge monopoIisIic companies (ig 3).
8oIh bIocks are correIaIed in Ihe modeI, which wiII aIIow
subseguenI anaIyses IhaI wiII open new perspecIives in Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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171
undersIanding oI Ihe behaviour oI Ihese seII-organizing neIworks.
Such anaIysie wiII respond guesIions in speciIic geographicaI
spaces (Ihe C!S wiII inIegraIe Ihree spaces cIearIy diIIerenIiaIed
by Iheir geographicaI IocaIizaIion as weII as by Iheir behaviour as
commerciaI neIworks: Ihe Spanish AIIanIic oI Ihe !ndies Trade and
iIs Iinks Io oIher Irade areas, Ihe Asian merchanI sysIem and Ihe
rouIes oI Ihe Asian souIheasI ocean, and Ihe IinanciaI sysIem oI Ihe
Hispanic monarchy) and in speciIic IemporaI momenIs.
The concepIuaI design IhereIore emphasizes Ihe reIaIionship
beIween Ihe previousIy speciIied inIormaIion bIocks. This way Ihe
sysIem is abIe Io deIaiI Ihe cooperaIive reIaIionships among Ihe
agenIs IhaI pIayed diIIerenI roIes wiIhin Ihe Iarge monopoIisIic
companies or in Ihe privaIe socieIies creaIed by Ihe agenIs and
which showed, on occasions, reIaIions among Ihem. Such reIaIions
showed a connecIion beIween Ihose Irading acIiviIies wiIh Ihe
movemenIs oI Ihe ships aI Ihe Iime in Ihe various sysIems and
subsysIems, Ihe cargoes IransporIed or Ihe incidenIs occurred on
each marine rouIe.
8ased on Ihe capIures oI reguiremenIs and by appIying
sIandards and aIgoriIhms a scheme has been obIained wiIh S6
normaIized IabIes. 22 ouI oI Ihese S6 are apI Io IogicaIIy connecI Ihe
records whereas Ihe oIher 34 conIain Iypes and enIiIies IhaI IypiIy
and buiId Ihe modeI's piIIars.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
172
B/5 AC ConcepIuaI DaIa ModeI oI C!S DynCoopNeI in UML noIaIion

Now we are going Io describe Ihe daIa modeI in deIaiI:

One oI Ihe Iwo main bIocks oI Ihe modeI is Ihe ships one.
The Irading hisIory oI each one oI Ihem is concepIuaIized in whaI
has been denominaIed spcctrum, which reIers Io a ship's sIaIe in a
speciIic momenI in Iime and in a speciIic IocaIion (spaIio-IemporaI
componenI oI Ihe C!S) (Iig 4). This wiII aIIow us Io IoIIow up on a
cerIain ship on each and every one oI Ihe commerciaI Irips iI was
invoIved in, as a resuII oI Ihe diIIerenI coopcrction rclctionships
(grey) esIabIished among diverse agenIs, wheIher aI individuaI IeveI
or as gIobaI monopoIisIic companies. Among oIher capabiIiIies, Ihis
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
173
wiII enabIe us Io visuaIize in Ihe C!S over a base carIography Ihe
rouIes IoIIowed by Ihe various ships or Ihe IIeeIs Ihose ships were
parI oI, Ihe incidenIs IhaI occurred, Ihe voIume oI Iraded goods, eIc.
B/5 DC DaIa modeI: bIock 'ships', componenIs and reIaIionships
The modeI's second greaI bIock is Ihe cgcnts one and Ihe
inIormaIion reIaIed Io Ihem (ig S): IamiIy reIaIionships wiIh oIher
agenIs, reIigious conIession, residences where Ihey deveIoped Iheir
commerciaI acIiviIy, posiIions occupied, insIiIuIions Ihey worked
in, and even Ihe cpistolcry rclctionships (bIue) mainIained wiIh
oIher merchanIs, eIc. The design in Ihis bIock has been devised
Io be subseguenIIy capabIe oI describing and represenIing Ihe
cooperaIion reIaIionships among Ihe diIIerenI agenIs in speciIic
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
174
gcogrcphiccl locctions (pink).
B/5 EC DaIa modeI: bIock 'agenIs', componenIs and reIaIionships.

The Iwo previousIy presenIed bIocks are connecIed Ihrough
whaI has been denominaIed coopcrction, commerciaI reIaIions
among agenIs (ig 6). An agenI is in IacI a merchanI IhaI, eiIher
he/she IemporariIy associaIes wiIh oIher agenIs Ior a speciIic
commerciaI deaIing maIeriaIized in Ihe Irip oI a ship Ioaded wiIh
cerIain goods (and wiIh some speciIic episIoIary reIaIionships
on occasions), or Ihey beIong Io one oI Ihe exisIing Iarge gIobaI
monopoIisIic companies in Ihe period under sIudy; eiIher way Ihis
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
175
agenI pIays a cerIain roIe in IhaI commerciaI reIaIionship (IacIor,
agenI, masIer, Ioader, eIc.). This bIock is Ihe cenIraI axis oI Ihe daIa
modeI, esIabIishing Ihe reIaIionship beIween Ihe Iwo previous
Iarge bIocks: ships cnd cgcnts.
B/5 FC irsI: Ships and agenI ReIaIionaI DaIa modeI. The Second igure: DaIa
modeI: bIock cooperaIion" and cooperaIor", componenI and reIaIionship.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
176
There are various ways Io incorporaIe Ihe IemporaI
componenI inIo a daIabase. !n Ihe presenI case Iime is a mere
aIIribuIe oI Ihe enIiIy or geo-reIerenced ob|eI - i.e. Ihe porI oI
deparIure on a ship's speciIic rouIe has a speciIic daIe aIIached,
or an agenI carries ouI a speciIic adminisIraIive operaIion in a
Iown beIween Iwo daIes, or a IeIIer arrives aI iIs desIinaIion on a
speciIic daIe, eIc. 8y doing Ihis an anaIysis can be conducIed on Ihe
neIworks, modeIized as reIaIions oI cooperaIion or ships' rouIes,
in a deIined Iime period, or Iheir evoIuIion wiIhin IhaI period -
Ior insIance, ciIies or porIs where commerciaI acIiviIy is Iocussed,
inIIuenIiaI merchanI IamiIies, kinship reIaIionships beIween agenIs
IocaIed in deIined geographic spaces, eIc.
+*2/#, H'68*&I !"#,R(/(
The neIwork anaIysis is Ihe area responsibIe Ior anaIyzing
neIworks based on Ihe neIwork Iheory, usuaIIy known as graph
Iheory.
246
NeIworks can be oI various Iypes. As Iar as DynCoopNeI
is concerned neIworks are oI a sociaI Iype and are made up oI sea
Irips oI ships, oI merchanIs and companies, and oI Ihe commerciaI
reIaIions esIabIished among Ihem Ihus creaIing a whoIe, huge
cooperaIion neIwork.
WiIhin Ihe designed daIa modeI aII enIiIies are reIaIed.
Ordinary enIiIies represenIing ships, agenIs and Irips, eIc, are space
IocaIed by means oI Ihe enIiIy LugargeograIico, whereby anaIyses
and sIudies can be conducIed by using Ihe spaIiaI componenI.
nIiIies named puerIo, residencia, agenIe or ciudad are reIaIed
246 Robert A. Hanneman and Mark Riddle, Introduction to social network methods (Riverside, CA:
University of California, Riverside, 2005).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
177
Io enIiIy punIo, which means IhaI Ihese enIiIies have geographic
semanIics.
rom Ihis deIiniIion oI a deIaiIed modeI, Ihe deveIopmenI
Ieam wiII endeavour Io use IooIs, aIgoriIhms or maIhemaIicaI
modeIs in order Io obIain inIormaIion and sIudy Ihe reaIiIy
oIIered by Ihe modeIIed daIa. There exisI a number oI modeIs and
aIgoriIhms IhaI can be appIied Io obIain inIormaIion on neIworks;
Ihey range Irom Ihe IundamenIaI, such as Dikstrc, Kruskcl, covcr
trccs, eIc
247
, Io crtijicicl intclligcncc aIgoriIhms, such as A search or
heurisIic search aIgoriIhms.
248
A cIear exampIe oI inIegraIion and use oI Ihese geographic
enIiIies in daIa modeIIing is Ihe sIudy oI sea IraIIic beIween porIs.
ur such a sIudy we use Ihe ships' sIages aIong Iheir rouIes; we
counI Ihem up in order Io obIain Ihe porI's weighI. A IraIIic neIwork
can be viewed as represenIed in a weighIed direcIed graph.
The charIs beIow show Iwo neIworks - one (ig 7) depicIing
sea IraIIic beIween porIs, and anoIher (ig 8) dispIaying reIaIions
among agenIs. On Ihe basis oI Ihe proposed modeI various Iypes
oI neIworks couId be superimposed in order Io obIain addiIionaI
inIormaIion on Ihe phenomenon oI cooperaIion.
247 Tomas H. Cormen, Charles E. Leiserson, Ronald L. Rivest and Cliford Stein, Introduction to
algorithms (Cambridge: Te MIT Press, 2001).
248 Jos Mira, Ana E. Delgado, Jess G. Boticario and Francisco J. Dez, Aspectos bsicos de Inteli-
gencia Artifcial (Madrid: Sanz y Torres, 1995).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
178
B/5 O: !I shows mariIime IraIIic beIween porIs where porIs are represenIed
by Iheir idenIiIiers.
B/5 S - !I represenIs Ihe reIaIions (Iines) among various agenIs (sguares).
The reIaIions' noIaIion speciIies wheIher Ihe reIaIion is oI kinship or oI a
commerciaI naIure.
Due Io Ihe modeI providing a vasI amounI oI inIormaIion
on ships, rouIes, porIs, agenIs, reIaIions oI cooperaIion, eIc, Ihe
need arose Ior designing and impIemenIing an opIimaI subsysIem
responsibIe Ior handIing aII Ihis inIormaIion and expIoiIing Ihe
neIworks IhaI make up Ihe sub-sysIem oI neIworks IogeIher wiIh Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
179
modeI oI anaIysis. The soIIware under Ihis subsysIem is snCraph,
and has been IiberaIed under AIIribuIion-NonCommerciaI 3.0
UnporIed Licence.
249

This sysIem sIores inIernaIIy Ihe daIa in a hcsh tchlc
2S0

wiIh poinIers in Iinked IisIs which, in Iurn, have vecIors hoIding
weighIs and reIaIions. This inIormaIion heId by Ihe sysIem can
Ihus be easiIy exporIed Io oIher sysIems, such as Ihe sociaI neIwork
anaIysis program, UC!NT.
The IoIIowing is one oI Ihe IypoIogies oI graphs Ihan can be
generaIed - ig 9.
B/5 [ \ !I depicIs Ihe reIaIions (Iines) among enIiIies (eIIipses) and
Iheir weighIs (cardinaIiIy and Ihickness oI Ihe Iines)
The above graph is inIernaIIy sIored in Ihe sysIem wiIh Ihe
IoIIowing daIa sIrucIure, in which Ihe red-doIIed sguares reIer Io
Ihe enIiIies (eIIipses in graph above) and Ihe unbroken Iines give a
picIure oI Ihe reIaIions and Iheir weighIs.
249 Roberto Maestre, snGraph. Sofware ptimo para manipulacin de redes libres de escala, http://
digital.csic.es/handle/10261/27556 (acessed November 29, 2010).
250 Donald E. Knuth, Te Art of Computer Programming: Sorting and Searching (Addison-Wesley,
1998).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
180
This IormaI is easiIy exporIabIe Io UC!NT
2S1
soIIware in Ihe
IoIIowing way.
!n Ihe scheme above Ihe IirsI digiI is Ihe enIiIy's idenIiIier,
Ihe second is Ihe idenIiIier oI Ihe reIaIed enIiIy, and Ihe Ihird
represenIs Ihe reIaIion's weighI; Ihe IaIIer couId reIer, in a reaI-
IiIe anaIysis, Io any variabIe Io be sIudied, such as Ihe number oI
Iimes Ihe ship caIIs aI a speciIic porI, Ihe voIume oI a parIicuIar
251 Steve Borgatti, Martin Everett and Lin Freeman, UCINET, http://www.analytictech.com/
ucinet/ (acessed August 31, 2010).
dl n = 5 format = edgelist1, y
data:
1 2 1.0
1 3 2.0
1 4 3.0
3 2 1.0
3 4 2.0
5 1 2.0
5 2 3.0
5 4 1.0
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
181
good soId in a ciIy, or Ihe number oI IeIIers exchanged beIween Iwo
agenIs. rom Ihis array represenIaIions oI Ihe IoIIowing Iype are
auIomaIicaIIy generaIed - ig 10.
B/5 >] \ Type oI graph generaIed by Ihe UC!NT soIIware using snCraph
conversion.
The IoIIowing shows a compIex modeI oI cooperaIion
beIween agenIs by Ihe use oI commerciaI companies and reIaIions
oI kinship as anaIysis variabIes in Ihe neIwork - ig 11.
B/5 >>C RepresenIaIion oI Ihe neIwork generaIed Irom daIa on agenIs and
Iheir commerciaI reIaIions.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
182
CurrenIIy work is being done Io combine IradiIionaI C!S
IooIs wiIh Ihis speciIic Iype oI soIIware IhaI generaIes Ihese Iorms oI
neIwork graphs so nodes in Ihe neIwork are shown in Iheir speciIic
geographic IocaIion - Ihe nodes couId be Ihe ciIies where agenIs
conducI Iheir commerciaI operaIions, or Ihe porIs oI deparIure
Ior ships, or Ihe desIinaIion oI episIoIary correspondence beIween
agenIs - and Iines Iink poinIs IhaI are reIaIed in IhaI neIwork. This
way Ihe spaIiaI componenI wiII be visuaIIy inIegraIed inIo Ihe
sIudy, Ihus reaching an imporIanI miIesIone seI by hisIorians Ior
DynCoopNeI.

@,"V56#&'5=&15"% 1""'6

The IinaI ob|ecIive oI C!S is Io obIain derived knowIedge
Irom spaIioIemporaI reIaIionships and behaviouraI paIIerns oI
seII-organizing neIworks in Ihe irsI CIobaI Age. !I wiII aIso be
abIe Io deIecI high-prioriIy Irading areas; anaIyze Ihe eIIecIiveness
oI each oI Ihe neIworks in socioeconomic Ierms; idenIiIy which
socioIogicaI mechanisms among agenIs heIped Io susIain high
cooperaIion IeveIs (commerciaI associaIions, IamiIy reIaIions,
reIigious conIessions, paIronage and sponsorship...) and IaciIiIaIed
Ihe expIoiIaIion oI cerIain commerciaI areas insIead oI oIhers; and
depicI Ihe evoIuIion oI Ihese neIworks IhroughouI Iive cenIuries oI
hisIory.
WiIh Ihe IirsI daIa inIegraIed inIo Ihe proposed modeI
various geovisuaIizaIion meIhodoIogies are beginning Io be used.
RepresenIaIion oI spaIioIemporaI daIa is a compIex issue and is a
currenI IechnicaI chaIIenge wiIhin Ihe worId oI C!S. Here IoIIows
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
183
some oI Ihe approaches Iried so Iar.
The use oI Iime-Iines Io represenI Ihe various evenIs since
each one oI Ihem has a speciIic direcIion deIermined by Ihe sIarI
daIe and Ihe end daIe. very evenI means a change, wheIher in
Ihe ob|ecI's IocaIion, Ihe conIenIs oI iIs aIIribuIes, or Ihe way iI
reIaIes Io iIs neighbouring ob|ecIs (IopoIogy). !I is aIso a dynamic
IransIormaIion IhaI needs Io be depicIed as weII as Ihe progress
oI Iime. !n Ihis sense, iI is being considered Ihe use oI Ihe SR!
ArcC!S... Tracking AnaIysI exIension, which aIIows Ior Ihe
visuaIizaIion and anaIysis oI IemporaI daIa by deIining evenIs,
incIuding Iime, IocaIion, and aIIribuIe inIormaIion. ArcC!S Tracking
AnaIysI enabIes us Io expIore, visuaIize, and anaIyze inIormaIion
reIaIive Io Iime, IocaIion, and change. !I provides capabiIiIies Ior
Ihe sophisIicaIed visuaIizaIion and anaIysis oI Iime-reIaIed daIa by
deIining IemporaI evenIs IhaI consisI oI Ihe IoIIowing inIormaIion:
Iime (Ihe daIe and Iime oI Ihe evenI), posiIion (Ihe geographic
IocaIion oI Ihe evenI), and aIIribuIes (ob|ecI-speciIic characIerisIics
and properIies). ArcC!S Tracking AnaIysI (ig 12) exIends Ihe ArcC!S
DeskIop wiIh Iime series and reaI-Iime visuaIizaIion oI change.
2S2
WiIh Ihis Iype oI geovisuaIizaIion IooIs daIa are
circumscribed Io a Iime Iine and a speciIic spaIiaI IocaIion,
breaking away Irom Ihe IradiIionaI way oI represenIing evenIs
in independenI Iayers and Ihus greaIIy increasing Ihe anaIysis
poIenIiaI (ig 12).
252 ESRI. 2004. ArcGIS 9. ArcGIS Tracking Analyst Tutorial, http://webhelp.esri.com/
arcgisdesktop/9.3/pdf/Tracking_Analyst_Tutorial.pdf (acessed July 31, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
184
B/5 >@C ArcC!S Tracking AnaIysI showing a Iime-Iine and a mariIime
commerciaI rouIe in Ihe 18
Ih
cenIury.

Various oIher ways oI represenIing spaIioIemporaI
geography wiIh Ihe pro|ecI's daIa. SeveraI previous experiences
have used Ihe so-caIIed spccc-timc cuhc
2S3
in which Ihere are
IhreedimensionaI axes where x- cnd y-cxis are Ihe IIaI spaIiaI
coordinaIes and Ihe verIicaI z-cxis represenIs Iime. !n Ihis cube
when Ihe ob|ecI's IocaIion remains invariabIe IhroughouI Iime iI
is represenIed by a Iine perpendicuIar Io Ihe xy pIane. The Ieam
oI Spanish C!S experIs wiIhin DynCoopNeI have been conducIing
preIiminary IriaIs wiIh an exIension oI Ihe SR! ArcC!S
sorIware deveIoped by Ihe UniversiIy oI Tennesse in Ihis Iine oI
visuaIizaIion.
2S4
WiIh Ihis exIension, users can visuaIize Iracking
253 Torsten Hgerstrand, What about people in Regional Science?, Papers of the Regional Science
Association 14 (1970): 7-21.
254 Hongbo Yu and Shih-Lung Shaw, A Custom Extension of Extended Time-Geographic
Framework Tools in ArcGIS in Towards a GIS-based Analytical Time-geographic Framework for Physical
and Virtual Activities (2006) http://web.utk.edu/~sshaw/NSF-Project-Website/ (acessed april 15, 2010).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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185
daIa aI individuaI IeveI (e.g., survey daIa oI individuaI IocaIions
over Iime such as migraIion hisIory daIa, or commerciaI rouIes)
in a space-Iime C!S environmenI. !n addiIion Io Ihe space-Iime C!S
visuaIizaIion IooIs incIuded in Ihis exIension, Ihey have deveIoped
expIoraIory spaIioIemporaI anaIysis IuncIions based on an
exIended Iramework oI HgersIrand's Iime geography Ior sIudying
individuaI acIiviIies in boIh physicaI and virIuaI spaces (ig 13).
B/5 >AC !nIerIace and represenIaIion oI exampIe daIa by Ihe R xIended
Time-Ceographic ramework TooIs xIension" Ior ArcC!S 9.3.
A IurIher Iype oI represenIaIion very useIuI when depicIing
any Iypes oI neIwork is Ihe so-caIIed spider diagrams (ig 14), in
which Ihe C!S incorporaIing Ihem dispIays as doIs Ihe reIaIed
enIiIies - porIs, ciIies, eIc - and as Iines Ihe reIaIions esIabIished
among Ihe enIiIies regardIess oI Ihe Iype oI reIaIion or variabIe
being represenIed.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
186
B/5 >DC RepresenIaIion by means oI 'spidcr dicgrcms' oI Ihe episIoIary
reIaIions among agenIs IocaIed in various ciIies over a speciIic Iime period.
The Ihickness oI Ihe Iines represenIs Ihe number oI IeIIers exchanged. This
represenIaIion is done on a Iree-access exIension Ior ArcC!S 9.3.
urIher Io Ihe represenIaIion oI sociaI neIworks or Ihe
creaIion oI inIeracIive, dynamic maps inIegraIing Ihe IemporaI
componenI, Ihere is a Iype oI represenIaIion very useIuI Io
researchers - Ihe IradiIionaI IhemaIic maps anaIyzing a speciIic
aIphanumeric aIIribuIe (ig 1S). !n Ihis Iine, Ihe poIenIiaI oIIered
by C!S when iI comes Io making Ihe mosI oI such compIex and
dense DD88 is unparaIIeIed.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
187
B/5 >EC ThemaIic map done wiIh ArcC!S 9.3 represenIing Ihe !ndo-PaciIic
sysIem which shows Ihe evoIuIion oI spaIiaI percepIion -1S
Ih
Io 18
Ih

cenIuries - Ihrough Ihe aIIocaIion oI carIographic weighIs Io Ihe porIs in
diverse periods.
A"%4'#65"%6 &%- )#1#$,
The C!S appIied Io hisIoricaI research under deveIopmenI
wiIhin Ihe Iramework oI Ihe DynCoopNeI pro|ecI wiII impIemenI
Ihe spaIioIemporaI componenI wiIh Ihe uIIimaIe aim oI conducIing
Ihe anaIysis IhaI wiII shed IighI on Ihe IuncIioning oI Ihe seII-
organizing sociaI neIworks in Ihe irsI CIobaI Age, on Ihe paIIerns
oI behaviour IhaI governed and susIained Ihese neIworks and
ensured Iheir success, on Ihe inIeracIions IhaI occurred among Ihe
enIiIies IhaI Iormed Ihese neIworks, and on how Ihe changes in
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
188
some oI Ihem had an impacI on Ihe resI.
The Spanish AIIanIic oI Ihe !ndies Trade DaIabase
(DynCoopNeI Crespo) as weII as Ihe DynCoopNeI DaIa Provider
inIerIace are currenIIy hosIed in Ihe DigiIaI ReposiIory oI Ihe CS!C -
(hIIp://digiIaI.csic.es/). The IaIIer wiII be used in a IocaI environmenI
aI Ihis earIy sIage in order Io IaciIiIaIe Ihe inIegraIion oI Ihe
DD88 menIioned earIier in Ihis arIicIe, Ihus Ieeding Ihe C!S IhaI
wiII handIe Ihe avaiIabIe inIormaIion in an inIegraI way Ihrough
powerIuI IooIs Ior spaIioIemporaI anaIysis and visuaIizaIion.
This abiIiIy Io creaIe knowIedge IhaI is derived Irom an
ob|ecIive anaIysis oI Ihe daIa coIIecIed by various researchers
Irom diIIerenI hisIoric sources is a IeaIure oI Ihe C!S. The IuIure
endeavour is Io a) deveIop IurIher, more IIexibIe, spaIioIemporaI
concepIuaI modeIs IhaI aIIow Ihe sysIem Io seII-Ieed wiIh IuIure
daIa Irom IurIher sources, b) design more eIIicienI and user-
IriendIy soIIware IooIs, c) creaIe more eIIicienI guery Ianguages
and/or geovisuaIizaIion meIhods IhaI make Ior greaIer ease oI
inIerpreIaIion oI Ihe resuIIs, d) in shorI, deveIop new IechnoIogies
IhaI are capabIe oI responding Io Ihese Iypes oI guesIions where an
inIerreIaIion exisIs beIween Iime and space.
Once Ihe concepIuaI and meIhodoIogicaI hurdIes are
overcome which impIy approaching Ihe hisIoricaI issues Irom an
inIegraIed spaIioIemporaI perspecIive, Ihe IuIure wiII reguire Ihe
deveIopmenI oI new IooIs aIIowing Ihe inIeroperabiIiIy beIween
severaI hisIoricaI sources whose Ihemes and Iime ranges are
simiIar. This means Iocussing Ihe aIIenIion on Ihe high poIenIiaI
oI Ihe SpaIiaI DaIa !nIrasIrucIures (SD!) Io share geospaIiaI
inIormaIion wiIhin a common Iramework. The harmonizaIion
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
189
and inIeroperabiIiIy beIween sysIems is a very compIex issue, and
Ihis compIexiIy greaIIy increases when Ihe IemporaI componenI
is added. Hence Ihe highIy ambiIious approach Io Ihe IuIure
chaIIenges in Ihis IieId.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
190
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
191
;,')<"$.&%5=5%.J 89, A&6, ") 0,$49&%1
A""C,$&15"% 5% 19, Y56C&%54 Q1'&%154
34"%"0: DEWHG<EXXHI
Q#19"$J Q%& A$,6C" ;"'&%&
(!nsIiIuIe oI HisIory, CCHS-CS!C, Madrid, Spain)
Q >,+ 3LC,$50,%1&' /,19"- 5% &% N'- Y561"$54
O$&0,+"$?
The aim oI Ihis arIicIe is Io oIIer some exampIes oI possibIe
use cases in Ihe represenIaIion and sIudy oI mercanIiIe neIworks
Iocusing on Ihe anaIysis oI various Iypes oI cooperaIion beIween
peopIe IhaI has emerged in response Io speciIic demands oI
businesses. CerIainIy, as ric Van Young indicaIed in his concIusion
Io an anIhoIogy oI IexIs, Ihe sIudy oI neIworks is overwheImed
by Ihe huge guanIiIy oI compiIed empiricaI daIa buI sIiII Iacks a
IeveI oI concepIuaIizaIion IhaI can IruIy serve as an inIerpreIive
Iramework.
2SS
To my undersIanding, Ihe appIicaIion oI Ihe sIudy
Io Ihe 'SociaI NeIworks' is an anaIysis modeI IhaI enIaiIs a review
IhaI comes Irom Ihe IieId oI economic and sociaI hisIory, oI Ihe
IheoreIicaI Irame oI Ihe compIex neIworks whose consideraIion
255 Eric Van Young, Social Networks: A Final Comment, Nikolaus Bttcher, Bernd Hausberger
y Antonio Ibarra (coords.), Redes y negocios globales en el mundo ibrico, siglos XVI-XVIII, (Mxico:
Iberoamericana, Vervuert, El Colegio de Mxico, 2011), pp. 290-307.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
192
raise Ihe possibiIiIy oI anaIysing Ihe behaviour oI sysIems made
up oI muIIipIe inIeracIing eIemenIs in a more gIobaI Iashion and
in which human acIions have greaI imporIance. !n shorI, Ihe Iorce
oI cooperaIion, communicaIion, and human skiIIs, as described by
WiIIiam and ]. R. McNeiII.
2S6
The anaIysis Iramework oI compIex
sysIems has recenIIy come under sIudy wiIh Ihe aim oI appIying iI Io
inIerdiscipIinary research and new IheoreIicaI conIribuIions using
Ihe IheoreIicaI and episIemoIogicaI approach are being oIIered.
2S7

The naIure oI an expanding AIIanIic worId consIanIIy demands
more sIudies which Iake inIo accounI Ihe inIeracIion beIween
eIemenIs which have given rise Io new phenomena derived Irom
Ihe very inIerchange oI producIs, peopIe, and inIormaIion beIween
various regions Iinked during Ihe cenIuries oI whaI is known as Ihe
IirsI CIobaI Age. The vision oI Ihis worId (during Ihe cenIuries oI Ihe
mosI-acceIeraIed expansion which humaniIy has ever known) as a
Irue compIex sysIem is parIicuIarIy enriched by Ihe idea oI sIabiIiIy
in non-Iinear sysIems.
2S8
As Iar as iIs appIicaIion Io SociaI Science
is concerned, unIiI now some oI Ihe mosI innovaIive resuIIs have
come abouI Irom Ihe perspecIive oI regionaI economic anaIysis and
iIs spaIiaI modeIIing.
2S9
'SpaIiaI Irade modeIIing' is a growing area
oI research IhaI oIIers us hisIorians Ihe possibiIiIy oI represenIing
modeIs oI spaIiaI economic sysIems where Ihe mosI imporIanI
256 J. R. McNeill & William McNeill, Las redes humanas. Una historia global del mundo, (Barcelona,
Crtica, 2004), Introduccin, pg. 6.
257 Rolando Garca, Sistemas complejos, conceptos, mtodo y fundamentacin epistemolgica de la
investigacin interdisciplinaria, (Gedisa, 2007).
258 Ricardo V. Sol, Susana C. Manrubia, Orden y Caos en sistemas complejos. Aplicaciones.
(Barcelona, Ediciones UPC, 2001), pp. 52-61.
259 G.J.D. Hewings, Michael Sonis & D. Boyce (eds.) Trade, Networks and Hierarchies. Modelling
Regional and Interregional Economics, Springer Verlag Berln, Heidelberg New York, 2002. Cf. Introduccin,
pp. 1-11. Frank Schweitser et al. Economic Networks: Te New Challenges, Science, 325, (2009), pp. 422-
425.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
193
guesIions Ior Ihe commerciaI IogisIics oI a speciIic hisIoric period
can be visuaIised, such as Ihe IocaIion oI Ihe mosI geosIraIegic
porI ciIies, Ihe possibiIiIies oI disIribuIion oI resources and goods,
peopIe, and inIormaIion, and aII Ihis Ihrough speciIic neIwork
esIabIishmenIs. The commerciaI expansion oI Ihe SevenIeenIh and
ighIeenIh CenIuries has oIIered diIIerenI connecIed scenarios Ior
hisIorians who are speciaIisIs in Ihis sub|ecI.
260
rom 8raudeI Io
WaIIersIein (wiIh his socioIogy-based Iheory oI Ihe worId economy)
Ihis vision has recenIIy been enriched by Ihe conIribuIions oI Andre
Cunder rank.
261
This Iramework is innovaIive because iI proposes
Ihe review oI Ihe knowIedge aIready acguired in Ihe sIudy oI Ihe
diIIerenI modeIs oI coIoniaI expansions and Ihe sysIem or sysIems
generaIed by Ihem, puIIing greaIer emphasis on Ihe connecIions
raIher Ihan on Ihe empires, as rederigue Langue noIed in an
inIeresIing review.
262
!n reaIiIy, iI is a Iramework IhaI couId mean a
IransiIion Irom AIIanIicism Io CIobaI HisIory and which is above aII
characIerised by Ihe reIurn Io Ihe 'spaIiaI Iurn'.
263

rom Ihe poinI oI view oI Ihe areas oI economic inIeracIion
and Ihe cooperaIion oI merchanIs in Ihe Hispanic worId, Ihe
exisIing hisIoriography on Ihis sub|ecI-which is parIicuIarIy dense
in Ihe Spanish Ianguage (IiIIIe known in Ihe ngIish-speaking worId
260 Ana Crespo Solana, Geoestrategy of a System? Merchant Societies and Exchange Networks as
Connection Centres in the Spanish Atlantic Trade in the First Global Age, Mukherjee, Rila (eds.) Networks
in the First Global Age: 1400-1800, (Delhi, Primus book, 2011), pp 11-35.
261 Andre Gunder Frank, ReOrient: Global Economy in the Asian Age, (Berkeley Los Angeles,
University of California Press, 1998). Unas revisiones de la historia Atlntica en: Michel Morineau, Le
Systeme atlantique au pril de lhistoire, Jahrbuch fr Geschichte Lateinamerikas, 43, 2006, pp. 301-316.
262 Frderique Langue, El espacio Atlntico: conexiones imperiales, revoluciones y comunidades
mercantiles, resea en Nuevos Mundos, Mundos Nuevos, 2010, online.
263 Pieper, Renate y Peer Schmidt (eds.). Latin America and the Atlantic World. El mundo atlntico
y Amrica Latina (1500-1850). Essays in honor of Horst Pietschmann. (Kln/Weimar/Wien: Bhlau Verlag,
2005), Introduction, pp. 9-17, p. 17.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
194
and someIimes even compIeIeIy ignored)-is IundamenIaI in order
Io deIine Ihe AIIanIic commerciaI sysIem as a 'sociaI environmenI'
which has a cIear sysIemic naIure, derived Irom Ihe diIIerenI
modeIs oI uropean imperiaIisI expansion buI which underIies
Ihe anaIysis oI oIher phenomena IhaI have arisen Irom Ihe very
needs oI Ihe exchange Ied by agenIs on Ihe move. The exampIe oI
Spanish AIIanIic commerce is a paradigm oI neIwork inIeracIions,
which wouId never have worked wiIhouI Iheir operaIion. PreciseIy,
Ihe HisIoriography on Spanish coIoniaI Irade sIresses Ihe essenIiaI
roIe pIayed by non-Hispanic mercanIiIe neIworks in Ihe economic
expansion in Ihe AIIanIic. WiIhin Ihe !berian PeninsuIa proper,
coIonies oI AngIo-!rish, rench, Iemish, and DuIch and oI oIher
naIionaIiIies mainIained a prosperous Irade Irom Ihe main urban
nucIei. LaIe in Ihe second haII oI Ihe SevenIeenIh CenIury and
IhroughouI Ihe nIighIened ighIeenIh CenIury, Ihe oId enemies
oI Ihe Hispanic Monarchy had deveIoped cerIain sophisIicaIed
operaIions wiIhin Ihe Iramework oI Irade beIween Spain and
America, Irom wiIhin Ihe very hearI oI Ihe sIaIe monopoIy, IirsI
SeviIIa and Cdiz Irom Ihe second decades oI Ihe SevenIeenIh
CenIury and overaII since 1717
264
.
The IirsI sIep Io expIain Ihe working oI Ihis sysIem has a
marked socioIogicaI and hisIoricaI IheoreIicaI aspecI and reIers
Io Ihe descripIion oI Ihe mercanIiIe socieIies and Ihe IuncIionaIiIy
oI Ihe commerciaI agenIs spread across Ihe diverse porI ciIies
connecIed Io Ihe uropean commerciaI expansion and Iied Io Ihe
businesses around Ihe Spanish Carrera de !ndias. !I was common,
given Ihe socio-cuIIuraI characIerisIics oI modern urope, Ior Ihese
264 Crespo Solana, Geostrategy, pp. 11-35.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
195
agenIs as a generaI ruIe, Io aImosI aIways be parI oI consuIaIes
or whaI are caIIed 'merchanI naIions'. They were in any evenI
mercanIiIe communiIies and describing Ihem in generaI, and
speciIicaIIy in Ihe case oI each naIion, Ieads Io a meIhodoIogicaI
shiII Ioward Iypes oI comparaIive anaIyses Ior which Ihere are
aIready esIabIished criIeria based on socioIogicaI, hisIoricaI,
economicaI, and anIhropoIogicaI concepIuaI probIems.
26S
The roIe
which Ihe coIonies oI merchanIs pIayed boIh on a IocaI IeveI and
in Ihe connecIion oI porI ciIies on diIIerenI commerciaI scaIes is
IundamenIaI in order Io undersIand Ihe uropean expansion
in Ihe cenIuries oI Ihe Modern Age. !n Ihe speciIic case oI Ihe
Spanish Monarchy's Irade, Ihese communiIies operaIed as agenIs
IhaI promoIed inIeracIion on many IeveIs and can be described as
speciaIized micro-socieIies around Ihe emerging worId oI Irade and
inIernaIionaI Iinance and in many cases, seII-deIined as 'naIions'.
266

The ciIies where Ihese coIonies oI cosmopoIiIan merchanIs and
peopIe oI diverse geographic origins were IocaIed were converIed
inIo a sociaI IaboraIory which experienced an imporIanI degree
oI inIercuIIuraIiIy, exchange oI inIormaIion, bioIogicaI inbreeding
and symbiosis buI aIso reIigious and poIiIicaI conIIicIs, new Iorms
oI sociaI inIegraIion and adapIaIion due Io Ihe inIercuIIuraIiIy
iIseII and Ihe new economic opporIuniIies. rom Ihis conIexI
Ihe expIanaIion oI Ihe IuncionaIiIy oI agenIs, communiIies and
neIworks, on Iheir Ihree respecIive IeveIs, is made possibIe using Iwo
principaI anaIysis Irameworks which are used compIemenIariIy.
One oI Ihem is Ihe reIaIionaI anaIysis wiIhin one group wiIh diI-
265 Ana Crespo Solana, Introduccin Comunidades Transnacionales. pp. 9 and next.
266 Crespo Solana, Comunidades transnacionales, p. 61.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
196
IerenI Iypes oI Iinks beIween Ihem, aIso compIemenIed by a
guaIiIaIive anaIysis, sIudying Ihe Iinks beIween Ihe agenIs and Ihe
reasons Ihey had Ior Ihe exchange, coIIaboraIion, or conIIicI. This
meIhod oI anaIysis has produced imporIanI resuIIs in Ihe sIudy
oI sociaI groups oI Ihe Modern ra.
267
SecondIy, and Ihis is sIiII in
an experimenIaI phase, Ihere is Ihe reconsIrucIion and anaIysis
oI neIworks, appIying new IechnoIogies derived Irom Ihe use oI
Ceographic !nIormaIion SysIems (C!S). Here, Ihe neIwork is noI
|usI a meIaphor Ior a series oI compIex sociaI reIaIionships buI
raIher serves Io visuaIize and represenI Ihese reIaIionships wiIh
Ihe heIp oI new IooIs IhaI are being impIemenIed. The merchanI
neIwork connecIs wiIh Ihe absIracI deIiniIion oI 'NeIworks' which
is concepIuaIised as 'mongreI hybrids, IocaIed somewhere in Ihe
obscure zone beIween Ihe aIIeged ideaI Iypes or markeIs and
hierarchies'
268
; buI aIso wiIh Ihe idea oI sociaI connecIion where
eIemenIs oI reciprociIy, coIIaboraIion, aIIruism, compeIiIion or
conIIicI and even beIrayaI prevaiI, which characIerise Io a greaI
exIenI Ihe sociaI environmenIs where new Iorms oI behaviour
emerge under Ihe cover oI new chaIIenges posed by sociaI, economic,
or poIiIicaI media. As someIhing IundamenIaIIy compIemenIary Io
Ihis IirsI sense, Ihe neIworks inIerreIaIe Ihrough economic sysIems
run by or perhaps aIso deIined as 'inIormaIion sysIems', which
sIarIed Io be sIrucIured Irom Ihe very beginning oI uropean
expansion, aI Ihe end oI Ihe iIIeenIh CenIury, or even beIore.
269

267 Jos Mara Imizcoz Beunza, Las redes sociales de las elites. Conceptos, fuentes y aplicaciones,
Enrique Soria Mesa, J. Jess Bravo Caro y J. Miguel Delgado Barrado (eds.) Las elites en la poca moderna:
La Monarqua Espaola, Vol. 1: Nuevas Perspectivas, (Crdoba, Universidad de Crdoba, 2009), pp. 77-111.
268 Gernot Grabher, Trading routes, bypasses, and risky intersections: zapping the travels of
networks between economic sociology and economic geography, Progress in Human Geography, 30, 2
(2006), pp. 163-189.
269 Montserrat Cachero Vinuesa, Redes mercantiles en los inicios del comercio atlntico. Sevilla
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
197
The sIudy oI Ihe IuncIionaIiIy oI Irade neIworks is decidedIy
a sub|ecI oI research IhaI is aIso IundamenIaI Io Ihe appIicaIion oI
Ihis meIhodoIogy, which wiII compIemenI Ihe IheoreIicaI deIiniIions
oI iIs make up and operaIion, as ]onaIhan !sraeI has suggesIed in
Ihe case oI Ihe ]ewish communiIies oI Ihe Caribbean, cIassiIying
Ihem as a 'muIIi-IuncIionaI economic ramework'.
270
OIher sIudies
oI Ihe ]ewish neIworks have described Ihese acIiviIies as being
wrapped up in a varied economic enIerprise which combines
ruraI and urban IiIe, someIhing IhaI was IypicaI in Ihe WesI !ndies,
dedicaIed Io boIh shipping acIiviIies and Iinance as weII as Iarming.
Moreover, Ihe cases oI Ihe Sephardic ]ews and oIher communiIies,
such as Ihe DuIch, Ihe ngIish or Ihe !rish, have aIready provided
resuIIs in sIudies oI Ihe AIIanIic connecIions beyond Ihe IimiIed
encIaves oI Ihese coIonies and oIIer Iarge guanIiIies oI daIa abouI
shipping and commerce.
271

WiIh Ihe purpose oI anaIyzing Ihe inIeracIions beIween
agenIs and neIworks in whaI has been caIIed Ihe 'Spanish AIIanIic
sysIem', a broad daIabase oI Ihe inIerconnecIions IhaI were creaIed
in Ihis oceanic area beIween 1680 and 1778 is being puI IogeIher,
Iaking inIo accounI considerabIe daIa on generaI uropean
commerce, connecIed direcIIy or indirecIIy wiIh Ihe 'Spanish
SysIem', since in Ihis way Ihe diIIerenI phenomena reIaIing Io Ihe
entre Europa y Amrica, 1520-1525, Bttcher, Hausberger & Ibarra (coords.), Redes y negocios globales, pp.
11-25.
270 J.I. Israel, Te Jews of Curaao, New Amsterdam and the Guyanas: a Caribbean and trans-
Atlantic network (1648-1740), Israel, Diasporas within a Diaspora: Jews, crypto-Jews and the world maritime
empires (1540-1740), (Leiden, Brill, 2002), pp. 511-532.
271 Catia Antunes, Lisboa e Amesterdo, 1640-1705. Um caso de Globalizaao na Histria Moderna,
(Lisboa, Livros Horizontes, 2009); David Hancock, Te Trouble with Networks: Managing the Scots
Early-Modern Madeira Trade, Business History Review, 79 (2005), pp. 467-491; Ana Crespo Solana, Dutch
Mercantile Networks and the trade with the Hispanic Port Cities in the Atlantic (1648-1778), Bttcher,
Hausberger & Ibarra (coords.), Redes y negocios globales, pp. 127-142; El comercio martimo entre Cdiz y
Amsterdam, 1717-1778, (Madrid, Serie Estudios de Historia Econmica,Madrid, Banco de Espaa, 2000).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
198
AIIanIic exchanges can be anaIyzed and Ihe characIerisIics and
eIIecIs oI Spanish expansion in iIs conIexI can be sIudied.
272
Since
1492 Spain pIayed a decisive roIe in Ihe sIages oI Ihe expansion.
This 'Spanish AIIanIic sysIem' and iIs coIoniaI Irade wiIh America
is caIIed Ihe Carrera de Ias !ndias and has, Irom Ihe ouIseI, cerIain
insIiIuIionaI and socio-poIiIicaI IeaIures IhaI somehow deIermined
Ihe remaining uropean 'expansions'. !n IacI, Ihe Ierm Carrera
de Ias !ndias reIerred Io mariIime acIiviIy beIween Ihe !berian
PeninsuIa and Ihe American coIonies as weII as every business and
oIher endeavours reIaIed Io IhaI acIiviIy. When a Irader engaged
in American Irade by Ioading his merchandise onIo Ihe IIeeIs and
gaIIeons, iI was said he was invoIved in Ihe Carrera de Ias !ndias.
AIIer aII, Ihis Ierm deIined a hisIoricaI caIegory IhaI enIaiIed Ihe
deveIopmenI oI a deIiniIive way oI IiIe, which was sIrongIy Iinked
or even sub|ecIed Io, Ihe evoIuIion oI a speciIic, buI noI IimiIed,
mercanIiIe-geographicaI sysIem, Ior Ihis sysIem was connecIed Io
oIher Irading areas IhaI did noI beIong Io Ihe Spanish empire buI
were inIrinsicaIIy Iinked Io iI.
273

The 'Crespo DynCoopNeI DaIa CoIIecIions' daIabase conIains
severaI gueries abouI acIions, agenIs, cooperaIion, IIeeIs and ships.
AII daIa have idenIiIiers IhaI reIaIe IabIes. !I has 21 IuII Iorms IhaI
give inIormaIion on cooperaIion among agenIs whiIe idenIiIying
parIners. LisIs wiIh goods and ships are incIuded. A IabIe named
'COOPRAT!ONS' is aIso deIined, in which aII Iorms oI commerciaI
reIaIionships - business, Company, SocieIy, eIc. -are represenIed
which Iake pIace beIween agenIs. This again is new as Ihe sIudy is
272 Te data base is: http://hdl.handle.net/10261/28394. Database on Atlantic Network oriented to
a Spatio-Temporal GIS, funding by MICINN Ref: MEC/AACC: SEJ2007-29226-E/SOCI.
273 Crespo Solana, Geostrategy, pp. 11-45
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
199
noI IimiIed Io a speciIic Iype oI commerciaI operaIion buI has been
exIended Io aII Iypes oI goods IransacIions in which Iwo or more
agenIs are invoIved, be iI IegaI or iIIegaI, be Ihe goods sIaves or
meIaIs. The ob|ecIive is Io idenIiIy aII Iypes oI commerciaI neIworks.
!n IacI, as agenIs we have peopIe, SocieIies, Companies, !nsIiIuIions,
eIc. There is aIso a IabIe named 'ACT!ONS' where aII acIiviIies or
acIions are enIered, such as money Iending, |ob commissioning, eIc.,
IhaI occurred wiIhin cooperaIion and were guoIed by Ihe sourced
used. This IabIe is reIaIed Io anoIher, very imporIanI one - 'SH!PS'.
Many oI Ihe remaining IabIes in Ihe iniIiaI Access daIabase sIore
IypoIogies - pIaces, proIessions, eIc. Having chosen Ihe previousIy
described IabIes as primary (AgenIs, CooperaIion, AcIions and
Ships) aIIows us Io anaIyze Ihe various commerciaI, proIessionaI
and inIerpersonaI reIaIionships beIween Ihe various agenIs, Iaying
Ihe emphasis on Iheir geographic IocaIion, chronoIogic momenI
and degree oI kinship; in shorI, Ihe cooperaIion neIworks Ihey
buiII. (e.g. Ihe imporIance oI NichoIas Magens as a merchanI, or
IhaI oI Ihe Roo or Ihe Amsick IamiIies, whose range oI acIion couId
spread Irom AIicanIe Io Iche in Spain or Irom Cadiz Io ManiIa via
Mexico. A very imporIanI aspecI is Ihe daIa's IemporaI componenI.
!n mosI cases Iwo IieIds have been seI up Ior Ihe daIe vaIue - a daIe-
IormaI one and a IexI one Ior when Ihe source does noI provide a
precise daIe or Ihe deIaiIs are inconcIusive. We Iace Ihe same issue
wiIh regards Io Ihe spaIiaI componenI - Iwo IieIds have been seI up,
one sIores Ihe precise name oI Ihe spoI and anoIher Ior addiIionaI
inIormaIion (e.g. Iemporary residency) or when Ihe currenI name
oI Ihe pIace is unknown and onIy Ihe oId one is guoIed. However, in
Ihis IirsI daIabase Ihe pIaces' geographic coordinaIes -IaIiIude and
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
200
IongiIude - were never inpuI. !n reIaIion Io Ihis componenI, a new,
diIIerenIiaIing, IeaIure oI Ihis pro|ecI is iIs geographicaI scope.
AIIhough based on a previous scope, Ihe AIIanIic, when sources
were invesIigaIed, speciaIIy Ihose on Irips and IamiIy neIworks, Ihe
scope widened Io encompass Ihe MediIerranean Sea, Ihe PaciIic
and even Ihe !ndian Ocean - Ihe IaIIer is speciaIIy reIevanI when
sIudying Ihe piraIes' acIions. ThaI is Io say, despiIe having sIarIed
Irom a pre-deIermined spaIiaI range, we have noI reIinguished
Ihe resI oI Ihe areas. Thus iI is highIighIed Ihe imporIance oI Ihe
cooperaIion neIworks IhaI exisIed in Ihe period sIudied and Ihe
aIready exisIing process oI gIobaIizaIion. On aII IabIes Ihe IieIds
NOTS and SOURCS have been added so IhaI every record has
aIIached iIs own remarks and source guoIed. ven on Ihe IabIes Ior
IypoIogies IieIds have been added Ior remarks and deIiniIions Ior
Ihose Ierms IhaI are disused, obsoIeIe or unknown, in an aIIempI Io
add cIariIy when doubIs arise.
The maIeriaI compiIed has been IimiIed Io a Iime
Irame coinciding wiIh a paradoxicaI age oI IengIhy revoIuIion,
characIerised by conIinuaI crises and sIaIes oI war due Io coIoniaI
compeIiIion and mariIime hegemony and in which diverse IacIors
combined IhaI encouraged inIegraIion and ineguaIiIy among Ihe
areas oI producIion and Ihe markeIs. The hisIoricaI conIexI Ied Io
macroeconomic aIIeraIions beIween Ihe SixIeenIh and ighIeenIh
CenIuries, producing an increase in demand, greaIer avaiIabiIiIy
oI capiIaI, demographic growIh, improvemenIs in agricuIIuraI
expIoiIaIion, an increase oI manuIacIuring producIion in some
regions oI urope and oIher deveIopmenIs which resuIIed in
changes in Ihe IiIesIyIe oI Ihe popuIaIions as weII as in Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
201
emergence oI new sociaI groups, above aII in ciIies.
274
Spanish
coIoniaI Irade during Ihis period oI Iime was sIrongIy inIerreIaIed
wiIh whaI has been caIIed Ihe AIIanIic sysIem, deIined as Ihe area oI
inIeracIion.
27S
!n reaIiIy, aII Ihe imperiaI coIonies wiIh a mercanIiIe
Irade base are arIicuIaIed around neIworks oI compIex, personaI
and non-Iinear reIaIionships. To a Iarge degree Ihe debaIes as Io
wheIher Ihere were various sysIems reIaIed Io Ihe socio-cuIIuraI,
economic and poIiIicaI characIerisIics oI each expansion modeI,
or |usI one sysIem in which Ihe processes oI each one inIeracIed
aIways Iied Io and never isoIaIed Irom Ihe resI, are cIoseIy reIaIed
Io a generaIized ignorance oI Ihe generaI Iheory oI sysIems and
Ihe absIracI deIiniIions oI Ihe meanings 'sysIem' and 'modeI' as
Ihey have been used by Ihe HisIoriography oI Ihe AIIanIic WorId
in recenI years. !n reaIiIy, a sysIem is a seI oI organized parIs or
eIemenIs and can Iorm parI oI anoIher Iarger seI, whiIe Ihe Ierm
modeI reIers Io an archeIype which can be reproduced or noI.
rom Ihis perspecIive, Ihe AIIanIic sysIem is Ihe whoIe made up oI
diverse parIs IhaI inIeracI, or diverse conIIicIing modeIs aIIhough
Ihey someIimes have a IoI in common.
276

One oI Ihe IacIors which gives coherence Io a commerciaI
sysIem is Ihe connecIion oI muIIipIe agenIs in a neIwork, Ior which
Ihe daIa provided by Ihe commerciaI endeavours in Ihe porIs by
274 Immanuel Wallerstein, El moderno sistema mundial II. El mercantilismo y la consolidacin de
la economa-mundo europea, 1600-1750, (Madrid, Ed. Siglo XXI, 1984), pp. 9-14. Francisco Comn, Mauro
Hernndez y Enrique Llopis, eds. Historia Econmica Mundial, siglos X-XX, (Barcelona, Ed. Crtica, 2005),
pp. 67-154.
275 Bernard Bailyn, Atlantic History. Concepts and Contours, Cambridge London, Harvard
University Press, 2005; Nicholas Canny, Atlantic History and Global History, en Pieper y Schmidt (eds.).
Latin America and the Atlantic World, pp. 25-35.
276 Santiago Ramrez, Teora General de Sistemas de Ludwig von Bertalanfy, Mxico, Universidad
Autnoma, 1999; Lars Skyttner, General Systems Teory. Problems, Perspectives, Practice, (World Scientifc
Publishing, Co. Pte. Ltd, 2005).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
202
agenIs and communiIies Iorm a raw maIeriaI Ior Iheir inIegraIion
in a process oI represenIaIion and visuaIisaIion. 8uI, in reaIiIy, Ihe
research around Ihe IuncIionaIiIy oI communiIies in mercanIiIe
socieIies and neIworks couId weII represenI a IundamenIaI
chapIer oI whaI couId be a gIobaI hisIory Iormed by a number oI
inIerwoven regionaI sIudies where a gIobaI vision wouId mean
a sIudy based on a regionaI economy or an uniI oI anaIysis, IhaI
is, Ihe economy oI Ihe various inIerreIaIed spaces in urope wiIh
diverging AIIanIic areas: 'an inIerIocking neIwork oI Irades shaped
by pubIic and privaIe inIeresIs'.
277
The inIormaIion coIIecIed in Ihis
daIabase aIso compIemenIs Iwo oIher daIabases IhaI reIer Io Irade
wiIh Asia and Ihe IinanciaI neIworks oI Ihe Spanish Monarchy.
278

Thanks Io a compIeIe Ieam eIIorI, Ihree greaI daIa bases have been
creaIed which oIIer Iwo imporIanI poinIs in common: Ihe Ihree are
inIegraIed and Iocused on Ihe sIudy oI agenIs as cuIIuraI, economic,
sociaI, poIiIicaI and IinanciaI mediaIors, beIween Ihe SixIeenIh and
SevenIeenIh CenIuries. These daIabases deIine Ihe very geography
oI Ihe sysIem and iIs parIs; Ihey are accessibIe via Ihe !nIerneI, and
are Ihe raw maIeriaI Ior Ihe creaIion oI a Ceographic !nIormaIion
SysIem abouI Ihe neIworks oI mercanIiIe cooperaIion in whaI is
caIIed Ihe IirsI CIobaI Age.
279
They aim Io oIIer represenIaIive
modeIs IhaI can be visuaIised oI Ihe Iypes oI mercanIiIe cooperaIion
in Ihe mechanisms which arIicuIaIed Ihe IinanciaI neIworks oI Ihe
Spanish Monarchy, Ihe expansion oI Ihe PorIuguese empire, IhaI
'shadow empire' which Winius
280
deIined, Ihe sIave Irade
281
, gender
277 David Ormrod, Te rise of commercial Empires. England and Te Netherlands in the age of
Mercantilism, 1650-1770, (Cambridge University Press, 2003).
278 Vid chapters 7 and 8 of this book.
279 Ut supra, chapter 5.
280 G. D. Winius, Te Shadow Empire of Goa in the Bay of Bengal. Itinerrio 7 (2), 1983, pp. 83-
101.
281 Slave Voyages Data Base (vid. Chapter 3 of this book): David Eltis y David Richardson,
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
203
and race reIaIionships in AIrica and AIro-America, Irade in Ihe
SouIh PaciIic, Ihe reIaIionships oI Ihe big uropean monopoIy
companies in Asia and Ihe Americas; Spanish Irade wiIh Ihe
Americas in parIicuIar, and uropean Irade oI Ihe monopoIy
companies in gIobaI exchange scenarios in generaI.
282
AII Ihese
'sociaI environmenIs' creaIed by Ihe diIIerenI behaviour modeIs oI
Ihe uropean naIions in Iheir commerciaI expansion had a Iarge
degree oI inIeracIion beIween IhemseIves. !n reaIiIy, Ihis conIexI
oI uropean expansion in Ihis Iong phase oI modern and coIoniaI
hisIory ended in Ihe IormaIion oI a singIe sysIem where diIIerenI
behaviour modeIs Iook parI, which gave rise, eIIecIiveIy, Io a
scenario where many variabIes inIermingIe and musI give sIabiIiIy
Io Ihe sysIem aIIhough wiIh diIIerenI hisIoric biIurcaIions aImosI
aIways produced by exIernaI phenomena or processes buI which
have managed Io aIIer or desIabiIize aII Ihe IacIors and in a modeI
generaIIy characIerised by endemic vioIence as weII.
283
This kind oI
anaIysis is generaIIy beyond Ihe scope oI Ihe daIabases, so IhaI Ihe
visuaIisaIion oI daIa in an hisIo-ric C!S wouId be meIhodoIogicaI,
adeguaIe Ior Ihe inIegraIion oI Ihe daIa, Ihe visuaIisaIion and Ihe
creaIion oI IheoreIicaI behaviour modeIs in Ihe hisIoricaI sysIems.
89, )#%415"%&'51: ") 19, 0,$49&%1 4"00#%51:
The use oI Ihis daIabase has various goaIs aIIhough iI may
be open Io oIher possibiIiIies in Ihe IuIure. !n Ihe Iramework oI
hisIoricaI anaIysis, some oI Ihese goaIs reIaIe Io Ihe possibiIiIy
Extending the frontiers. Essays on the new Transatlantic slave database, (Yale U. Press, 2008).
282 Explained in Ana Crespo Solana, Data Sets on Cooperation, Paper presented at TECT fnal
Conference, Budapest, 15-17 September, 2010. Available in: http://www.esf.org/activities/eurocores/
running-programmes/tect/events/tect-fnal-conference.
283 Vid chapter 1 of this book.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
204
oI compIemenIing Ihe descripIive modeI oI a mercanIiIe coIony,
undersIanding iI on Iwo IeveIs: IocaI/individuaI/coIIecIive on Ihe
one hand (IhaI is Io say, on Ihe IeveI oI Ihe IocaI communiIy) and
on Ihe oIher, as being made up oI Ihe componenIs oI Ihese IocaI
communiIies in Iheir roIe as agenIs in Ihe mercanIiIe neIworks, a
nuance which has a cIear IransnaIionaI eIemenI Irom Ihe sociaI
and economic poinI oI view. 8oIh approaches invoIve geographic
guesIions, buI Ihis IasI one has greaIer scope, recognising Ihe
IuncIionaIiIy oI Ihe neIworks as connecIors oI broad areas oI
cuIIuraI and commerciaI exchange, aIong wiIh being Iinked Io Ihe
anaIysis oI Ihe Irade rouIes.
284
or exampIe, some oI Ihe coIonies
mosI devoIed Io Spanish Irade wiIh America have characIerisIics
IhaI can be exIrapoIaIed Ior Ihe sIudy oI oIher communiIies oI
oIher naIionaIiIies and cuIIuraI, poIiIicaI, and reIigious proIiIes in
diIIerenI parIs oI Ihe worId IhaI was inIerconnecIed during Ihe
cenIuries oI coIoniaI expansion. WhiIsI on some noIabIe occasions,
Ihere has been more in depIh sIudy on guesIions oI poIiIicaI
Iranscendence or cuIIuraI idenIiIy, Ihe ma|oriIy oI Ihe uniIying
criIeria oI mosI oI Ihe mercanIiIe communiIies are Ihose which
reIaIe Io Iheir sociaI and economic characIers and Iheir meIhods
oI inIegraIing inIo Ihe diIIerenI business neIworks. !n Ihe IasI
decade, sIudies abouI Ihese communiIies have been considerabIy
broadened by new perspecIives IhaI sIarIing Irom Ihe IocaI and
IransnaIionaI IeveIs oI anaIysis menIioned above, expand Io incIude
a geographic impIicaIion, nameIy IhaI oI Ihe commerciaI circuiIs
wiIh Iheir mariIime or Iand rouIes. !n shorI, invesIigaIions IhaI
deIve beyond Ihe coIony Io comparaIiveIy anaIyse Ihe commerciaI
284 Crespo Solana, El comercio martimo, pp. 34.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
205
dimension and Ihe scope oI Ihe businesses Ihrough Ihe mariIime
rouIes and porI encIaves.
28S
Regarding Ihe merchanIs as economic
agenIs, iI is possibIe Io cIariIy one issue, which is IhaI Ihe whoIe
oI urope Iook parI in Ihe Spanish economic expansion and
conIribuIed Io Ihe IormuIaIion oI Ihe modeI oI sociaI and mercanIiIe
exchange IhaI resuIIed. oreign communiIies are omnipresenI and
preponderanI Irom Ihe very sIarI oI Spanish Irade wiIh Ihe Americas
despiIe some Iaws decreed againsI Ihis by Ihe CasIiIian crown, which
are in IacI very ambiguous, because Ihey subIiminiaIIy aIIowed
cIandesIine parIicipaIion.
286
!n IacI, merchanIs oI aII naIionaIiIies
Iook parI in diIIerenI ways, which necessariIy Iavoured Ihe creaIion
oI compIex reIaIionships oI compeIiIion and cooperaIion.
DocumenIary and prinIed sources have been used Io
creaIe Ihe daIabase, in addiIion Io consuIIing Ihe enIire exisIing
bibIiography abouI Spanish Irade wiIh Ihe Americas. WhaI is
very cIear is Ihe IacI IhaI Ihere are some probIems wiIh Ihe
sources, as Ihere are many gaps in Ihe inIormaIion which has
IradiIionaIIy made iI diIIicuII Io deIine Ihe group IhaI is Ihe sub|ecI
oI Ihe invesIigaIion, IhereIore given our preIerence Ior sIudying
Ihe mercanIiIe neIworks, we have chosen Io anaIise mercanIiIe
coIonies oI diIIerenI origins since Ihey oIIer hisIorians Ihe greaIesI
possibiIiIies Ior sIudying speciIic groups, above Ihe hierarchies and
sociaI diIIerences marked by Ihe characIerisIics oI uropean socie-
Iy oI Ihe OId Regime. The sources which have been mosI used Io in-
285 Examples in: Mara Jess Arazola Corvera, Hombres, barcos y comercio de la ruta Cdiz- Buenos
Aires (1737-1757), (Sevilla, Diputacin, 1998); Crespo Solana, El comercio martimo; Mara Nlida Garca
Fernndez, Comerciando con el enemigo: El trfco mercantil anglo-espaol en el siglo XVIII (1700-1765),
Madrid, CSIC, 2006;
286 Ana Crespo Solana, Legal Strategies and Smuggling Mechanisms in the Trade with the
Hispanic Caribbean by Foreign Merchants in Cadiz: Te Dutch and Flemish Case, 1680-1750, Jahrbuch fr
Geschichte Lateinamerikas, 47, 2010, pp. 181-212.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
206
vesIigaIe Ihe roIe oI Ihe agenIs are Ihe noIariaI documenI archives,
which have enabIed Ihe Iorm oI uropean Irade oI Ihe OId Regime
Io be proIiIed, iIs sociaI behaviour, iIs Iypes oI acIiviIies, eIc. An
imporIanI meIhodoIogicaI guesIion is Ihe compIemenIing oI
noIariaI and privaIe sources consuIIed in diIIerenI uropean ciIies.
!n shorI, when a mercanIiIe coIony is sIudied, one musI chose
sources in Ihe ciIies oI deparIure and seIIIemenI oI Ihe merchanIs,
|usI as ! have indicaIed in earIier reporIs works.
287



>,1+"$?6 &%- ;,')<N$.&%565%.
!n an increasingIy more gIobaI mercanIiIe Iramework and in
some urban cenIres sIrongIy marked by cosmopoIiIanism, Ihe seII-
organising neIworks oI Irade Iormed around Ihe agenIs IhemseIves.
They were Ihe resuII oI some 'socieIies' |oined by economic inIeresIs
IhaI supporIed regionaI growIh, and Ihe overcoming oI barriers oI
space and Iime. !I was aI Ihe same Iime Ihe guaranIee oI susIainabiIiIy
oI Ihe ways oI IiIe in Ihe socieIies Iied Io Ihe gIobaI economy. 8uI
whaI were Ihe 'seII-organising neIworks', whaI do Ihey represenI
Irom Ihe hisIoricaI, socioIogicaI, or anIhropoIogicaI poinI oI view
and how can one appIy Ihis IheoreIicaI Iramework Io Ihe sIudy oI
mercanIiIe neIworks in Ihe SixIeenIh Io ighIeenIh CenIuries. !n
Ihis pro|ecI we have used Ihis concepI IhaI originaIIy arose in oIher
IieIds (physics, chemisIry, bioIogy, arIiIiciaI inIeIIigence, and generaI
sysIems Iheory) buI which has been adopIed by socioIogy in Ihe
pasI Iwo decades
288
Io reIer Io Ihe agenIs, as acIors in Ihe hisIoricaI
287 Ana Crespo Solana, Entre Cdiz y los Pases Bajos. Una comunidad mercantil en la ciudad de la
Ilustracin, (Cdiz, Ctedra Adolfo de Castro, 2001).
288 J. B. Owens, A Multi-national, Multi-disciplinary Study of Trade Networks and the Domains of
Iberian Monarchies during the First Global Age, 1400-1800, Society for Spanish and Portuguese Historical
Studies: Bulletin, 33, 2 (2008).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
207
processes (IransIaIed as 'seIIorganising neIworks'). SpeciIicaIIy,
here a meaning esIabIished by speciaIisIs in economy and Ihe
hisIory oI economy is preIerred, which deIines Ihem as compIex
and IIexibIe nucIei which Iorm inIegraIed, evoIuIionary neIworks
in Ihe hisIoricaI Iramework corresponding Io Ihe cenIuries oI
Ihe Modern ra, Ihrough Iraders, producers, communiIies, and
governmenI oIIiciaIs. !n Ihe case oI Ihe sIudies abouI IransnaIionaI
communiIies, a deIiniIion reIaIed Io Ihe inIrinsic IuncIioning oI Ihe
'SociaI NeIworks' has been used, regarding Ihem as being IIexibIe
commerciaI neIworks, oI inIernaIionaI scope and based on IamiIy
or business reIaIionships.
289

A number oI IooIs have been used Ior Ihe anaIysis oI Ihe
neIworks, based on some meIhodoIogicaI concepIs appIied recenIIy
Io hisIoricaI-sociaI sIudies, especiaIIy in Ihe case oI sIudies abouI
Ihe IamiIy in modern Spain.
290
The UC!NT IooI was aIso used, as
weII as a new appIicaIion generaIed by Ihe IocaI inIerIace oI Ihe
DynCoopNeI pro|ecI.

According Io Ihese graphicaI represenIaIions,
a commerciaI neIwork spread noI |usI on a IocaI IeveI buI aIso over
a broad IerresIriaI and mariIime area, aImosI aIways made up by a
series oI shorIer connecIions wiIh dozens oI porI ciIies acIing as
poinIs oI Iransmission and IransIer. The reIaIionships among
Ihe neIworks produced diIIerenI represenIaIions Ior exIension
and densiIy and cIearIy showed Ihe characIerisIics oI a compIex
neIwork. The diagram (Diagram 1) represenIs Ihe exisIing
connecIions among various commerciaI agenIs coIIecIed in Ihe
'CrespoDynCoopNeI DaIa CoIIecIion' daIabase, using Ihe UC!NT
289 Margrit Schulte-Beerbhl, Mercaderes hamburgueses en Londres y sus redes de comercio
internacional (1660-1815), Crespo Solana, Comunidades Transnacionales, pp. 103-116.
290 Jos Mara Imizcoz Beunza, Familia y redes sociales en la Espaa Moderna, Francisco Javier
Lorenzo Pinar (ed.) La Familia en la Historia, Universidad de Salamanca, AquiLaFuente, 2009, pp. 135- 186.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
208
soIIware. This neIwork represenIaIion is very absIracI as iI onIy
shows graphs and nodes wiIhouI presenIing Ihe properIies oI Ihese
nodes.
-/#5&#; >C CommerciaI NeIwork ModeI Using Ihe UC!NT TooI.
!n Diagram 2, a represenIaIion oI sociaI reIaIionships
according Io Ihe neIwork anaIysis IooI incIuded in Ihe 'DynCoopNeI
DaIa provider' has been esIabIished, Ior now onIy operaIive on Ihe
IocaI IeveI.
291
The advanIage oI Ihis soIIware deveIoped by RoberIo
MaesIre MarIInez is IhaI iI enIaiIs reIIecIing Ihe idenIiIy oI Ihe
agenIs as weII as some oI Iheir sociaI and economic aIIribuIes or
properIies, such as Ihe individuaI's sociaI sIaIus or daIa abouI a
speciIic commerciaI company or acIiviIy aI a speciIic momenI in
Iime. The nexI sIep is Io incIude Ihis neIwork represenIaIion modeI
in a C!S wiIh various Iayers where inIormaIion abouI Ihe agenIs
conIained in Ihe daIabase can be incIuded: idenIiIy, characIerisIics,
291 Vid chapter 5 of this book
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
209
Irades, sociaI and economic sIaIus, acIiviIies Ihey carry ouI, eIc.
!n shorI, Ihis anaIysis IooI aims Io be improved in Ihe IuIure wiIh
Ihe goaI oI reIIecIing more daIa in Iayers reIaIing Io sociaI and
behaviouraI aIIribuIes oI Ihe agenIs.
-/#5&#; @C xampIe oI a SociaI NeIwork in Cdiz aI Ihe end oI Ihe
ighIeenIh CenIury.
The agenIs compiIed in Ihis represenIaIion were ciIizens
oI Cdiz, aImosI aII oI Ihem reIaIed Io Ihe mercanIiIe worId,
beIween 1770 and 1843. They are oI various naIionaIiIies, incIuding
Spanish. They incIude severaI women (beIonging Io Ihe merchanI
cIan oI Cerman origin, surname IIerman, whose IamiIy Iree as
weII as Iheir commerciaI acIiviIies have been sIudied by KIaus
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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210
Weber).
292
Thanks Io iIs represenIaIion iI is possibIe Io visuaIise Ihe
Ihreads inIerIaced among Ihe neIworks and Io esIabIish Iheir
IheoreIicaI IypoIogy in reIaIion Io Ihe Iorms oI cooperaIion or
conIIicI. !n Ihe Spanish Irade wiIh Ihe Americas, a commerciaI
sysIem oI proIecIion was imposed IhaI was noneIheIess
demoIished in pracIice by Ihe inIormaIion neIworks and conIroI
oI producIion areas and markeIs underIaken by Ihe 8riIish and
DuIch Irom Ihe second haII oI Ihe SevenIeenIh CenIury. This
modeI oI AIIanIic neIwork seems Io oppose Ihe one described by
AnIoni Picazo Ior Ihe case oI commerce in Ihe ManiIa region
293
.
This map oIIers a visuaIisaIion oI Ihe scope reached by Ihe
businesses esIabIished by various DuIch companies IhaI Iraded
wiIh Cdiz Ihrough various Iemish agenIs and consignees. The
residenI commerciaI Iirms in AmsIerdam negoIiaIed Ihrough
Ihe rouIe IhaI uniIed various porIs oI Ihe 8aIIic, AIIanIic-
uropean coasI, !berian PeninsuIar and Ihe MediIerranean,
wiIh Cadiz being a key connecIion Ior deaIing wiIh various
American porIs.
294
292 Klaus Weber, Deutsche Kaufeute im Atlantikhandel, 1680-1830, (Munchen: Verlag C. H. 2004),
p. 398.
293 Picazo i Muntaner, Antoni Picazo i Muntaner, Cooperacin y colaboracin en la primera edad
global, 1400-1800. Modelos comerciales mercantilistas en el Indio (Pacfco, E-book, IdeaIndia.com, 2010),
pp. 104-106.
294 Data in: Crespo Solana, El comercio martimo, Fletes Amsterdam-Cdiz, pp. 118-123. Te
Map has been ellaborated by May Yuan (University of Oklahoma and researcher of DynCoopNet project);
Crespo Solana, Redes de dependencia inter-imperial? Aproximaciones tericas a la funcionalidad de los
agentes de comercio en la expansin de las sociedades mercantiles, Igor Prez Tostado y Enrique Garca
Hernn (eds.) Irlanda y el Atlntico Ibrico. Movilidad, participantes e intercambio cultural, (Valencia,
Albatros Ediciones, 2010), pp. 35-50.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
211
T#)? Scope oI 8usiness oI CommerciaI irms AmsIerdam (1702-1738).
29S

!I is probabIe IhaI in Ihe IuIure, Ihe graphic and spaIiaI-
IemporaI represenIaIion oI Ihe neIworks in Iheir hisIoric evoIuIion
wiII make iI possibIe Io esIabIish wheIher Ihe work carried ouI
wiIhin Ihe neIwork enabIed Ihe commerciaI pracIices Io spread
rapidIy, wheIher as a resuII oI Ihem cuIIuraI diversiIy was
reduced, wheIher Ihey conIribuIed Io promoIing more speciaIised
producIion and division oI work, Ihe encouragemenI oI economic
diversiIy or cerIain communiIies becoming more speciaIised
around acIiviIies oI commerce, Iinance, or Iarming, eIc. Perhaps
Ihey can shed more IighI on wheIher Ihe esIabIishmenI oI neIworks
aIIowed Ior Ihe expIoiIaIion oI resources in Ihe mosI eIIicienI buI
aIso more aggressive way wiIh Ihe environmenI, made socieIies
richer buI aIso more hierarchicaI, and encouraged sociaI ineguaIiIy
and eIhnic and reIigious disIrusI.
296

When anaIysing Ihe spaIiaI organizaIion oI Ihe commerciaI
neIworks around Ihe acIiviIies oI uroAmerican Irade, Ihese
295 Map made by Prof. May Yuan, University of Oklahoma, USA.
296 McNeill & McNeill, Las redes, pp. 134-278.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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212
neIworks can be undersIood as inIormaI mechanisms IodeIermine
inIormaIion in markeIs abouI producIs and rouIes. The very way
in which Ihe 'merchanI naIions' were made up encouraged Ihe
spreading oI a neIwork oI muIuaIism and IrusI based on IamiIy
Iies buI above aII on Ihe repuIaIion oI some individuaIs in Ihe
coIony IhaI was heId IogeIher by a series oI conIacIs who provided
Ihem wiIh inIormaIion. ParIners and inIormanIs Iormed Ihe basic
cenIraI nodes in Ihe neIwork oI a parIicuIar merchanI buI in Ihis
case, Ihey couId vary according Io pIace, a phenomenon IhaI is
aIso a characIerisIic oI compIex sysIems. This variaIion does noI
depend so much on Ihe IocaIion as on Ihe coIIecIive idenIiIy oI Ihe
coIony. or exampIe, in Ihe Cdiz oI Ihe ighIeenIh CenIury, iI was
common Ior Ihe mosI esIabIished merchanIs oI a mercanIiIe coIony
Io organise Iheir neIwork oI members according Io Ihis criIerion.
The Iemish merchanIs served as a Iink Ior conIacIs among oIher
agenIs, in Ihe main IransienIs, |usI as ! have shown in describing
how Ihe Iemish Iraders who reveaIed Iheir oIdesI IradiIion Io
Spanish socieIy used Ihe sociaI and insIiIuIionaI supporI oI a
series oI corporaIe bodies (among Ihem Ihe sIewardship oI Ihe
counIry or Ihe 8roIherhood oI SainI Andrew) Io consoIidaIe Iheir
conIacIs wiIh Ihe new waves oI immigranI merchanIs, many oI
Ihem originaIIy Irom Ihe NeIherIands in Ihe norIh, who suppIied
Ihem wiIh capiIaI and merchandise Io conIinue deveIoping Iheir
commerciaI acIiviIies.
297
The same Ihing happened, Ior exampIe, in
Ihe case oI 8asgue and Navarran Iraders.
298

AnoIher exampIe oI Ihe phenomena IhaI can be seen wiIh
297 Crespo Solana, Entre Cdiz, pp. 189 y ss.
298 Victoria E. Martnez del Cerro Gonzlez, Una comunidad de comerciantes navarros y vascos en
Cdiz (Segunda mitad del siglo XVIII), (Sevilla, Consejo Econmico y Social de Andaluca, 2006), pp. 219 y
ss.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
213
Ihe coIIecIion oI diIIerenI Iayers oI inIormaIion in Ihe represenIaIion
oI neIworks reIers Io a sub|ecI sIiII worIhy oI IuIure research,
IhaI being Ihe emergence oI new ways and behaviours, and Iheir
simiIariIies and dispariIies in sociaI, cuIIuraI, and eIhnic conIexIs.
!n Ihe case oI Ihe commerciaI and IinanciaI neIworks oI Ihe
Spanish Monarchy in iIs AIIanIic-American expansion, Ihese were
generaIing various superimposed processes oI migraIion, Irade,
mission work, IechnoIogy IransIer, bioIogicaI exchange and miIiIary
conguesIs, Ior which Ihese neIworks were Ihe primary noduIes Ior
Ihe esIabIishmenI oI channeIs where cerIain inIeracIions reIaIing
Io Ihe mosI compIex Iorms oI coIIaboraIion Iook pIace.

A""C,$&15"% &%- )"$06 ") 1$&-,
A represenIaIion oI Ihe mercanIiIe neIworks visuaIIy
demonsIraIes IhaI Ihe AIIanIic worId oI Ihe IirsI CIobaI ra was a
smaII worId. !I was a case oI maIhemaIicaI connecIion in a compIex
sysIem according Io Ihe modeI proposed in Ihe IormuIa oI WaIz
and SIrogarIz, presenIing Ihe agenIs' or enIiIies' (in said neIwork
represenIaIion) muIIipIe common connecIions wiIhin Ihe neIwork
as weII as common ancesIors.
299
!n Diagram 3 Ihe greaI densiIy
reached, Ior exampIe, by Ihe superposiIion oI muIIipIe merchanI
neIworks IhaI operaIed beIween various connecIed porI ciIies in
Ihe AIIanIic economy is shown.
299 Ricard Sol, Redes Complejas. Del genoma a Internet. (Barcelona, Tusquets editores, 2009), pp.
44-46.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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-/#5&#; AC xampIe oI DensiIy Reached by Ihe MerchanI NeIworks
(ighIeenIh CenIury).
This represenIaIion is muIIidimensionaI which makes iI
diIIicuII Io visuaIise unIess one uses Ihe C!S. !I has daIa regarding
Ihe acIiviIies carried ouI by a Iarge sampIe oI commerciaI Iirms,
diIIerenIiaIing beIween agenIs and companies, considering Ihese
as IaIenI Iorms oI cooperaIion among economic parIies. ThereIore
Ihe daIa reIaIing Io AgenIs comprise Ihe main basis Ior Ihe creaIion
oI Ihe daIabase's concepIuaI modeI. The main sIrucIure oI Ihis
iniIiaI daIabase is buiII around a IabIe 'PruebaAgenIes' in which
aII biographic daIa reIaIed Io Ihe individuaI agenIs are enIered
Iaking inIo accounI Ihe various 'worIds' each agenI beIongs Io -
sociaI, economic... An individuaI sIudy and cIassiIicaIion has been
carried ouI Ior each agenI; Ihen an aIIempI has been made Io
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
215
undersIand Ihe coIIecIiviIy as Ihe sum IoIaI oI aII Ihese individuaIs
since aII oI Ihese are reIaIed, as can be observed in Ihe daIabase.
!n reIaIion Io Ihe agenIs, whaI is new abouI Ihis iniIiaI daIabase is
IhaI Ihe invesIigaIion is noI IimiIed Io agenIs who are merchanIs by
proIession. !nsIead, any reIevanI daIa has been coIIecIed reIaIed Io
any agenI IhaI Iakes parI in cooperaIion: represenIaIives, corsairs
and piraIes, capiIaIisI parIners, agenIs, consignees, eIc. AII oI
Ihe IaIIer are agenIs Iaking parI in cooperaIion and are parI oI a
gIobaI neIwork oI Irade, smuggIing, IooIing or any oIher Iype oI
cooperaIion or commerciaI operaIion.
300
!n sum, a IoIaI oI 19,007
commerciaI agenIs wiIh Iheir respecIive daIa, pIace oI origin, years
during which, according Io Ihe documenIaIion, Ihey are in Cdiz,
wheIher Ihey are regisIered in Ihe ConsuIaIe or noI, reIigion, daIe
oI birIh or deaIh, eIc. have been coIIecIed. !n many cases, Ihe daIa
are incompIeIe aIIhough some are capabIe oI being broadened
and improved. DocumenIary and bibIiographic sources are noIed,
where more inIormaIion abouI Ihe agenIs can be obIained.
The daIa abouI Ihe agenIs oIIers inIormaIion abouI diIIerenI
ways oI Irading IhaI heIp Io describe a IypoIogy oI cooperaIion
|usI as iI is reIIecIed in Ihe documenIaIion used. !n generaI Ierms,
Ihe esIabIishmenI and ensuing expansion oI a speciIic neIwork is
reIaIed Io whaI is Ihe main Iorm oI commerciaI acIiviIy, based on
Ihe IransporIaIion oI producIs Ihrough diIIerenI means. To Ihis end,
Ihe merchanIs usuaIIy associaIe IhemseIves, organizing socieIies,
mercanIiIe companies, individuaI or monopoIy, or 'business Iirms'
in Ihe Iorm oI an inIormaI agreemenI beIween Iwo, Ihree or more
individuaIs wiIh Ihe goaI oI organizing various Iypes oI business
300 Vid artculo: Modelling and implementation of a spatio-temporal historic GIS.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
216
around a commerciaI Irip, such as Ihe exampIe oI Ihe business
VaIenIIn Perez de DuniIague carries ouI in Cdiz.
301
Some oI Ihe
Iorms oI commerciaI cooperaIion IhaI are evidenced in Ihe daIabase
reIer Io Ihe esIabIishmenI by verbaI conIracI oI a business company,
someIhing IhaI was perhaps Ihe done Ihing and a reason why iI is
so diIIicuII Io Iind deeds oI Irading companies in Ihe ighIeenIh
CenIury. !n Ihis Iramework, many Iorms oI cooperaIion arise Irom
Ihe very sIrucIure oI Ioreign and Spanish coIoniaI Irade in Ihe SixIh
Io ighIh CenIuries, based on Ihe monopoIy which in Iurn invoIved
Ihe emergence oI many symbioIic Iorms oI mercanIiIe behaviour
under Ihe proIecIion oI Ihe oIIen ambiguous Spanish Iaws, especiaIIy
in reIaIion Io Ihe parIicipaIion oI Ioreigners in Ihe Carrera de
!ndias.
302
This meanI IhaI merchanIs had Io come Io agreemenIs
based on reciprociIy and IrusI. NeverIheIess Ihe Cadiz Irading area
was aIso a IronIier prone Io cooperaIion, coIIaboraIion (creaIing
undersIanding beIween various agenIs wiIh Ihe aim oI Iearning
Irom one anoIher) and conspiracy. Conspiracy is aIso a Iorm oI
cooperaIion, according Io Ihe gIossary creaIed by MaIIhew CioIek.
303

This encouraged compeIiIion wiIhin Ihe same neIworks and, in
Iurn, Ihe increase oI consumpIion (Iike IhaI seen in some economic
cenIres) gave rise Io Ihe growIh oI Ihe number oI agenIs dedicaIed
Io brokering Ihe disIribuIion oI Ihose producIs, boIh wiIhin as weII
as ouIside oI Ihe ciIy (on regionaI or inIernaIionaI IeveIs). !n many
parIs, Ihey were Ihe ones who did Ihe mosI Io encourage Ihe increase
in demand Ior many producIs. They aIso inIIuenced Ihe creaIion oI
301 Ana Crespo Solana, Mercaderes Atlnticos. Redes del comercio famenco y holands entre Europa
y el Caribe, (Crdoba, Universidad de Crdoba, Caja Sur, 2009), p. 27.
302 Crespo Solana, Dutch Mercantile Networks, p. 117.
303 Matthew T. Ciolek, (ed.) Self-organizing Cooperative Networks: a glossary of interlinked
theoretical concepts, Canberra: www.ciolek.com.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
217
insIiIuIions, IinanciaI insIrumenIs or mercanIiIe Iechnigues. !n Ihis
siIuaIion and in Ihe speciIic case oI Ihe AndaIusian ciIies oI SeviIIe
and Cdiz, Ihe poIiIicaI and insIiIuIionaI Iramework IhaI occurred
in IhaI chronoIogicaI Iramework was aIso imporIanI in Ihe success
or IaiIure oI some oI Ihese Iorms oI mercanIiIe cooperaIion. Some oI
Ihe acIiviIies IhaI Ihis inIernaI machinery mosI needed were Ioans,
coIIecIion oI asseIs, appoinImenI oI commerciaI represenIaIives
aboard Ihe ships on which Ihe merchandise IraveIIed, eIc. These
Iorms oI Irading became more compIex because oI aImosI non-
exisIenI biIaIeraI Irading, in Ihe ighIeenIh CenIury, as Ihe sysIem oI
commission-based Irading enIaiIed diIIerenI scaIes oI business IhaI
Iook pIace during Ihe course oI Ihe Iong commerciaI voyages made
by Ihe ships. Thus, Irom Ihe IocaI IeveI oI Ihe mercanIiIe coIonies'
businesses, Ihe conIacIs beIween members increasingIy invoIved a
muIIiIaIeraI neIwork in a common Irade oI inIeresI Io aII Ihe naIions
buI which were, paradoxicaIIy in Iurn, greaI compeIiIors among
IhemseIves on an insIiIuIionaI, sIaIe or monopoIy company IeveI.
As has been indicaIed beIore, Ihe ship crews who Iook parI in Ihe
AIIanIic Irading were aIso a cIear reIIecIion oI Ihis muIIiIaIeraIiIy
Ior Ihey were aImosI aIways made up oI individuaIs oI diIIerenI
naIionaIiIies, and even diIIerenI races and reIigions.
304

!n generaI Ierms, Ihe agenI neIworks revoIved around
diIIerenI economic inIeresIs IhaI invoIved diIIerenI Iypes oI
businesses wiIhin a singIe commerciaI circuiI. Thus, one couId
say IhaI a commerciaI voyage couId come Io be represenIed wiIh
a cerIain granuIariIy, depending on Ihe guanIiIy oI avaiIabIe
304 Ramn Aizpurua Aguirre, El corso de la Compaa Guipuzcoana: los casos de la lancha San
Fernando y de la balandra Nuestra Seora de Arnzazu, Itsas Memorias. Revista de Estudios Martimos
del Pas Vasco, 5, Untzi, (San Sebastin: Untzi, Museo Naval, 2006), pp. 379-392; Picazo i Muntaner,
Cooperacin y colaboracin, pp. 130 y ss.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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218
inIormaIion. This can be seen when Ihe sIeps or spaIiaI-IemporaI
phases oI a speciIic business are anaIysed, generaIIy underIaken
over Ihe course oI various |ourneys made by a ship, which in Ihe
daIa base we have caIIed 'specIre' and which in Ihe daIa modeI is
incIuded in a IabIe.
30S

A comparaIive sIudy oI Ihe cooperaIion can be made iI we
anaIyse mercanIiIe behaviours in diIIerenI economic sysIems or
subsysIems. !n many oI Ihese cases, merchanIs who wish Io geI
inIo a speciIic region are hindered, such as in Ihe case oI Spanish
merchanIs in Ihe SevenIeenIh CenIury, as demonsIraIed by AnIonI
Picazo. NoneIheIess, Ihere are cIear exampIes oI coIIaboraIion
among Ihe greaI Irading companies IhemseIves, such as Ihe ngIish
!ndian Company and Ihe Vereeningde OosIindische Compagnie,
which were reIIecIed in Ihe impIemenIaIion oI a Iramework oI
buying and seIIing, in which merchanIs oI diIIerenI naIionaIiIies
Iook parI.
306
!n Ihose cases, Iwo inIeresIing guesIions resuIIed: Ihe
sociaI agenIs used Ihe insIiIuIions Io seI IegaI obsIacIes againsI
oIher mercanIiIe groups and Ihe agenIs who were vicIims oI Ihis
opposiIion aIways generaIed mechanisms Io overcome Ihese bad
paIches or Ihe siIuaIions IhaI discrediIed Iheir commerciaI acIiviIy.
The cooperaIion mechanisms aIso show IhaI Ihe neIworks were
diIIerenI in scaIe, boIh in Ierms oI Iheir scope as weII as in Ihe
densiIy wiIh which Ihey were inIerIwined, aIIhough IiIIIe by IiIIIe
Ihey became more and more dense.
307
One oI Ihe reasons Ior Ihe
densiIicaIion oI Ihese neIworks in Ihe case oI Ihe represenIaIion
305 DynCoopNet Spatio-Temporal GIS, p. 12.
306 Anton Picazo Muntaner, Comercio y colaboracin en el mar del Sur: el ejemplo del patache
San Buenaventura, en Isidro Dubert y Hortensio Sobrado Correa (ed.) El mar en los siglos modernos, 2
tomos, (Santiago de Compostela, 2009), Tomo I. pp. 485-489.
307 McNeill y McNeill, Las redes, p. 180.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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219
oI daIa reIaIing Io Ihe Spanish AIIanIic Irade was IhaI mosI oI
Ihe business was carried ouI Ihrough Ihe sysIem oI Irade on a
commission basis IhaI was generaIIy Iounded on IrusI, someIimes
upheId by kinship, or Ihe achievemenI on Ihe parI oI a speciIic
businessman, oI mainIaining Ihe same parIners and agenIs Ior a
Iong Iime. !n Ihe case oI many coIonies oI Ioreign merchanIs who
negoIiaIed wiIh Ihe Americas Ihrough Cdiz, Ihis was represenIed
Ihrough Ihe seIIing up oI branches which incIuded Ihe mercanIiIe
businesses oI various commerciaI Iirms, as has been deduced
Irom Ihe anaIysis oI Iheir insoIvency proceedings. The seIIing up
oI branches was a Iorm oI IransnaIionaI business cooperaIion
IhaI couId noI Iake pIace wiIhouI Ihe IrusI generaIed by Ihe sociaI
inIegraIion oI individuaIs on a IocaI IeveI. NoneIheIess, in Ihese
sociaI Irameworks, an agenI had Io reIy on enough conIacIs and
reIaIionships so as Io IocaIe Ihe mosI reIiabIe consignees and
commerciaI represenIaIives. This was aImosI aIways done Ihanks Io
Ihe IransIer oI sociaI inIormaIion beIween Ihe parenI commerciaI
Iirms and Ihe residenIs abroad Irom Ihose business companies.
Thus, Ihe search Ior Ihe besI conIacI Io seI up branches in a speciIic
commerciaI markeI was made across a neIwork oI inIormanIs
and repuIabIe Iriends oI Ihe primary agenI who was obIiged, so
Io speak, Io beIieve in Iheir IraveIIing members and agenIs.
308
This
Iramework even produced curious happenings such as Ihe IacI IhaI
merchanIs who acIed as branches oI a commerciaI company couId
noI marry unIiI Ihe verbaI or IegaI conIracI made wiIh Ihe principaI
Iirm had concIuded.
309
The seIIing up oI branches and commission-
308 Crespo Solana, El comercio martimo, p. 47.
309 Described in a curious document of the company Collingh & Gadeyne, Archivo Histrico
Provincial de Cdiz (AHPC), Protocolos notariales, 17/3834, fols. 1102-1104v. Ao 1725.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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based Irade had a mercanIiIe and IinanciaI eIemenI by which
Ihe repuIaIion, IoIerance, and soIidariIy oI Ihose who engaged in
Ihem were consIanIIy puI Io Ihe IesI in Iheir daiIy acIiviIies and
correspondence.
!n Ihis Iramework, Iorms oI human behaviour which
have been highIighIed in socioIogicaI sIudies and in Ihe IieId oI
evoIuIionary bioIogy have Iaken pIace, which have deIermined
IhaI Ihe Came Theory is noI suIIicienI Io modeI human socieIy,
IhereIore Ihe sIudies, especiaIIy Ihe economic ones, oI Ihe
mercanIiIe neIworks shouId compIemenI Ihe anaIysis ouIIine
based on Ihe 'Came Theory' wiIh oIher modeIs deveIoped by oIher
sciences oI human behaviour, incIuding Ihe IieId oI HisIory.
310
This
Iramework sIarIs Irom Ihe hypoIhesis IhaI 'peopIe vaIue payoIIs
according Io wheIher Ihey are gains or Iosses compared Io Iheir
currenI sIaIus guo posiIion'.
311
The inIerdiscipIinary vision IhaI
Ieads us Io conIempIaIe anIhropoIogicaI and sociaI Iheories Io
undersIand Ihe evoIuIion oI Ihe behaviour oI Ihese merchanIs is
very broad and sIiII Iacks IheorisaIion, aIIhough perhaps some oI
Ihe cIosesI conIribuIions are Ihose oI Hannah Kokko or oI AxeIrod
and HamiIIon.
312
These visions compIemenI Ihe IradiIionaI hisIoric
sIudies IhaI have aIready described many exampIes oI human
cooperaIion and conIIicI, aIIhough Irom a more IeIeoIogicaI
perspecIive.
AparI Irom a IypoIogy oI Iorms oI cooperaIion iI is possibIe
Io describe a IypoIogy oI agenIs. The HisIoriography oI Spanish
310 Herbert Gintis: Te Bounds of reason. Game Teory and the Unifcation of the Behavioural
Sciences, (Princenton U. Press, 2009).
311 Explained by Herber Gintis in Te evolution of private property, Paper presented to Conference
Evolution of Cooperation Models and Teories Laxenburg, Viena, Austria, 15-18 September, 2009.
312 Hannah Kokko, Modelling for Field Biologist and other interesting people, (Cambridge University
Press, 2007); Axelrod, R. & Hamilton, W.D. Te evolution of cooperation, Science, 211, pp. 1390-1396.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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coIoniaI Irade has esIabIished many oI Ihese Iypes generaIed by
Ihe greaI heIerogeneiIy oI Ihese Iorms oI commerciaI parIicipaIion
menIioned earIier by exampIes. This parIicipaIion gave rise Io Ihe
proIiIeraIion oI a Iarge number oI Ierms Io describe Ihe Iraders,
Iheir socio-proIessionaI caIegories (some oI Ihem new since 1492)
and Ihe IypoIogy oI Ihe Ierms Io describe Ihem: merchanI, deaIer,
Irader, harvesIer, eIc. !n Ihe daIabase we have Iried Io seI ouI Ihese
IypoIogies, highIighIing Ihe greaI varieIy oI |obs and acIiviIies
reIaIed Io Ihe Ierm 'Irader'. The Ierms: harvesIers, shippers,
merchanIs, ouIIiIIers, empIoyees, piraIes, masIers, oIIiciaIs, and
even smuggIer aIso appear
313
buI here Ihe use oI Ihese Ierms musI
be connecIed wiIh an onIoIogicaI sIudy oI Ihe agenIs, a Iask which
is necessariIy proposed beIore Ihe inIroducIion oI Ihis daIa in an
hisIoric C!S. To compare boIh meIhodoIogies couId enabIe some
guesIions reIaIing Io Iheir sIaIus and ciIizenry Io be deIined, some
oI which musI be sIudied in an evoIuIionary way and keeping in
mind Ihe diIIerences due Io geographic origin, reIigion, idenIiIy,
or cuIIuraI cusIoms. Thus, Ihere exisIs a hierarchy among Ihe
componenIs oI Ihe commerciaI worId depending on economic
guesIions (invesImenIs, capiIaI, eIc.) and sociaI guesIions (sociaI
origin, reIerences oI origin, and arrivaI aI pIace oI seIIIemenI, eIc.)
IhaI musI be anaIysed, keeping in mind Ihe sociaI conIexI in urope.
The idenIiIy oI Ihe agenIs (and Iheir sociaI and proIessionaI
characIerisIics) are cIoseIy reIaIed Io Ihe esIabIishmenI oI a
hierarchicaI scaIe reIaIed Io Ihe vaIue oI soIidariIies and inIegraIion,
considering IacIors oI IamiIy, reIigion, common origin, Ianguage and
inIeresIs in a speciIic kind oI business, markeI, or geographic area.
313 Antonia Heredia Herrera, Sevilla y los hombres del comercio (1700-1800), (Sevilla, Coleccin
Galaxia, 1989), pp. 52 y ss.
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As has been shown in many previous works, kinship was a primary
IacIor Ior esIabIishing business neIworks and was a cIose-kniI
IieId when iI came Io coIIaboraIion beIween parIners and Iriends,
inIervening aI Ihe key momenIs oI decision making, Ihe disIribuIion
oI 'pubIic properIy' or Ihe momenI oI choosing parIners. An
imporIanI guesIion Io be kepI in mind is IhaI Ihe agenIs, regardIess
oI Iheir sociaI or economic sIaIus, had greaI mobiIiIy, making many
|ourneys by Iand or sea. ]usI as HiIario Casado sIaIed, Ihe |ourneys
were very common in medievaI and modern socieIy and greaIIy
inIIuenced Ihe creaIion oI new areas oI sociabiIiIy and exchange, oI
Ianguage, oI cuIIuraI inheriIances and Ihe IransIer oI knowIedge.
The ma|oriIy oI Ihese |ourneys were made Ior economic reasons
and Ihis is Ihe basis oI Ihe mercanIiIe way oI IiIe.
314
The daIabase
aims Io aIso coIIecI inIormaIion abouI some IocaIions oI Ihe Iraders
in a speciIic hisIoric momenI, incIuding daIa abouI Ihe commerciaI
voyages and whaI we have caIIed 'SpecIre', reIerring Io aII aspecIs
oI reaI IiIe on a ship and aII iIs commerciaI voyages. ReIaIed Io
Ihis daIa, we have aIso incIuded daIa abouI Ihe diIIerenI sIops,
Ihe Ioading and unIoading oI cargo IhaI Iook pIace in each sIop,
Ihe agenIs who Iook parI in Ihose operaIions and oIher IransIers
IhaI arise over Ihe course oI a speciIic commerciaI |ourney. The
commerciaI |ourneys exempIiIied Iorms oI cooperaIion, as each
sIop invoIved many agenIs wiIh Ihe purpose oI dispaIching or
coIIecIing merchandise, buI moreover, a ship was a smaII socieIyaI
sea where aII kinds oI siIuaIions IhaI gave rise Io coIIaboraIion or
conIIicI Iook pIace. Regarding Ihe commerciaI acIiviIy iIseII, on
314 Hilario Casado Alonso, Viajes y negocios. Comercio regional y gran comercio en Castilla a
fnales de la Edad Media., Jos Ignacio de la Iglesia Duarte (coord..) Viajar en la Edad Media. XIX Semana
de Estudios Medievales, (Njera, 2008), Actas. pp. 305-334.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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some oI Ihese |ourneys one couId appreciaIe on Ihe one hand, Ihe
sIages IhaI a speciIic business wenI Ihrough unIiI Iinishing Ihe circIe
oI invesImenI and Ihe making oI proIiIs or achievemenI oI resuIIs;
and on Ihe oIher, whaI behaviours sIand ouI in Ihe agenIs in Ihe
diIIerenI sIops made on Ihese business Irips. Like Ihe neIworks, a
speciIic business circIe can be exempIiIied by esIabIishing a modeI
oI graphs and nodes. The IoIIowing diagram makes a schemaIic
represenIaIion oI Ihe circIe oI a speciIic business IoIIowing Ihe
sIops oI a parIicuIar ship.
31S
SomeIimes Ihe expIanaIion oI a
compIeIe business circIe is diIIicuII iI iI is noI represenIed, given
Iheir durabiIiIy in Iime and space. Here one can see Ihe commerciaI
circIe as an undersIood circuiI, according Io Ihe deIiniIion given
by MaIIhew CioIek: 'A web oI inIerconnecIed CommunicaIions,
IransporIaIion and movemenI rouIes'. This appIies Io 'Ihe web
oI connecIions beIween geographicaI pIaces, whereas Ihe Ierm
NeIworks appIies Io Ihe reaIm oI connecIions beIween individuaIs
and enIiIies'.
316

315 References in: C. Arauz Mofante, El contrabando holands en el Caribe y Golfo de Mxico,
(Caracas, 1984), vol. I, p. 84; Crespo Solana, El comercio martimo, Tabla II: Firmas del comercio de
Amsterdam que comerciaban con Cdiz en el siglo XVIII); y W. L Roberts, ``Ralph Carr: A Newcastle
Merchant and the American Colonial Trade, Business History Review, 42, 1968. Made by Juan Manuel
Snchez- Crespo Camacho.
316 Ciolek (ed.) Self-organizing Voice Circuit.
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224
-/#5&#; >? ]ourney oI Ihe Ship 'I AmabIe' oI Adrian Hope CIa (year
1744)
!I is obvious IhaI Ior Ihe carIographic represenIaIion oI
Ihese business circIes, one musI esIabIish a C!S wiIh maps, Ior Ihe
connecIion oI Ihose nodes and circuiIs Io oIher Iayers oI geographic
inIormaIion.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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225
K&1&P&6, B6, &%- >,1+"$?6 ") A""C,$&15"%
P,1+,,% 1&L )&$0,$6 5% A&615',2 EZGG<EZ[W
Q#19"$J K&V5- Q'"%6" @&$4`&
(Universidad CompIuIense, Madrid, Spain)
SebasIian de Covarrubias, one oI Ihe peopIe beIIer
inIormed abouI Spanish Ianguage during V!!Ih, IeII us Ihis
concepI oI hazienda: iI said oI doing, whaI is Io work, because iI
a person works, does hazienda, and, Ihe person who unmakes and
consumes iI. !I incIudes weaIIh ad capiIaI which everyone owns".
317

This senIence is connecIed wiIh diIIerenI issues oI hisIoricaI IiscaI
sysIem. TaxaIion in aII kingdoms oI urope was idenIiIied wiIh
abiIiIies oI Iinancing Ihese weaIIh and capiIaI IhaI Covarrubias
wroIe. Covarrubias approach is reIaIed wiIh an idea oI acIion and
movemenI, in a way oI work, in order Io increase incomes. Thus,
Ihe concepI oI hazienda is conceived Irom a dynamicaI poinI oI
view, noI as someIhing sIaIic. This idea, we couId add, is |oined wiIh
IransIerring privaIe weaIIh Io Iax sysIem as weII as how money
317 Se dixo de hazer, que es trabajar, porque el que trabaja haze hazienda, y el que la deshaze
y consume. Tmase por el caudal y capital que cada uno tiene. S. de Covarrubias, Tesoro de la lenguna
castellana o espaola. Edicin facYesmil de Martn de Riquer, (Barcelona, 1987) (1 ed., 1611), vox
hazienda (p. 679)
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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couId pay Ihe mosI urgenI royaI expenses.
This concepI oI Iax sysIem disappeared during Ihe origin
oI IiscaI hisIoriography. So happy IighIing in Spain happened |usI
aI Ihe end oI Ancien Regimen, when boIh IegaI recompiIaIion and
deIining each Iax were Ihe main purposes oI auIhors as Covarrubias
or CaIIardo ernndez.
318
We shouId noI IorgeI IhaI IoundaIions
oI IiscaI sysIem during !Ih cenIury Iried Io creaIe an image oI
uniIormiIy and discipIine around a cenIraI auIhoriIy dominaIed by
Ihe SIaIe. or Ihis reason, a new Ianguage was reguired as a new
way oI undersIanding and creaIing Ihe worId, ! mean, Ior deIining
Iax sysIem as a power Ior Ihe cenIraI governmenI.
319
SchoIars have
Iaken Ihe pro|ecIion oI IirsI hisIorians abouI hisIoricaI Iax sysIem
wiIhouI aIIending Ihe conIexI, creaIing a represenIaIion oI IiscaI
sysIem oI V!Ih-V!!Ih cenIuries IhaI IoIIows ideas oI !Ih
320
. May
be Ior Ihis reason, Io sIudy Ihe IiscaI sysIem has been consideraIed
as a biIIer work, Iinked Io guesIions Iike how deIining each Iax. The
mosI IradiIionaI hisIorians used Io do Ihis kind oI sIudies. !I was
imporIanI on Ihe origins oI Ihe IiscaI hisIoriography buI nowadays
318 D. Alonso Garca, Poder y fnanzas en el trnsito a la Modernidad (un apunte historiogrfco),
Hispania, n 222 (2006), pp. 157-198.
319 An interesting point of view in J. Pro Ruiz, Des fnances royales aux fnances publiques: le
contribuable et ladministration dans le nouvel ordre fscal (1833-1852), ordre fscal (1833-1852) A.
Dubet (Coord.), Les fnances royales dans la monarchie espagnole (XVIe-XIXe sicles), (Rennes, 2008), pp.
291-305.
320 Current research tendencies have shifed the orientation. If historian fscal system was only the
study of taxation, now there is a interest for whole fscal power. J. D. Tracy, Taxation and State Debt, State
Debt T. A. Brady et alii. Handbook of European History. Late Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation,
(Leiden- New York, 1994), vol. I, pp. 563-588; R. Bonney, Introduction, R. Bonney (Ed.): Te rise of fscal
State in Europe c. 1200-1815, (Oxford, 1999), pp. 1-17 ;For Spanish fscal historiography, B. Hernndez,
Finanzas y hacienda en los territorios de la monarqua hispnica. Revista de una dcada historiogrfca,
1988- 988, Tirar con plvora del rey o el dinero de todos (Estudios de hacienda y fscalidad en la Espaa
Moderna. Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, n 21 (1998), pp. 267-326. Cfr. O. Rey Castelao, Los estudios
sobre fscalidad en la poca moderna: fenmeno historiogrfco real o aparente?, Obradoiro de Historia
Moderna, n 13 (2004), pp. 215-252.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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227
iI is possibIe Io Iind new Iopics and paIhs oI research.
NeverIheIess, Iax sysIem during V!Ih and V!!Ih worked
Iaking advanIage oI wider sociaI condiIions IhaI noI onIy Irom an
economic poinI oI view. The king deIegaIed direcI adminisIraIion
aIong Ihe kingdom in reIurn on Ioans or bonds. So, Iaxes were
used as debI guaranIee. xIernaI agenIs couId manage Ihe Iaxes, as
brokers beIween Ienders and Iax payers. OI course, Ihey expecIed
improve Iheir own proIiIs, boIh in an economic and poIiIicaI poinI
oI view. !I is possibIe Io incIude ciIies in Ihis caIegory Ioo, aIIhough
Ihis paper does noI anaIyze Ihe roI oI Iowns in Ihe IiscaI sysIem
oI Spanish Monarchy.
321
Tax sysIem and IinanciaI business was
permanenI nearIy. AI Ihis poinI we Iound a huge diIIerence wiIh
currenI IiscaI sysIems, where iscaI SIaIe domains adminisIraIion
on Ihe whoIe. iscaI coIIecIions, on diIIerenI ways (Iax Iarming,
headed Iax or IieIdad) inIegraIed Iwo aspecIs diIIerenI and reIaIed.
irsIIy, as many schoIars have poinIed ouI, IiscaI coIIecIion was a
key issue Ior Iinancing monarchies, ciIies or Ihe Church. SecondIy,
IiscaI coIIecIions give economic, sociaI and poIiIicaI opporIuniIies
wiIhouI iI Io be consideraIe corrupIion because oI exIernaI agenIs
oI crown managed coIIecIions wiIh a greaI IiberIy. Crown, ciIies and
oIher auIhoriIies used Ihis way oI undersIanding IiscaI sysIem Io
promoIe peopIe Ihrough Iax coIIecIion. This condiIion was known
and supporIed as a way Io geI oI parIicipaIion and inIegraIion oI
IinanciaI groups. AIIending Ihis IacIor, IaxaIion incIuded a doubIe
goaI: Io geI money in order Io supporI Ihe war, embassies, courI
321 Tere is a long bibliography about this question. See, for example, Ch. J. Jago, Taxation and
Political Culture in Castile, 1590-1640, I. A. A. Tompson, Castile: Absolutism, Constitutionalism, and
Liberty, Ph. T. Hofman and K. Norberg, Fiscal Crises, Liberty and Representative Government, 1450-1789,
(Stanford, 1994), pp. 140-181; R. L. Kagan and G. Parker (Eds.), Spain, Europe and the Atlantic World: Essays
in Honor of John H. Elliot, (Cambridge, 1995), pp. 48-72.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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228
expenses, eIc and, on Ihe oIher hand, personaI and insIiIuIionaI
ambiIions which couId be supporIed by IiscaI sysIem. !I IaxaIion
during !Ih and Ih cenIuries Ieads redisIribuIion Iaking
advanIage oI expendiIure -Keynesian poIicies wouId be an evidenI
exampIe-, Spanish Monarchy seI oII incomes Io beneIiI Ihose groups
IhaI were preIerred. So, iI usuaI Io Iind concepIs as beneIiciar or Io
IakeI Iaxes a ganancia (o perdida) incIuded in documenIs Ior IiscaI
coIIecIion, demonsIraIing IhaI royaI incomes depended on peopIe
cIose Io Ihe crown. !I is no possibIe Io undersIand Ihe Iax sysIem
wiIhouI regarding on Ihis conIexI; where exIernaI Ihe king and Iax
Iarmers cooperaIed beIween IhemseIves.
Croups oI Iinanciers Ior Iax coIIecIion musI be organized.
iscaI eIIiciency depended on Ihis IacIor. SociaI and poIiIicaI
neIworks became necessaries Ior day Io day IiscaI pracIice. These
agenIs noI onIy cooperaIed wiIh Ihe crown. NeIworks oI cIienIs,
Iriends and IamiIiars coIIaboraIed Ior gaining posiIions. This
arIicIe anaIyzes direcI cooperaIion beIween Iax Iarmer neIworks
in royaI Iax sysIem during Ihe IirsI decades oI V!Ih cenIury.
We need Io gain IurIher inIormaIion abouI cooperaIion wiIhin
IiscaI sysIem in order Io approximaIe Io iIs eIIiciency and IimiIs.
SchoIars have poinIed ouI IhaI coIIaboraIion beIween IinanciaI
groups was common. PreciseIy, we Iocus on ways and condiIions
oI coIIaboraIions. We musI advice IhaI Ihis sIudy aIIends Io direcI
coIIaboraIions beIween IinanciaI group, noI in IinanciaI group,
where oIher kinds oI reIaIions, as weII imporIanI as Ihese direcI,
were expecIed. SIudying Ihis IirsI IeveI -IhaI is, when Iwo o more
owner signed a conIracI Ior Ieasing Iaxes- is basic Ior appreciaIe boIh
Ihe sIrengIh and IimiIs oI hisIoricaI Iax sysIems aI Ihe beginning oI
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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229
V!Ih cenIury.
8eIore Io examine our resuIIs abouI direcI coIIaboraIion
wiIhin CasIiIian Iax sysIem, iI is necessary a IasI IheoreIicaI
approach abouI Ihe concepI oI cooperaIion. !I is noI our purpose
Io observe aII IiIeraIure Irom socioIogy, phiIosophy or bioIogy
abouI whaI cooperaIion means or how cooperaIion inIIuences in
deveIoping human socieIies. OnIy we remind IhaI cooperaIion is
one oI Ihe mosI remarkabIe Iopics Ior diIIerenI sciences and, Ior
insIance, iI is reIaIed on games Iheory or Ihe sIudy oI coIIecIive
acIion. NeverIheIess iI is necessary Io expIain whaI concepI oI
cooperaIion we wiII IoIIow. CoIIaboraIion means a wide concepI
where Iwo o more peopIe execuIe aI IeasI one acIion in order
Io geI a goaI IhoughI previousIy. This goaI can be individuaI or
coIIecIive. rom Ihis deIiniIion, we are abIe Io Iind diIIerenI ways oI
coIIaboraIion depending on Iheir compIexiIy IeveI and inIegraIion.
The more common goaIs and pIanning beIween agenIs, deeper is
cooperaIion.
322
!n our case, despiIe IhaI socioIogy has argued Ihe
opposiIe unIiI IasI decades; iI does noI sIricIIy need Ihe presence oI
insIiIuIions or a cenIraI organizaIion as a sign oI a beIIer / greaIer
coIIaboraIion beIween agenIs.
323
RaIher, as we wiII see, much
coIIaboraIion came Irom Ihe so-caIIed seII-susIained groups, ie
smaII sIrucIures, inIormaI, seIIdirecIed, wiIh a horizonIaI hierarchy
and wiIh duraIion IimiIed reIaIiveIy.
324
During many Iime, schoIars
322 R. Toumela, Cooperation. A Philosophical Study, (Dordrecth-Boston-London, 2000).
323 See A. Guiddens, Sociologa, Madrid, 2007 (5. Edi.), pp. 602-615
324 Self-organization, then, is a fuid process in which informal, temporary teams form
spontaneously around issues, whereas self-managed teams are permanent and formally established. Top
managers cannot control self-organizing networks; they can only intervene to infuence the boundary
conditions aroun them.
Extraordinary participants decide who takes part in self-organizing networks and what
the boundaries of their activities are, whereas ordinary managers decide who should constitute self-
managing teams. Selforganizing networks therefore operate in confict with and are constrained by the
hierarchy, whereas selfmanaginng teams replace the hierarchy. Unequal power, Stacey emphasizes,
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
230
have idenIiIied verIicaI organizaIions as a vicIorious paIh oI
organizaIion. CurrenIIy, academic do noI suppose IhaI organizaIions
wiIh a more horizonIaI paIIern noI Io viabIe. As an exampIe we
couId say IhaI some oI mosI imporIanI Cenoese companies oI
Renaissance work IoIIowing seII-sosIained Iorms.
32S
!n IacI, such
sIrucIures were dominanI during Ihe IirsI decades oI Ihe sixIeenIh
cenIury. ConIemporaries were aware oI Ihis reaIiIy. !n a book Ior
accounI oIIiciaIs oI PhiIip !! can be read: They name company,
when Iwo or more merchanIs |oin money or merchandises, Io deaI
wiIh iI"
326
There were Iarger companies or more compIex, simpIe
or composiIe associaIions where agenIs conIribuIed wiIh money,
goods, work or Iime in diIIerenI proporIions.
327
However, as guoIed
in Ihe IasI deIiniIion, a simpIe acIion served as a recogniIion as a
group. And we can imagine how many acIions were deveIoped by
IinanciaI groups, even more wiIhouI a rigorous conIroI or a cenIraI
managemenI.

energizes selforganizing networks through confict but also operates as a constraint, whereas dispersed
powers in selfmanaging teams are supposed to lead to consensus. People on self-organizing networks
empower themselves, whereas in self-managing teams the top management empowers people. Te self-
organizing process is both provoked and constrained by cultural diference, which is at least to some degree
unknowable, whereas the self-managing process is based on a strongly and knowably shared culture. R.
Lessen, Management Development Trough Cultural Diversity, (London, 1998), p. 264.
325 D. Alonso Garca, Genoveses en la corte. Poder fnanciero y administracin en tiempos de
Carlos V, en M. Herrero Snchez (Ed.), Gnova y la Monarqua Hispnica 1500-1713 (forthcoming) .
326 [Llaman compaas, quando entre dos, o ms mercaderes juntan dineros, o mercaduras
para con ello tratar]. BNE, R/21990. Manual de contadores en que se pone en suma lo que un contador ha
menester saber, Madrid, 1589, fol. 160r.
327 J. Heers, Gnes au XVe Sicle, Pars, 1971, pp. 160 y ss. Cfr. B. Caunedo del Potro, Comercio
y hombres de negocios castellanos en tiempos de los Reyes Catlicos. Tcnicas y aprendizaje, H. Casado
and A. Garca-Baquero (eds.), Comercio y hombres de negocios en Castilla en tiempos de Isabel la Catlica,
(Madrid, 2007), pp. 251-277.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
231
Q% ,L&0C', ") -&1&P&6, 1" 61#-: )5%&%45&' %,1+"$?6
-#$5%. +519 l_7
19
4,%1#$:
HisIorians as ]. P. Murmann has poinIed ouI how reIaIionaI
daIabases can be useIuI in humaniIies sIudies.
328
!n order Io sIudy
Iax Iarmer cooperaIion, we have Iaken advanIage oI a daIabase
designed wiIh access. igure 1 shows daIamodeI Ior reIaIionships:
B/57&' >? DaIabase modeI (reIaIionships)

To compose Ihis arIicIe, we have used Ihree IabIes and
one consuII: 1) PeopIe IabIe; 2) a personaI inIormaIion IabIe; 3) A
IabIe wiIh Iinks beIween peopIe and 4) a consuII Io show Ihe name
oI peopIe Iinked previousIy. !n order Io incIude inIormaIion, we
designed a generaI Iorm wiIh IieIds Irom Ihe Ihree IabIes.
328 J. P. Murmann, Constructing Relational Databases to Study Life Histories on Your PC or Mac,
Historical Methods, vol. 43 (July-September, 3, 2010), pp. 109-123.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
232
B/57&' @? DaIa nIry orms (deIaiI)
The IirsI IabIe is a key parI insIead oI iIs onIy incIude
Iwo IieId: a key number and a IieId Ior peopIe name. As Iigure 1
shows, Ihe key number has been used Io make Ihe reIaIionships.
We preIerred a singIe IieIds Io names which incIudes names
and surnames in order Io make easier Ihe managemenI oI Ihis
inIormaIion. The enIry oI names has been done incIuding surnames
IirsI (Ior insIance, Vargas, rancisco" Ior rancisco de Vargas").
Second IabIe shows personaI careers and inIormaIion.
According Io acIion socioIogy", where personaI careers sIudy is
expecIed Irom a severaI poinIs oI view,
329
we did noI opI Ior a Iarge
329 L. Boltanski and L. Tvenot, De la justifcation. Les conomies de la grandeur, Pars, 1997.
Diferences between action sociology prosopography has been pointed out in T. Batoul, Critique et
pragmatique en sociologie. Quelques prncipes de lectura, Annales. Histoire, Science Sociales, n 25 (2,
1999), pp. 281-317.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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233
IabIe buI a concise sIrucIure where we couId wriIe down Ihe whoIe
inIormaIion. DaIabase incIudes a IieId Ior daIes, anoIher ones Ior
Iax sysIem IuncIions, generaI oIIices, IiIIes oI nobiIiIy, ciIizenship,
documenIary sources, geographicaI IocaIions Ior an evenI and,
IinaIIy, a greaI IieId Ior commenIs. The Iinishing IieId wouId be
Ihe mosI imporIanI because we incIuded aII kind oI inIormaIion,
incIuding IranscripIions.
We IosI anaIyIicaI abiIiIies wiIh Ihis sIrucIure. However, we
addressed a more dynamic sIrucIure wiIh a Iine adapIaIion Io our
socioIogicaI modeI ven more, Ihe Iewer IieId, Ihe Iess probIems Ior
enIering hisIoricaI inIormaIion wiIhin a daIabase, one oI Ihe mosI
imporIanI episIemoIogicaI probIem in humaniIies daIabases.
330

inaIIy, Ihis eIecIion ensures a beIIer conservaIion oI inIormaIion
because we wiII aIways dispIay originaI IranscripIions, whose
inIerpreIaIions couId change Ihrough Iime.
!n Ihis hand, IabIe Ior personaI reIaIionships aIso incIudes
a shorI sIrucIure. This IabIe is Iormed by an key idenIiIicaIion
number reIaIed wiIh iIs correspondenI in peopIe IabIe. AIIer IhaI,
Ihe IabIe shows a IieId Ior Ihe kind oI human reIaIion, anoIher one
wiIh Ihe name oI reIaIed person wiIh principaI agenI, a IieId Ior
sources and, IinaIIy, a Iarge IiIe Ior commenIs, designed in Ihe same
way IhaI personaI inIormaIion careers. !n 2010 we added new
IieId wiIh key idenIiIicaIion number oI reIaIed person and oIher
Iwo IieIds Ior pIaces and daIes oI reIaIionships. More signiIicanIIy,
we deIined codes in cIose IisI oI human reIaIionships (IamiIy Iies,
cooperaIion or conIIicI). This IabIe was reIaIed wiIh anoIher one
wiIh densiIies. So, wiIh Ihis IinaI design, we can conserve originaI
330 J. P. Dedieu, Un instrumento para la historia social: la base de datos Ozanam, Cuadernos de
Historia Moderna, n 24, pp. 11-31.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
234
inIormaIion -even IranscripIion-, iI's possibIe Io manage in a very
easy way and, IurIhermore, codes Ior reIaIionships can be anaIyze
Irom a graph Iheory poinI oI view, wiIh programs as Cephi".
331

or insIance, nexI Iigure shows an exampIe oI Pedro de SanIa Cruz
neIwork Iormed by our daIabase and Cephi:
B/57&' A? Pedro de SanIa Cruz's neIwork. AnaIysis wiIh Cephi
332
Q 4"0C&%5"% ") 19, +"$'- ") 1&L )&$05%.
AIIer Ihis meIhodoIogicaI appoinImenI abouI our daIabase,
we wouId Iike Io sIarI speciIying whaI degree oI cooperaIion
exisIed beIween Iax Iarmers. CooperaIion was reguIar, known and
inherenI Io Ihe sysIem. !n IacI, we Iound 208 oI 447 Iax Iarming
hoIdings wiIh Iwo o more owners raIher Ihan a singIe Iinancier.
This guanIiIy means a ca. 46.S3 oI IoIaI conIracIs Ior Iax Iarming
during Ihe Ihree IirsI decades oI V!Ih cenIury.
333
Thus, aImosI haII
331 Gephy, free sofware, is considered one of the most powerful programs for graph analysis
(http://gephi.org/)
332 I appreciate Samuel Mesa his help to do this kind of analysis.
333 Source: database
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
235
oI Ihe agreemenIs were signed wiIh severaI owners4. However, Ihe
IeveI oI cooperaIion is higher Ihan indicaIed Ihis caIcuIaIion. Many
Iimes, a singIe IegaI Iax Iarmer worked Ior oIher Iinanciers Ioo.
334

ven more, iI is possibIe Io eIevaIe Ihis percenIage oI cooperaIion
IhaI we Iind beIween Iax Iarmers because agenIs worked wiIh
oIher Iinanciers in diIIerenI ways noI sIudied in Ihis arIicIe, Ior
insIance as guaranIors.
33S
AII evidences show IhaI cooperaIion in
Ihe worId oI Iax Iarming, noI onIy was very spread, buI couId be
considered Ihe souI oI Ihe acIiviIy. DirecI coIIaboraIion which we
have anaIyzed had diIIerenI naIures. We have esIabIished various
Iypes oI cooperaIion under Ihe personaI aIIiIiaIion wiIh caIegories
noI muIuaIIy excIusives. 8y cconomic we suppose reIaIions beIween
Iax Iarmers oI diIIerenI ciIies. When agenIs presenIed Ihe same
neighborhood, we decided Io assign Ihe naIure oI sociaI, meaning
reIaIionship in Ihe group couId be more inIense Ihan Ihe simpIe"
purpose Io success in Ihe Iax coIIecIion acIiviIy. When we Iind a
IamiIy Iie, we assign Ihe IabeI oI IamiIy Io Ihis kind oI cooperaIion.
inaIIy, when agenIs worked Ior Iowns counciIs, arisIocraIs or
SIaIe, we have recognized as politiccl Iheir reIaIionships wiIh oIher
agenIs. This IasI caIegory aIso incIudes inIormaI reIaIions.
May be Ihe main surprising evidence in Ihis research is
reIaIed wiIh IamiIy Iies. DespiIe oI imporIance oI reIaIives in Ihe
IormaIion oI Irading companies,
336
mosI Iax Iarmers were shaped
by members oI diIIerenI IamiIies. NeverIheIess, more sIabIe parI-
334 A regional study for this issue, J. D. Gonzlez Arce, La fscalidad del Seoro de Villena en la
Baja Edad Media, (Albacete, 2002), pp. 356-379.
335 Diferent examples in J. M. Carretero Zamora, Los arrendadores de la Hacienda de Castilla
a comienzos del siglo XVI, Studia Historica. Historia Moderna, n 21 (1999), pp. 117-152 and the articles
include in Hacienda y fscalidad en el reino de Granada. Special Issue of Chrnica Nova, n 31 (2005).
336 Cfr. J. Adams, Te Familial State. Ruling Families and Merchant Capitalism in Early Modern
Europe, (Ithaca, 2005).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
236
nerships exisIed beIween members oI Ihe same Iineage. The mosI
widespread IamiIy Iink wiIhin direcI coIIaboraIion beIween agenIs
oI coIIecIing Iaxes was esIabIished Ior broIhers o when IamiIiar Iies
were increased by marriages. May be Ihe besI exampIe couId be
Ihe uenIe IamiIy. The Iwo broIhers, ]uan and Diego, were reIaIed
by marriage Io Ihe oIher parI oI Ihe company (]uan de Ia Torre and
AIonso de ToIedo) as weII as oIher presIigious IamiIies oI merchanIs
Irom ToIedo.
337
This hoIding was one oI Ihe richer groups during
severaI decades. oI Iaxes, especiaIIy abouI Iaxes on siIk saIe.

!n any case, as we poinIed ouI, Ihe IamiIy IacIor was noI
Ihe mosI usuaI wiIhin direcI reIaIions beIween Iax Iarmers. This
concIusion, oI course, does noI invaIidaIe Ihe roIe oI reIaIives in
337 L. Martz, A network of Converso Families in Early Modern Toledo: Assimilating a Minority,
(An Arbor, 2003); D. Alonso Garca, Entre Granada y Castilla. La familia Fuente y la Hacienda Real a
comienzos de la Edad Moderna, Investigaciones Histricas, n 25 (2005), pp. 11-30.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
237
IiscaI agenIs due Io Ihere were hundred and hundred oI exampIes
in oIher kind oI cooperaIion or reIaIions. 8uI noI when Iwo o more
Iinanciers inIegraIed a company Ior Iax coIIecIion. This IimiIed
presence oI Iies IamiIy wiIhin groups wiIh Iwo o more owners
seems guiIe reasonabIe because Ihe name oI a person was aIso
used Io idenIiIy Io whoIe Iineage. On Ihe oIher hand, Ihe presence
oI agenIs Irom Ihe same IocaIiIy became decisive. We Iind more
Ihan 60 exampIes incIuding reIaIionships beIween acIors coming
Irom Ihe same ciIy. The neighborhood, iI couId add, grew Io be
one oI Ihe main vaIues Io deIine Ihe coIIaboraIion beIween Iax
Iarmers, as we wiII see aIIer.
338
inaIIy, poIiIicaI was one oI Ihe mosI
exIended beIween agenIs. !I was noI sIrange Iinding Iinanciers as
ConzaIo deI Campo or Diego VaIderrama who worked very cIose
Io rancisco de Vargas, Ihe generaI Ireasurer oI CasIiIe beIween
1S07 and 1S23.
339
Pedro deI AIczar, one oI Ihe mosI remarkabIe
SeviIian merchanI, was Ihe IaIher in Iaw oI MariscaI de Len, royaI
accounIanI oIIiciaI.
340
rancisco de Ios Cobos was Iinked Io MoIina
IamiIy oI beda.
341
The son oI Nuo de CumieI, Ireasurer oI PhiIip !,

338 About the concept and use of neighborhood within Modern Spain, T. Herzog, Defning nations:
inmigrants and citizens in Early Modern Spain and Spanish America, (New Haven-London, 2003). Related
on merchants..., R. Fagel, Cornelis Deque, un mercader famento en la Castilla del siglo XV: un debate
sobre el concepto de vecindad y naturaleza entre mercaderes, H. Casado Alonso (Ed.), Castilla y
Europa: comercio y mercaderes en los siglos XIV, XV y XVI, (Burgos, 1995), pp. 241-263.
339 C. J. de Carlos Morales, Carlos V y el crdito de Castilla. El tesorero general Francisco de Vargas
y la Hacienda Real entre 1516 y 1524, (Madrid, 2000); D. Alonso Garca, El erario del reino. Fiscalidad en
Castilla a principios de la Edad Moderna, 1504-1525, (Valladolid, 2007).
340 About Pedro del Alczar as tax farmer, J. M. Carretero Zamora, Los arrendadores;
D. Alonso Garca, Poder fnanciero y arrendadores de rentas reales en Castilla a principios de la Edad
Moderna, Cuadernos de Historia Moderna, 31 (2006), pp. 117-138
341 M. Danvila, Historia crtica y documentada de las Comunidades de Castilla, Madrid, 1897-1899,
vol. IV, p. 640. Molina family come from beda/Baeza zone, this is, the regin of biggest infuency of
Francisco de los Cobos. About this person, H. Keniston, Francisco de los Cobos. Secretario de Carlos V,
Madrid, 1980; J. Martinez Millan (dir.), La Corte de Carlos V, (Madrid, 2000), vol. III, pp. 87-94; I. A. A.
Tompson, Administracin y administradores en el reinado de Carlos V, en F. Martinez GIL, En torno
a las Comunidades de Castilla. Actas del Congreso Internacional Poder, conficto y revuelta en la Espaa
de Carlos I , (Cuenca, 2002), pp. 93-107. J. Fernandez Garcia, Francisco de los Cobos. Aproximacin
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
238
aIso parIicipaIed as Iax Iarmer wiIh agenIs Iike Pedro deI AIczar. !I
is noI unusuaI Io Iind inIormaI Iies beIween Iax Iarmers and king's
oIIicers. Such is Ihe case oI ]uan AIvarez Cisneros, deIined as
servanI" oI Periez, Ihe accounIing oIIicer oI AnIonio de
onseca, one oI Ihe mosI inIIuence person in CasIiIian Iax sysIem.
342

ven a group oI Iax Iarmers cIoseIy Iinked Io circIes oI CardinaI
Cisneros can be deIecIed, where CarcIa AIvarez de Madrid and
sIeban de Vargas. 8oIh, signiIicanIIy, were ciIizens oI AIcaI
de Henares.
343
!n concIusion, reIaIions wiIh Ihe mosI inIIuenIiaI
Iigures in governmenI Iinance IaciIiIaIed access Io Iax Iarming.
This IacI conIirms poIiIicaI Iinks were a key issue Io keep whoIe
sysIem successIuIIy.
344
Moreover, agenIs oI coIIecIion cooperaIed
wiIh brokers or inIermediaries wiIhin courI in order Io achieve
necessary documenIaIion Ior execuIing Iax burden. These
hrokcrs, aIso deIined as esIanIes in CorIe", shouId gained IrusI
Ior Iinanciers and oIIiciaIs oI king. !n concIusion, Ihe evoIuIion oI
IiscaI insIiIuIions cannoI be done regardIess oI deveIopmenIs in Ihe
IinanciaI worId, |usI as Ihis sIudy abouI cooperaIion musI Iook aI
Ihe insIiIuIions.
34S
Many Iax Iarmers aIso coIIaboraIed wiIh IocaI governmenIs.
Hence, iI is noI surprisingIy Ihe presence oI rcgidorcs, vcinticuctros
or jurcdos among agenIs oI IiscaI coIIecIions. This eIemenI shows
historiogrfca a un estudio de la persona, en F. Sanchez-Montes y J. L. Castellano, Carlos V. Europesmo y
universalidad, (Madrid, 2001), vol. II, pp. 225-241.
342 AGS, Escribana Mayor de Rentas, leg. 105.
343 Garca lvarez de Madrid showed as guarantor to Diego Lpez de Mendoza, Cisneros secretary.
AGS, EMR, leg. 132. Diego Lpez de Mendoza was the most important tax headed receiver during 1506-
1507, when Cardinal Cisneros was named regent of kingdom of Castile. D. Alonso Garca, El erario, pp.
235-236.
344 Ibidem.
345 More information about in D. Alonso Garca, Capital privado y fscalidad regia en Castilla a
comienzos de la Edad Moderna, S. Cavachiocci (a cura di), La fscalit nelleconomia europea. Secc. XIII-
XVIII. Atti degla 39 Settimana di Studi, vol. II, (Prato, 2008), pp. 793-800.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
239
insIances oI sociaI mobiIiIy reIaIed Io economic or IinanciaI
acIiviIies. May Ihe besI exampIe oI presence oI Iinanciers in
CasIiIian ciIy counciIs was Ihe AIczar IamiIy. 8oIh Pedro and his
son rancisco were weII represenIed in SeviIIe oIigarchy, achieving
Ihe roI oI venIicuaIros. This IamiIy kepI an imporIanI inIIuence in
SeviIIe governmenI during more Ihan one cenIury.
346
8uI noI onIy
in SeviIIe exisIed a deep reIaIion beIween IocaI auIhoriIy and Iax
Iarmers. rancisco de Mena and PeIer/Caspar de SanIa Cruz worked
in Aranda deI Duero, a viIIage near oI 8urgos. AII Ihree occupied
a oIIice oI regidor.
347
ToIedo, on Ihe same Iine, was characIerized
by a Iarge group oI merchanIs who achieved municipaI oIIices as
weII. Surnames as San Pedro or uenIe wouId be a greaI exampIes
oI poIiIicaI coIIaboraIion beIween Iax Iarmers.
348
ven in Madrid
iI is possibIe Io IocaIe Ihe same condiIion: Ihe Monzn IamiIy, who
worked wiIh ToIedo's IamiIies, aIso began Io be inIIuenIiaI in Ihe
ciIy as noIaries. They wiII become regidores Iew decades aIIer.
349

-';#&2#6/*"(? 84'&' 6#J 9#&;'0 2*,,#=*&#6'0
Origins oI Iax Iarmers Ieave us surprising concIusions. irsI,
we oughI remember IhaI, in diIIerenI cases, iI is possibIe Io Iind
muIIipIe neighborhoods Ior Ihe same agenI. inanciers had Ihe
346 R. Pike, Aristocrats and Traders: Sevillian Society in the Sixteenth Century, Ithaca-London, 1972;
J. Aguado de los Reyes, Riqueza y sociedad en la Sevilla del siglo XVII, (Sevilla, 1994); J. Gil, Los conversos y
la Inquisicin sevillana, esp. vol. III, (Sevilla, 2001), pp. 194-205.
347 M. Diago Hernando, Arrendadores arandinos al servicio de los Reyes Catlicos, en Historia.
Instituciones. Documentos, n 18 (1991), pp. 71-95.
348 D. Alonso Garca, El erario del reino
349 Information about this family of Madrid in, M. P. Rbade Obrad, Orgenes del notariado
madrilne: los escribanos pblicos en el siglo XV, (Madrid, 2001); A. Guerrero Mayllo, El gobierno municipal
de Madrid (1560-1606), Madrid, 1993; Familia y vida cotidiana de una lite de poder. Los regidores madrileos
en tiempos de Felipe II, Madrid, 1993; A. Alvar Ezquerra et alii, Los escribanos del Concejo de Madrid
(1561-1598), Cuadernos de Historia de Espaa, vol. 79 (2005), pp. 167-201.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
240
possibiIiIy oI shiIIing Iheir neighborhood, or even simuIIaneousIy.
3S0

SeveraI Iax Iarmers used diIIerenI neighborhoods depending on
Iheir own inIeresIs. They couId were born in one ciIy, Io geI married
on oIher IocaIiIy and aIIer, even, move Io oIher parI oI kingdom. !I
was aIIowed Io mainIain properIies on each Iown. Diego de AIarcn
was recognized ciIizen oI Ocaa Ior his origin and ciIizen oI beda
because has haven and has his wiIe, house and siIe in Ihe named ciIy
oI Vbeda".
3S1
However, he kepI Iands, houses and vineyards in Ocaa,
Ihe pIace oI origin. Lope de Uruea, one oI Ihe mosI inIIuenIiaI Iax
Iarmers oI Ihis Iime, was abIe Io Ie recognized as ciIizen oI Tru|iIIo,
TordesiIIas and VaIIadoIid in diIIerenI years. The concIusion is cIear:
Ihere was an exIraordinary mobiIiIy beIween Iax Iarmers, where iI
is possibIe Io undersIand Ihis mobiIiIy boIh in a geographicaIIy and
sociaI-poIiIicaI poinI oI view.
NexI IabIe incIudes neighborhoods oI Iax Iarmers oI CasIiIe
Ior Ihe period. !I wouId be Ioo Iedious Io name aII Ihe parIs oI Spain
wiIh represenIaIives in Ihese coIIecIing acIiviIies. Thus we exIracI
onIy Ihe main cenIers oI business by number oI agenIs.
350 D. Alonso Garca, Poder fnanciero
351 ha tenido e tyene su muger e casa e asyento en la dicha ibdad de Vbeda. AGS, EMR, leg. 556.
Tis tax farmer appears as citizen of Alcal de Henares in AGS, EMR, Leg. 551.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
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LargesI area by number oI Iax Iarmers was AndaIusia, wiIh
12S cases. This daIe was IogicaI considering Ihe number oI headed
Iaxes was bigger in CasIiIe IhaI noI in Ihe souIh oI Spain.
3S2
There
were Ihree main areas oI inIIuence around Cranada, SeviIIe and
]aen, Ihis IasI one wiIh a Iesser degree oI inIIuence. !n CasIiIe, on
Ihe oIher hand, we Iind Iwo greaI regions oI inIIuence: Ihe cenIer
oI CasIiIe, wiIh 60 agenIs, whose IirsI ciIy was ToIedo, IoIIowed by
Madrid and AIcaIa de Henares. NorIh CasIiIe, wiIh IiIIy Iive Iax
Iarmers, oIIered VaIIadoIid and Segovia as ma|or cenIers. inaIIy,
AImagro and LIerena, as areas oI miIiIary orders, provided a noI Iew
number oI agenIs. However we musI consider IhaI showed viIIages
in Ihe IabIe gaIher around 6S oI compIeIe IisI oI Iax Iarmers,
which demonsIraIes IhaI agenIs oI coIIecIion was guiIe widespread
wiIhin whoIe CasIiIe. The greaIer number oI number oI Iax Iarmers
does noI invoIves a higher inIIuence. Madrid represenIed Ihe good
exampIe on Ihis sense. !n Ihis ciIy Iived an inIeresIing number oI
modesI agenIs who did noI achieved preeminenI posiIions wiIhin
whoIe Iax Iarmers. Segovia, on Ihe oIher hand, presenIed onIy 13
352 D. Alonso Garca, El erario, pp. 24 and following.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
242
agenIs. However, his inIIuence as IinanciaI cenIer was bigger Ihan
Madrid due Io rancisco ernndez CoroneI, may be mosI inIIuence
Iax Iarmer oI CasIiIe, who coIIecIed Iaxes over IhirIy miIIion oI
maravedIes in 1S17.
3S3

AnaIysis oI neighborhoods in direcI coIIaboraIion beIween
Iax Iarmers indicaIes IhaI mosI oI Ihem came Irom AndaIusia,
which reinIorces Ihe idea oI IargesI groups Iived in Ihis region.
SeviIIe and Cranada, as weII as diIIerenI IocaIions in Iheir area
oI inIIuence, remained as cenIers where more associaIions were
shaped. mphasize aI Ihis poinI AIczar IamiIy, around which
Ihere wiII be a Iarge group oI agenIs in Ihe area oI SeviIIe. And
noI onIy SeviIIe; Pedro deI AIczar kepI diIIerenI associaIion wiIh
peopIe Irom Segovia, Aranda deI Duero, CumieI de !zn or 8aeza.
Their parIners mainIain direcI cooperaIion wiIh oIher Iradesmen.
These one coIIaboraIed wiIh oIhers... ThereIore, we Iind more Ihan
60 direcI coIIaboraIions using a rds- Number" where Pedro
deI AIczar wouId be Ihe beginning. The resuII Irom a geographic
poinI oI view is a neIwork exIended by aImosI diIIerenI zones oI
CasIiIe.
3S4
AgenIs oI ToIedo, AIcaI de Henares and AImagro soughI
ouI parIners in order Io do successIuI Iheir business wiIh Iax
sysIem. !n any case, as we anIicipaIed, Tax Iarmers had access Io
coIIecIions over diIIerenI regions, a IacI which comes Io reaIize Ihe
compIexiIy and exIenI oI a sysIem IhaI aIIowed income groups Iar
aparI Irom enIering respecI Io Iheir naIuraI area oI inIIuence.
353 J. M. Carretero Zamora, Los arrendadores, p. 167.
354 D. Alonso Garca: El fenmeno del arrendamiento de rentas reales en Castilla en los siglos XVI
y XVII: nuevas vas de anlisis, Viator: Medieval and Renaissance Studies, n 43 (2012) (forthcoming)
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
243
^&5#"/X#6/*"(? 4*8 6#J 9#&;'&( 2*,,#=*&#6'0
We approach Io a chronoIogicaI expIicaIion oI coIIaboraIion
beIween 1S00 and 1S30. MosI cooperaIion behaviors happened
during Ihe earIy years oI Ihe cenIury, especiaIIy aIIer 1S04. During
Ihis decade were signed abouI haII oI Ihe conIracIs wiIh companies
wiIh Iwo o more parInerships. !n Ihe IoIIowing decade, coIIaboraIion
remained aI accepIabIe IeveIs. SigniIicanIIy since 1S2S a very
noIiceabIe decIine in Ihe number oI Iax Iarming occurred. !n order
Io expIain Ihis decrease, we shouId aIIend Io mperor's IiscaI poIicy
aIIer Comuneros deIeaIed, |usI when poIiIicaI condiIions shiIIed.
PreviousIy, Iinanciers worked as Iax Iarmers or conIroIIing much
oI headed Iaxes Iike a condiIions oI Iheir Ioans. AIIer 1S22-1S2S Iax
headed wiII be deveIoped increasing direcI reIaIionships beIween
ciIies and crown, wiIhouI so many inIermediaries.
3SS
Thus, Iax
Iarmers was so necessaries due Io Ihe new roIe pIayed by ciIies. The
deIauII arrived Ior Ihe Ieading agenIs in Ihe pasI Iwo decades, as
ernndez CoroneI CoroneI or Pedro de SanIa Cruz. Tax Iarming and
cooperaIion did noI died, buI were IransIormed. Less Iaxes wouId
be coIIecIed by Ihis sysIem, speciaIIy wiIhin aIcabaIas and Iercias.
OIher duIies, on Ihe oIher hand, mainIained a Ieasing sysIem. Due
Io Ihe highesI raIes oI coIIaboraIion were Iound in Ihe souIh, noI
surprising Ihe presence oI severaI operaIors in Ihe greaIesI duIies
oI AndaIucia. SaIe Iaxes needed a signiIicanI presence oI merchanI
in order Io make Ihem successIuI. Thus, high Iaxes over siIk
producIion in Cranada or Ihe SeviIian's clmojcrijczgo -a Iax over
boIh imporI and exporI oI commodiIies- inviIed Io cooperaIe. OIher
355 D. Alonso Garca, El erario del reino
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
244
Iaxes oI Ihis zone wiII be Iease as weII. However, a generaI conIracI
was sign beIween SeviIIe and erdinand Ihe CaIhoIic in 1S14 Ior
heading much oI Iaxes oI Ihis ciIy. CooperaIion wouId conIinue in
Ihese scopes. And Ihis cooperaIion wouId be deveIoped beIween
inIernaIionaI bankers conIirmed as repIacemenI oI much CasIiIian
Iax Iarmers.
Tax Iarming was deveIoping as a coIIecIive phenomenon
during Ihe IirsI decades oI sixIeenIh cenIury. inanciers used Iax
Iarming in order Io improve economics proIiIs and Io gain poIiIicaI
inIIuence. 8eIween enIrepreneurs happened business, agreemenIs
-or disagreemenIs-, negoIiaIions and discussions. !I shouId be
underIined IhaI many cooperaIion behaviors happened wiIhin
agenIs Iiving in separaIed IocaIions, which, as we have seen, speaks
oI a high degree oI inIegraIion IhroughouI Ihe kingdom. To reach
cooperaIion iI had Io know and Io be known, Io negoIiaIe wiIh
oIher agenIs and Io manage reIaIionships. This was onIy IeasibIe
wiIhin a parIicuIar worId where agenIs conIroIIed inIormaIion
abouI Iinance or Iheir possibIe parInership or members oI Ihe royaI
insIiIuIions. This how-know was achieved using inIormaI channeIs
where Iax Iarmers and merchanIs worked.
We wouId remember IhaI, in a IoI oI Iimes, Iaxes were noI
direcIIy coIIecIed by Ihe primary Iax Iarmer buI by a secondary
Iinancier who had Ieased iI Irom Ihe IirsI agenI direcIIy.
3S6
This
Iendency wiII be increased wiIhin changes happened around
1S10, when happened a consoIidaIion bigger Iax Iarming. Taxes
arrived aI secondary markeI where coIIaboraIion beIween IirsI
and secondary agenIs was basic.
3S7
!n our opinion, cooperaIion
356 J. M. Carretero Zamora, Los arrendadores.
357 D. Alonso Garca, El erario del reino pp. 266-270.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
245
beIween acIors Irom diIIerenI parIs oI Kingdom conIribuIed Io
Ihe economic and sociaI arIicuIaIion oI whoIe CasIiIian. WiIh Iax
Iarmers, many oI Ihem merchanIs as weII, IraveIing producIs, news
and inIIuences. We couId undersIand a reason why Ihese peopIe
reached an imporIanI sociaI inIIuence, even IurIher on Iax sysIem.
As we guoIed, Pedro deI AIczar mainIain reIaIions wiIh peopIe Irom
TordesiIIas, Tru|iIIo, Aranda deI Duero and Segovia. He aIso worked
wiIh Cenoese merchanIs. So, we couId consider Ihis exampIe as a
symboI oI Iax Iarming as an acIiviIy whose anaIysis shouId noI be
addressed excIusiveIy Irom an economic poinI oI view.
3S8
!n IacI,
Pedro deI AIczar was an very remarkabIe merchanI oI oiI and wine
and, Iaking advanIage oI Ihis posiIion, boughI diIIerenI houses in
SeviIe which have been owned previousIy Io rancisco RiberoI, a
Cenoese pioneer in business wiIh Canarias !sIands.
3S9

An imporIanI aspecI wiIhin merchanI or IinanciaI
coIIaboraIion concerns Io shapes oI organizaIion beIween Iwo or
more agenIs. As schoIars are poinIing ouI during Ihe IasI decades,
inIernaI Iorms oI managemenI in commerciaI associaIions represenI
a key issue wiIhin a possibIe success, especiaIIy Ior incidence in
going down IransacIion cosIs.
360
!n many cases, coIIaboraIion in
Iax coIIecIions was reIaIed Io oIher businesses. ven in seIIing
up merchanI associaIions is possibIe Io Iind ouI inIeresIs in Iaxes
coIIecIion.
361
We couId diIIerence Ihree basic ways oI associaIion
358 Cfr. M. Vester, Te Political Autonomy
359 AGS, EMR, leg. 142. L. de la Rosa Olivera, Francisco de Riberol y la colonia genovesa en
Canarias, Anuario de Estudios Atlnticos, n 18 (1972), pp. 61-198.
360 H. Casado Alonso, Los fujos de informacin en las redes comerciales castellanas de los siglos
XV y XVI, Investigaciones de Historia Economic, n 10 (2008), pp. 35-68. About the concept of transaction
costs and its infuence within tax systems, M. Levi, Of Role and Revenue, (Berkely-Los Angeles-London,
1988), pp. 23-38.
361 H. Casado Alonso, Comercio, crdito y fnanzas pblicas en Castilla en la poca de los Reyes
Catlicos, A. M. Bernal (Coord.), Dinero, moneda y crdito en la Monarqua Hispnica, (Madrid, 2000), pp.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
246
wiIhin Iax Iarmers. urIher Ihan IamiIy associaIions IhaI we have
menIioned previousIy, is possibIe Io Iigure ouI a way oI associaIions
oI Iong naIure, when a same parInership used Io be chosen
everywhere. These kinds oI eIecIions were noI Ioo usuaI. However,
Ihey goI a Iarge inIIuence Ior number, varieIy and guanIiIy oI Iaxes
coIIecIed. May be Ihe mosI evidenI exampIe couId be Ihe associaIion
beIween Hernn Surez de Lara and Pedro Cmez Cabrera. They
worked IogeIher since 1S10 in coIIecIing Iaxes oI NorIh CasIiIe.
This associaIion oughI Io be successIuI because in 1S14 Ihe Iound
oIher parIner: ernando CuIierrez, ciIizen oI PIacencia. Hernn
Surez de Lara was ciIizen oI Segovia whiIe Pedro Cmez de
Cabrera was ciIizen oI Madrid. The Ihree Iinanciers Ieased Iaxexs
oI, VaIdeguarea, TordesiIIas, Provincia de Len, PIasencia, Ciudad
Rodrigo, AviIa AIcnIara beIween 1S14-1S22, provided wiIh a high
degree oI capiIaIizaIion.
There was anoIher Iorm oI coIIaboraIion more exIended.
!n generaI, cooperaIion wiIhin Iax Iarmers was noI deIined by
sIabiIiIy. ven iI was noI sIrange Io Iirm diIIerenI coIIaboraIions
wiIh severaI agenIs. ThereIore, generaI schema oI coIIaboraIion
did noI mean hierarchicaI paIIerns buI parIicuIar and horizonIaI
neIworks. They conducIed IhemseIves in a very dynamic or IIexibIe
poinI oI view. 8uI Ihey are voIaIiIe as weII. ach parIner invoIved
wiIh his parenIs and Iheir own peopIe, iI any, aIways aIIending Io
shape inIormaI neIworks. !nIormaI buI very eIIecIive, ! mighI add.
We Iind, Ihus, a greaI worId oI IiIIIe reIaIions IhaI Iormed a whoIe
sysIem, wiIh diIIerenI poinIs and Iines, aIways keeping IhaI Iorm oI
seII-susIained group IhaI we menIioned previousIy. These neIworks
consIiIuIe a compIex sysIem where agenIs, brokers and subordina-
135-156.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
247
Ies worked. !I is noI possibIe undersIand Iheir reIaIion Iooking Ior
Ihose individuaI Iinks, buI as a parI oI a complcx cnd nonlinccr
systcm.
362
We wiII Iake Ihe exampIe oI Ihe AIczar again. The
AIczar IamiIy used as agenI ]uan AIemn sysIemaIicaIIy in
muIIipIe Iasks, in aspecIs as Iax sysIem, commerciaI issues or, even,
as procurador in IriaIs.
363
AI Ihe same Iime, rancisco deI AIczar
served as guaranIor oI AIonso AIemn,
364
who, moreover, had been
oIIiciaI oI ConzaIo deI PuerIo, aIso SeviIian, one oI Ihe bigger Iax
Iarmer oI whoIe kingdom beIween 1S10-1S12.
36S
AIonso AIemn
kepI an evidenI inIormaI reIaIionship wiIh Ihe AIcazar IamiIy.
NeverIheIess, despiIe oI his AIczar conIacI", he aIso worked Ior or
wiIh oIhers Iinanciers oI SeviIIe. A simiIar paIIern is repeaIed wiIh
Ihe ernndez de SeviIIa. ConzaIo ernndez de SeviIIa |oined oIher
merchanIs in SeviIIe, rancisco OrIiz and ernando AIcocerbeIween
1S03 and 1S06. A coupIe oI years IaIer we Iind Pedro ernandez de
SeviIIa as agenI oI ConzaIo deI PuerIo.
366
ar Irom being a modeI
company Io sIabIe, weII ordered and easiIy recognizabIe, IinanciaI
CasIiIian neIworks showed a IoI oI reIaIionships and Ihe abiIiIy Io
serve on diIIerenI IeveIs. This does noI impIy Ihe absence oI oIher
ways oI organizaIion, especiaIIy when we speak abouI merchanIs
Irom 8urgos.
367
However, iI prevaiIed a more horizonIaI and Iess
362 M. I. Snchez Balmaseda, Anlisis de redes sociales e Historia: una metodologa para el estudio
de redes clientelares, (Madrid, Universidad Complutense, 1995), (ph dissertation aviable on http://www.
ucm.es/BUCM/tesis/19911996/H/2/AH2011901.pdf). An introduction about complexity systems sciences,
A. Snchez, Complejidad: Mecnica Estadstica y Ciencia no linear, Boletn de la Sociedad Espaola de
Matemticas Aplicadas, n 34 (2006), pp. 176-189. M. Mitchell, Complexity. A Guided Tour, (Oxford-New
York, 2009).
363 AGS, EMR,leg. 175; AGI, Justicia, leg. 696, n 3, R.1. Cfr. C. Mathers, Relations between Burgos
and the Crown, 1506-1556, An Arbor, Michigan, 1973, p. 241.
364 AGS, EMR, leg. 156.
365 AGS, RGS, 17-11-1510.
366 Ibidem.
367 Cfr. B. Caunedo del Potro, Comercio y hombres de negocios; H. Casado Alonso,
Crecimiento econmico y redes de comercializacin en la Castilla septentrional (1450-1539), J. I. Fortea
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
248
pyramidaI modeI. !n IacI, a Iess pyramidaI modeI can be deIecIed
beIween merchanI groups oI SeviIe, even when Ihey came Irom
8urgos.
368

HisIorians have poinIed ouI jisccl Stctcs in urope showed
imporIanI IimiIs oI perIormance.
369
How Iax Iarmers were
organized shouId have inIIuence in whoIe sysIem. OI course,
horizonIaI and noI cenIraIized groups conIribuIed Io do conIuse
inIormaIion. DespiIe oI eIIorIs made Ior kings in order Io manage
aII inIormaIion abouI IiscaI coIIecIion,
370
oIIiciaIs onIy knew Ihe
IinanciaI soIvency oI Ihese IinanciaI sIaIemenIs based on IieId
research. Tax Iarmers shouId presenI pIedges, buI Ihey were no
enough Ior doing paymenIs sure. urIhermore, IiscaI insIiIuIions
senI agenIs Io viIIage in order Io know iI Iinanciers and guaranIors
were reIiabIe. This agenI wenI Io Iowns, where neighbors were
inIerrogaIed abouI possessions, goods or experiences oI members
oI companies. OI course, answering was onIy vaIid Ior members oI
Ihe same viIIage oI Iinanciers insIead oI companies coIIaboraIed
wiIh peopIe Irom oIher viIIages or regions oI whoIe kingdom.
Prez (Ed.): Imgenes de la diversidad. El mundo urbano en la Corona de Castilla (s. XVI-XVIII), (Santander,
1997), pp. 283-322.
368 N. Palenzuela Domnguez, Los mercaderes y hombres de negocios burgaleses en Sevilla en
tiempo de Isabel la Catlica, Comercio y hombres de negocio, pp. 331-352.
369 Between diferent titles about, inside a wealth of bibliography regarding this matter, J.B. Collins,
Fiscal limits of absolutism. Direct Taxation in Seventeenth-Century France, (Berkeley, Los Angeles, London,
1988). G. Muto, Tra centro e periferia: la gestione della Hacienda nellItalia Spagnola, Rassegna Storica
Salernitana, n 5, pp. 51-76. Separata; A. Molho, Te State and Public Finance: A Hiptesis Based on
the History of Late Medieval Florence, Te Origins of the State in Italy, 1300-1600. Te Journal of Modern
History, vol. 67 (diciembre, 1995), pp. 34-61. For Castilian tax system, furthermore other titles cited, A.
Mackay, Hacienda y sociedad en la Castilla bajomedieval, Estado, hacienda y sociedad en la Historia de
Espaa, Valladolid, 1989, pp. 47-78; J. Fontana, Estado y hacienda en el despotismo ilustrado, en Idem,
pp. 125-147; B. Yun Casalilla, Aristocracia, Corona y oligarquas urbanas en Castilla ante el problema fscal.
1450-1600. (Una refexin en el largo plazo), en La gestin del poder. Corona y economas aristocrticas en
Castilla (siglos XVI.-XVIII), (Madrid, 2002), pp. 73-104 (original publicado en 1991); I. A. A. Tompson,
Castile...
370 J. M. Carretero Zamora, D. Alonso Garca, Hacienda y negocio fnanciero en tiempos de Isabel la
Catlica. El libro de Hacienda de 1503, (Madrid, 2003).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
249
The Contcdurc Mcyor dc Cucntcs -Ihe insIiIuIion Ior revising
every Iax managemenI in order Io avoid corrupIions- couId onIy
perIorm Iheir IuncIion Iaking advanIage oI accounIs presenIed by
Iinanciers, so IhaI inIormaIion were Ieaked by same peopIe which
were invesIigaIed. OIIiciaIs were no innocenI. iscaI insIiIuIions
oughI Io make sure Ihe crediI. !I was essenIiaI Io mainIain conIacIs
wiIh Ihe IinanciaI worId in order Io do Iax sysIem successIuI.
371

!I was no necessary Io be Ioo sIricI wiIh agenIs who mainIained
an inIernaI soIidariIy because oI neIworks oI coIIaboraIion. The
king had signiIicanI probIems Io conIroI Ihe sysIem because he
depended oI Ihis worId oI cooperaIion aI diIIerenI IeveIs. 8uI
Ihe sysIem worked because Ihe kin mainIained access Io crediI
Iaking advanIage oI Ihese neIworks. !n IacI, Iax Iarmers deIayed
and canceIIed paymenIs during aII period wiIhouI Iax sysIem had
an eIIecIive abiIiIy oI Iorcing Io obey Ihe conIracIs.
372
ven more,
debIs accumuIaIed Ior Iax Iarmers were renegoIiaIed in new
conIracI wiIh same Iinanciers who did noI pay previousIy, so IhaI
Iaxes couId be Ieased on severaI occasions wiIhouI doing paymenIs
more secure. The IinanciaI sysIem appeared wiIh kniIIed inIeresI
Ior boIh Iinanciers and insIiIuIion, where boIh depended on boIh.
This modeI was reached Ihrough an inIense cooperaIion beIween
Iax Iarmers, and beIween Iax Iarmers wiIh oIIiciaIs oI insIiIuIions.
inanciers couId be shiIIed iI Iheir crediI were noI enough Ior King
-Ihis happened aIIer Comuneros revoII, when CasIiIe Iax Iarmers
wiII be repIace by inIernaIionaI bankers deIiniIiveIy -, buI whoIe
sysIem wiII conIinue depending on cooperaIion boIh beIween
merchanIs and beIween agenIs and royaI oIIiciaIs. The Iunding
371 See a document about in AGS, DC, leg. 3, fol. 59.
372 D. Alonso Garca, El erario del reino...
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
250
possibiIiIies remained Iinked Io Ihe proIiIs oI coIIecIion. inanciers
-or ciIies- earned money or priviIeges wiIhin diIIerenI ways whiIe
Ihe crown achieved Iheir main goaI: money and crediI, speciaIIy
crediI, Ihe reaI purpose oI IinanciaI eIIiciency beIore IiberaI SIaIe.


A"%4'#65"%
We couId ask ourseIves why Ihose Iorms oI inIernaI
organizaIion in sclj-orgcnizing nctworks noI soIved Ihe poIiIicaI and
IinanciaI crisis oI 1S20-1S2S. Comuneros carried on CharIes V Io
a hopeIess siIuaIion. AIIer 1S23, headed Iaxes -encabezamienIos-
wouId be a preIerred way oI coIIecIion insIead oI Iax Iarming. The
answer, obviousIy, musI address Io severaI eIemenIs. irsI, iI
is cIear IhaI changing poIiIicaI condiIions aIIer 1S22 sIrengIhen
Ihe roIe oI ciIies in IiscaI poIicy oI CharIes V. The creaIion oI a
Diputccin cn Cortcs wiIh exIended inIIuence in Iax sysIems is
anoIher exampIe oI a poIiIicaI sysIem where IocaI oIigarchies
were more and more imporIanI. This overview was compIeIed
by Ihe inabiIiIy oI Ihe IradiIionaI sysIem oI Iax Iarming Io Iace
Iheir IinanciaI obIigaIions. !nsIiIuIionaI IransIormaIion, wiIh Ihe
creaIion oI as CounciI oI inance, aIso depended on poIiIicaI and
economicaI IransIormaIions
373
.
May be Ihis guesIion can be compIeIed wiIh anoIher way oI
undersIanding. !I we Ihink Ihe poIiIicaI and economic condiIions
were noI Ihe mosI IavorabIe Irom Ihe end oI Ihe reign oI Ihe CaIhoIic
Kings, sclj-orgcnizcd nctworks on Iax Iarming did noI heIped
Io mainIain an accepIabIe IeveI oI working Ior whoIe sysIem? !I
shouId noI be IorgoIIen Ihe serious poIiIicaI crises in Spain was
373 Ibidem.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
251
accompanied by remarkabIe success in Ihe Ioreign poIicy: Ihe !IaIian
wars, Ihe campaigns oI MeIiIIa, Oran, MazaIguivir and Ihe IirsI sIeps
in America represenIed a IirsI period oI CasIiIian expansion, aIIer
conIinued Ior Habsburg dynasIy. This IirsI expansion needed crediI
and IinanciaI groups Io hoId Ihis consIrucIion. Cenoese bankers
did noI Ihe biggesI crediIors yeI. CasIiIian groups, in IacI, managed
miIIions and miIIions oI maravedIes each year... despiIe oI poIiIicaI
insIabiIiIy. However, poIiIicaI insIabiIiIy and sociaI pressure Ior
Iax Iarmers (much oI Ihem were convcrsos) were weaken aII
sysIem. The civiI war oI 1S20-1S22 and IurIhermore, new poIiIicaI
condiIions aIIer Comunidcdcs wouId be a Ioo heavy siIuaIion Io be
overcome.
The ways oI organizaIion Irom unsIabIe, inIormaI and
non-hierarchicaI Iinks, where cooperaIion is expecIed, did noI
consIiIuIe a Iower sIage oI organizaIion. !n IacI, in Ihe sevenIies
oI Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury Iriumph managemenI sysIems based
on commissions", ! mean, servanIs recruiIed in diIIerenI pIaces
Io perIorm a deIermined acIiviIy Ior cerIain price.
374
Spaniards
and especiaIIy Ihe AndaIusians Iax Iarmers were IamiIiar wiIh a
simiIar ways oI organizaIion severaI decades in advance. To keep
a non verIicaI group is noI more or Iess modern IhaI a IradiIionaI
company, where a boss seems a god. Any kinds oI reIaIionships
shouId noI be undersIood as key oI progress or advance, buI how
Ihey Io adapI in conIexIs. The currenI economic Iheory does noI
supporI a hierarchicaI sIrucIure oI Iarge companies may be more
coherenI or eIIecIive Ihan seII-organizing ways, Ior exampIe, as
microcrediI sysIem in !ndia demonsIraIes. !n IacI, during Ihe irsI
CIobaI Age" inIormaI Iies, IamiIies in many cases, were expecIed
374 H. Casado Alonso, Crecimiento
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
252
raIher Ihan verIicaI organizaIions. These ways oI cooperaIion
heIped Io |oin economic spaces. Large companies Iived and
nourished Ihis reaIiIy. The CasIiIian Ireasury aIso Iived oI and wiIh
Iem... aI IeasI Ior severaI decades.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
253
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The sIudy oI Ihe commerciaI neIworks oI Ihe !ndian
Ocean and Ihe PaciIic noI onIy aIIords us insighI Io Ihe sIrucIuraI
deveIopmenI oI modern capiIaIism and Ihe reIaIions IhaI were
esIabIished beIween urope and Ihe asI; iI aIso enabIes us Io deIve
more deepIy inIo Ihe conseguenIiaI changes in Ihe commerciaI
sysIem oI Ihe AIIanIic Ocean
376
and Ihe economic imbaIances IhaI
arose in Ihe moIher counIries as a resuII oI markeI gIobaIisaIion.
!ndeed, as Cuebas and VicenIe ciIe, ...thc sccond lcw oj thcrmo-
375 Tis article is funded by and forms part of the European Science Foundation EUROCORES
project, Dynamic Complexity of Cooperation-Based Self-Organizing Networks in the First Global Age
(DynCoopNet), (06-TECT-FP-004) and by the Ministry of Education and Science SEJ2007-29226- E/
SOCI.
376 Vid. D. Birminghan, Trade and Empire in the Atlantic, 1400-1600, (London: Routledge, 2000);
B. Stein and S. Stein, Silver, Trade, and War: Spain and America in the Making of Early Modern Europe,
(Baltimore: JHU Press, 2000).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
254
dyncmics prcdicts thc hrcckdown oj cll structurcs ovcr timc.
Drdcrcd things will no longcr hc in ordcr, sooncr or lctcr lccding to
disordcr..." and aIIhough many Ihings can occur, ...one oI Ihem is
Ihe sponIaneous emergence oI compIexiIy...".
377
!n Ihe IirsI gIobaI
era, Ihe IormaIion oI exIensive Irade neIworks emerged ouI oI a
singIe sysIem IhaI served as a base Ior Ihe deveIopmenI oI Iwo
oIher inIerconnecIed secondary subsysIems. One such subsysIem
was Ihe AIIanIic-MediIerranean area; Ihe oIher was Ihe !ndian-
PaciIic.
378

The business acIiviIies oI commerciaI companies such as
Ihe asI !ndia Company
379
and Ihe VOC,
380
aIong wiIh oIher Iar more
cIosed modeIs, incIuding Ihose oI PorIugaI and Spain, Iavoured
Ihe uropean conIroI oI Irade IhroughouI Ihe region,
381
Io Ihe
demise oI Ihe oId naIive neIworks IhaI were iniIiaIIy used by Ihe
new modeI and IaIer eIiminaIed. A markeI conIroI by means oI an
accumuIaIion oI knowIedge" based on sIraIegies oI cooperaIion
and coIIaboraIion, and in some cases conIronIaIion. However, aI
Ihe dawn oI Ihe gIobaI age, in conIrasI Io moneIarisI meIhodoIogicaI
377 R. Vicente Sol and S. Cuebas Monrubia, Orden y Caos en sistemas complejos, (Barcelona:
Universitat Politcnica de Catalunya, 2005).
378 J. I.Israel Mexico and the General Crisis of the Seventeenth Century , Past and Present, 63
(1974), pp. 33, explains the relationship of that global system in this way : ... Its purpose was to aid Seville,
and the ailing textile manufacturers of Castile, by reducing Mexican textile exports to South America while
at the same time reducing the fow of American silver to the Far East through Manila and Macao where
Mexican merchants were obtaining their Chinese silks and brocades.... So clearly explain P. Chaunu, Las
Filipinas y el Pacfco de los Ibricos. Siglos XVI, XVII y XVIII, (Mxico: IICE, 1974), 20 ... En qu medida
la modifcacin capital del volumen de las llegadas de plata al Guadalquivir entre 1630 y 1640 es imputable
al trfco competidor del Galen de Manila?....
379 Vid. some reference works EIC, J. Keay, Te Honourable Company: A History of the English East
India Company, (London: Collins, 1991); B- Gardner, Te East India Company: a History, (Londres: Davis,
1971) or Ph. Lawson, Te East India Company: A History, (Londres: Longhmann, 1993).
380 Femme Gaastra, Te Dutch East India Company: Expansion and Decline, (Walburg: 2003).
381 D. R. Ringrose, Expansion and Global Interaction, 1200-1700, (New York: A.W. Longhmann,
2001).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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Iines, Ihe more opIimaI approach was diIIerenI. RaIher Ihan a
need Ior capiIaI, Ihere was a need Io accumuIaIe inIormaIion"
Io IaciIiIaIe Ihe boom, Ihe expansion and Ihe IuIure conIroI oI Ihe
enIire markeI. When capiIaI Iinancing became scarce, iI was soughI
ouI among Ihe IocaI Irade neIworks and Ihe naIive oIigarchy and
eIiIe cIasses.
Thus, Ior Ihe base oI our sIudy, we have seI ouI Io anaIyse
and compare Ihe diIIerenI modeIs menIioned above. On one
hand, Ihere were Ihe Iwo ma|or Irading companies, which were
deveIoping a new modern capiIaIism whiIe uphoIding a cerIain
degree oI Ihe oId mercanIiIism,
382
parIicuIarIy in Iheir deaIings wiIh
382 Besides the debate, more pragmatic than ideological about the need for money, also there were
other problems of monetary transactions, specifcally the Spanish real, William Foster, A Calendar of the
Court Minutes of the East India Company, (Oxford: Clarendon, Press, 1909), Vol. V, Petition of Nathaniel
Teme, Martin Noell, and other merchant adventurers to the East Indies to the Lord Protector, January 25,
1656. As the trade of India is of great beneft to the English nation and cannot be carried on without large
expense and constant supplies of Spanish coin and bullion, and some resentment has been shown lately at
leave being given to transport moneys to the East Indies, and a duty laid upon the same, the petitioners
have resolved to furnish themselves from Holland ; but, as it may be dangerous, and will be expensive,
to send their large ships to receive and carrymoneys from thence, they pray for permission to bring such
moneys as will be sufcient for their occasions from Holland in Dutch or other vessels to the Downs,
and there lade the same in their own ships bound for India without payment of custom or other lett
or molestation . Referred to the Privy Council, Nathaniel Bacon. Arguments of Nathaniel Temes, Martin
Noell, and other merchants to induce the protector to grant their Petition. Payment of custom for silver and
gold transported to the East Indies is a new thing, for when Queen Elizabeth, King James, King Charles,
and the late Parliaments gave licence for such transportation no custom was demanded or exacted by either
farmers or commissioners, notwithstandinge that the custome should have gone into the private purses
of the respective farmers and not into the Exchequer. Te trade of India is of high concern to the English
nation and cannot be carried on without large and constant supplies of money, and His Highness, who has
ofen shown a gracious propensity to encourage and enlarge trade, may please to know that the fastninge
theire plummetts or weights of custome at the heels thereof, twill never be able to soar soe high as otherwise
it might. Teir Dutch competitors are exempt from such charges and are allowed to send out what moneys
they please ; therefore vast sums are imported and to be found in Holland at easy rates. Te petitioners plead
to be permitted to provide themselves with moneys from Holland, so as not to exhaust the treasure at home,
but to ease it by the great sums which will be paid for custom and excise on the goods to be returned in
their ships. What they desire will not prejudice the State, but will be of great convenient to themselves and
prevent the hazard of sending their large ships to Holland. Tey have engaged deeply in the trade to India
and cannot now fnd, either in London or the country, a sufcient quantity of rials of eight or other ftting
specie, and what there is would be at dearer rates than in Holland.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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256
each oIher; and on Ihe oIher hand, Ihe Hispanic modeI, which was
compIeIeIy mercanIiIisI.
383
We aIso examine Ihe deaIings beIween
Ihe represenIaIives oI each modeI and Ihe kingdoms and merchanIs
oI Ihe area.
384
To do so, our IirsI sIep enIaiIed Ihe deveIopmenI oI
a daIabase covering Irade in Ihe porI oI ManiIa IhroughouI Ihe
enIire 17
Ih
cenIury. The IieIds generaIed Ior such purpose incIude
Ihe porIs oI origin oI Ihe vesseIs; Ihe ship Iype; Ihe name oI Ihe ship
owner and his/her naIionaIiIy; Ihe IreighI, iIs Iype and iIs vaIue;
among oIhers.
Once prepared, Ihe daIabase and iIs impIemenIaIion in a
CeographicaI !nIormaIion SysIem wiII aIIord us a comprehensive
anaIysis, wiIh cerIain percepIions and views IhaI a convenIionaI
one wouId Ieave ouI. These incIude a generous number oI anaIyIicaI
variabIes, ranging Irom graph Iheory Io markeI poIenIiaI. Moreover,
Ihe reading oIIered by such C!S wiII be Iar more exIensive, as iI can
be compared wiIh oIhers, such as Ihe voIume oI ships IhaI reached
Ihe ]apanese porI oI Nagasaki
38S
(which wiII greaIIy IaciIiIaIe a
comparison oI Ihe porI-Io-porI dynamics in Ihe PaciIic region);
Ihe exporIs oI siIver Irom Hirado
386
Io 8aIavia, Ihe Iarge DuIch
383 Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla AGI-, Filipinas 329 L2, fol. 299, Remedio para que no vaya
ms plata de Mxico a Filipinas, 15 de junio de 1619.
384 Vid. J. M. Segu and J. M. Petrus, Geografa de redes y sistema de transportes, (Madrid: Sntesis,
198): 42 El anlisis de la forma y conexin de las redes y los niveles de jerarquizacin pueden efectuarse
mediante la aplicacin de la teora de grafos; for markets vid. M. Potrykowski, Geografa del Transporte,
(Barcelona: Ariel, 1985).
385 E. Sola, Historia de un desencuentro: Espaa y Japn, 1580-1614, (Madrid: Fugaz Ediciones,
1999).
386 Tere are many works on Hirado and Japan, including, W.Z. Mulder, Hollanders in Hirado,
1597-1641, (Fibula-Van Dishoeck: 1992); J.W. Hall, Te Cambridge History of Japan, (Cambridge University
Press, 1988); A. Farrignton, Te English Factory in Japan, 1613-1623, (London: British Library, 1991);
C.R. Boxer When the Twain First Met: European Conceptions and Misconceptions of Japan, Sixteenth-
Eighteenth Centuries, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 531-540, explains ...Jacques Specx, the frst
Dutch Factor in Japan, writing from Nagasaki on 3 November 1610, reported: Te Great Ship coming from
Macau usually has about 200 or more merchants on board who go ashore at once, each one of them taking
a house wherein to lodge with his servants and slaves. Tey take no heed of what they spend, and nothing
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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commerciaI base in souIheasI
Asia; and, Io Iake a case in poinI, Ihe origin oI Chinese producIs; as
weII as Ihe sIudy oI Ihe producIive brands" Irom CanIon and Iheir
disIribuIion in ManiIa, among oIhers.
DiIIerenI schoIars, incIuding Chaudhuri,
387
have cIearIy
and emphaIicaIIy underscored Ihe manner in which Ihose Irading
companies, Ihe !C and Ihe VOC, were acIuaIIy Ihe Irue precursors
oI modern capiIaIism.
388
We aIso aim Io compare Ihe diIIerenI
poIicies appIied by such companies Io ensure Iheir access Io Ihe
markeIs in SouIheasI Asia, wiIh Ihe oIher more cIosed and sIiII
mercanIiIisI poIicies oI PorIugaI
389
and Spain.
390
No doubI, Ihe
divergenI modeIs, Ihe diIIerenI economic poIicies oI Ihe respecIive
moIher counIries and Iheir cIashes Ied Io greaI change, noI onIy in
urope, buI aIso Iar more specIacuIarIy in Ihe !ndian Ocean and Ihe
PaciIic. WiIh reIerence Io such commerce - and Ihe rivaIries IhaI
is too costly for them. And sometimes they disburse in the seven or eight months that they stay in Nagasaki
more than 250,000 to 3.000.000 taels, through which the populace proft greatly..., p. 532.
387 K. N. Chaudhuri, Te Trading World of Asia and the English East India Company, (Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 1989).
388 Vid. E, Arrighi, B. Silver and I. Ahmad, Chaos and Governance in the Modern World System,
(University of Minnesota Press: 1999); S. Chaudhuri and M. Morineau, Merchants, Companies and Trade:
Europe and Asia in the Early Modern Era, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999).
389 A. Russell-Wood, Te Portuguese Empire, 1415-1808: A World on the Move, (Baltimore: JHU
Press, 1998).
390 AGI, Filipinas, 320, L2, fols. 118-120, Peticin de informe sobre comercio de Espaa y
Filipinas. Explaining in fol. 119 queja por parte de la universidad de mercaderes de Sevilla que se ha
representado porque el comercio de Indias estaba decayendo a causa de la mucha contratacin que haba
entre Nueva Espaa y Filipinas y que sera ms conveniente desviar ese comercio desde Espaa a Filipinas
por el Cabo de Buena Esperanza. Te policy of Hispanic Monarchy was limitation,Vid. AGI, Filipinas, 341,
L7, fol 6v.-7v. Peticin de informe sobre el comercio de Filipinas, de 20 de marzo de 1660. Te Hispanic
authorities wanted .el clavo, canela y otros gneros que eran de contrabando en la carrera de Filipinas por
ser a favor de Portugal se comercien en dicha carrera con Nueva Espaa.Years before, in contradiction
with their own political ideas of balance with Portugal, the same metropolitan authorities had issued an
order that is grown in the Philippines nutmeg and cloves, vid. AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4 fols. 132r-133v. Orden
para cultivar nuez moscada y clavo en Filipinas, 16 de diciembre de 1639, y ello segn la propuesta de
Juan de Arriola, que se ponga en prctica.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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258
emerged among Ihe diIIerenI uropean companies and sIaIes -, Ihe
memorandum IhaI Ihe !C senI Io Ihe ngIish auIhoriIies describes
Ihe siIuaIion in Ihree poinIs: 1) !I was exIremeIy dangerous Io aIIer
Irade; 2) ThirIy-Iive years oI ongoing Irade had deepIy modiIied Ihe
uropean mercanIiIe sysIem and Ihe consumpIion oI spices, Ieading
Io a IiIIy-percenI drop in prices; 3) !I Ihe DuIch had Ihe monopoIy,
Ihey wouId raise prices. !n essence, Ihese were Ihe observaIions
IransmiIIed by Ihe asI !ndia Company
391
Io Ihe ngIish crown. We
wiII aIso see Ihe manner in which cerIain cooperaIive acIiviIies
among Ihe IocaI merchanIs were graduaIIy ecIipsed by a new
economic sysIem and by a new approach Io Ihe concepIion oI
gIobaI Irade, yeI above aII, wiIh a new recipe Ior Ihe peneIraIion
and dominaIion oI boIh regionaI and IransnaIionaI markeIs. One
exampIe oI Ihe connecIions IhaI were esIabIished beIween Ihese
Iwo subsysIems was Ihe increase in Ihe IraIIic oI MediIerranean
coraI. WhiIe seIIing pepper in Cenoa, Livorno, Venice and oIher
!IaIian ciIies, Ihe ngIish purchased coraI Ior subseguenI resaIe in
!ndia.
392

391 William Foster, A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, (Oxford: Claren-
don, Press, 1909), Vol. II, p. 207.
392 William Foster, A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, (Oxford: Clarendon,
Press, 1909), Vol. III: A Court of Committees, August 5, 1640. Te Governor reports the consent of the
generality to pepper being sent to Leghorn and Venice upon the Companys account ; whereupon, afer
much debate, the order is submitted to. Tough formerly upon like occasions the Guidanaes have been
employed, now upon the special recommendation of several Committees the disposal of such part of the
800 bags of pepper as is to be sent to Leghorn is entrusted to Job Trogmorton and John Collier; and
it is resolved to consign the proportion for Venice to Signors Laurenzo Peti, Romulo Romuli, and Paul
del Sero. Messrs. Bodilo and Martyn, masters of ships, are treated with about freight of their vessels for
transportation of the said pepper ; but they asking too much, no agreement is made, and the Deputy is
entreated to speak with Mr. Bodilo at the Exchange and ofer him 1,000 dollars for freight of 500 bags of
pepper to Leghorn, to be laden within six days, and he to undertake to go direct to that port. Also A Court
of Committees, November 11, 1640, A relation, drawn up by Mr. Hunter, of the state of the Companys
trade to the southwards, is read and referred for future consideration. Proposal is made to write to Mr.
Trogmorton and direct him, if the pepper is sold at Leghorn, to return the proceeds in rials of eight rather
than by exchange, but if it is not sold then to take up at interest money to the value of the said pepper (over
and above the price of the coral) and send it in rials of eight to arrive about next February and fnally the
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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!n our sIudy, we examine Ihe IiIes oI Ihe CeneraI Archive
oI Ihe !ndies, speciIicaIIy Ihose perIaining Io Ihe Champagne
RegisIries" oI Ihe porI oI ManiIa. These IiIes provide more deIaiIed
inIormaIion Ihan Ihe AccounIing SecIion, speciIicaIIy on Ihe
AImo|ariIazgo series, which was researched by Pierre Chaunu in
Ihe 1960s.
!ndeed, in his work, Lcs Filipincs y cl Pccjico dc los |hcricos",
Chaunu sIudies Irade in ManiIa based on Ihe seguences oI Iaxes oI
Ihe AccounIing DeparImenI. However, Ihe searches conducIed on
Ihe ships IhemseIves were Iar more compIeIe, wiIh IremendousIy
exhausIive and IineIy deIaiIed inIormaIion. NoI onIy are Ihere
more records - in Ierms oI boIh Ihe number oI ships and Ihe capiIaI
invesIed in goods - Ihan Ihose deIecIed by Chaunu, buI Ihe porIs
oI origin are Iar more speciIic, as is Ihe inIormaIion perIaining Io
Ihe ship owner, Ihe producIs Ihey carried, Iheir vaIue, Ihe crew,
Ihe cooperaIion among Ihe crew members, Ihe vesseI's deIence
sIraIegy, and oIher inIormaIion. We have recovered aII oI Ihis daIa
Io generaIe a Iar deeper and more comprehensive proIiIe oI IhaI
Irade, cenIred excIusiveIy on Ihe 17
Ih
cenIury, aI Ihe very heighI oI
exchange, yeI aIso aI Ihe Iime oI Ihe sudden decIine in Irade and
Ihe IirsI serious eIIorIs oI King CharIes !! oI Spain Io revive iI, in
whaI has come Io be known as AusIrian reIormism". Though Ihis
does noI invaIidaIe Ihe sIudies by Chaunu, as his work generousIy
Iakes in Ihe period beIween Ihe 16
Ih
and Ihe 18
Ih
cenIuries, iI does
approach Ihe sub|ecI Irom a diIIerenI perspecIive, in a Iar more
exIensive and above aII, more anaIyIicaI seI oI circumsIances.
agreement by A Court of Committees, June 30, 1643, Advices to be sent to Leghorn and Genoa for coral to
be provided to the value of 20,000 or 24,000 ducats.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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260
8$&-, 5% /&%5'&
The economic dynamics oI Ihe Spanish Monarchy in Ihe
PhiIippines was Ihe resuII oI Ihe variance beIween Iwo very diIIerenI
poIiIicaI groups wiIh disparaIe ob|ecIives
393
. On one hand was an
exIremeIy imperiaIisI group IhaI IhaI had seI ouI Io expand iIseII
miIiIariIy beyond Ihe isIands,
394
Ieading Io Ihe parIiaI occupaIion
oI Hermosa !sIand (Taiwan).
39S
This group aIso considered Ihe
possibiIiIy oI conguering Cochin China and in parI, China. On Ihe
oIher hand were Ihose who simpIy wished Io abandon IerriIoriaI
expansion
396
, wiIh Ihe aim oI sIrengIhening Irade reIaIions among
aII Ihe kingdoms in Ihe area
397
and reacIivaIing PhiIippine Irade wiIh
as Iew obsIacIes as possibIe. !n Ihis very aspecI, Ihere were Iragic
momenIs Ior ManiIa's Irade, Io Ihe poinI in which iIs auIhoriIies
aIIempIed Io esIabIish dipIomaIic reIaIions by Iheir own means, Io
promoIe Irade wiIh sIraIegic areas, as was Ihe case oI Siam, and
parIicuIarIy ]apan, and Ihus overcome Ihe chaoIic economic miIieu
oI Ihe Iime. The divergence beIween Ihese Iwo visions, beIween
Ihese Iwo concepIions oI Spanish presence in Asia, ended wiIh Ihe
parIiaI Iriumph oI Ihe IaIIer, as Ihe shipping and exchange oI goods
was Ihe prioriIy Iocus, Ihough Irade beIween Ihe PhiIippines and
393 Vid. J. Headley, Spains Asian Presence, 1565-1590. Structures and Aspirations, Hispanic
American Historical Review, Vol. 75, N 4 (1995), pp. 623-646.
394 AGI, Filipinas, 329-L, fol. 60 r. Peticin, del 17 de noviembre de 1607.
395 AGI, Filipinas 330 L4, fols. 218-220, Respuesta del gobernador de Filipinas sobre la prdida de
Isla Hermosa el 18 de enero de 1648.
396 AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols. 153-154 Orden sobre la rebelin de Portugal y propuesta a Macao,
14 de julio de 1643.
397 Vid. M. Fernndez Gmez, La misin Keicho, 1613-20 Studia Histrica 20 (1999), pp. 269-
296.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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New Spain
398
, and by exIension, aII oI America
399
, was IimiIed. This
Ied Io a highIy reguIaIed
400
and excessiveIy rigid mercanIiIisI poIicy
IhaI had virIuaIIy noIhing Io do wiIh Ihe inIeresIs oI Ihe Iraders oI
Ihe PhiIippines and New Spain - or even Ihose oI Peru.
401
NeedIess
Io say, Ihis poIicy aIso greaIIy diIIered Irom Ihe poIicies deveIoped
and impIemenIed by Ihe ma|or uropean companies IhaI by Ihen
had a sIrong IooIhoId in Ihe area, Ihanks Io Iheir deaIings wiIh
invesIors Irom Ihe naIive eIiIe cIasses.
402

398 AGI, Filipinas, 329 L2, f. 1-22, Amonestacin al gobernador, 17 de septiembre de 1621, the
galleon San Juan Bautista came in Acapulco with a cargo of 1,000 tons, far more than permitted. AGI,
Filipinas 330 L4, fols. 196-197, Orden para que se investigue los fraudes de los oidores, as the Court
wanted se averigen secretamente las cosas de Diego de Larrasa, Diego Afn y Sebastin Caballero
de Medina, que andan siempre juntos, confederados a favor de sus propios intereses, y mercadeando
pblicamente. Vid. Filipinas, 300, L4 f. 127v-128r. Peticin de informe sobre despacho de naos sin
registro, 14 de septiembre de 1639. Also AGI, Filipinas 300 L5 fols. 12-17 Orden sobre naos de Filipinas a
Acapulco; or in AGI, Filipinas, 340 L5 fols. 20-22 Orden para el repartimiento en las naos.
399 In 1604 merchants from Manila, sent a letter to the king asking not to charge 10% on cloth-
ing that was sent to New Spain, AGI, Filipinas, 339L-2, f. 287 v. Also in AGI, Filipinas 340 L5, fols. 36-40,
Peticin de informe para abrir comercio con Per, 14 de febrero de 1640, In this case the argument was
para reabrir el comercio de Per con Nueva Espaa y reparar los daos que sufren las Filipinas.
400 Robert Smith, Spanish Mercantilism: A Hardy Perennial, Southern Economic Journal, Vol.
38, No. 1, (1971), pp. 1-11. . To prevent the export of silver the Court tried to make some changes and
innovations. Vid. AGI, Filipinas 329 L2, fols. 128r.-128vto. Orden para enviar a Espaa semilla de seda de
la China, because according to reports obtained it was known of the existence de una semilla de seda
que hay en la China mejor de la que se conoce en Espaa, se enve dicha semilla con explicacin de cmo
se cra.
401 Richard Boyer, Mexico in the Seventeenth Century: Transition of a Colonial Society, Te
Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 57, No. 3, (1977), pp. 455-478, Tere were other aspects of
Mexicos infuence over Peru. Merchants in New Spain profted by undercutting the monopoly system to
Peru; they transferred European imports across the isthmus from Veracruz to Acapulco and then shipped
them down the coast to Callao. In addition, Mexican manufactures such as textiles, clothing, books, leather
goods, and jewelry, had long been staples in the Peruvian market and were sent from Mexico to Peru in
large quantities well into the seventeenth century. Tis must be stressed because the fact that the China
trade grew so rapidly in the latter part of the sixteenth century tends to obscure the less dramatic but
impressive growth of 50 to 100 percent in domestic manufactures. Peru, partly to handle this expanding
trade with New Spain, doubled its merchant feet in the period 1590 to 1690, p. 473.William Lytle Schurz,
Mexico, Peru, and the Manila Galleon, Te Hispanic American Historical Review, Vol. 1, No. 4, (1918), pp.
389-402, In the Calle de Mercaderes, or Street of the Merchants, in Lima, the luxuries of Europe and Asia
could be found in the forty shops, some of whose owners possessed a capital of over a million pesos. In 1602
Viceroy Monterey described to the King the luxury of the capital of the great viceroyalty p. 394.
402 Chaudhuri, op. cit. p. 143.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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262
!ndeed, whiIe Ihe !C and Ihe VOC were seIIing up IacIories,
enIering agreemenIs wiIh kings, Ihe nobiIiIy and merchanIs Ior
boIh Ihe IraIIic oI goods and Ihe invesImenI oI capiIaI, and sending
commerciaI agenIs Io Ihe main markeIpIaces, Spain was seIIing
IimiIs on IreighI, prohibiIing Spanish merchanIs Irom engaging
in direcI Irade wiIh cerIain regions, and in some cases, uphoIding
a pro-CaIhoIic poIicy IhaI Ied Io ma|or changes in Ihe commerciaI
neIworks. One exampIe oI Ihis reIigious poIicy can be seen in ]apan,
as DuIch rivaIs used Ihe counIry as poIiIicaI propaganda
403
in an
eIIorI Io censure Hispanic imperiaIism and iIs conseguenIiaI eviIs
in urope. Such dispIays sIirred Iensions Ior Ihe ]apanese crown,
parIicuIarIy aI a Iime in which Spanish monks were enIering ]apan
wiIh no auIhorisaIion Irom eiIher Ihe Spanish or Ihe ]apanese
auIhoriIies.
404

!I is Irue IhaI Ihough Ihe !C and Ihe VOC adopIed a
cooperaIive poIicy wiIh oIher agenIs, Ihey aIso combined Iheir
approach wiIh miIiIary acIiviIy
40S
and occupaIion, as weII as direcI
conIIicI in Ihe IinaI deaIh Ihroes oI mercanIiIism. However, iI is
aIso Irue IhaI Ihe Spaniards who had seIIIed in Ihe PhiIippines
promoIed commerce and IransnaIionaI reIaIions, yeI Ihey aIso saw
IhemseIves Iorced Io engage in cerIain miIiIary occupaIions IhaI
graduaIIy Iaded ouI Ihrough Iime. Thus, Ihere were Iwo IoIaIIy
conIIicIing IormuIas. On one hand, Ihe budgeIs oI Ihe DuIch and Ihe
ngIish, which, Ihrough cooperaIion, soughI Io acguainI IhemseIves
wiIh and IaIer dominaIe Ihe Asian markeI, Io grasp" Ihe viIaI puIse
403 AGI, Filipinas, 329 L2 , fol. 140-141 Orden sobre los peligros de los holandeses en Japn.
404 AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols. 135-136v. Orden sobre el pase de religiosos a Japn.
405 AGI, Filipinas, 300 L4, fols 138-139v. Orden para socorrer a Malaca atacada por los holandeses.
It was vital for the monarchy to maintain control of Malacca as it was a town .de gran importancia
conservar pero que no haya fraude y no se introduzca la contratacin entre ambas partes con pretexto de
socorro.
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oI Ihe enIire region, oI Ihe enIire sysIem, viewing iI as a whoIe
and deveIoping an exIensive neIwork oI agenIs and coIIaboraIors
IhroughouI. On Ihe oIher hand was Ihe Hispanic modeI, which
IosIered a resIricIed" Irade IhaI wouId noI aIIer in any manner
whaIsoever Ihe inIeresIs oI Ihe ma|or merchanIs oI SeviIIe
406
, and
IhaI wouId noI generaIe IurIher probIems in whaI was aIready
in iIseII a depIeIed AIIanIic IraIIic: ... Spcin's husincss cnd trcdc
with thc |ndics, pcrticulcrly with Ncw Spcin hcs lost projits, duc to
thc hccvy hulk oj thc goods thct wcrc hrought jrom thc Philippincs,
mccning thct thc consulctcs cnd mcrchcnts oj Scvillc ct dijjcrcnt
timcs cnd on dijjcrcnt occcsions..."
407
. The idea was Io keep America
absoIuIeIy dependenI on Ihe moIherIand, and Io make an aIIempI,
Ihough in vane, Io miIigaIe Ihe IocaI probIems IhaI were emerging
as a resuII oI Ihe gIobaI markeI.
ThroughouI Ihe 17
Ih
cenIury, Irade in ManiIa was shaped
by Iwo ma|or sIages IhaI were direcIIy Iied Io boIh Ihe poIiIicaI
IuIure oI Spain and Ihe inIernaI Iensions oI each oI Ihe hub's Irade
regions. irsI oI aII, Ihe inIegraIion oI PorIugaI inIo Ihe Spanish
Kingdom hasIened considerabIe changes noI onIy in Irade Irom Ihe
PhiIippines, buI aIso in Ihe sIraIegy IhaI was adopIed by Ihe moIher
counIry, which saw a modeI in Ihe dynamics oI Ihe ngIish and
DuIch companies, parIicuIarIy wiIh regard Io Ihe use oI capiIaI.
408

406 Lutgardo Garca Fuentes, Los peruleros y el comercio de Sevilla con las Indias, (Sevilla: Universi-
dad, 1997).
407 AGI, Filipinas, 14 Carta a SM de Antonio de Morga, Quito, noviembre de 1615.
408 Chandra Richard da Silva, Te Portuguese East India Company 1628-1633, Luso-Brazilian
Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, (1974), pp. 152-205, In the early 1620s the idea of a company provoked
considerable discussion. Schemes for such an organisation were sometimes quite extravagant. For example
an anonymous report written about this time proposed that the newly formed company be given the right
not only to organise the oriental trade but even Portuguese commerce with most of Europe. Individual
private merchants were to be allowed to transport their goods in the ships of the company but would have
to pay freight and duties. Tis particular scheme envisaged even the construction of forts by the agents of
the new organisation. Te trend of opinion was turning in favour of establishing an East India Company.
Te large dividends announced by the Dutch V.O.C. underlined its great commercial success. Te powerful
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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Among Ihe commerciaI changes, Ihe union oI Ihe crowns made iI
possibIe Ior Ihe arrivaI oI commerciaI vesseIs Irom Ihe PorIuguese
possessions in !ndia, yeI above aII Irom Macao.
409
WiIhouI a doubI,
Ihis IurIher acIivaIed Irade in Ihe ciIy oI ManiIa, onIy Io disappear
again compIeIeIy wiIh PorIugaI's separaIion Irom Spain. DespiIe
Ihese Iwo ma|or sIages, which Io some exIenI deIermined Ihe
hisIory oI Irade in Ihe PorI oI CaviIe, mosI IransacIions were made
wiIh porIs in China, parIicuIarIy Ihose oI CanIon and Amoy. The
Chinese markeI became one oI Ihe main suppIiers oI producIs Ior
Ihe PhiIippines - as weII as Ior Ihe PorIuguese in Macao - and Ihus
received Iarge amounIs oI siIver. As a resuII oI Ihis dependence
oI PhiIippine Irade on China, Ihe isIands became a commerciaI
hosIage oI Ihe inIernaI dynamics IhemseIves and oI 8ei|ing's Iug-oI-
war poIicy, which osciIIaIed Irom open Io excIusivisI. !I is aIso Irue
IhaI China's hunger Ior siIver was noI IimiIed Io Ihe PhiIippines;
]apan was Ihe main hub Ior Ihe enIry oI precious meIaIs, wiIh an
even higher Irade voIume.
Our observaIions are based on Ihe deIaiIed sIudy oI aII Ihe
vesseIs IhaI enIered Ihe porI oI ManiIa IhroughouI Ihe 17
Ih
cenIury.
This has enabIed us Io esIabIish a number oI IieIds IhaI painI an
overaII picIure oI Ihe Irade neIwork.
irsI, we coIIecIed Ihe year-by-year inIormaIion on Ihe
vesseIs IhaI enIered Ihe PorI oI CaviIe; Iheir deparIure porI
(georeIerenced) and geographicaI area oI origin (georeIerenced);
Iheir owners; Iheir naIionaIiIy; Ihe vaIue oI Iheir IreighI and Ihe
Iype oI ship.
Spanish minister, the Count Duke of Olivares had grown favourable towards the idea of trading companies
operating under the patronage of the Crown.
409 Vid. E. Brazao, Apontamentos para a histria das relaoes diplomaticas de Portugal com a China,
1516-1753, (Lisboa: 1949): 227. Also W.E. Cheong, Te Hong Merchants of Canton: Chinese Merchants in
Sino-Western Trade, (London: Routledge, 1997).
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!n our second sIep, we drew up a compIeIe and exhausIive
IisI oI Ihe IreighI oI each oI Ihe ships, which wouId enabIe us Io
deIermine Ihe voIume oI each producI and Io make a gIobaI
comparison oI Ihe Iypes oI producIs IhaI were IransporIed.
Our Ihird sIep consisIed oI a IoIIow-up, covering cerIain
speciIic years oI Ihe Iwo IundamenIaI piIIars oI ManiIa's Irade:
Ihe disIribuIion oI goods in Ihe ciIy and Ihe producIive and exporI
brands" Irom Ihe porI oI origin, nameIy, Irom CanIon.
inaIIy, Ihe comprehensive inIormaIion in Ihe C!S wiII
give us exIensive resuIIs oI PhiIippine Irade, which we can Ihen
compare wiIh oIher sIudies on Ihe Irade oI porIs in Ihe region, such
as Nagasaki
410
, Hirado
411
and 8ombay
412
. AI Ihe same Iime, iI wiII
aIso enabIe us Io compare Ihe Iwo commerciaI subsysIems, Iheir
acIiviIy and Iheir repercussions on Ihe gIobaI Irade sysIem.
T#"/,#? 6&#0' .*,7;'
!n Ihe mid-17
Ih
cenIury, beIween 1620 and 1686, we see a
Iarge voIume oI boIh capiIaI and vesseIs, yeI aI Ihe same Iime Ihree
criIicaI phases. The IirsI phase Iook in Ihe years beIween 1622 and
1624; Ihe second beIween 1629 and 1631 and Ihe Ihird beIween 1637
and 1641. These phases marked a signiIicanI reIrenchmenI oI Irade
in ManiIa. YeI such reIrenchmenI wouId become an absoIuIe crisis
410 In Nagasaki we used data provided by Ryuto Shimada, Te Intra-Asian Trade in Japanese
Copper by the Ducht East India Company during the Eighteenth Century, (Brill:2006).
411 In Hirado, the fgures used are those given by L. Bluss, No Boats to China. Te Dutch East
India Company and the Changing Pattern of the China Sea Trade, 1635-1690, Modern Asian Studies, Vol.
30, No. 1, (1996), pp. 51-76.
412 Other data, such as Bombay, are of K.N.Chaudhuri, Te Trading World of Asia and the English
East India Company, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989).
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266
as oI 1643
413
when markeI IeIhargy seI in, due Io Iwo circumsIanIiaI
rupIures: Ihe Ioss oI connecIions wiIh !ndia, MaIaysia and Macao
IoIIowing Ihe PorIuguese secession Irom Ihe Spanish Monarchy
and Ihe economic reIrenchmenI oI Ihe Chinese markeI, as a resuII
oI iIs own domesIic siIuaIion. As dispIayed in Ihe aIIached graph, aI
Ihe heighI oI spIendour oI PhiIippine Irade, beIween 1631 and 1636,
84 oI Ihe ships IhaI enIered ManiIa came Irom China and onIy 2
were Irom !ndia, whiIsI MaIaysia was becoming Ihe second mosI
imporIanI hub.
The daIa obIained have enabIed us Io evaIuaIe Irade during
Ihe era oI spIendour, speciIicaIIy beIween 1631 and 1639. AI such
Iime, Ihe porI oI ManiIa received an average oI 40 vesseIs per year,
wiIh an average annuaI IreighI worIh one miIIion Spanish pesos.
YeI Ihe ciIy wouId en|oy a specIacuIar momenIary resurgence in
1642, when IreighI exceeded 1.2 miIIion Spanish pesos. As can be
seen, Ihere was a Irend oI consIanI growIh Irom Ihe decade oI Ihe
1620s Io Ihe peak in 1637. As oI Ihis daIe, ManiIa's Irade wiIh aII Ihe
oIher porIs in Ihe region wouId suIIer severeIy
414
, Ihough iI is aIso
Irue IhaI eIIorIs were made Io enIer oIher Irade areas, parIicuIarIy
Cochin China and Macassar, and even Io exchange wiIh agenIs
IhaI were compIeIeIy oII IimiIs, as was Ihe case oI Ihe ngIish.
41S

This siIuaIion was noI onIy caused by Ihe Asian circumsIances,
buI aIso by Ihe incapabiIiIy oI boIh Ihe IogisIics and Ihe vesseIs oI
413 AGI, Mxico, 22, Carta al rey sobre Hacienda.
414 Vid. AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols. 203r-204v
415 AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols. 191-192, Advertencia sobre admisin de ingleses para comerciar.
AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols 203-204, Represin a la Audiencia de Manila por permitir comerciar con
extranjeros, 1649. Tis is a reprobacin por dos pataches ingleses y dinamarqueses procedentes de
Zurrate. AGI, Filipinas, 330 L4, fols. 244-245 Respuesta sobre comercio con ingleses, 26 de febrero
de 1650. Te explanatory argument: se les permiti porque ofrecieron abastecer a los almacenes con
productos de Macassar.
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Ihe Spanish crown, which evenIuaIIy came Io make deaIs wiIh Ihe
ngIish Ior Ihe hire oI boaIs and marinas Ior iIs Irade in Asia. This
issue was Iaken up in Ihe generaI courI oI Ihe asI !ndia Company
in London, under Ihe argumenI IhaI such coIIaboraIion wouId
creaIe enemies Ior Ihem and prove deIrimenIaI Io Iheir business
in Ihe area.
416
This IimiIaIion wouId impacI virIuaIIy aII areas oI
Ihe poIiIicaI, economic and sociaI spheres, noI onIy in ManiIa, buI
aIso in Ihe markeI oI AcapuIco and Mexico, Ieading King CharIes
!! oI Spain Io seI up and impIemenI pIans Ior economic and
commerciaI recovery, based on a diversiIy oI IacIors: embassies,
Irade agreemenIs, reduced obsIacIes, greaIer permissiveness in
commerce, and simiIar iniIiaIives.
UndoubIedIy, raIher Ihan a singIe cause, Ihere were
many IacIors IhaI conIribuIed Io Ihis crisis. These incIuded:
Ihe mercanIiIisI poIicy oI Ihe Spanish auIhoriIies, which was
416 William Foster, A Calendar of the Court Minutes of the East India Company, (Oxford: Clarendon,
Pres: 1909, Vol. II), Setting forth that by this means a way would be opened for the King of Spain to obtain
from England a great number of ships and mariners and to entice merchants and others with fair promises
of large hire and wages, which ships and men would be used by His Spanish Majesty and the Portuguese to
transport goods and merchandise from place to place. Tis the friends and allies of the English, who by the
King of Spain are treated as enemies when they are surprised and overtaken on that side of the line, would
not approve of, as being contrary to the common practice that all who sail from one enemys port to another
are looked upon as enemies, and it might therefore be the cause of trouble. Tat the King of Spain, having
done this, might put in the ships so obtained Spanish and Portuguese ofcers and employ them contrary to
the will of the King of England and of their owners, this intention having been manifested in 1639. Tese
references also are in the Memoranda concerning an open and free trade to the East Indies, 1640, explaining
Showing that if the King permits such a trade the following ill efects will ensue, transportation of English
ships and sailors into the Spanish service and power, where by contentions and hostilities may arise between
the English and other confederate nations. Damages and hazards to His Majestys subjects by these men
and ships being forced into services contrary to the royal will. Diminution of customs by East Indian goods
being scattered to foreign parts and not brought into His Majestys dominions. An aversion in the English to
the discovery of unknown places which they might appropriate to His Majestys and their own use ; with an
uncertain and excessive valuation of all East Indian commodities. Tese and other reasons against an open
trade seem especially to concern the King and his subjects, who by the many interruptions and injuries
done to them by the Dutch are kept down in their negotiations and forced to relinquish that trade, wherein
one years omission is about three years loss in the great beneft which may be received from it.
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coercive raIher Ihan IIexibIe wiIh aII Ihe merchanIs in Ihe zone
417

incIuding Ihe PhiIippine merchanIs; Ihe increase in Iax pressures
on Ihe merchanIs; Ihe increase in Ihe Irade oI Ihe ma|or uropean
companies,
such as Ihe !C and Ihe VOC, which was specIacuIar in cerIain
areas; Ihe Ioss oI Ihe ]apanese markeI
418
; China's domesIic siIuaIion,
which was highIy convuIsive aI Ihe Iime; and PorIugaI's separaIion
Irom Ihe Spanish crown, among oIhers.
!n Ihe midsI oI Ihis economic miIieu, and as can be seen
beIow, ManiIa conducIed mosI oI iIs Irade was wiIh China.
419

NeverIheIess, in cerIain periods, parIicuIarIy during Ihe sixIy-
year union beIween PorIugaI and Spain, Ihe PhiIippines aIso had
occasionaI deaIings wiIh Ihe PorIuguese possessions in !ndia,
Ihough chieIIy wiIh Ihe greaI commerciaI hub oI Macao.
+*7&2'? DaIa Irom Ihe AC!
417 AGI, Filipinas, 340, L 3, fol. 285 vto. Carta de Francisco de los Ros Coronel a S.M. sobre el
comercio con Japn, 5 de septiembre de 1620.
418 AGI, Filipinas, 8-R-2-N-23 Carta de Cerezo Salazar sobre Japn y China, 8 de octubre de
1634, fol. 1.
419 Vid Alfonso Felix, Te Chinese in the Philipines, 1570-1770 , Vol. 1. (Historical Conservation
Society: 1986).
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+*7&2'? DaIa Irom Ihe AC!.
+*7&2'? DaIa Irom Ihe AC!.
+*7&2'? DaIa Irom Ihe AC!.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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270
T#"/,# #"0 64' 'J)*&6 *9 (/,.'&? ! ;R64 /" 6&#0'_
or decades, schoIars deIended Ihe IacI IhaI ManiIa was Ihe
greaI cenIraI hub oI Irade wiIh China, one oI Ihe porIs IhaI wouId
even make iI possibIe Io expand Ihe so-caIIed price revoIuIion"
inIo Ihe inIand areas oI Asia. To some exIenI, such asserIions were
based on haIIIruIhs, as Ihe issue was approached Irom Ihe singIe
poinI oI view oI Spain's inserIion inIo Ihe PhiIippines. NeverIheIess,
we mighI pose Ihe guesIion: Did ManiIa's Irade in IacI have such
heavy impacI on Ihe resI oI Ihe PaciIic? Though ManiIa was a
cenIraI porI, iI was noI Ihe mosI imporIanI one. !n IacI, Ihere were
many oIher porIs IhaI surpassed iI in Ierms oI commerciaI IraIIic
(Ior boIh imporIs and exporIs), economic inIIuence and poIiIicaI
scope. !I is aIso Irue IhaI Ihere were Iimes in which Ihe Spanish
siIver 8-reaI coin was a IransnaIionaI currency IhaI was exporIed
in Iarge guanIiIies Irom ManiIa Io China and oIher pIaces in Asia.
AII Ihe same, iI musI be borne in mind IhaI Ihough Ihe ngIish, Io
Iake a case in poinI, negoIiaIed, paid and purchased wiIh Spanish
currency, and speciIicaIIy wiIh 8-reaI coins, Ihere was a huge
amounI oI siIver Irom Ihe ]apanese markeI IhaI was circuIaIing
IhroughouI Asia, and parIicuIarIy IhroughouI China.
!I we compare Ihe porI acIiviIy oI Ihe diIIerenI markeIpIaces
in Ihe !ndian and Asian region, we wiII see IhaI neiIher Ihe impacI
oI ManiIa, nor Ihe IoIaI amounI oI Ihe siIver exporIed Io China
couId compare Io Ihe oIhers in Ihe area. or exampIe, in some cases,
Nagasaki
420
had 2-Io-4 Iimes more IraIIic Ihan ManiIa, and ]apan's
Irade reIaIions were Iar more exIensive and diverse Ihan Ihose oI
420 Oka Mihoko, A great merchant in Nagasaki in the 17th century. Suetsugu Heizo II and the
system of respondencia, Bulletin of Portuguese/Japanese Studies, 2 (2001) pp. 37-56.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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271
Ihe PhiIippines. This greaIer acIiviIy couId noI be aIIribuIed Io an
increase in Ihe arrivaI oI uropean ships, as Ihey remained sIabIe,
having reached a virIuaI pIaIeau. RaIher, whaI kepI Ihe pace oI
iIs acIiviIy going was Ihe acIive Chinese Irade, which was IruIy
specIacuIar as oI 1683. !n a cerIain manner, each porI has iIs own
characIerisIics, which sIem Irom boIh iIs IocaIion and iIs buyer and
seIIer IraIIic, as Chaudhuri asserIs, which is undoubIedIy Ihe mosI
imporIanI deIermining IacIor Ior Ihe disIribuIion oI producIs.
421

!n Ihe same conIexI, Ihe comparison oI Ihe imporIs Irom
Hirado and ManiIa is sIiII more surprising. The direcI imporIs
oI Ihe Iwo markeIpIaces, paid Ior in siIver and IransIerred inIo
maravedis, indicaIes IhaI as oI 1636 Hirado was Iar more acIive
Ihan ManiIa, wiIh an imporI raIe seven Iimes higher Ihan IhaI oI
iIs PhiIippine counIerparI, yeI wiIh some decIine in Ihe case oI
Deshima. One IacIor IhaI expIains Ihe high commerciaI IraIIic in
Ihe ]apanese porIs was Ihe neI proIiI en|oyed by Ihe seIIers.
As regards Ihe producIion and disIribuIion oI Ihe goods IhaI
came Io ManiIa Irom China, and more speciIicaIIy Irom CanIon, our
IirsI basic concIusions are as IoIIows:
1- CanIon and iIs hinIerIand were undergoing Ihe
deveIopmenI oI a IocaI indusIry made up oI smaII craIIspeopIe
IhaI produced iIems Ior exporI. CeneraIIy speaking, Ihe producIive
capaciIy oI each in iIseII was noI parIicuIarIy high, Ihough Ihere
were vasI diIIerences in producIiviIy among Ihem. !n Ihis case,
we provide a IisI oI CanIonese manuIacIurers and Iheir producIs,
aIong wiIh number oI Ihe craIIed producIs IhaI were acIuaIIy soId
Io Ihe Iarge exporI companies.
421 Chaudhuri, op. cit. p. 139.
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272
2- The goods IhaI were manuIacIured in China were
purchased by Iarge Irading companies IhaI graduaIIy esIabIished
IhemseIves as organized commerciaI associaIions. Some, such as
Chiogua, Pogua, Congua and Angua, had exIensive IamiIy neIworks
IhaI IaciIiIaIed Ihe exporI oI Ihose producIs. These neIworks were
very imporIanI, pIaying a ma|or roIe in everyIhing Irom purchasing
Irom IocaI producers and Ihe avaiIabiIiIy oI ships - wheIher Iheir
own or Ieased - Io Ihe creaIion oI saIes oIIices aI Ihe poinIs oI
desIinaIion, such as ManiIa.
3- The ma|or commerciaI IamiIies headguarIered in ManiIa
conIinued Io do heavy business, and iI was Ihey who deveIoped
Ihe main disIribuIion channeIs Ior goods. As we have noIed above,
Ihey seI up saIes oIIices in Ihe ciIy and suppIied Ihe peopIe, Ihe
Irans-PaciIic merchanIs and Ihe diIIerenI naIive communiIies oI
Ihe PhiIippines.
4.- The disIribuIion IabIe oI Ihe producIs IhaI came inIo
China brings us Io an iniIiaI concIusion. Though iI is Irue IhaI
Ihere was a greaI deaI oI Irade wiIh America, and parIicuIarIy wiIh
AcapuIco, iI can aIso be said IhaI many oI Ihe producIs IhaI arrived
Irom China were redisIribuIed among Ihe IocaI popuIaIion.
As we can see, Ihe impIemenIaIion oI a CeographicaI
!nIormaIion SysIem (C!S) Ior Ihe hisIoricaI research oI Ihe irsI
CIobaI Age wiII aIIord us inIormaIion and enabIe us Io anaIyse
iI Irom diIIerenI perspecIives, providing a deeper and more
comprehensive undersIanding oI Ihe Irade and aIIiances oI IhaI
period. One exampIe oI Ihis Iype oI sysIem is Ihe daIabase Ior Ihe
PorI oI ManiIa, in which we have compiIed nearIy 4000 merchanI
enIries IeaIuring a series oI IacIors IhaI wiII enabIe us Io draw new
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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273
concIusions wiIh reIerence Io Ihe economy. These records conIain
exIremeIy vaIuabIe addiIionaI inIormaIion, incIuding Ihe vaIue oI
Ihe goods, Ihe porI oI origin, Ihe porI oI desIinaIion, Ihe sIopovers,
Ihe merchanI's IerriIory oI acIiviIy, Ihe predominanI reIigions, Ihe
resuIIanI producIs, Iheir amounIs and Iheir markeI prices, among
oIher daIa.

Z<QCC,%-5L ") 1&P',6 &%- .$&C96 U<
S.1-Comparison: ManiIa-Nagasaki
S.2- Comparison, ManiIa-Hirado.-
S.3-Comparison: ManiIa-Deshima.-
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274
Some vaIue oI branding" producing saIes in CanIon and ManiIa,
1686 .-
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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275
O$"0 ;0&'' R"$'- 1" ^&$., B%5V,$6,J
*&650P&=&$ 5% 35.91,,%19 A,%1#$: M,%.&'
Q#19"$J ]5'& /#?9,$m,,
(UniversiIy oI Hyderabad, !ndia)
7%1$"-#415"%J \'&4, Y561"$5,6
HisIories oI plcccs occupy a very minor posiIion wiIhin
Ihe hisIories oI naIions and communiIies. More so in SouIhasia
where very Iew records exisI prior Io Ihe imposiIion oI coIoniaI
ruIe. YeI such hisIories heIp us Io charI changes, Io pinpoinI Ihe
momenI(s) oI IransiIion Io a new order, or Io sIudy gIobaI processes
in acIion and on Ihe ground. One manner oI sIudying pIace-
hisIories oI pre coIoniaI SouIhasia is Io visuaIize Iheir poIiIicaI and
commerciaI worIds in Ierms oI muIIipIe neIworks creaIed Io carry
on Ihe business oI everyday IiIe: poIiIicaI, sociaI, commerciaI and
IinanciaI. LeI us Iurn Ihe Iens on Kasimbazar, now a smaII Iown
near Murshidabad, Ihe capiIaI oI Ihe ersIwhiIe 8engaI nawabs in
presenI WesI 8engaI sIaIe in !ndia (maps 1-4) beIore Ihe imposiIion
oI coIoniaI ruIe in 17S7. Kasimbazar was a sevenIeenIh cenIury siIk
marI. We Iind IiIIIe or no menIion oI Kasimbazar siIks in Ihe Irade
oI Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury Hussainid sIaIe oI 8engaI wiIh SouIheasI
Asia. The Suma OrienIaI, Ihe accounIs oI DuarIe 8arbosa, Ludovico
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
276
VarIhema, rederici and iIch, some oI our main sources Ior Ihe
sixIeenIh cenIury, IisI mainIy coIIons, sugar and rice as exporIs
Irom 8engaI
422
. Towards Ihe middIe oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury Ihe
siIuaIion changed. Kasimbazar may have been a smaIIish pIace
on Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury gIobaI map buI iI graduaIIy became
a cenIraI node in commerciaI and IinanciaI neIworks in Ihe
eighIeenIh cenIury. These connecIed wiIh much Iarger neIworks
emanaIing Irom !ndia, CenIraI Asia and urope and so Kasimbazar
became synonymous wiIh gIobaI siIk Irade in Ihe eighIeenIh
cenIury uropean imaginaIion.
423

!niIiaIIy a marI Iown IhaI suppIied Ihe markeIs oI PaIna
via Ihe IIuviaI porI oI Ra|mahaI,
424
Kasimbazar was discovered"
by Ihe uropeans once Ihe capiIaI oI 8engaI was esIabIished aI
Maksudabad around 1704. The capiIaI was subseguenIIy renamed
Murshidabad by Murshid uIi Khan, a Persian Shi'iIe MusIim
who was Ihe diwcn and Ihen Ihe IirsI ncwch oI 8engaI. As Io why
Murshid uIi Khan Iavoured Ihe acIuaI shiII oI Ihe capiIaI around
1704-0S as weII as Ihe change in nomencIaIure are noI known buI
we may assume IhaI Ihe IirsI was designed Io Iap Ihe resources and
rouIes oI Ihis poIenIiaIIy rich region and Ihe second Io emphasize
422 Tome Pires, Suma Oriental of Tome Pires, An Account of the East, From the Red Sea to China,
written in Malacca and India in 1512-1515 and the Book of Francisco Rodrigues, Pilot Major of the Armada
that Discovered Banda and the Moluccas, ed. Armando Cortesao, 2 vols., (London, Hakluyt Society 1944);
Duarte Barbosa, Te Book of, tr. M.L. Dames, (London, Hakluyt Society, 1921); Ludovico Varthema, Te
Itinerary of, tr. R.C.Temple, (London, Hakluyt Society, 1928); Narrative of Ralph Fitch 1583-91 in William
Foster ed. Early Travels in India 1583-1619, (London, 1921, reprint, New Delhi, 1968); Cesare Frederici in
Richard Hakluyt, Te Principal Navigations etc., edited by Edmund Goldsmid, F.R.H.S.,Vol. 9, Asia, Part
II, eBooks@Adelaide, 2006. Available at http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/h/hakluyt/voyages/ accessed May 13
2009.
423 Rila Mukherjee, Merchants and Companies in Bengal: Kasimbazar and Jugdia in the Eighteenth
Century, (New Delhi, Pragati Publications, 2006).
424 Report of Hughes and Parker 1620-25 in R. C. Temple ed. The Diaries of Streynsham Master
1675- 1680 and Other Contemporary Papers Relating Tereto, 2 vols., (London, John Murray, 1911).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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277
IhaI a new dynasIy had emerged in eighIeenIh cenIury 8engaI. The
move was advanIageous Ior Kasimbazar as iI provided proximiIy
Io boIh minI and courI- exceedingIy imporIanI Ior merchanIs and
companies.
8y Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury Kasimbazar was known as Ihe
greaI markeI Iown whose sIreeIs never saw Ihe IighI oI Ihe sun, IiIIed
as iI was wiIh magniIicenI buiIdings.
42S
As marI Iown Kasimbazar
was Ihe coIIecIion cenIre Ior siIks produced IurIher inIand; and
iI seems IhaI uropean demand was a ma|or IacIor in according
Kasimbazar a cenIraI pIace on Ihe mercanIiIe map oI 8engaI. !n 1813
Ihis magniIicenI ciIy decIined as Ihe 8hagiraIhi changed iIs course.
Soon Ihe area became swampy and maIariaI and was abandoned.
Kasimbazar's hisIory is Ihus aImosI an ephemeraI hisIory, IasIing
Iess Ihan 200 years.
Kasimbazar shows aI IeasI Iive signiIicanI periods in iIs
hisIory. rom iIs incepIion around Ihe middIe oI Ihe sevenIeenIh
cenIury (Ihe acIuaI daIe is unknown buI iI was probabIy around
Ihe 1620s and we know IhaI Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company
esIabIished a IacIory Ihere in 16S8) unIiI 1704 when Ihe capiIaI
was moved Io Maksudabad; Ihe second Irom 1704 Io 1733 when
8ihar |oined 8engaI suhch or province; Ihe Ihird Irom 1733 Io 17S4,
Ihe period oI growing Irade as weII as oI, paradoxicaIIy, poIiIicaI
disIocaIion; Ihe IourIh Irom 17S4 Io 17S7, Ihe period oI IransiIion Io
a coIoniaI economy and Ihe crisis oI proIo indusIriaIizaIion; and Ihe
IiIIh Irom 17S7 Io 1813, when Kasimbazar sIowIy became an urban
backwaIer.
Three periods in Kasimbazar's hisIory reveaI signiIicanI
425 In Walter Hamilton, East India Gazetteer, 2 vols. (London, Parbury Allen & Co., 1828). See
vol.1.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
278
shiIIs in iIs economy. The IirsI IasIed Irom 1680 Io 1704 when
Kasimbazar became increasingIy imporIanI in Asian and Persian
CuII Irades. The second was Irom 1704 Io 1733, IhaI is, Irom Ihe
Iime oI esIabIishmenI oI Ihe capiIaI aI nearby Murshidabad Io Ihe
incorporaIion oI 8ihar inIo 8engaI suhch (province), Ihis oIIered
Kasimbazar easier access Io norIh !ndian markeIs; Ihis was aIso
Ihe Iime when Asians and uropeans enIered Kasimbazar in Iarge
numbers due Io beIIer IransporI and inIormaIion neIworks; and
conseguenIIy aI Ihis Iime Asian and uropean neIworks operaIed
simuIIaneousIy and oIIen symbioIicaIIy. LasIIy, Ihe period Irom 1733
Io 17S4 was Ihe period which saw a phase shiII where Ihe ngIish
asI !ndia Company imposed a IoIaI conIroI over siIk producIion
and Irade and Ihis Iaunched Ihe IransiIion Io coIoniaI ruIe. There
were corresponding shiIIs in neIworks as Ihe pIayers adapIed Io
changed condiIions. LeI us see whaI Ihese neIworks comprised oI.
/#'15C', >,1+"$?6
+;#,, H'68*&I(
!n The nchanIress oI Iorence SaIman Rushdie IaIked
oI Ihe neIworks embracing sixIeenIh cenIury Asia, urope, and
America. !n his sIory oI Ihe MogoI deII Amore", Ihe MughaI oI Love,
Rushdie reIerred Io neIworks oI war, oI advenIure, oI desire and oI
avarice IhaI uIIimaIeIy creaIed a worId marked by Ihe circuIaIion oI
commodiIies and cuIIures, oI men and money. NeIworks enmeshed
Ihe worId and such neIworks demonsIraIed Iinks beIween muIIipIe
worIds raIher Ihan esIabIishing comparisons beIween Ihem.
Kasimbazar is a prime exampIe oI Ihis process.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
279
How do neIworks organize IhemseIves? Random neIworks
may noI aIways operaIe wiIh oIIiciaI' (poIiIicaI or sysIemic)
sancIion. KoguI IeeIs, ciIing Hayek
426
, IhaI whiIe markeI is Ihe
engine; iI is knowIedge, which is speciaIisaIion creaIing vaIue,
which underIies eIIicienI neIworks.
427

SpeciaIisaIion creaIing vaIue and knowIedge has been,
Irom Iime immemoriaI, key IacIors in producIion and Irade. The
IechnicaI, IinanciaI (accounIing) and organisaIionaI knowIedge oI
Ihe siIk merchanIs oI Kasimbazar, who were born inIo Ihe business
and nurIured wiIhin iI, creaIed Ihis vaIue, IeII Ihe VOC in 1687: The
merchanIs...are excepIionaIIy guick and experienced. When Ihey
are sIiII very young... .Ihey aIready begin Io be Irained as merchanIs.
They are made Io preIend Io engage in Irade whiIe pIaying, IirsI
buying cauris, IoIIowed by siIver and goId. !n Ihis Iraining as
money changers, Ihey acguire Ihe capaciIy oI Iarge scaIe Irade"
428
.
The ngIish asI !ndia and Ihe rench asI !ndia companies made
simiIar observaIions on Ihe sociaI and commerciaI capiIaI Ihe
merchanIs acguired since chiIdhood, by noIing IhaI Ihey had been
bred in Ihe business since inIancy.
429
Their IechnicaI knowIedge was
IhereIore a communiIy based and hisIoricaIIy acguired knowIedge
IhaI no modern knowIedge sysIem couId hope Io compeIe wiIh. The
asI !ndia companies IreguenIIy cIashed wiIh Ihis knowIedge sys-
426 F. Hayek, F., Te Fatal Conceit: Te Errors of Socialism, (University of Chicago Press, 1988).
427 Bruce Kogut, Te Network as Knowledge: Generative Rules and the Emergence of Structure,
Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, Special Issue: Strategic Networks (Mar., 2000), pp. 405- 425.
See p. 409.
428 In Om Prakash, Te Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal, 1630-1720, (Delhi,
Oxford University Press, 1988), pp. 104-05.
429 Kasimbazar Factory Records (henceforth K.F.R.), February 28, 1744, India Ofce Records,
London; see also Indrani Rays articles in Lakshmi Subramanian ed. The French East India Company and
the Trade of the Indian Ocean, A Collection of Essays by Indrani Ray, (New Delhi and Calcutta, Munshiram
Manoharlal and Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, 1999). Henceforth Subramanian ed. 1999.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
280
Iem as Ihe Iormer soughI Io inIroduce Iheir own ways oI doing
business aI Kasimbazar. And Ihis speciaIizaIion and knowIedge seI
in Irain neIworks IhaI IasIed a cenIury.

+;#,, `*&,0(
Kasimbazar was iniIiaIIy a smaII worId" boIh economicaIIy
and physicaIIy. AI incepIion iI seems Io have had IimiIed commerciaI
impacI wiIhin a simiIarIy IimiIed spaIiaI exIenI. When Iounded in
Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury by a MughaI oIIiciaI named Kasim Khan
430
,
soon aIIer Ihe MughaI conguesI oI 8engaI, possibIy in 1618 or
1628, iI was a smaII marI Iown. !Is onIy access was Io norIh !ndian
urban cenIres and Ihis was guiIe resIricIed buI we do know IhaI
Kasimbazar IexIiIes were soId in PaIna in Ihe 1620s.
431
8uI whiIe
iIs commerciaI neIworks may have been IimiIed aI incepIion, some
sorI oI a IransporI neIwork was aIready in pIace. Coods Io and
Irom 8engaI aIready moved Ihrough 8ihar, up Io Agra and Lahore
or down Io Ihe 8ay oI 8engaI. RaIph iIch (1S83-91) saiIed Irom
Agra Io SapIagrama in 8engaI wiIh a IIeeI oI 180 boaIs, Iaden wiIh
saII, opium, Iead, carpeIs, eIc.
432
Teixeira wroIe around 1600 IhaI
ships Irom Cochin arrived aI Hormuz Io pick up saII desIined Ior
8engaI.
433
]ourdain noIed in 1611 IhaI 10 000 Ions oI saII in barges oI
430 Tere was a Kasim Khan, Mughal subahdar of Bengal in 1613 and another named Kasim Khan
Jang in 1628, see Walter Hamilton, East India Gazetteer, 2 vols. (London, Parbury Allen & Co., 1828). See
vol.1. It is not clear which one of them established the town.
431 Report of Hughes and Parker 1620-25 (Vid. ut supra).
432 Benoy Kumar Sarkar, Inland Transport And Communication In Medieval India, Printed By
Bhupendra.Lal Banerji at Te Calcutta University Press, (Calcutta, Senate House, 1925), p. 12.
433 W.F. Sinclair and D. W. Ferguson eds. Te Travels of Pedro Texeira etc., (London, Hakluyt
Society, Second Series, 1902).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
281
400 or S00 hundred Ions moved Irom Agra Io 8engaI annuaIIy; Ihis
was echoed by PeIer Mundy who noIed vesseIs beIween 300 and
S00 Ions pIying beIween Agra and 8engaI as Iar as Dhaka, carrying
saII and oIher merchandise.
434
!I was recorded by Ihe !C in Ihe
1630s abouI a ship's voyage IhaI Irom Combroon she is Io be senI
wiIh a cargo oI saII Io MasuIipaIam and 8engaI, and Ihence Io bring
Io SuraI a reIurn cargo oI sugar, gum-Iac, wax, eIc."
43S
SaIIpeIer,
which was much in demand by Ihe asI !ndia companies Ior
making arIiIIery was boughI by Ihem in 8ihar and Ihen IransporIed
Io urope Irom Ihe 8engaI coasI. The saIIpeIer came inIo 8engaI via
Ra|mahaI, Ihe IIuviaI IronIier beIween 8engaI and 8ihar: saIIpeIer
was IirsI menIioned as commodiIy in ngIish records as earIy as in
1621, in Kerridge's IeIIer Io Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company.
436

Kasimbazar's main Irading parIners were Ihe norIh !ndian
markeIs and Ihe caravan Irade neIworks IhaI passed Ihrough PaIna
in 8ihar inIo boIh 8huIan and CenIraI Asia. Access Io norIh !ndian
markeIs improved by Ihe mid sevenIeenIh cenIury and iI seems
IhaI aI IhaI Iime Kasimbazar's IinanciaI and mercanIiIe neIworks
became more inIegraIed Io Ihose oI Agra, a greaI cenIre Ior
provisioning boIh Ihe MughaI courI and Ihe inIernaIionaI caravan
Irade. ]ohn Kenn oI Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company wroIe in 1661,
emphasizing Ihe cIose Iinks beIween Ihe siIk and money markeIs in
Kasimbazar and NorIh !ndia, According as Ihis siIk seIIs in Agra, so
Ihe price oI siIk in Kasimbazar riseIh and IaIIeIh. The exchange oI
434 Benoy Kumar Sarkar, Op. cit. pp.12-13.
435 William Foster, Te English Factories in India, 1618-1669, (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906-27),
volume 5: 1634-36, p. 212.
436 Balkrishna, Commercial Relations between India and England, 1601-1757, (London, George
Routledge and Sons, 1924), p. 100.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
282
money Irom Kasimbazar Io PaIna and Agra riseIh and IaIIeIh as Ihe
said siIk IindeIh a venI in PaIna and Agra".
437
SiIk was IirmIy Iied Io
Ihe IinanciaI markeIs. OIher norIhern desIinaIions were Mirzapur,
Lahore, MuIIan, 8enares and DeIhi. !n Ihe souIh Aurangabad was
an imporIanI desIinaIion, as was Cu|araI Io Ihe wesI. !spahan, or
New ]uIIa, whose neIwork was conIroIIed by Ihe Armenians, was
anoIher wesIward desIinaIion Ior Kasimbazar siIk.

+;#,, `*&,0 +R(6';(
So we see IhaI Ihe shiII Ioward more exIensive neIworks
happened Irom Ihe middIe oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury, and Ihis is an
imporIanI poinI ! shaII reIurn Io IaIer. Maps supporI Ihe hypoIhesis
IhaI Kasimbazar was noI very imporIanI in uropean percepIion in
Ihe IirsI parI oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury or was perhaps Ioo smaII
Io be depicIed; ! have Iound Iew represenIaIions oI Kasimbazar
on sevenIeenIh cenIury maps (one excepIion is map 1), buI pIenIy
in Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury, emanaIing Irom Ihe middIe oI Ihe
eighIeenIh cenIury (maps 2- 4). This was IhereIore iniIiaIIy a IiIIIe
worId sysIem marked by a IimiIed Iransmission oI inIormaIion and
an eguaIIy resIricIed exchange oI goods, mainIy oI Ihe Iuxury kind,
Irom Kasimbazar and iIs neighbourhood, such as siIks and mixes oI
siIk and coIIon. These were desIined mainIy Ior Ihe markeIs oI Ihe
norIh and beyond. Rice Io susIain Ihis muIberry Iand came Irom
nearby 8ardhaman disIricI. DuIch conIroI oI Ihe !ndonesian pepper
Irade in Ihe earIy sevenIeenIh cenIury increased Ihe demand in
437 B. M. Addl. Mss., 34, 123, f. 42; C. R. Wilson, Early Annals of the English in Bengal, vol. I
(Calcutta, I895), p. 376, cited in Sushil Chaudhury, International Trade in Bengal Silk and the Comparative
Role of Asians and Europeans, circa. 1700-1757, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 29, (May, 1995, No. 2), pp. 373-
386. See p. 375.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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283
IocaI Asian markeIs, parIicuIarIy 8engaI, Ior MaIabar and Kanara
pepper.
438

!I is worIh noIing IhaI boIh 8ernier and Tavernier visiIed
Kasimbazar (aIIhough noI IogeIher) in Ihe 1660s; in IacI ShaisIa
Khan, Ihen MughaI suhchdcr aI Dhaka, aI Ihe Iar easIern side oI Ihe
province, gave Tavernier a biII oI exchange drawn on Kasimbazar.
This IasI suggesIs IhaI Kasimbazar was graduaIIy becoming
imporIanI as a Irade marI and IinanciaI cenIre Irom IhemiddIe
oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury. Our hypoIhesis oI Ihe emergence oI
Kasimbazar as pIace IhereIore coincides wiIh Ihe daIe (16S8) IhaI
Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company seI up a IacIory in Kasimbazar. The
rench and DuIch companies soon IoIIowed suiI.
As wiIh iIs norIhern neIworks, iniIiaIIy Kasimbazar's
Iinks wiIh Ihe souIhwesIern 8engaI deIIa were Iew; Ihe porIs oI
SapIagrama and HugIi were iIs main ouIIeIs Io Ihe 8ay oI 8engaI.
ngIish CaIcuIIa had noI yeI been Iounded; iI was Iounded onIy
in 1690. Kasimbazar's Iinks wiIh Ihe souIheasIern deIIa were
negIigibIe; because when Ihe capiIaI was shiIIed Io Dhaka in Ihe
souIheasIern deIIa in Ihe 1660s Ihe chieI Irading iIems exporIed
Irom Ihe porIs in Ihe souIheasIern deIIa were sIiII mainIy Ihe
coIIons and musIins manuIacIured in Ihe Dhaka region, as weII as
grains, oiIs and IoodsIuII. SiIk was bareIy exporIed.
And iI was a waIer worId! DeIoche guoIes CreenhiII: during
Ihe SouIh WesI monsoon and Ior monIhs aIIer iI is Iinished 8engaI
becomes a worId oI waIer... !I is Ihe worId oI men who Iive Ihree
Ihirds oI Iheir Iives on Ihe waIer, a worId oI men who make voyages
Iaking many monIhs buI who never saiI Ihe open sea... Ihis worId
438 A. R. Disney, Te First Portuguese India Company, 1628-33, Te Economic History Review,
New Series, Vol. 30, No. 2. (May, 1977), pp. 242-258. See p. 247, fn 6.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
284
has songs and poeIry oI iIs own."
439
You can see Irom Map S IhaI
Kasimbazar Iies on a branch oI Ihe Canga IhaI is parIiaIIy navigabIe
IhroughouI Ihe year, and Ihis channeI Iinks up wiIh Ihe main
branch IhaI is noI very Iar and is IuIIy navigabIe Ihrough Ihe year.
RaIph iIch (1S83-91) saiIed Irom Agra Io SapIagrama in 8engaI by
Ihis rouIe, buI oI course he never visiIed Kasimbazar as iI did noI
exisI Ihen.
440

This waIer worId was sub|ecI Io Ihe IIuviaI shiIIs IhaI ravaged
Ihe province Irom Ihe IiIIeenIh cenIury onwards. TraveIIers Irom
Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury have IesIiIied Io Ihese shiIIs. The sixIeenIh
cenIury IirsI ciIy" oI Caur, Ihen Ihe capiIaI, was abandoned when
Ihe river changed iIs course, and a new capiIaI-Ihe second ciIy oI
Caur-had Io be consIrucIed on Ihe opposiIe banks oI Ihe river.
Tavernier wroIe IhaI Ra|mahaI, Ihe spIendid capiIaI and IIourishing
porI oI Ihe 1630s, was a wasIeIand in Ihe 1660s due Io Ihe Canga
having changed iIs course and added IhaI 8ernier was Iorced Io
go over Irom Ra|mahaI Io Kasimbazar as Ihe 8hagiraIhi river Ioo
had dried up.
441
]ohn MarshaII IraveIIing here in 1670 commenIed
on Ihe shaIIowness oI Ihe river aI Ra|mahaI.
442
This waIer worId
was noI |usI an unsIabIe worId; iI was aIso a caIamiIous one, as
Ihe 8engaI esIuary was IreguenIIy ravaged by cycIones, causing
Isunamis Io rise in Ihe Canga.
Having esIabIished IhaI Kasimbazar was ecoIogicaIIy a
smaII worId and economicaIIy even more so, one IargeIy dependenI
439 B. Greenhill, Boats and Boatmen of Pakistan, Newton Abbot, 1971, p. 35, in Jean Deloche, Boats
and ships in Bengal Terracotta Arts, Bulletin de lEcole Franaise dExtrme-Orient, Volume 78, (Numro 1,
1991), pp. 1 49. See p.3.
440 Benoy Kumar Sarkar, Op. Cit. p. 12.
441 Jean Baptiste Tavernier, Travels in India, 2 vols. Ball and Crooke (ed. and tr.), (London, 1889
edition, reprint, New Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 2001). See Book 1, p. 102, p. 103.
442 Shafaat Ahmad Khan, ed. John Marshall in India: Notes and Observations in Bengal (1668-
1672), p. 69. (Reprint, Read Books, 2006).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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on Ihe rhyIhm oI Ihe monsoons and Ihe nor'wesIerIy winds, !
wouId Iike Io underIine IhaI Ihis smaII worId was aIso uncommonIy
vuInerabIe Io poIiIicaI disIurbances. This was evidenI Irom Ihe
MaraIha invasions oI 8engaI Irom 1742 and Ihe AIghanrebeIIion
in 8ihar, and parIicuIarIy aI PaIna, Irom 174S, boIh oI which
sandwiched Kasimbazar Irom wesI and norIh; Ihe IirsI eIIecIiveIy
deprived Kasimbazar oI iIs rice suppIy Irom 8ardhamana in Ihe
wesI as Ihe MaraIhas proceeded inIo 8engaI and Ihe second meanI
IhaI Irade was sIopped on Ihe Canga aI PaIna Ior aImosI a year.
Thereby Ihe passage oI goods Irom NorIh !ndia inIo 8engaI and Irom
8engaI Io Agra was disrupIed, Ihe minI was oIIen cIosed and many
oI Ihe neIworks IragmenIed in Ihe 1740s, Ieaving Ihe Kasimbazar
merchanIs wiIh IiIIIe opIion buI Io underIake more orders Irom Ihe
uropean asI !ndia companies.
8eIween Ihe sixIeenIh and eighIeenIh cenIuries Kasimbazar
IransIormed Irom a IiIIIe pIace" Io a big space", and Ihe momenI
oI IransIormaIion was around Ihe middIe oI Ihe sevenIeenIh
cenIury. As commerciaI neIworks inIensiIied in scope, Ihis smaII
worId sIarIed on Ihe paIh Io change when Murshidabad became
Ihe capiIaI Irom around 1704. The IransporIaIion beneIiIs, Irom Ihe
IIuviaI neIwork IhaI ran Ihrough iI and connecIed Io Murshidabad
and PaIna, were discovered once again. !I was Ihrough Ihe IIuviaI
neIwork and proximiIy Io Ihe new capiIaI IhaI Kasimbazar
caIapuIIed iIseII inIo Ihe uppermosI rank among siIk marIs in Ihe
subconIinenI. So we see IhaI Ihe iniIiaI smaII worId" phenomenon
Ior Kasimbazar was IocaI cenIric" and Ihen moved up Io embrace
Ihe regionaI and Ihen Ihe naIionaI, as we see Irom an ngIish reporI
oI Ihe 1620s.
443
The shiII Irom IocaI Io gIobaI is documenIed in maps
443 Hughes and Parker.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
286
oI Ihe period, as ! show, and readings oI conIemporaneous IexIs
aIso conIirm Ihis shiII.

1,*=#, H'68*&I(
!n 1733 Ihis noI so smaII worId expanded IurIher as 8ihar
became a parI oI Ihe nawabi province oI 8engaI. This inIegraIion
opened up new IransporI neIworks and simuIIaneousIy, new
commerciaI and IinanciaI neIworks. The MughaI emperor ]ahangir
had connecIed PaIna Io Agra in Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury, now by
virIue oI 8ihar's inIegraIion wiIh 8engaI in 1733 Ihe IaIIer Ioo became
connecIed Io Agra by way oI 8ihar. The road Irom MaIda near
Kasimbazar Iinked Ihe commerciaI areas oI TirhuI and Chhapra in
8ihar, and Chhapra was onIy 10 kos (approximaIeIy 3.2 kms) away
Irom PaIna. We wiII see IaIer IhaI Ihe Armenians had subsIanIiaI
business inIeresIs in Ihe commerciaIIy rich region oI Chhapra. The
oIder Lucknow-8enares Iink now |oined Murshidabad and PaIna Io
Ihis norIhern overIand rouIe
444
.
Why was PaIna (and 8ihar) so imporIanI Io eighIeenIh
cenIury 8engaI? We have aIready menIioned Ihe overIand rouIes
Ihrough PaIna IhaI connecIed 8engaI Io norIh !ndia, Ihrough Ihe
Canga, now IeI us Iook aI mariIime ouIIeIs. !n Ihe sevenIeenIh
cenIury, when iI was a MughaI province, 8engaI's Iwo main royaI
porIs were HugIi in Ihe wesI oI Ihe province and Dhaka in Ihe easI.
The porI IhaI Iaced norIh, and connecIed 8engaI wiIh norIh !ndia,
was Ihe CangeIic porI oI Ra|mahaI, someIime capiIaI in Ihe 1630s.
This was a porI IhaI experienced greaI Irade" in Ihe sevenIeenIh
444 Kumkum Chatterjee, Merchants, Politics and Society in Early Modern India, Bihar 1733-1820,
(Brill, 1996), p. 15.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
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cenIury buI iI was a secondary porI, Iar Irom Ihe 8ay oI 8engaI
and IuncIioning onIy as a IransiI poinI in communicaIions and
Irade beIween Agra and 8engaI. !n Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury, when
Ihe rich province oI 8ihar became a parI oI 8engaI province, Ihe
annexaIion was oI immense sIraIegic vaIue because 8engaI now
had easy access Io Ihe norIhern provinces oI Awadh, DeIhi and
Agra Ihrough 8ihar's capiIaI and porI PaIna, which Iay on Ihe
Canges. New IransporI neIworks, and aIong Ihem new commerciaI
and IinanciaI neIworks, were seI up Iinking 8engaI wiIh 8ihar and
norIhward wiIh MughaI !ndia, or, converseIy, MughaI !ndia wiIh
Ihe 8ay oI 8engaI.
44S
The Iour porIs oI 8engaI were now HugIi (under
an oIIiciaI named 8aksh cndcr), Dhaka under Ihe Shah cndcr,
Murshidabad under Ihe PachoIra cndcr (or PachoIra Daroga as
reIerred Io in Ihe Kasimbazar acIory Records oI Ihe ngIish asI
!ndia Company) and PaIna under Ihe 8udrekha 8andar. This IasI
conIroIIed aII duIies Irom Irade Irom Ihe upper and middIe CangeIic
rouIes and porIs, so we can imagine Ihe enormous proIiIs accruing
Io 8engaI wiIh Ihe incorporaIion oI 8ihar inIo Ihe province.
Moreover, Ihe exporI oI 8ihar's many producIs, nameIy
saIIpeIer, sugar, rice, poppy and coIIon cIoIhs, now acIed Io Ihe
IinanciaI advanIage oI 8engaI. !I is no accidenI IhaI we Iind a
number oI 'up counIry', i.e. 8ihari and norIh !ndian, merchanIs
operaIing Irom Kasimbazar Irom Ihe IaIe 1730s; Ihese merchanIs
broughI Iheir IinanciaI experIise and business acumen Io 8engaI
and enriched Irading possibiIiIies Ihere. Among Ihese, Ihe houses oI
]agaI SeIh and AIamchand were Ihe mosI successIuI, by expanding
Iheir operaIions Io Ihe easI, wesI and norIh oI Ihe province and
beyond, Ihey organized a mercanIiIe and IinanciaI web Ihrough
445 See Kumkum Chatterjee, Op. cit. 1996.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
288
Ihe sysIem oI hundis (biIIs oI exchange) IhaI guaranIeed paymenI
againsI goods anywhere in norIh !ndia and Ihe Deccan. There is a
Hiranand Shahu ki CaIi (Ihe Lane oI Hiranand Shah) in PaIna even
now; Hiranand was Ihe Iounder oI Ihe house oI ]agaI SeIh.
446
Such
is Ihe way IhaI neIworks Iive on in pubIic memory.
!I has been argued IhaI Ihe uropean merchanIs were
noI Ihe chieI Irading parIners oI eighIeenIh cenIury 8engaI.
MerchanIs Irom oIher parIs oI Ihe subconIinenI based IhemseIves
in eighIeenIh cenIury Kasimbazar: Ihey were IirsI and IoremosI Ihe
Cu|araIis, subseguenIIy came Ihe merchanIs Irom Lahore, MuIIan,
8enares, Corakhpur, DeIhi (CaIwars) and Agra Irom Ihe norIh,
Irom Hyderabad in Ihe Deccan, as aIso merchanIs Irom ]angipur
in Murshidabad disIricI, Ihe IasI probabIy acIed as gomasIas or
agenIs oI 8enares merchanIs
447
. !n ApriI 1712 we have a reIerence
Irom Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company records oI merchanIs Irom
Lahore meeIing Manickchand, Ihe Iounder oI Ihe house oI Ihe
SeIhs.
448
8y Ihe middIe oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury Ihis IisI expanded
Io accommodaIe even more merchanIs Irom Ihe subconIinenI:
Cashmeerians, MuIIanys, PaIans, Sheiks, Sunniasys, Paggayahs,
8eIIeeas and many oIhers used Io resorI Io 8engaI in CaIIeeIas or
Iarge parIies oI many Ihousand IogeIher wiIh Iroops oI oxen Ior Ihe
IransporI oI goods...".
449
This is cIearIy a reIerence Io Ihe overIand
Irade wiIhin !ndia IhaI connecIed Io Ihe greaI caravan rouIes oI
Asia.
446 Ibid, p. 22.
447 Sushil Chaudhury, Op. Cit., 1995, p. 375.
448 C.R.Wilson, Te Early Annals of the English in Bengal being the Bengal Public Consultations for
the First Half of the Eighteenth Century, (London, Tacker, 1900), V.1, p. 48.
449 Sushil Chaudhury, 1995, p. 383. Grose mentions a host of Asian traders in Bengal at mid
century. See John Henry Grose, A Voyage to the East Indies etc., 2 vols. (London, M DCC LXXII), vol.2, p.
234.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
289
The neIworks oI Ihe IiIIIe sIudied scnnycsis, Cosains eIc.
who conIroIIed Ihe siIk Irade beIween 8enares, Mirzapur, 8engaI,
8ihar and Ihe Deccan, and who Iraded Io Ihe norIheasI beIween
8engaI and 8huIan, are oI immense vaIue Ior our undersIanding
oI Ihe organizaIion oI siIk and oIher Irades carried on IhroughouI
SouIhasia by such mobiIe groups.
4S0
The sannyasi neIwork
combined Iwo idenIiIies; reIigious and commerciaI. 8ecause oI
Ihe Iormer idenIiIy, as hoIy men, Ihey couId IraveI unhindered
aII over Ihe conIinenI and a Iarge parI oI Ihe inIernaI circuIaIion
was in Iheir hands. !I was recorded IhaI Ihe Cosains numbered 10
000 in 8enares aIone, and in Iimes oI piIgrimage (and Irade) Ihey
numbered up Io 3S 000.
4S1
SiIk was a commodiIy in Ihe Irue sense oI Ihe Ierm.
!I was obIained Ihrough a Iong inIormaIion paIhway and an
organizaIionaI chain oI producIion, procuremenI and IransporI
where various grades oI buyers and seIIers, many operaIing
Ihrough agenIs, brokers and hcnicns IuncIioned. Asian IinanciaI
sysIems were ma|or movers in Ihis sysIem. Chaudhury wriIes IhaI
Ihe supremacy oI Ihe Asian merchanIs (over Ihe uropeans) is aIso
conIirmed by one Sadananda 8andopadhyay who was Ihe gomasIa
oI a Cu|araIi merchanI in Kasimbazar and was himseII in Ihe siIk
business Ior IhirIy years, who sIaIed, reIerring Io Ihe !7S0s in aII
probabiIiIy, IhaI Ihere were Ien merchanIs in Murshidabad who
exporIed 8engaI raw siIk Io Ihe Iune oI !3, 000 Io 20, 000 maunds
annuaIIy. !I was Louis TaiIIeIerI, Ihe DuIch DirecIor in 8engaI, who
cIearIy poinIed ouI in 1763 IhaI Ihe procuremenI oI raw siIk by Ihe
450 Bernard S. Cohn, Te Role of the Gosains in the Economy of Eighteenth and Nineteenth
Century Upper India, Indian Economic & Social History Review, Vol. 1, (No. 4, 1964), pp. 175-182;
451 H.R.Ghosal, Economic Transition in the Bengal Presidency (1793-1833), (Patna University,
1950), pp. 183-84.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
290
gomasIas oI Iraders Irom Lahore and MuIIan had gone up Io a greaI
exIenI since Ihe beginning oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury".
4S2

OIher Ihan Asian merchanIs Ihere were Ihe Armenians aI
Saidabad wiIh a Iarge house and garden, in a suburb oI Kasimbazar.
The Armenians had enIrenched IhemseIves in Ihe Irade marIs and
producIion cenIres oI inIerior 8engaI and 8ihar, deaIing in siIk,
opium and saIIpeIer, Irom possibIy Ihe end oI Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury.
The Armenians had neIworks sIreIching Irom New ]uIIa Io ManiIa,
and in Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury Ihe !C esIabIished cIose Iinks
wiIh Ihem Ior Irade, IinanciaI remiIIances and access Io Ihe courI in
8engaI.
4S3
Armenian Irade in 8engaI was charged Iess Ihan Ihe usuaI
duIy oI S by Ihe nawabs. Coods Irom 8engaI, mainIy IexIiIes, were
Iaken Io Madras by Ihe Armenians Irom where Ihey enIered Ihe
Madras-ManiIa-New Spain neIwork oI Ihe Armenians.
4S4
A church
dedicaIed Io Ihe Virgin was buiII aI Saidabad near Kasimbazar.

]""15%. 19, ;C&4, 5% \'&4,J >&+&P5 \$"0"15"% ") 19,
34"%"0:
!I you sIudy any eighIeenIh cenIury map oI Kasimbazar
such as Ihe maps dispIayed aI Ihe end oI Ihis chapIer, you wiII noIice
IhaI iI is siIuaIed in a IriangIe caused by Ihe 8hagiraIhi, Ihe ]aIangi
and Ihe Padma rivers: Ihese riverways IaciIiIaIed communicaIion
wiIh marIs and producIion cenIres IhroughouI Ihe province. The
452 Sushil Chaudhury, 1995, p. 382.
453 Sushil Chaudhury, Trading Networks in a Traditional Diaspora: Armenians in India circa
1600-1800 in Ina Baghdiantz McCabe, Gelina Harlafis and Ioanna Pepelasis Minoglou eds. Diaspora
Entrepreneurial Networks: Four Centuries of History, (Berg Publishers, 2nd edition, 2005) pp. 51-72. See pp.
53-4.
454 Bhaswati Bhattacharya, Making money at the blessed place of Manila: Armenians in the
Madras Manila trade in the eighteenth century, Journal of Global History (2008, 3), pp. 120. See pp. 13-14.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
291
8hagiraIhi aIong Ihis sIreIch was caIIed Ihe Cossimbazar River".
This isIand exisIs no more; Ihe ]aIangi has dried up. 8ecause oI
Ihe easiIy navigabIe IIuviaI highways Io PaIna in Ihe norIh and
HugIi in Ihe souIh, IransporI oI goods was easy, boIh norIh Io Ihe
greaI caravan rouIes or souIh Io Ihe 8ay oI 8engaI. 8ecause oI
Kasimbazar's propinguiIy Io Ihe producIion cenIres oI KumarkhaIi
in Nadia disIricI (presenI sIaIe oI WesI 8engaI, !ndia) and Rangpur
(in presenI 8angIadesh), boIh oI which couId be easiIy ccessed by
good IransporI neIworks (boIh road and IIuviaI sysIems), as weII as
Ior having iIs own siIk producing area around ]angipur, ConaIea,
RangamaIi and ShanIipur, Ihe merchanIs oI Kasimbazar were in a
parIicuIarIy advanIageous posiIion Io Iurnish IexIiIes oI aII kinds,
buI parIicuIarIy siIks, Io Ihe asI !ndia companies. The IocaIionaI
and IransporI dynamics ensured IhaI Kasimbazar occupied Ihe
IoremosI posiIion as Irade marI in 8engaI; Ihe oIher being Dhaka in
Ihe easI oI Ihe province.
Kasimbazar's advanIageous IocaIion IhereIore greaIIy
IaciIiIaIed iIs posiIion as Ihe IoremosI siIk marI oI 8engaI.
!Is cenIraI IocaIion supporIed a hierarchy oI marI Iowns and
producIion cenIres; Ihese were very greaI in number. Map 3 shows
IhaI eighIeenIh cenIury Kasimbazar Iay in a denseIy urbanized
zone wiIh numerous urban and ruraI markeIs Io which iI was
connecIed boIh spaIiaIIy and economicaIIy.
4SS
These markeIs were
aIso connecIed via a sociaI neIwork; Ihey were oIIen esIabIished
and conIroIIed by Ihe royaI IamiIy and Iavoured courIiers, Iinanced
by IocaI moneyIenders (saraIs), powered by IocaI IandIords on
whose domains Ihey were siIuaIed and IueIIed by merchanIs (dcdni
455 Indrani Ray, Journey to Cassimbazar and Murshidabad: Observations of a French Visitor to
Bengal in 1743, in Lakshmi Subramanian ed. 1999, pp. 144-176.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
292
merchanIs) who IransporIed Ihe goods Io Ihe markeIs.
The ruIing cIass Iook Ihe Iead in esIabIishing markeIs.
Murshid uIi, Ihe IirsI nawab, consIrucIed Ihe KaIra Mas|id
aI Murshidabad; Ihis IuncIioned as Ihe cenIraI royaI markeI
pIace and subseguenIIy his Iomb. Murshid uIi aIso esIabIished
Ihe 8hagwangoIa (whoIesaIe markeI) near Murshidabad in
his grandson SarIaraz Khan's name; and he aIso Iounded, in
Murshidabad, ]'aIargun| in 1708. ]'aIar Khan was anoIher name oI
Murshid uIi. Murshid uIi consIrucIed simuIIaneousIy Ihe chowk
aI Ihe secondary capiIaI in Ihe easI, Dhaka, Io IaciIiIaIe IransacIions,
and esIabIished Ihere Ihe 8azaar KarIaIabh Khan, yeI anoIher oI
his names. The nexI dynasIy oI AIivardi Khan esIabIished even
more bazaars; in 8ihar Ihe bazaar oI Ha|igun| was owned by Ha|i
Ahmad, who had subsIanIiaI commerciaI inIeresIs in 8ihar and
8engaI, mosIIy saIIpeIer and opium and who |usI happened Io be
Ihe broIher oI AIivardi Khan, Ihe nawab Irom 1740 unIiI 17S6.
4S6

The ruIing cIass consIiIuIed, IhereIore, a very inIIuenIiaI
group. The cohesion oI Ihis group is shown in Ihe overIhrow oI
Murshid's grandson, SarIaraz Khan in 1740. SarIaraz Khan became
nawab oI 8engaI in 1739-1740. 8uI courIiers and Iinanciers such as
Ihe ]ain SeIhs, Ihe Hindus AIamchand and Chin Ray aI Murshidabad,
MusIim generaIs as weII as a handIuI oI Iess powerIuI courIier-
merchanIs uIIimaIeIy swiIched IoyaIIies and deposed him in Iavour
oI AIivardi Khan Irom 8ihar. The poinI worIh noIing here is IhaI
Ihe more powerIuI IandIords (zcmindcrs) oI 8engaI aIso supporIed
Ihis move Io IoppIe Ihe House oI Murshid uIi and weIcome a
456 Rila Mukherjee, Te Nawabs Business: Agricultural and Commercial Practices in Eighteenth
Century Bengal in Chittabrata Palit and Pranjal Bhattacharyya eds. Business History of India, (New Delhi,
Gyan Books, 2006, pp. xxxii-xxxv.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
293
nawab Irom 8ihar insIead, possibIy because mosI zcmindcrs had
become aIienaIed Ihrough Murshid uIi's harsh revenue measures.
The swiIch oI IoyaIIies obviousIy heIped Ihe commerciaI and
IinanciaI inIeresIs oI Ihe courIier-merchanI-IandIord combine aI
Murshidabad. As 8ihar had become a parI oI 8engaI suhch in 1733
iI was deemed suiIabIe, and advanIageous, Io have a ncwch Irom
IhaI region. This sociaI neIwork wouId ruIe 8engaI unIiI 17S7, when
AIivardi's grandson Sira| ud dauIah, ncwch oI 8engaI Irom 17S6 Io
17S7, was murdered by Ihe 8riIish and 8engaI became a province
adminisIered by Ihe !C.
AIivardi himseII had sIarIed his career by enIering Ihe
8engaI ncwch's service; he became Ihe Iau|dar oI Ra|mahaI around
1728 and in 1732-33 he was appoinIed as depuIy governor (suhchdcr)
oI PaIna. The nexI year 8ihar became parI oI 8engaI and iI seems
IikeIy IhaI AIivardi Khan was Ihe archiIecI oI Ihis annexaIion.
4S7

There were now puI in pIace highIy compIex sociaI and IransporI
neIworks IhaI Iinked producIion cenIre Io markeI and Ihe marI
Iown Io porI via ghaIs (Ianding pIace on a river or Iake), roads and
bridges.
4S8
TraIIic reguIaIions ensuring Ihe saIeIy oI peopIes and
goods, Ihe buiIding oI IorIs in border areas Ior proIecIion and Ihe
seIIing up oI serais heIped susIain Ihese communicaIion neIworks.
nIorcemenI oI conIracIs and Ihe proIecIion oI properIy nourished
commerciaI reIaIions wiIhin Ihe province and beyond.
4S9
A posIaI
sysIem seI in moIion by Ihe MughaIs and Ihen by Ihe ncwchs, boIh
Irom HugIi by sea and overIand Ihrough PaIna and SuraI, IaciIiIaIed
communicaIion beyond Ihe sIaIe.
457 See Jadunath Sarkar, Bengal Nawabs (Calcutta, Asiatic Society, 1952).
458 See Tilottama Mukherjee, Te Co-ordinating State and the Economy: Te Nizamat in
Eighteenth- Century Bengal, Modern Asian Studies, Vol. 43, 2, (March 2009), pp. 389-436.
459 Rila Mukherjee, Te Nawabs Business: Op. cit.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
294
Map 4 shows Kasimbazar's riverine Iinks wiIh Ihe norIh
and Ihe norIheasI oI Ihe subconIinenI; Ihese IIuviaI neIworks
ensured reasonabIy saIe and Iow IransporI cosIs IaciIiIaIing boIh
communicaIion and Irade.
The porI adminisIraIion, especiaIIy Ihe nearby porIs aI
HugIi and Kasimbazar/Murshidabad were conIroIIed by Ihe 8engaI
ncwchs and Iheir IavouriIes Irom 1711, bypassing Ihe emperor's
nominees Irom DeIhi.
460
De Cennes de Ia ChanceIIiere IeIIs us IhaI
in 1743 Ihe oIIice oI Ihe Iau|dar (chieI porI oIIiciaI, under whom Ihe
various bandar or porI oIIiciaIs worked) oI HugIi was heId by Ihe
nephew oI AIivardi Khan, Ihen Ihe nawab.
461
LocaI neIworks were
becoming signiIicanI and Ihe ncwchs, by conIroIIing Ihe seIecIion
oI porI oIIiciaIs, soughI Io conIroI Ihe resources oI Ihe province
Io Iheir advanIage. 8y buying inIo bazaars, by esIabIishing new
markeIs and Ihereby diverIing producIion and saIes Irom oIder
cenIres, by iniIiaIing roadways and bridges, and by puIIing Iheir
reIaIives in charge oI porI adminisIraIion, Ihe ncwchs soughI Io
conIroI Ihe commerciaI and IransporI neIworks in Ihe province by
Iand, river and mariIime rouIes. OIher Ihan Ihus securing Ihe Irade
channeIs oI Ihe province Io Iheir own advanIage, Ihe 8engaI ncwchs
aIso enIrusIed Ihe adminisIraIion oI sensiIive border areas, such as
Purnia, now in 8ihar, Io IavouriIes or reIaIives. To keep prices Iow,
Ihe exporI oI grain was prohibiIed; an oIIiciaI checked Ihe amounI
oI grain carried on board ships deparIing 8engaI againsI Ihe
number oI crew every Iime a ship deparIed Irom any oI Ihe porIs
oI Ihe province.
462
8engaI in Ihe IirsI haII oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury
was a coherenI poIiIicaI uniI. !I was aIso economicaIIy sovereign
460 See C.R.Wilson (1895), V.1.
461 Indrani Ray, Journey to Cassimbazar etc. p. 151.
462 Mukherjee, 2006a. See f.n. 79, p. 158.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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Ihrough neIworks seI in moIion by iIs own needs.

89, \9&6, 8$&%6515"% &1 *&650P&=&$J O$"0 ;0&'' R"$'-
1" & ;:61,0 19$"#.9 A"00"-515,6
CommodiIies Iead increasingIy gIobaI Iives, Iheir spaces are
geographic which expand or conIracI according Io neIworks. LeI us
Iook aI Ihe Iives oI commodiIies in pre coIoniaI 8engaI.
B&*; G/2' #"0 +75#& 6* +/,I
There are indicaIions IhaI rice, sugar and grain, which
Iormed exporI sIapIes in sixIeenIh cenIury 8engaI, were becoming
dear Irom Ihe second haII oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury. iIch had
noIed a booming Irade in rice and grain Irom 8engaI aI Ihe end
oI Ihe sixIeenIh cenIury. Cesare rederici, aI Ihe same Iime, had
noIed Ihe greaI exporI oI sugar Irom 8engaI Io diIIerenI parIs oI Ihe
empire.
463

There seems Io have been a break in Ihis commerce Irom
Ihe middIe oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury. The nglish Fcctorics in
|ndic reIer Io sugar, bees wax, gum Iac and coIIons being sIapIe,
coarse" exporIs Irom 8engaI in Ihe 1630s,
464
buI Irom Ihereon we
hear Iess oI Ihese sIapIes, and more oI cash crops as exporI iIems.
!ndeed cash crops seem Io have doIIed Ihe province: 8owrey
and de CraaI noIed Ihe shiII Io Ihe producIion oI saIIpeIer and
opium.
46S
YeI anoIher cash crop was siIk and iI seems cerIain IhaI
463 Cesare Frederici in Richard Hakluyt, Te Principal Navigations etc., Vol. 9, Asia, Part II.
464 William Foster, Te English Factories in India, 1618-1669, volume 5: 1634-36.
465 See R.C. Temple, (ed). Tomas Bowrey, A Geographical Account of the Countries Around Te Bay
of Bengal 1669-1679, (Cambridge, Hakluyt Society, M D CCCC V). Henceforth Bowrey. See pp. 225-29; De
Voyage de Nicolas de Graaf aux Indes Orientales etc. (1639-87), (Amsterdam, J.F.Bernard, MD CC XIX), p.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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Ihe 8engaI nawabs wanIed Io promoIe siIk as an exporI commodiIy
in Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury. MuIberry Iands were Iaxed higher Ihan
rice Iands in eighIeenIh cenIury 8engaI, indicaIive oI Ihe greaI
change IhaI had Iaken pIace in Ihe commerciaI Iandscape.
466
The
Armenians were granIed commerciaI priviIeges IhaI reduced Iheir
exporI duIies Irom S Io 3.S. Sebouh AsIanian however is oI Ihe
opinion IhaI Ihe Armenians Iraded in a porIIoIio oI commodiIies
raIher Ihan concenIraIing on a singIe iIem (emaiI oI ApriI 27, 2009).
Why was Ihere Ihis shiII? Were 8engaI sIapIes sIiII Iower
in price as compared Io oIher parIs oI Ihe MughaI mpire? !I noI,
and we |usI read IhaI Io keep prices Iow, Ihe exporI oI grain by
uropeans was prohibiIed in eighIeenIh cenIury 8engaI; an oIIiciaI
checked Ihe amounI oI grain carried on board ships deparIing
8engaI againsI Ihe number oI crew every Iime a ship deparIed
Irom any oI Ihe porIs oI Ihe province, was Ihe shiII Io capiIaIisI
agricuIIure reIIecIive oI rising prices which made Ior unIavourabIe
Irading condiIions oI Ihese sIapIes?
<4' +4/96 9&*; +/,I 6* +#,6)'6'&?
SaIIpeIer became a very signiIicanI exporI commodiIy
Irom Ihe end oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury. 8owrey and de CraaI, we
read, had noIed Ihis. !I shouId be remembered IhaI Ihis was due Io
uropean demand; resuIIing Irom Ihe IreguenI wars in urope in
Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury.
There was IiIIIe or no Asian demand Ior Ihis iIem. !n Ihe IirsI
haII oI Ihe cenIury Ihe IiIIIe known PorIuguese asI !ndia Company
71. (Henceforth de Graaf).
466 Om Prakash, Te Dutch East India Company and the Economy of Bengal 1630-1720, (Delhi,
Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 25; Mukherjee, 2006a, p. xxxii.
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Iraded in saIIpeIer Irom 8engaI, buI iI was reporIed IhaI Ihe cosIs
were high as iI had Io be IransporIed Io Coa. SaIIpeIer was obIained
Ihrough conIracI in 8engaI and 8ihar and we have Ihe names oI
Iwo conIracIors Ihere: OIiveira de Morses and ernao CarvaIho.
467

SaIIpeIer increasingIy rivaIed siIk as exporI commodiIy
Irom 8engaI Irom Ihe end oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury. The VOC and
Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company were ma|or Iraders in saIIpeIer.
SaIIpeIer aIso served as baIIasI on ships.
468
Regarding Ihe boaIs
caIIed Ihe paIeIIa, Thomas 8owrey wroIe: (Ihese are boaIs) IhaI
come downe Irom PaIIana wiIh saIIpeeIer or oIher goods buiII oI
an exceedinge sIrengIh and are very IIaII and burIhensome," each
carrying down 4, S, or 6,000 8engaI maunds oI 82 !bs. ach".
469

rom Ihe 1740s siIk prices rose sIeadiIy higher aI Kasimbazar
and aIIernaIive sources oI IaxaIion had Io be Iound.
470
ThereIore
Ihe saIIpeIer Irade was promoIed aImosI as a royaI monopoIy aI
IirsI and Ihen Ihrough revenue Iraming. The ngIish records IeII us
IhaI Umichand, a merchanI-courIier wiIh cIose Iinks Io Ihe courI aI
Murshidabad, was one oI Ihe monopoIisIs in Ihe Irade oI saIIpeIer
Irom 8ihar in Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury. His broIher, Deepchand was
Ihe Iau|dar oI Chhapra in 8ihar, and Ihe ma|or parI oI 8ihar saIIpeIer
came Irom Ihere. Umichand and Deepchand were courIiers and
royaI IavouriIes, Iinked boIh wiIh Ihe nawab AIivardi Khan and his
broIher Ha|i Ahmad who managed Ihe royaI commerciaI inIeresIs
in 8ihar.
SaIIpeIer concessions were soId oII Io courIiers by Ihe
nawabs. The Armenians monopoIized a Iarge parI oI Ihe saIIpeIer
467 Chandra Richard de Silva, Te Portuguese East India Company 1628-1633, Luso-Brazilian
Review, Vol. 11, No. 2. (Winter, 1974), pp. 152-205. See pp. 187-88.
468 Kumkum Chatterjee, pp. 26-28.
469 Bowrey, pp. 225-29.
470 Mukherjee, 2006a.
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Irade Irom 8ihar in IhaI cenIury, as we saw Irom Khwa|a Wa|id's
career. As parI oI a sociaI-commerciaI-poIiIicaI neIwork (Umichand,
Deepchand, Khwa|a Wa|id) wiIh direcI access Io Ihe courIs aI
Murshidabad and PaIna, Khwa|a Wa|id virIuaIIy monopoIized Ihe
8ihar Irade, parIicuIarIy in saIIpeIer, Irom Ihe 1740s, Ihrough an
annuaI paymenI oI Rs. 2S 000 Io Ihe nawab AIivardi Khan.
471



! -7#, +4/96_ <4' %#(' 9*& ^)/7;_
WhiIe 8owrey reIerred Io Ihe Irade in saIIpeIer, De CraaI
reIerred, aI Ihe same Iime as 8owrey, Io Ihe greaI producIion and
Irade oI opium; one maund oI opium in 8engaI cosIing Rs. 70 or 7S
was soId aI 8aIavia aI beIween Rs. 210 and 22S, adding however,
regreIIuIIy, IhaI Ihis proIiIabIe Irade was noI open Io Ihe DuIch.
472

LuiIIier echoed Ihis aI Ihe sIarI oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury, noIhing
IhaI Ihere was greaI Irade in opium, iI being much in demand in
Ihe LevanI,
473
adding IhaI 'on peuI dire gue 8engaIe esI Ie magasin
de IouIes Ies !ndes'.
474
LuiIIier Ioo cIaimed IhaI Ihe asI !ndia
companies were denied parIicipaIion in Ihis Irade.
Who, Ihen, organized Ihis Irade? Was Ihe opium Irade aIso
in Ihe hands oI 'up counIry' merchanIs? !n sevenIeenIh cenIury
Achin merchanIs Irom 8engaI broughI raw coIIon, IexIiIes, ghi
(cIariIied buIIer used as oiI in cooking) and opium inIo IhaI porI.
47S

UnIiI Ihe middIe oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury, boIh Ihe opium and
saIIpeIer Irades IuncIioned as aImosI royaI" monopoIies. The
471 Sushil Chaudhury, 2005, p. 56.
472 de Graaf, pp. 307-08.
473 Luillier, Voyage du sieur Luillier aux Grandes Indes, avec une instruction pour le commerce des
Indes orientales, (Paris, Claude Cellier, 1705) p. 79.
474 Luillier, p. 69.
475 In Denys Lombard, Le Sultanat dAtjeh au temps dIskandar Muda 1607-1636, (Paris, EFEO, vol.
LXI, 1967) p. 116.
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Armenian Khwa|a Wa|id was acIive in Ihis Irade Ioo, acIing aImosI
as monopoIisI; he was reporIed Io have cornered Ihe markeI in
8ihar opium in 1749.
476


+#,6
SaII became an increasingIy IucraIive commodiIy in
eighIeenIh cenIury 8engaI. We read IhaI Ihis saII came down Irom
Agra. 8uI saII was aIso obIained Irom Iar. We saw IhaI Teixeira
wroIe circa 1600 IhaI ships Irom Cochin arrived aI Hormuz Io pick
up saII desIined Ior 8engaI, where Ihis saII was much prized as
8engaI, aparI Irom Ihe isIand oI Sandwip, suIIered Irom a scarciIy
oI saII.
477

Khwa|a Wa|id obIained Ihe more IucraIive monopoIy oI Ihe
saII Irade which was Iarmed by him in 17S2 Ior a mere paymenI oI
Rs 2S,000 Io Rs 30,000 a year Io Ihe nawab. An esIimaIe oI 1773 puI
Ihe annuaI revenues oI saII producIion and saIe in 8engaI aI Rs 1
miIIion. !I is Ihus apparenI how much Khwa|a Wa|id earned Irom
Ihe virIuaI monopoIy oI saII Irade in Ihe 17S0s.
478


H'8 %*;;*0/6/'( #6 64' T/0 %'"67&R a&'#I
We see IhaI Ihe 8engaI nawabs experimenIed wiIh a
porIIoIio oI exporI commodiIies in response Io Ioreign demand. The
IradiIionaI exporIs oI rice, sugar and coIIon were suppIemenIed
wiIh, and Ihen suppIanIed by, siIk, saIIpeIer, opium and saII. rom
476 Sushil Chaudhury, 2005, p. 57.
477 W.F. Sinclair and D. W. Ferguson eds. Te Travels of Pedro Texeira etc., (London, Hakluyt
Society, Second Series, 1902).
478 Orme Mss OV 134, f. 21-2 in Sushil Chaudhury, 2005, p. 57.
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1711 Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company's invesImenI in saIIpeIer was
immense.
479
8y 1718 Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company's IacIory in
8ihar was conIracIing 10 000 maunds Ior Ihe Madras IacIory as
weII.
480

The process underIined in Ihis paper, Irom simpIer and Iooser
neIworks, based on considerabIe reIigious and eIhnic diversiIy, and
concenIraIing on a porIIoIio oI commodiIies, Ioward more compIex
neIworks based on singIe iIems, was Ihe haIImark oI Ihe age. He
Armenians IypiIy Ihe Iormer kind oI neIwork. The asI !ndia
companies moved Irom simpIe neIworks Ioward more compIex
neIworks Irom Ihe end oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury, and Ihe nawabi
sIaIe oI 8engaI emuIaIed Ihis process by way oI experimenIing wiIh
singIe iIems such as siIk, saIIpeIer, opium and saII. 8uI iI was Ioo
IaIe. Thus aIIempIs aI royaI monopoIies in saIIpeIer, opium and saII
around Ihe middIe oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury IaiIed and couId noI
survive Ihe mid cenIury break. This was mainIy due Io Ihe new and
compIex IinanciaI and organizaIionaI neIworks seI in Irain by Ihe
uropean companies.

A"%4'#65"%
!n 17S7 Kasimbazar, and 8engaI, was conguered by Ihe
ngIish asI !ndia Company, and Ihe occupaIion oI 8engaI Iaid
Ihe ground Ior Ihe IuIure coIonizaIion oI !ndia. Having seen Ihe
IIourishing sIaIe oI commerciaI neIworks in Kasimbazar, we can
ask ourseIves Ihis guesIion: were Ihe neIworks Ior Ihese newer
commodiIies more robusI, more compIex and more conIroIIed
479 C.R.Wilson, V.1, pp. xxii, lviii, lix, 15, 29, 141.
480 C.R.Wilson, V.1, p. 305.
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by ouIsiders, and is IhaI why Ihe 8engaI economy became more
vuInerabIe Io a Iakeover by ouIsiders?
8uI how successIuI couId Ihe new neIworks be iI Ihey
remained conIined, on Ihe ground, wiIhin Ihe oIder speciaIizaIions
and knowIedge IhaI we reIerred Io aI Ihe beginning? New
Iechnigues, and conseguenIIy new neIworks, couId never be
compIeIeIy successIuI unIess and unIiI Ihey desIroyed oIder sysIems
oI knowIedge. The case oI PiedmonIese siIk reeIing IechnoIogy,
inIroduced under Ihe aegis oI Ihe ngIish company, was never
successIuIIy adopIed by Ihe 8engaIi peasanIs invoIved in reeIing
siIk.
481

!n sum, we may argue IhaI neiIher sIraIegy was successIuI.
The oIder, simpIe neIworks IaiIed Io coaIesce inIo more compIex
and robusI neIworks and hence indigenous commerciaI iniIiaIive
decIined. 8uI Ihe more compIex neIworks oI Ihe uropean
companies aIso IaiIed Io rooI IhemseIves and Ihis is why Ihey
concenIraIed increasingIy, Irom Ihe end oI Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury,
on CaIcuIIa and a porIIoIio oI compIeIeIy diIIerenI commodiIies.
Kasimbazar became a backwoods.
This maIign swing in Kasimbazar's Irading neIworks was
reIIecIive oI anoIher shiII, one perhaps IiIIIe undersIood aI Ihe Iime.
This shiII Iook pIace wiIhin norIhwesI urope and spread over Ihe
!ndian Ocean. rom Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury uropean merchanIs
were presenI in Asian waIers, eiIher as individuaI Iraders or as
Iraders under a naIionaI IIag. Here Ihey coIIaboraIed wiIh Asian
merchanIs (Ior exampIe. Ihe Armenians who, represenIed by Kho|a
Panos CaIendar in London, signed in 1688 Ihe TreaIy oI asI !ndia
481 Roberto Davini, Bengali raw silk, the East India Company and the European global market,
1770 1833, Journal of Global History (2009) 4, pp. 5779.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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Company wiIh Ihe Armenian NaIion Ior cooperaIion in mariIime
commerce), and Asian sIaIes and graduaIIy inserIed IhemseIves
inIo mariIime rouIes and IinanciaI and commerciaI neIworks.
Kasimbazar was IuII oI various neIworks oI Iinanciers and Iraders
by Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury, iIs growIh as urban cenIre was IueIIed
by Iwo geographic neIworks IhaI iniIiaIIy coIIaboraIed wiIh each
oIher, one Asian, Ihe oIher uropean. Kasimbazar was born Ihrough
Asian demand, as discussed here, buI reinvenIed in Ihe eighIeenIh
cenIury Ihrough uropean mariIime demand, as Ihe Kasimbazar
acIory Records IeII us. ! wouId Iike Io underIine IhaI Ihe neIworks !
dub here as Asian" and uropean" were never IormaIIy" so, nor
were Ihey singIe neIworks, Ihe Ierms Asian" and uropean" reIer
mereIy Io Ihe dominanI geographicaI IeaIures oI each neIwork.
!n Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury Ihis cooperaIive modeI was
graduaIIy abandoned in Iavour oI a more dominanI modeI. The
worId oI Kasimbazar, in IransiIion in Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury, was
inIegraIed inIo gIobaI neIworks IhaI spanned urope, AIrica and
Asia, Ihereby Iranscending iIs earIier neIworks. The Armenians Ioo
were progressiveIy marginaIized by Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company
despiIe Iheir IreaIy. The new neIworks were increasingIy governed
by IinanciaI and poIiIicaI power emanaIing Irom WesIern urope.
The economy aI Kasimbazar IhereIore showed Ihe IransIormaIion
oI exchange paIIerns Irom an iniIiaI boIIom-up Ira|ecIory Io a Iop-
down paIh.
We do noI yeI know whaI happened when Ihese Iwo Iypes
oI neIworks meI each oIher, buI we do know IhaI when Ihey
iniIiaIIy inIersecIed Ihere was a Irade boom aI Kasimbazar, visibIe
Irom Ihe end oI Ihe sevenIeenIh cenIury and very apparenI in Ihe
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eighIeenIh cenIury. ProducIion rose Io meI increased demand,
Ihere was a greaIer amounI oI money in circuIaIion and merchanIs
made IorIunes overnighI. This period oI expansion ended Irom Ihe
1730s, as reIIecIed in Ihe daIa Irom Kasimbazar, and Ihe sysIem
enIered inIo a period oI crisis.
482
8eIween Ihe 1740s and Ihe 17S0s
Ihe various componenIs in Ihe sysIem sIarIed IumbIing down, Ihis
IransIaIed inIo a cascading crisis. The crisis was visibIe in a price
rise oI siIks and siIk-coIIon mixes, IaIe deIiveries, inIerior guaIiIy,
deviaIion Irom Ihe sampIes shown, subseguenI imprisonmenI
oI dcdni merchanIs Ior non paymenIs oI dues, compIainIs Io Ihe
nawab's courI aI Murshidabad, increasing impoIence oI Ihe nawab
in Iace oI Ihe growing power oI Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company and,
uIIimaIeIy, Ihe bankrupIcy oI Ihe dcdni merchanIs aI Kasimbazar.
483

More signiIicanIIy Ior our purposes here, iI seems IhaI Ihe
ngIish asI !ndia Company demand had diverIed producIion noI
onIy Irom Ihe home (Asian) markeI buI aIso Irom oIher uropean
markeIs; wiIness Ihe rench asI !ndia Company's pIea IhaI Iine
guaIiIy hcjtcs desIined Ior royaIIy in Asia and in demand in rance
were no Ionger manuIacIured by Ihe weavers aI ]ugdia because Ihe
ngIish asI !ndia Company onIy wanIed medium guaIiIy or coarse
hcjtcs.
484
ven more signiIicanIIy, Ihe oId uniIary producIion modeI
was breaking down; earIier cIoIhs were spun, woven and washed
(Io ensure Ihe guaIiIy oI Ihe dye) in one pIace. The 8engaI merchanIs
had IoIaI conIroI over Ihe producIion process as weII as choice oI
pIace Io carry on producIion; moreover Ihe price asked reIIecIed
Ihis concenIraIion oI producIion in Ihe hands oI Ihe merchanIs.
482 Mukherjee, 2006a.
483 See Ibid.
484 Ibid.
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Now, due Io company exigencies oI IimeIy deIiveries (Io meeI
shipping scheduIes) and Ihe worry oI addiIionaI IinanciaI charges
due Io IaIe deIiveries (much Iike crediI card charges in our worId!),
cIoIhs were IransporIed Io be washed aI Ihe various regionaI asI
!ndia Company Hs; eiIher because Ihe ponds aI Ihe producIion
poinIs were poIIuIed or because Ihe deIiveries were IaIe, Ihereby
Iorcing Ihe ships aIready waiIing aI Ihe regionaI harbours Io
deparI Ior Iheir ouIward |ourneys wiIhouI Iheir consignmenI iI
Ihe cIoIhs were noI deIivered Iinished" wiIhin a cerIain period.
48S

New producIive nodes were Ihus creaIed due Io Ihe IaiIure oI oIder
neIworks.
8y Ihe IaIe 1760s Ihe IoundaIions oI Ihe earIy coIoniaI
economy were Iaking shape, underIining Ihe phase IransiIion Io Ihe
coIoniaI economy oI Ihe nineIeenIh cenIury. TransporI rouIes were
breaking down, Ihere was decIine in Iaw and order, Iarge numbers
were dying Irom Iamine and IawIessness, and Ihe uropean
invesImenIs couId noI be procured in eiIher 8engaI or 8ihar.
486
!I
was preciseIy aI Ihis Iime IhaI Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company and
Ihe rench asI !ndia Company soughI Io bypass inIerIerence"
aI Ihe oIder MughaI marI Iowns and seI up new markeI Iowns
eIsewhere. Here Ihey aIIempIed Io draw buyers and seIIers and
Ihereby denied Ihe MughaI order Ihe cusIoms and IransiI duIies
due Io iI.
So Ihe new neIworks were cIearIy visibIe by Ihe 1770s.
AddiIionaIIy, in 1770, a IerribIe Iamine ravaged 8engaI and 8ihar,
caused by Ihe reckIess revenue Iarming poIicy adopIed by Ihe
485 Ibid.
486 Rila Mukherjee, Te Last Commercial Frontier: French and English Presence in South Eastern
Bengal and Beyond, Indian Historical Review, XXXIV, No. 1 (January 2007), pp. 167-186.
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ngIish asI !ndia Company once iI gained conIroI over 8engaI's
revenues in 176S. MughaI poeIs, schoIars and phiIosophers in
Kasimbazar, PaIna and CaIcuIIa sIarIed IamenIing Ihe aIien regime
oI Ihe haI wearers"; Ihey spoke oI a revoIuIion (inquilch) and
remembered IondIy an earIier goIden age.
487
The phase IransiIion
musI have been bruIaI.
OI parIicuIar noIe here are Iwo evenIs IhaI mouIded Ihe
pecuIiar condiIions oI Ihe Iime: Ihe IerribIe 8engaI Iamine oI
1770 which signaIed Ihe roIe oI uropean capiIaI and ngIish asI
!ndia Company greed in Ihe breakdown oI Ihe oId order, and Ihe
PermanenI SeIIIemenI oI Ihe 8engaI revenues by CornwaIIis in 1792
which signaIed Ihe demise oI Ihe oId and Ihe passage Io Ihe new.
8oIh saw Ihe end oI Ihe oId sociaI neIworks IhaI we sIudy here.
The oId siIver and goId sIandard now yieIded way Io paper money
prinIed by Ihe ngIish asI !ndia Company. The oId IinanciaI order
Ioo was now deIuncI. inanciaI neIworks had aIready passed inIo
obIivion.
Maps are Irom rances PriIcheII's remarkabIe
coIIecIion hosIed aI: hIIp://www.coIumbia.edu/iIc/meaIac/
priIcheII/00mapIinks/index.hImIindex accessed 21-04-09.
They are used here wiIh her kind permission.
487 Anand Yang, Bazaar India: Markets, Society and the Colonial State in Bihar, (Berkeley and Los
Angeles, California Press, 1988).
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T#) >? Kasimbazar in mpire de MogoI in RoberI Morden, A DescripIion
oI Ihe WorId, London, 1688
Here is one oI Ihe earIiesI maps showing Kasimbazar
(Casanbazar"). !I is imporIanI enough Io be shown on a map oI
Ihe worId buI is wrongIy pIaced near Ihe Orissa coasI, |usI above
OuguIi" (HugIi); in acIuaI IacI iI is siIuaIed IurIher Io Ihe norIh oI
8engaI, near Io where Couro" is marked.
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T#) @? Kasimbazar in Ihe royaI" asI !ndies by Thomas ]eIIerys, London,
1748

In this particular map Kasimbazars links with the delta are
emphasized.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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Map 3: Kasimbazar in the urban and commercial networks of
Bengal
From Jacques Nicholas Bellin, From Nouvelle Carte du
Royaume de Bengale (1747-61), frst issued in Prevosts Histoire
Generale des Voyages, Amsterdam/Leipzig, circa 1750.
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Tis is a beautifully detailed map. See the urban and fuvial
networks of Kasimbazar, lying roughly to the middle here, as also
the intensely cultivated area it is centred on.
Map 4
Rigoberto Bonnes map of India, 1780, showing the Position
of Kasimbazar within the northeastern part of the sub continent.
From Rigoberto Bonne, Carte de la Partie Superieure de
lInde en Deca du Gange Comprise entre la Cote du Concan et
celle dOrixa, avec lEmpire du Mogol, le Bengale etc. in Guillaume
Reynals Atlas de toutes les parties connues du globe terrestre,
published in 1780.
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310
Note the fuvial gateway to the north of India, as also
Kasimbazars (here as Casimbazar) southward links to the delta.
Te ports of Calcutta (EEIC) and Chandernagore (FEIC) are marked,
Chandernagore somewhat more prominently that Calcutta, not
surprising given the nationality of the cartographer. Interestingly,
the Dutch port of Chinsura (Chunchura) is not marked on this
map, nor is Serampore (Srirampur), the port and settlement of
the Danish company, marked. Not surprisingly, Bankibazar of the
Ostend Company (Belgium) is ignored; as it hardly functioned as
port and factory by that time.
Map 5
Rennells Map of Inland Navigation of Bengal from Bengal
Atlas, London, 1779-83, taken from Jean Deloche, Boats and Ships
in Bengal Terracotta Arts, Bulletin de lEcole Franaise dExtrme-
Orient, 1991, 78, 1, pp.1-49, p. 4.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
311
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
312
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
313
7%1,.$&15"% ") _5$1#&' /&C ]""06 &6
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(Universidad PoIiIecnica de Madrid, Spain)


7%1$"-#415"%
AI Ihe presenI Iime aImosI aII map Iibraries on Ihe !nIerneI
are image coIIecIions generaIed by Ihe digiIizaIion oI earIy maps.
This Iype oI graphics IiIes provides researchers wiIh Ihe possibiIiIy
oI accessing and visuaIizing hisIoricaI carIographic inIormaIion
keeping in mind IhaI Ihis inIormaIion has a degree oI guaIiIy IhaI
depends upon eIemenIs such as Ihe accuracy oI Ihe digiIizaIion
process and proprieIary consIrainIs (e.g. visuaIizaIion, resoIuIion
downIoading opIions, copyrighI, use consIrainIs).
!n mosI cases, access Io Ihese map Iibraries is useIuI
onIy as a IirsI approach and iI is noI possibIe Io use Ihose maps
Ior scienIiIic work due Io Ihe sparse IooIs avaiIabIe Io measure,
488 Tis research work has been partially funded by DynCoopNet: a cooperative research project
of TECT (06-TECT- FP004), a program of EUROCORES approved by the ESF (European Science
Foundation). It has also been partially funded by a supplementary action of the R&D Programme 2008-
2011 of the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain (HUM2007-31128-E).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
314
maIch, anaIyze and/or combine Ihose resources wiIh diIIerenI
kinds oI carIography.
489
Two such onIine sources are Thc Amcriccn
Gcogrcphiccl Socicty Lihrcry Digitcl Mcp Collcction
490
(conIaining
over S00 maps ranging Irom earIy maps oI Asia Io hisIoricaI maps
oI Wisconsin and MiIwaukee) and Ihe LUNA 8rowser
491
oI Ihe Dcvid
Rumscy Mcp Collcction (which currenIIy conIains over 22.000 iIems
onIine, mainIy rare 18
Ih
and 19
Ih
cenIury maps oI NorIh and SouIh
America as weII as oIher carIographic maIeriaIs). These coIIecIions
aIIow Ihe user Io access and guery cerIain characIerisIics buI Ihey
do noI provide IooIs Io anaIyze Ihe maps, much Iess inIegraIe
Ihem in a geographicaI conIexI. AnoIher reIevanI onIine hisIoricaI
conIenI provider is Thc World Digitcl Lihrcry.
492
The WDL makes
iI possibIe Io discover, sIudy, and en|oy cuIIuraI Ireasures Irom
around Ihe worId on a singIe websiIe. !Is cuIIuraI Ireasures incIude
buI are noI IimiIed Io maps. NeverIheIess, WDL is once again an
inIeresIing daIa reposiIory in which Ihe opporIuniIy Io provide
geographic IooIs was noI Iaken.
More recenI appIicaIions provide Ihe geographicaI conIexI
buI Ihere are noI enough IooIs Ior geIIing Ihe mosI Irom Ihe maps.
A IirsI approach was Ihe CoogIe Maps Rumsey HisIoricaI Maps
493

porIaI oI Ihe Dcvid Rumscy Historiccl Mcps coIIecIion. These new
489 Fernndez-Wyttenbach, A., Siabato, W., Bernab-Poveda, M.A., Wachowicz, M.: Evolution of
Digital Map Libraries towards Virtual Map Rooms: new challenges for the historical research, In: Mapping
Diferent Geographies, Kriz, K. and Cartwright, W. et al. (Ed. Heidelberg-Germany: Springer Verlag, 2010)
490 Te American Geographical Society Library: Digital Map Collection , University of Wisconsin
(27/05/2009) <http://www.uwm.edu/Library/digilib/maps/index.html> [04/03/2010].
491 David Rumsey: David Rumsey Map Collection, Cartography Associates (21/01/2010) <http://
www.davidrumsey.com/view/luna> [23/03/2010].
492 U.S. Libraryof Congress and UNESCO: Te World Digital Library (WDL) , UNESCO
(11/03/2010) <http://www.wdl.org/en/> [23/03/2010].
493 David Rumsey: David Rumsey Historical Map Collection , GeoGarage (29/05/2008) <http://
rumsey.geogarage.com/> [23/03/2010].
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
315
inIerIaces (CoogIe Maps and CoogIe arIh) aIIow visuaIizing Ihe
earIy maps on CoogIes gIobe. This way, iI is possibIe Io visuaIize
Ihem georeIerenced and Io compare Ihem wiIh conIemporaneous
carIography. One hundred and IwenIy hisIoricaI maps have been
seIecIed by David Rumsey Irom his coIIecIion oI more Ihan 1S0.000
hisIoricaI maps Io be shown on Ihe CoogIe viewers. This smaII
sampIe is a good exampIe oI how geographic environmenIs can be
used Ior sharing earIy maps.
One sIep ahead is The AIexandria DigiIaI Library
geographicaI browser
494
. This inIeresIing geographic approach
provides IooIs Ior discovering and accessing maps. !I oIIers a rich
inIerIace Ior guerying Ihe resources providing up Io Iour diIIerenI
paneIs oI search parameIers. The main diIIerence beIween
AIexandria's inIerIace and Ihe Rumsey approach is IhaI Ihe IirsI
one comprises a singIe inIerIace Ior accessing any map Irom Ihe
coIIecIions and iI is possibIe Io see more Ihan one resource aI Ihe
same Iime. This service is aIso based on CoogIe Maps in order Io
provide Ihe geographicaI conIexI. A comprehensive descripIion oI
Ihe evoIuIion oI DigiIaI Map Libraries (DML) and Ihe mosI reIevanI
onIine services, sIressing Ihe chaIIenges in Ihe design oI Ihe nexI
generaIion oI VirIuaI Map Rooms, is avaiIabIe in volution oj Digitcl
Mcp Lihrcrics towcrds Virtucl Mcp Rooms: new chaIIenges Ior Ihe
hisIoricaI research492.
8uI whiIe Ihe Web mapping/visuaIizaIion IooIs deveIoped
by CoogIe and MicrosoII provide very IasI, easy-Io-access views
oI images and maps, Ihey are noI suiIed Ior compIex work and
anaIyzes. However, Ihe pervasive use oI Ihese new environmenIs
494 Te Alexandria Digital Library: Globetrotter - NGDA Interface , University of California
(16/05/2009) <http://clients.alexandria.ucsb.edu/globetrotter/> [23/03/2010]
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
316
oIIers an opporIuniIy Ior sharing daIa and speciIicaIIy earIy maps.
So, iI is evidenI IhaI iI is essenIiaI provide users wiIh environmenIs
Iike Ihese buI oIIering enough IooIs and eIemenIs Ior using earIy
maps properIy, noI |usI Ior seeing Ihem.
ThereIore, seIIing up robusI VirIuaI Map Rooms (VMR) as
a IooI Ior supporIing hisIoricaI pro|ecIs, in which a Iarge number
oI naIionaI and inIernaIionaI researches and insIiIuIions are
invoIved, means an advance Iowards avoid Ihe Iack oI appIicaIions
IhaI couId provide hisIorians and documenIary experIs wiIh
remoIe access Io Ihe exisIing inIormaIion Irom any map Iibrary
around Ihe worId, and aIso wiIh a seI oI IooIs Ior expIoiIing and
anaIyzing Ihem. As Dangermond asserIed
49S
, Web-based mapping
have been very imporIanI and now we are moving Irom simpIe
mapping and geospaIiaI visuaIizaIion Io IuII onIine geoservices.
This aIIows exIensive sharing oI maps and maps and opens up
access Io geographic appIicaIions Io everyone. This, IogeIher wiIh
Ihe growing avaiIabiIiIy oI georeIerenced conIenI and Ihe abiIiIy
Io easiIy search, discover, and mash up Ihese service, is enabIing a
whoIe new paIIern and archiIecIure Ior geographicaI appIicaIions.
This paIIern emphasizes open and inIeroperabIe services IhaI
can be used Io supporI a broad array oI geographicaIIy reIaIed
appIicaIions such as Ihe proposed VirIuaI Map Rooms. 8ecause oI
IhaI and IoIIowing Ihe evoIuIion oI Ihe geographic services on Ihe
Web, Ihe VMR and IooIs wiII be avaiIabIe Ihrough one singIe and
usabIe porIaI on Ihe !nIerneI.
The proposed VMR IaciIiIaIes access Io digiIized resources
(resIricIed and unresIricIed) and working wiIh maps IocaIed in diI-
495 Dangermond, J.: GIS and the GeoWeb, ArcNews, Num.30 ESRI (Summer 2008) 1/21
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
317
IerenI map Iibraries aII over Ihe worId. !I aIso provides a seI oI IooIs
impIemenIed Ior Ihe geographicaI IreaImenI and manipuIaIion oI
Ihese resources. !n addiIion iI simpIiIies Ihe Iask oI Ihe insIiIuIions
which are in charge oI preserving Ihose archives: opIimising human
resources, guarding againsI misappropriaIions and avoiding direcI
manipuIaIion oI Ihose archives being in a IragiIe conservaIion sIaIe.
This |ob is aI Ihe same Iime an insIance oI how Ihe
Ceographic !nIormaIion TechnoIogies may be useIuI Ior Ihe
proIessionaI and research work oI hisIorians and sociaI scienIisIs
in generaI, remarkabIy conIribuIing Io Ihe disseminaIion oI Ihe
HisIory oI CarIography and CarIographic HeriIage in Ihe mosI
speciaIised academic environmenIs.
The paper is sIrucIured as IoIIows; parI Iwo presenIs Ihe
research conIexI oI Ihe pro|ecI and how a VMR couId be useIuI
Ior hisIorians and researchers in generaI. ParI Ihree describes
Ihe impIemenIaIion oI Ihe VirIuaI Map Room: shows concepIs
abouI Ihe daIa reposiIory, Ihe archiIecIure oI Ihe service, Ihe
daIa server and Ihe impIemenIaIion oI a Web cIienI. ParI Iour
presenIs an enriched graphic user inIerIace IhaI conIains new
IooIs Ior inIeracIing wiIh Ihe daIa reposiIory and maps, incIuding
a guerying-IimeIine componenI Ior accessing maps easiIy. inaIIy,
concIusions are presenIed, and IurIher sIeps Io sIrengIhen Ihe
pIaIIorm impIemenIing oIher services are discussed.


],6,&$49 4"%1,L1
!I is possibIe Io sIaIe IhaI SpaIiaI DaIa !nIrasIrucIures (SD!)
are by now a meIhodoIogicaI and IechnoIogicaI benchmark Ior
pubIicaIion oI Ihe carIographic heriIage.
496
The use oI Ihe sIandards
496 Fernndez-Wyttenbach, A., lvarez, M., Bernab-Poveda, M., Borbinha, J.: Digital Map
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
318
and recommendaIions deIined by Ihe Open CeospaIiaI ConsorIium
(OCC) enabIe accessing Io hisIoricaI-carIographic inIormaIion wiIh
a degree oI deIaiI onIy resIricIed by Ihe guaIiIy oI Ihe digiIaIized
documenIs and associaIed inIormaIion issued by each suppIier
insIiIuIion.
Thus we underIine Ihe high poIenIiaI oI map servers
consisIenI wiIh Ihe OpenC!S sIandards and speciIicaIions, speciaIIy
DGC Wch Mcp Scrvicc |ntcrjccc Stcndcrd (WMS)
497
, and iIs capabiIiIy
Io seI up a pIaIIorm enabIing disIribuIed access Io diIIerenI
hisIoricaI archives. DespiIe Ihis, iI is necessary Io be abIe Io Iind Ihe
way Ior creaIing and providing Ihe mosI appropriaIe virIuaI IooIs
in order Io underIake Ihe usuaI sIudies IhaI are being carried ouI
on Ihe oId maps by Iibrarians or researchers, eiIher inIrinsicaIIy on
Ihe documenI or in reIaIion Io Ihe reaI worId. This way, meIric IooIs
wiII be avaiIabIe Io Iind ouI reaI disIances and surIaces among oIher
characIerisIics and aIso Io make possibIe anaIysis IhaI researchers
can IormuIaIe on Ihe maps (georeIerenced documenIs). !n addiIion
Io Ihe convenIionaI C!S IooIs, new ones have been deveIoped Io
IaciIiIaIe access Io daIa reposiIories and manipuIaIion oI Ihe resuIIs
oI Ihe gueries.
rom Ihe beginning iI was observed IhaI Ihe appropriaIe
scenario Ior deveIopmenI and inIegraIion oI a virIuaI map room
wouId be wiIhin Ihe conIexI oI a hisIoricaI sociaI research pro|ecI
and beIIer iI Ihis pro|ecI wouId have had inIernaIionaI repercussion.
Such is Ihe case oI Ihe DynCoopNeI Pro|ecI in whose case Ihe need
Io reIy on disIribuIed access oI Ihe diverse carIographic archives
Libraries Services in the Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) Framework: Te Digmap Project. In: 23rd
International Conference in Cartography. International Cartographic Association, Moscow (2007)
497 Open Geospatial Consortium: OpenGIS Web Map Server Implementation Specifcation 1.3.0,
(OGC 06-042) (J. d. Beaujardiere), OpenGIS Implementation Specifcation. Open Geospatial Consortium.
(2006)
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
319
was recognised.
The aim oI DynCoopNeI is Io provide new IheoreIicaI
insighIs abouI Ihe dynamics oI compIex sysIems (Ihe evoIuIion
oI cooperaIion Iying IogeIher Ihe seII-organizing commerciaI
neIworks oI Ihe IirsI gIobaI age) Ihrough Ihe impIemenIaIion oI C!S
as daIa inIegraIion engine, Ied by disIribuIed daIabases which sIore
Iarge daIa seIs and inIormaIion coIIecIions, and by using IooIs Ior
managemenI and discovery oI inIormaIion and IooIs Ior IemporaI
anaIysis and visuaIizaIion.
!I is advisabIe Io deveIop and seIup a VirIuaI Map Room
(VMR) based on open sIandards and Iaking inIo accounI Ihe
menIioned above IooIs. This VMR wiII enabIe hisIorians and
researchers Irom DynCoopNeI and oIher pro|ecIs Io access Io Ihe
huge amounI oI inIormaIion which encompasses Ihe irsI CIobaI
Age and/or any kind oI daIa coIIecIions IhaI are avaiIabIe Io be
shared. igure 1 shows a snapshoI oI Ihe proposed VMR.
B/57&' >C VirIuaI Map Room oI Ihe irsI CIobaI Age (hIIp://www.dyncoopneI.
eu/carIoIeca)
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
320
70C',0,%1&15"% ") & _5$1#&' /&C ]""0
The VirIuaI Map Room has been impIemenIed as a neIwork
oI cooperaIing physicaI servers, providing services, and daIa
via Ihese services. This permiIs savings in deveIopmenI Iime,
operaIing cosIs, and aIIows Ior uniIormiIy oI daIa suppIier and
resources. The organizaIionaI sIrucIure, operaIing environmenI,
IechnicaI argumenIs and IechnoIogicaI componenIs oI Ihis
proposaI, incIuding Ihe reIaIionships beIween iIs parIs, and Ihe
principIes and guideIines, enIireIy beIongs Io a IypicaI SpaIiaI DaIa
!nIrasIrucIure archiIecIure. This principIes are enough robusI and
maIure Ior sharing any kind oI geographic daIa.
!n order Io achieve Ihe inIegraIion oI map Iibraries and
iIs resources and archives, Ihe Ieam pro|ecI has seIup a virIuaI
space based on Web servers, map servers, CC! and PHP/MapScripI
supporI, A]A supporI, and oIher IechnicaI eIemenIs which provide
enough IooIs and services Io oIIer a rich, robusI and reIiabIe
VMR. These componenIs have been seIecIed as parI oI Ihe SD!
archiIecIure. The main eIemenI is Ihe map server, Ihrough which
Ihe pubIishing oI geographic and spaIiaI daIa is IeasibIe. This map
server has been recompiIed Ior IuIIiIIing Ihe reguiremenIs oI
researchers, Iine Iuning Ihe service, and improves perIormance oI
OCC speciIicaIions.
On Ihe oIher hand, iI has aIso been designed a speciIic
Web cIienI Ior enabIing access Io Ihe D!CMAP
498
search engine
and Io Ihe oId carIography reposiIory. This Web cIienI, which is a
onIine inIerIace, synchronises Ihe search engine wiIh a geographic
498 DIGMAP: Discovering our Past World with Digitised Maps (Programme eContentplus Project:
ECP- 2005-CULT-038042) (16 /10/2009) <http://www.digmap.eu> [23/03/2010]
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
321
browser IhaI aIIows carrying ouI geographic browsing and guerying
operaIions once Ihe searching process has been done.
The soIIware pIaIIorm oI Ihe pro|ecI is based on Open Source
pro|ecIs boIh in Ihe server and cIienI side; mosI oI Ihem using Ihe
CNU CeneraI PubIic License which aIIows Io use, change and share
Ihe soIIware and secondary appIicaIions wiIhouI resIricIions and
making sure iI remains Iree soIIware Ior aII iIs users. This means
Ihe proposed Iramework is aIso under Ihe CNU CPL.
Y/(6*&/2#, 0#6# &')*(/6*&R
The inIormaIion used in Ihe IesI and impIemenIaIion
processes has been provided by D!CMAP - an onIine reposiIory
oI hisIoricaI-carIographic documenIs. This porIaI is Ihe ouIcome
oI a uropean pro|ecI co-Iunded by Ihe CommuniIy programme
eConIenIpIus and pubIished on November 2008.
499
The aim oI
D!CMAP was Io Iurn iIs porIaI inIo Ihe inIernaIionaI reIerence
gaIeway Io oId maps and reIaIed bibIiography. The pro|ecI proposed
Ihe deveIopmenI oI soIuIions Ior digiIaI Iibraries especiaIIy Iocused
on carIography IhaI promoIes Ihe cuIIuraI and scienIiIic heriIage.
S00
This pro|ecI provides easy access Io Ihe Ihousands oI
earIy maps oI naIionaI Iibraries and coIIecIions around Ihe worId
Ihrough Ihe !nIerneI. This possibiIiIy is undoubIedIy useIuI Ior Ihe
creaIion oI a virIuaI map room IhaI aims Io provide inIormaIion
Ior hisIoricaI and sociaI research inIeresIs, since iI aIIows massive
499 DIGMAP: Discovering our Past World with Digitised Maps (Programme eContentplus
Project: ECP- 2005-CULT-038042) (16 /10/2009) <http://www.digmap.eu> [23/03/2010]
500 Borbinha, J., Pedrosa, G., Gil, J., Martins, B., Freire, N., Dobreva, M., Fernndez-Wyttenbach,
A.: Digital Libraries and Digitised Maps: An Early Overview of the DIGMAP Project. In: Asian Digital
Libraries:Looking Back 10 Years and Forging New Frontiers. LNCS, vol. 4822, Goh, D.H.L., Cao, T.H.,
Slvberg, I., Rasmussen, E. (Ed.) pp. 383-6. (Springer, 2007)
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
322
access Io a huge amounI oI carIographic inIormaIion and reIaIed
documenIs, no maIIer where iI is sIored. The main service is a
speciaIised digiIaI Iibrary which recovers meIadaIa Irom uropean
naIionaI Iibraries and oIIers onIine map searching and access Io
Ihe conIenIs. MeIadaIa Irom oIher sources are aIso reused as
weII as descripIions and reIerences Io oIher reIevanI exIernaI
resources
S01/S02

!I is imporIanI Io sIress IhaI D!CMAP is a virIuaI digiIaI
Iibrary, in Ihe sense IhaI iI hoIds onIy Ihe meIadaIa IhaI describes
Ihe resources, buI noI Ihe resources IhemseIves, whaI remain in
Ihe IocaI Iibraries or Web siIes (!I means IhaI Ihe VMR access Ihe
originaI resources Ihrough Ihese meIadaIa). The resources aIso
can be (i) digiIaI-born, (ii) digiIized, or even (iii) physicaI resources
exisIing onIy in Ihe sheIves oI Ihe Iibraries. When Ihe resources
are digiIized maps, iI is possibIe Io index Ihem by Iheir geographic
boundaries.
!ndependenI oI iIs IechnicaI and IechnoIogicaI conIribuIions,
Ihis is Ihe reaI added vaIue oI Ihe D!CMAP PorIaI as daIa engine Ior
Ihe deveIopmenI oI virIuaI map rooms, Ihe Iarge amounI oI digiIaI
maps IhaI has previousIy been indexed and georeIerenced. This
characIerisIic aIIows Io Ihe geographic browser shows Ihe map in
Ihe righI posiIion when Ihe resource is gueryabIe, in oIher words,
when Ihe resource is georeIerenced, oIherwise iI wonI be possibIe
Io show Ihe map on Ihe geographic browser.
501 Pedrosa, G., Luzio, J., Manguinhas, H., Martins, B., Borbinha, J.: DIGMAP: A Digital Library
Reusing Metadata of Old Maps and Enriching It with Geographic Information. In: Research and Advanced
Technology for Digital Libraries. LNCS, vol. 5173, Christensen-Dalsgaard, B., Castelli, D., Ammitzboll Jurik,
B., Lippincott, J. (Ed.) pp. 434-5. (Springer, 2008)
502 Martins, B., Manguinhas, H., Borbinha, J., Siabato, W.: A geo-temporal information extraction
service for processing descriptive metadata in digital libraries. In: e-Perimetron. International Web Journal
on Sciences and Technologies Afned to History Of Cartography, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 25-37. (Tessalonica, 2009)
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
323
igure 2 shows Ihe georeIerencing process in Ihe D|GMAP
Gcogrcphic |ndcx modulc. !I shouId be noIed IhaI Ihe geographic
reIerencing process in D!CMAP is noI high-accuraIe and iI |usI
suppIies an approximaIe IocaIion oI Ihe maps based on Ihe
maximum and minimum coordinaIes oI a bounding box. This
reduces Ihe accuracy oI measuremenIs and operaIions on Ihe map.
NoneIheIess iI is vaIid enough as a IirsI approximaIion. There are
meIhods IhaI deaI wiIh Ihe geomeIric and pro|ecIive characIerisIics
and properIies oI earIy carIographic represenIaIions
S03/S04
IhaI
couId be Iaken inIo accounI in Ihe IuIure in order Io improve Ihis
weakness Ior onIine resources.
B/57&' @C CeographicaI indexing oI hisIoricaI conIenIs in D!CMAP

However, Ihe geographic browsing IooIs associaIed Io Ihe
D!CMAP search engine are excessiveIy simpIe and do noI IoIIow Ihe
appropriaIe usabiIiIy criIeria.
S0S
or Ihis reason, iI is necessary Io
503 Livieratos, E.: On the Study of the Geometric Properties of Historical Cartographic
Representations. In: Cartographica, vol. 41,no. 2, pp. 165-75. (2006)
504 Boutoura C., Livieratos. E.: Some fundamentals for the study of the geometry of early maps by
comparative methods. In: e-Perimetron. International Web Journal on Sciences and Technologies Afned to
History Of Cartography, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 60-70. (Tessalonica, 2006)
505 Fernndez-Wyttenbach, A., Moya-Honduvilla, J., lvarez, M., Bernab-Poveda, M.: First
approaches to the usability of Digital Map Libraries. In: e-Perimetron: International Web Journal on Sciences
and Technologies Afned to History Of Cartography, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 63-76. (Tessalonica, 2009)
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
324
deveIop a new inIerIace IhaI aIIows researchers Io access Ihis huge
coIIecIion easier Ihan now and use Ihe maps in a beIIer way.
So IhaI Ihis inIerIace couId be reaIIy useIuI and assure
sysIem inIeroperabiIiIy, iI has been chosen Io incorporaIe Io
Ihe virIuaI map room Ihe basic concepIs oI Ihe SD! reIerence
Iramework. Thus Ihe resuIIs (maps and documenIs) are presenIed
on a web-mapping Iramework in accordance wiIh Ihe usuaI OCC
services, providing carIographic inIormaIion using independenI
Iayers, assuring process and pIaIIorm compaIibiIiIy, and IhereIore,
making easier Ihe documenIary research Ior Iibrarians, hisIorians
and oIher researchers. The nexI secIions describe Ihe server and
cIienI processes.
B/57&' AC SynchronisaIion oI resuIIs combined wiIh Ihe Iransparency
IuncIion
1'*5&#)4/2 0#6# ('&.'&

AIIer having idenIiIied Ihe characIerisIics oI Ihe daIa
reposiIory, and knowing Ihe beneIiIs and disadvanIages oI
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
325
geographic servers avaiIabIe currenIIy on Ihe markeI
S06/S07/S08
, Ihe
geographic daIa server MapServer (hIIp://mapserver.org) has
been chosen as Ihe mosI appropriaIe opIion Ior managemenI and
pubIishing oI carIographic and hisIoricaI inIormaIion. This server
oIIers enough guaIiIy, reIiabiIiIy and IuncIionaIiIy Ior sharing daIa
on Ihe !nIerneI. !I supporIs dispIay and guerying oI hundreds oI
carIographic daIa sources and IormaIs, rendering and showing
Ihem using diIIerenI reIerence sysIems and pro|ecIions Ihrough
Ihe on-Ihe-IIy pro|ecIion capabiIiIies. !n addiIion, iI assures high
guaIiIy rendering. These characIerisIics are very useIuI Ior Ihe
inIegraIion oI earIy maps, WMS daIa Iayers and oIher carIographic
resources. or insIance, Iransparency and anIiaIiasing properIies
are guiIe eIIicienI Ior showing earIy carIography on a reIerence
WMS Iayer as shown in igure 3.
MapServer is a generaI pIaIIorm Ior pubIishing spaIiaI daIa
and oIher geographic appIicaIions Io Ihe Web. 8ased on Ihe Ianguage
ANS! C/C, iI may be execuIed, conIigured and cusIomised in a
Iarge number oI operaIive sysIems and environmenIs. This means
IhaI Ihe Iramework deveIoped on Ihis proposaI can run aImosI on
any pIaIIorm conIiguraIion oI any map Iibrary. AIso, MapServer
hoIds exIernaI Iibraries aIIowing iIs exIensibiIiIy and supporIs
many rasIer, vecIor and daIabase IormaIs. This characIerisIic
proves essenIiaI when accessing, exIracIing and serving daIa Irom
diIIerenI hisIoricaI daIa reposiIories, such as Ihe ones described
above in Ihe D!CMAP Pro|ecI.
506 Jansen, M. 2009, Comparing apples and oranges: Uncovering the mystery of component
selection in WebGIS projects, in FOSS4G 2009, Sidney - Australia.
507 Aime, A. & McKenna, J. 2009, Web Mapping Performance Shoot-out, in FOSS4G 2009, Sidney
- Australia.
508 Aime, A. 2009, GeoServer in Production, in FOSS4G 2009, Sidney - Australia.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
326
The IIexibiIiIy oI using IhaI Ihe server oIIers Ihrough Ihe
exchange oI parameIers using convenIionaI HTTP reguesI meIhods,
CT and POST, aIIows Io dynamicaIIy conIigure Ihe appropriaIe
variabIes Io meeI Ihe speciIic needs oI a parIicuIar user aI a given
insIanI. !I Ihus soIves Ihe drawback oI generaIing maps using a sIaIic
conIiguraIion IiIe which does noI aIIow modiIicaIions by exIernaI
users. Due Io Ihe deveIopmenI characIerisIics oI Ihe D!CMAP
componenIs in which Ihe message inIerchange is handIed Ihrough
Ihis Iechnigue, MapServer is a candidaIe IhaI covers inIeracIion
wiIh Ihe hisIoricaI conIenIs oI Ihe map Iibraries and oIher IuIure
coIIecIions IhaI someone wanIs Io inIegraIe.
This way and Irom a IechnicaI poinI oI view, iI is possibIe
exIracI Ihe inIormaIion and visuaIizes iI on Ihe cIienI by means oI
parameIerized URL guery sIrings. On one hand, Ihe geoinIormaIion
is exIracIed Irom Ihe hisIoricaI documenIaIion reposiIories Io
generaIe a rasIer IiIe as a resuII, and on Ihe oIher hand, a IexI
IiIe wiIh addiIionaI inIormaIion is aIso obIained Ior subseguenI
georeIerencing process. The generaIed inIormaIion is accessibIe
Irom a IemporaI URL IhaI poinIs Io a pubIic direcIory oI Ihe Web
server in which MapServer is execuIed as a Common CaIeway
!nIerIace appIicaIion (CC!). Thus, Ihe server has avaiIabIe Ihe image
and Ihe inIormaIion reguired Ior georeIerencing.
Once Ihe access Io Ihe reposiIory daIa has been soIved
and Ihe pIaIIorm has been deIined, nexI sIep is Io visuaIize Ihe
inIormaIion and Io oIIer users (Iibrarians, hisIorians, researchers)
Ihe necessary IooIs
S09/S10
Io be abIe Io inIeracI wiIh Ihe idenIiIied
509 Saracevic, T.: Digital library evaluation: Toward evolution of concepts, In: Library trends, vol.
49, no. 2, pp. 350-69. (2000).
510 Marchionini, G., Plaisant, C., Komlodi, A.: Te people in digital libraries: Multifaceted
approaches to assessing needs and impact, In: Digital library use: Social practice in design and evaluation, A.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
327
resources.
+'&./2' #&24/6'267&' (24';'

The IypicaI appIicaIion IIow Ior daIa services based on
MapServer is diagrammed in igure 4. The basic archiIecIure oI
MapServer appIicaIions conIains a MapiIe, Ceographic DaIa,
HTML Pages, MapServer CC! appIicaIion and Ihe HTTP Server.
The MapiIe is a sIrucIured IexI conIiguraIion IiIe IhaI deIines
where Ihe daIa is and where Io ouIpuI Ihe generaIed images. !I aIso
deIines map Iayers, incIuding Iheir daIa source, pro|ecIions, and
symboIogy. Through Ihese eIemenIs we can deIine sources Ior earIy
carIography and Ioad Ihem.
These sources deIine Ihe second eIemenI oI Ihe basic
archiIecIure: Ceographic DaIa. The geographic server supporIs
severaI daIa inpuI IormaIs by deIauII, buI in our case we have
compiIed iI wiIh Ihe open source Iibraries CDAL and OCR in order
Io geI more IormaIs and oIIer a higher guaIiIy images. or Ihis
service, we are using WMS Iayers, Shape iIe IormaI and supporI
Ior AIpha channeI Ihrough ACC driver. This way, we ensure Ihe
appIicaIion can read and Ioad any IiIe Irom any Iibrary or daIa
source.
HTML Pages is probabIy Ihe main eIemenI because iI's
Ihe inIerIace beIween Ihe user and MapServer. This iIem is IuIIy
provided by Ihe p.mapper Iramework, Ihus iI's possibIe Io Iocus
onIy on Ihe daIa and IuncIionaIiIy. The MapServer CC! appIicaIion
and Ihe HTTP Server are Ihe core oI Ihe sysIems. The CC! is an
Bishop, N. van House , B. Buttenfeld (Ed.). 119-60, MIT Press, (2003).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
328
execuIabIe IiIe IhaI receives reguesIs and reIurns images, daIa, and
oIher eIemenIs which are used by Ihe HTTP Server Ior serving up
Ihe hImI pages when Ihe user (researchers) hiIs Ihe browser. or
Ihis case, Ihe VMR is supporIed by Apache 2 HTTP Server.
B/57&' DC TypicaI appIicaIion IIow oI MapServer
8ased on igure 4, iI's guiIe easy Io describe daIa IIow oI Ihe
VMR. !n brieI, MapServer geIs Ihe resources Ihrough Ihe D!CMAP
coIIecIion by URL reguesIs, and dispIays Ihem on Ihe Web cIienI
(p.mapper).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
329
B/57&' EC VMR IIow charI
89, ,&$': 4&$1".$&C9: R,P 4'5,%1
To inIeracI wiIh Ihe gueried resources iI is necessary Io reIy
on a sIabIe and IuncIionaI inIerIace which suiIs Ior Ihe purpose
oI a virIuaI map room. Taking inIo accounI IhaI currenIIy on Ihe
markeI Ihere is a Iarge suppIy oI robusI and high-perIormance
Ihin-cIienI web-mapping Irameworks, iI was decided Io buiId our
proposaI based on Ihese cIienIs and noI Io deveIop a new one Irom
scraIch since mosI oI Ihem compIy wiIh Ihe minimum hisIorians'
reguiremenIs
S11
Io inIeracI wiIh oId carIography. Among Ihe
desirabIe seIecIion criIeria shouId be emphasized: soIIware Iicense,
programming Ianguage, modeI and sIrucIure, ease oI cusIomisaIion,
Ianguage used by Ihe AP! or appIicaIion inIerIace, OCC services IhaI
supporIs, dependence on Ihe map server, incIusion oI meIadaIa
componenIs, inIeroperabiIiIy and usabiIiIy oI iIs IooIs and perhaps
mosI reIevanI, an Open Source Iramework Ior iIs easy adapIabiIiIy
Io speciIic needs.
511 Crespo Sanz, A.: Te atlas of El Escorial, a forgotten map, Boletn de la Real Sociedad Geogrfca
Num.CXLV Royal Geographical Society of Spain (2009) 117-142.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
330
AIIer having anaIyzed Ihe avaiIabIe opIions, iI was decided
IhaI Ihe visuaIisaIion Iramework besI IiIIing Ihe speciIic needs oI
map Iibraries is p.mapper (hIIp://www.pmapper.neI). p.mapper
is a Ihin Web cIienI which oIIers wide range oI IuncIionaIiIy and
muIIipIe opIions Ior IaciIiIaIing Ihe conIiguraIion and insIaIIaIion
oI appIicaIions based on MapServer and PHP/MapScripI. !I works
IoIIowing Ihe muIIi-Iayer modeI and Ihe cIienI-server archiIecIure
which suiIs perIecIIy Ior geospaIiaI daIa visuaIisaIion and iIs
manipuIaIion Ihrough basic browsing and guerying IooIs. As we
said above, iI is characIerized by using Ihe GNU Gcncrcl Puhlic
Liccncc which ensures being abIe Io modiIy Ihe appIicaIion and
redisIribuIe iI wiIhouI resIricIions. On Ihe oIher hand, iI reIies on
a moduIar programming sIrucIure Iavouring Ihe deveIopmenI
and incorporaIion oI new IuncIionaIiIies or modiIicaIion oI
Ihe exisIing ones, according Io reguiremenIs. !n addiIion Io Ihe
characIerisIics aIready menIioned, p.mapper is programmed under
de ob|ecI-orienIed programming paradigm, so useIuI Ior increasing
IuncIionaIiIy wiIhouI modiIy Ihe originaI sIrucIure.
As a Ihin cIienI, p.mapper Iakes advanIage oI Ihe IasI
advances in Web IechnoIogies such as A]A, enabIing IransIer oI
daIa Irom cIienI Io server and reIurn oI resuIIs asynchronousIy,
updaIing inIormaIion Ior Ihe cIienI wiIhouI having Io reIoad Ihe
websiIe. This IuncIionaIiIy is expIoiIed Io achieve a more naIuraI
and inIuiIive inIeracIion wiIh earIy maps. !n addiIion, p.mapper
supporIs severaI reIaIionaI D8MS and conIains ]avaScripI Iibraries
IhaI IaciIiIaIe Ihe programmer's Iask when iI needs Io updaIe
IuncIionaIiIies or creaIe new ones. !I handIes Ihe IighI IormaI Ior
daIa inIerchange ]SON IhaI minimises Ihe bandwidIh expended in
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
331
cIienI-server communicaIions, wiIh Ihe conseguenI incremenI in
response Iime and speed.
This way, we have used McpScrvcr cnd p.mcppcr Ior
providing access Io hisIoricaIcarIographic archives Ihrough a
graphicaI Web inIerIace. Linux Debian OS and Ihe Web server
Apache2 wiIh Ihe PHPS as scripIing Ianguage were used as server
operaIing pIaIIorm; on Ihe cIienI side, usuaI Web mechanism such
as ]avaScripI (Ianguage scripI), Cascading SIyIe SheeIs (IayouI
presenIaIion) and ML (conIiguraIion) were used. As we said above,
communicaIion beIween server and cIienI has been esIabIished
Ihrough A]A Io provide naIuraI inIeracIion wiIh maps. These IooIs
aIIow any user access Io daIa, regardIess Iheir choice oI compuIer,
soIIware, browser or oIher speciIicaIions.
The resuIIs and perIormance obIained so Iar are reIiabIe
and Ihe IesIs carried ouI indicaIe IhaI Ihis Iramework has been a
good choice, especiaIIy Ior deveIoping new speciIic IooIs Ior oId
carIography and inIegraIing wiIh Ihe D!CMAP daIa reposiIory.

3%$549,- .$&C954 #6,$ 5%1,$)&4,
!n order Io oIIer hisIorians and researchers an inIuiIive
inIerIace Ior accessing and guerying maps; we have improved
Ihe cIienI-Iramework deveIoping new IooIs and IuncIionaIiIies.
The Iramework has a IIexibIe IayouI sIrucIure Ior incIuding new
eIemenIs inIo iI Ihrough Irame windows. There are some Irames
IhaI remain empIy, and which can be used Ior aImosI any Iask iI
Ihe righI Iechnigues are appIied. We have used Ihese Irames Ior
incIuding Ihe D!CMAP engine and oIher exIernaI appIicaIions
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
332
IhaI provide users wiIh a singIe graphic inIerIace Ior searching,
guerying and browsing daIa.
Due Io Ihe D!CMAP meIadaIa reposiIory had been aIready
connecIed, iI was necessary Io synchronize boIh Ihe daIa engine and
Ihe Iramework. This |ob was done using session variabIes. Through
Ihis meIhod, we have achieved whaI we wanIed Io: incorporaIe
meIadaIa and daIa naIuraIIy so IhaI user couId manipuIaIe Ihem
easiIy.
!I is easy Io check when Ihe synchronizaIion process has
been done, once iI has Iinished a new TabIe oI ConIenIs (TOC) is
Ioaded in Ihe browser. This new TOC shows Ihe IooIprinIs oI Ihe
avaiIabIe georeIerenced sources, iI musI be kepI in mind IhaI noI
aII Ihe meIadaIa records conIain indexed geospaIiaI sources. igure
6 shows a cusIomized TOC.
B/57&' FC VMR cusIomised IuncIions Ior earIy carIography
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
333
Once Ihe meIadaIa have been Ioaded iI is possibIe Io describe
Ihe gueried map. or Ihis aim, Ihere is a speciIic IooI IhaI Ioads and
shows Ihe inIormaIion by cIicking on Ihe map. AIIer Ihis, a IabIe
describing maps is showed. This IabIe conIains a Iink Io Ihe originaI
resource and a IurIher descripIion. Transparency properIies are
aIso been handIed Ior Ihis IabIe in order noI Io vanish Ihe geographic
inIormaIion. inaIIy, when user needs Io change parameIers or
make new gueries wiIhouI Iaking inIo accounI Ihe previous ones,
iI is possibIe Io reseI Ihe cIienI and deIeIe Ihe meIadaIa and daIa
previousIy Ioaded. A singIe gray posIed in Ihe TOC wiII deIeIe Ihe
currenI map.
AnoIher useIuI IooI is Ihe incorporaIion oI a IemporaI-Iine
browsing synchronized wiIh IexI searches on Ihe caIaIogue and
Ihe geographic browser. This IooI is based on The S!M!L Pro|ecI
TimeIine widgeI (hIIp://www.simiIe-widgeIs.org/IimeIine). AI Ihe
same way as we used an empIy Irame Ior incIuding Ihe D!CMAP
engine, we have used a boIIom-Irame avaiIabIe in Ihe p.mapper's
IayouI. This IooI is useIuI Ior knowing Ihe main descripIion oI Ihe
map and beIIer Ihan Ihis, Io show an overaII view oI Ihe maps in a
singIe IimeIine. Through Ihis IooI, researchers wiII be abIe Io guery
|usI Ihe maps Ihey reaIIy need independenI oI searching criIeria
IocaIing Ihem by daIe. !I works as a compIemenI Ior Ihe searching
IhaI Ihe user has previousIy done.
AII Ihese IooIs couId be improved buI oIIer a new way Ior
inIeracIing wiIh earIy maps. Some new IooIs have been deveIoped
buI iI wiII be avaiIabIe aI near-IuIure. NexI secIion describes some
oI Ihese IuIure IooIs and presenIs concIusions.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
334
A"%4'#65"%6 &%- )#1#$, &-V&%4,6
VirIuaI Map Rooms are IooIs oI high inIeresI Ior hisIoricaI
and sociaI research pro|ecIs. They provide speciaIised access Io
disIribuIed carIographic coIIecIions and especiaIIy earIy maps
coIIecIions. The success and susIainabiIiIy oI Ihese IooIs wiII be
inIIuenced by Iheir design and usabiIiIy paIIerns; Ihis shaII be
carried ouI according Io Ihe criIeria oI pubIishing oI geographic
inIormaIion issued by SD! speciIicaIions. They are aI Ihe same
Iime an insIance oI how Ihe Ceographic !nIormaIion TechnoIogies
may be useIuI Ior Ihe proIessionaI and research work oI hisIorians
and sociaI scienIisIs in generaI, remarkabIy conIribuIing Io Ihe
disseminaIion oI Ihe HisIory oI CarIography and CarIographic
HeriIage in Ihe mosI speciaIised academic environmenIs.
This pro|ecI has provided a Web-mapping appIicaIion
deveIoped in order Io suppIy vaIuabIe and comprehensive
insIrumenIs Ior boIh represenIing and promoIing Ihe knowIedge
oI carIographic heriIage Io a Iarge number oI peopIe. As Iar as
Ihe appIicaIion has been deveIoped, Ihe resuII is a web-mapping
porIaI accessibIe direcIIy Irom Ihe !nIerneI IhaI makes hisIoricaI-
carIographic resources avaiIabIe Ior everybody. !n Ihis sense, some
Iask Ior Ihe inIernaIionaIizaIion oI Ihe pro|ecI has been done buI
noI enough Ior providing universaI access. Some characIerisIics
IhaI cover Ihis aspecI wiII be incIuded aI near-IuIure.
As a Web mapping pIaIIorm, Ihe VMR brings IogeIher Ihe
SD! ArchiIecIure inIo a singIe, easyIo- use Web PorIaI IhaI provides
access Io hisIoricaI daIa reposiIories. Any daIa reposiIory can be
incIuded in Ihis porIaI; aIso any Iibrary which provides access Io
iIs digiIaI conIenIs Ihrough Ihe D!CMAP ArchiIecIure wiII be parI
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
335
oI Ihe proposed VMR auIomaIicaIIy. !I is Ihe IasIesI way Io provide
access Io Ihe carIographic heriIage on Ihe web, Ieveraging Ihe
power oI some oI Ihe besI open source geospaIiaI pIaIIorm and Ihe
biggesI reposiIory oI hisIoric-carIographic daIa on Ihe !nIerneI.
DespiIe Ihe exisIing proposaIs, Ihe VirIuaI Map Room
proposed on Ihis paper is Ihe biggesI georeIerenced hisIoricaI-
carIographic map coIIecIion on Ihe !nIerneI. This is due Io Ihe IacI
IhaI Ihe appIicaIion uses Ihe D!CMAP meIadaIa reposiIory, which
provides access Io over 2S00 georeIerenced hisIoricaI maps. UnIike
oIher coIIecIions IhaI provide access Io 1S0 georeIerenced digiIaI
maps Ihrough Thc Dcvid Rumscy Mcp Collcction and 300 in Ihe
case oI The WorId DigiIaI Library. !n Ihis sense, Ihe VMR provides
access up Io eighI Iimes more Ihan Ihe oIher presIigious coIIecIions.
However, iI musI be highIighIed Ihe guaIiIy oI Ihe maps. AIIhough
Ihese coIIecIions oIIer Iew maps, Ihey mainIain a high degree oI
guaIiIy. AcIuaIIy, Ihe georeIerencing process in Ihese coIIecIions is
a IoI beIIer Ihan Ihe one done in Ihe D!CMAP engine, especiaIIy on
Ihe Rumsey coIIecIion.
!I one compares digiIaI access Io georeIerenced earIy maps,
using web-mapping inIerIaces, wiII Iind IhaI Ihe IooIs avaiIabIe
on Ihe VMR are guiIe useIuI, inIuiIive and usabIe. The server has
been seIup Ior compIeIeness, reIiabiIiIy and avaiIabiIiIy. The VRM
reIies on Ihe SD! archiIecIure IoundaIions. This |ob has suppIied a
supporIed web mapping pIaIIorm Ior Iarger conIiguraIions reIaIed
wiIh earIy carIography. inaIIy, we have added key componenIs
IhaI simpIiIy and enhance Ihe user experience and supporI Ihe
work oI Iibraries in charge oI preserving carIographic archives.
This pro|ecI wiII incIude aI near-IuIure some signiIicanI
improvemenIs inIo Ihe VirIuaI Map Room by giving new IechnicaI
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
336
and concepIuaI conIribuIions IhaI wiII enhance iIs usabiIiIy
according Io users' reguiremenIs. To IhaI end, iI is necessary Io
address Ihe IoIIowing issues:
(i) !ncorporaIion oI semanIic and spaIio-IemporaI
componenIs. These componenIs pIay an imporIanI roIe Io
compIemenI Ihe research work carried ouI wiIhin Ihe proposed
pIaIIorm. The presenIaIion and impIemenIaIion oI Ihem in a
coordinaIed Iashion wiII mean a considerabIe advance in Ihe iniIiaI
managemenI oI Ihe inIormaIion and wiII Iead Io a subsIanIiaI
change in Ihe search habiIs IhaI hisIorians and researchers are
used Io.
(ii) uaIiIy oI Ihe conIenIs. !I musIn'I be IosI sighI oI IhaI
Ihe VirIuaI Map Room cannoI be responsibIe Ior Ihe guaIiIy oI Ihe
inIormaIion accessed. So iI is noI uncommon Io Iind ouI IhaI Ihere
are sIiII coIIecIions wiIhouI georeIerenced archives or very poor
descripIions (meIadaIa). However iI is imporIanI Io highIighI IhaI
Ihe appIicaIion is capabIe oI auIomaIicaIIy incorporaIing aII Ihe
improvemenIs IhaI Ihis conIenIs can Iake in Ihe IuIure, as weII as
new caIaIogues or coIIecIions. !I is necessary Io incorporaIe IooIs
IhaI aIIow Ihe user Io check guaIiIy and reIiabiIiIy oI Ihe resources.
AIso, iI wouId be useIuI Io improve Ihe georeIerencing engine
provided by D!CMAP.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
337
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/5.#,' n%.,' M,$%&Pf \"V,-&
/&$`& !"6f @&$4`& ]"-$`.#,=
(Universidad PoIiIecnica de Madrid, Spain)


7%1$"-#415"%
AImosI Irom Iheir ouIseI, C!S have been used in diIIerenI
spaIiaI areas oI IechnicaI and scienIiIic knowIedge, incIuding
HumaniIies and SociaI Sciences, whose chieI ob|ecIives are, among
oIhers, Ihe represenIaIion and anaIysis oI human evenIs Ihrough
Iime and space. However, Ior Ihis iI is necessary Io deveIop Ihe
appropriaIe IooIs IhaI aIIow hisIorians visuaIising Ihe geographicaI
disIribuIion oI sociaI neIworks on Iime-sensiIive maps. WiIhin Ihis
scope, IinguisIics has been oI use boIh as a means and end in C!S
appIicaIions since hisIoricaI inIormaIion Iies Io a Iarge exIenI in
naIuraI Ianguage wriIIen IexIs. UIiIisaIion oI C!S Ior represenIaIion
512 Tis research has been developed within the framework of the Dyncoopnet Project, funded by
a Complementary Action of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (HUM2007-31128-E). Te
authors wish to express their sincere thanks to Dr. Roser Saur from Barcelona Media for her support and
guidance in this study.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
338
oI knowIedge by making use oI naIuraI Ianguage narraIives has been
presenIed by Chin-Iung Chang
S13
; concepIuaIizaIion oI movemenI
paIIerns derived Irom semanIic modeIIing oI naIuraI Ianguage
Io conIer dynamism Io Ihe C!S has aIso been invesIigaIed
S14
, as
weII as Ihe visuaIizaIion oI hisIoricaI narraIives in semi-naIuraI
Ianguage.
S1S
However, Ihe research carried ouI in Ihe area oI
incorporaIion oI hisIoricaI corpora has been Iocused chieIIy on Ihe
spaIiaI componenI, noI so much on Ihe IemporaI componenI.
or Ihis reason Ihe main ob|ecIive oI Ihis sIudy is Io increase
C!S capabiIiIies by incorporaIing Ihe IemporaI componenI in order
Io obIain geographicaIIy inIegraIed hisIoricaI daIa Ihrough TimeML,
so IhaI Ihey wiII be Ihe basis Ior Ihe dynamic represenIaIion wiIhin
a C!S. This work is noI meanI Io creaIe new naIuraI Ianguage
processing Iechnigues buI iI seeks Io sysIemaIise Ihe incorporaIion
oI Ihe IemporaI expressions derived Irom a hisIoricaI corpus, so
IhaI Ihis new knowIedge mighI be added Io and anaIysed aI Ihe
geodaIabase, acIing as a supporI Ior new appIicaIions dependenI
on IemporaI semanIics. The DynCoopNeI Pro|ecI is Iramed wiIhin
Ihe sIudy conIexI oI Ihe cooperaIion beIween Ihe commerciaI sociaI
neIworks seI up during Ihe 14
Ih
- 19
Ih
cenIuries. A Iarge parI oI Ihe
avaiIabIe inIormaIion is in Ihe Iorm oI naIuraI Ianguage wriIIen
documenIs. NaIuraI Ianguage inIormaIion reguires IreaImenI Ior
iIs subseguenI represenIaIion and anaIysis in a C!S; hence Ihere
are cerIain IimiIaIions, among Ihem Ihe IacI IhaI Ihe inIormaIion
513 Chin-lung Chang, et al., Narrative geospatial knowledge in ethnographies: representation and
reasoning, (eds. K. Janowicz, M. Raubal and S. Levashkin. Berlin: Springer, 2009) 187203.
514 Kathleen Stewart Hornsby and Naicong Li., Conceptual framework for modeling dynamic
paths from natural language expressions, Transactions in GIS 13(s1), 2745 (2009).
515 Brian Farrimond et al., Making History Happen: Spatiotemporal Data Visualization for
Historians, (paper presented at Ems, second UKSIM European Symposium on Computer Modeling and
Simulation, 424429, 2008).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
339
used by C!S Io carry ouI anaIyses, Io generaIe responses and
represenI Ihem graphicaIIy musI be previousIy sIrucIured. To Ihe
end oI incorporaIing Ihe inIormaIion oI Ihe wriIIen IexIs oI Ihe Iime
inIo a C!S and geIIing responses Io Ihe enguiries oI hisIorians abouI
Ihose hisIoric evenIs, a meIhodoIogy has been designed Ior Ihis
purpose consisIing oI sysIemaIising and anaIysing Ihese documenIs
by means oI IemporaI semanIic annoIaIion. !n our sIudy case we
have chosen Ihe commerciaI correspondence kepI by Ihe merchanI
Simon Ruiz in Ihe 16
Ih
cenIury, who mighI be considered an ensign
oI Ihe Renaissance Irade, whose rouIes and commerciaI agreemenIs
spread IhroughouI Ihe uropean conIinenI and Ihe new America.
The IeIIer seIecIion is daIed beIween 1S67 and 1S78 and iI beIongs
Io Ihe ProvinciaI HisIoricaI Archive oI VaIIadoIid which is made up
oI over S6,000 commerciaI IeIIers. As menIioned above, TimeML
S16

has been used on Ihese IexIs Ior recogniIion and normaIizaIion oI
IemporaI expressions in oId Spanish. !n Ihis paper Ihe research
work concerning Ihe IemporaI componenI Irom Ihe C!S and Ihe
NLP are presenIed IirsI. SubseguenIIy Ihe markup Ianguage is
described, and in Ihe IourIh secIion Ihe meIhodoIogy used in Ihe
idenIiIicaIion and normaIizaIion oI Spanish IemporaI expressions
is exposed. inaIIy some concIusions are drawn and new advances
and IuIure work aIong Ihis research Iine are poinIed ouI.

850,J 61&1, ") 19, &$1
ModeIIing Iime is a key Iopic Ior many researchers in
geographic inIormaIion science and in oIher IieIds. SpaIio-IemporaI
516 James Pustejovsky, TimeML: Robust specifcation of event and temporal expressions in text,
Temporal and Event Information in Natural language Text. Language Resources and Evaluation, 39(2-3):
123164, (2005).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
340
daIa modeIIing and represenIaIion is a widespread sub|ecI in Ihe
IiIeraIure
S17
, yeI Ihere are cerIain IimiIaIions in design appIicaIion.
The Iwo mosI common impIemenIaIions are Ihe versioning/Iime
sIamping modeI and Ihe snapshoI/Iime sIice modeI, since Ihey
can be easiIy appIied wiIh Ihe avaiIabIe soIIware. !n Ihe case oI
Ihe IirsI modeI, Iime is an ob|ecI aIIribuIe, and in Ihe case oI Ihe
second modeI, Iime is a space aIIribuIe. OIher approaches such as
Ihe enIiIy-reIaIionship or ob|ecI-orienIed modeIs add a IemporaI
exIension.
S18
AIIhough considerabIe brainsIorming has come
abouI on Ihe buiIding oI designs, proIoIypes and sIorage oI spaIio-
IemporaI daIa, no gIobaI modeI is yeI Io be Iound IhaI couId be
used Ior any one appIicaIion.
S19
rom Ihe compuIaIionaI viewpoinI,
IemporaI inIormaIion processing presenI in naIuraI Ianguage
IexIs has aroused greaI inIeresI in Ihe scienIiIic communiIy, as
aIIesIed by Ihe Iarge number oI workshops which have Iaken
pIace in Ihe area oI creaIion oI exIracIion and IemporaI anaIysis
IooIs (TRAS
S20
, TANCO
S21
, DACSTUHL
S22
, MUC
S23
); in Ihe area oI
IemporaI semanIic annoIaIion Ianguages (T!DS
S24
, TimeML
S2S
);
517 Monica Wachowicz and Jack Owens, Space-time representations of complex networks: What
is next?, GeoFocus (9), 18 (2009).
518 Frank Ostermann, Modeling, Analyzing and Visualizing Human Space Appropriation, (PhD
diss., Zrich, Switzerland, 2009) 1836.
519 Michael F. Goodchild et al., Towards a general theory of geographic representation in GIS,
International Journal of Geographical Information Science 21(3), 239260, (2007).
520 TERQAS: Time and Event Recognition for Question Answering Systems. ARDA Workshop,
http://www.timeml.org/site/terqas/index.html (accessed February 26, 2010).
521 TANGO (TimeML Annotation Grafical Organizer), http://www.timeml.org/site/tango/index.
html (accessed February 26, 2010).
522 Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings. Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events,
http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/volltexte/2005/313/ (accessed February 26, 2010).
523 Advanced Research Projects Agency. Proceedings of the Sixth Message Understanding
Conference (MUC-6) (1995). Sofware and Intelligent Systems Technology Ofce.
524 Lisa Ferro et al., TIDES 2005, Standard for the Annotation of Temporal Expressions. Technical
Report, MITRE (2005).
525 op. cit.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
341
in Ihe area oI annoIaIion sysIems (TARS!
S26
, TRSO
S27
) and in
diIIerenI evaIuaIion workshops (TRN
S28
, TempvaI
S29
).
WiIh regard Io compuIaIionaI IinguisIics speciIicaIIy, Ihe
auIomaIic recogniIion oI IemporaI inIormaIion has been deveIoped
in recenI years by Ihe research group oI Ihe 8randeis UniversiIy
headed by ]ames PusIe|ovsky wiIh Ihe creaIion oI TimeML
S30
, a
speciIicaIion Ianguage Ior annoIaIion oI evenIs and IemporaI
expressions in IexIs. !I has been recenIIy adopIed as an inIernaIionaI
cross-Ianguage sIandard (WD !SO 24617-1:2007) and iI is compaIibIe
wiIh !SO 8601 which speciIies Ihe sIandard noIaIion Io sIore daIes.
ModeIIing oI IemporaI daIa Irom Ihe naIuraI Ianguage Ihrough
TimeML wiII be used Io sIrucIure, sIore and exIracI IemporaI
inIormaIion. Using semanIics in C!S, spaIiaI and spaIio-IemporaI
modeIs orienIed Io movemenI, as expressed in naIuraI Ianguage,
have been creaIed
S31
; aIIhough mosI oI Ihese modeIs use a speciIic
domain onIoIogy IhaI serves as a daIa modeI.
S32
Thus Iar Ihe use
oI markup Ianguages Ior modeIIing oI naIuraI Ianguage hisIoricaI
narraIives is unknown, aIIhough Ihere have been aIIempIs in semi-
526 Mark Verhagen et al., Automating Temporal Annotation with TARSQI, (demo presented at
ACL 2005, proceedings, 2005).
527 Estela Saquete et al., Automatic resolution rule assignment to multilingual Temporal
Expressions using annotated corpora, (paper presented at Tirteenth International Symposium on
Temporal Representations and Reasoning, proceedings, 218224, 2006).
528 DARPA TIDES (Translingual Information Detection, Extraction and Summarization).
Te TERN evaluation plan: Time Expression Recognition and Normalization. Working papers, TERN
Evaluation Workshop (2004), http://timex2.mitre.org/tern.html (accessed February 26, 2010).
529 Mark Verhagen et al., SemEval-2007. Task 15: TempEval Temporal Relation Identifcation,
Proceedings of SemEval 2007, (paper presented at 4th International Workshop on Semantic Evaluation,
ACL, Prague, 7580, 2007), http://nlp.cs.swarthmore.edu/semeval/tasks/index.php (accessed February 26,
2010).
530 op. cit.
531 op. cit.
532 Guoray Cai, Contextualization of geospatial database semantics for HumanGIS interaction,
Geoinformatica 11(2), 217237 (2007).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
342
naIuraI or adapIed Ianguage. !I has been argued in Iavour oI Ihe use
oI TimeML annoIaIed corpora
S33
Ior Ihe subseguenI reaIisaIion oI
anaIysis and compIex visuaIisaIions oI narraIives. TexIs documenIs
do noI have Io suiI a speciIic domain, buI Ihe inIormaIion used may
be oI a diIIerenI naIure; Ior Ihis reason we inIend Io deveIop a gIobaI
modeI IhaI mighI be used regardIess oI Ihe IexI documenI Iype. !n
addiIion, we have Iaken inIo accounI Ihe modeI sIandardisaIion so
as Io abide by Ihe hisIorians' guerying reguiremenIs; Ihus aII Ihe
modeI aIIribuIes have been regisIered.
/&$?#C '&%.#&., 850,/^
TimeML is a IinguisIic speciIicaIion Ior evenIs and IemporaI
expression annoIaIion IhaI provides sysIemaIisaIion Ior exIracIion
and represenIaIion oI IemporaI inIormaIion and Ior inIormaIion
inIerchange. The mosI characIerisIic properIies oI Ihis Ianguage
are: inIerpreIaIion oI IemporaI expressions, IemporaI annoIaIion
oI evenIs, and arrangemenI oI evenIs Io oIhers Ihrough a IemporaI
anchorage. TimeML combines and exIends characIerisIics oI oIher
IemporaI annoIaIion sIandards such as STAC
S34
, a guide Io annoIaIe
evenIs and Iime in newspaper IexIs whose Iag Ior IemporaI
inIormaIion is T!M; and T!DS
S3S
, deveIoped Io mark IemporaI
expressions oI a documenI and idenIiIy Iheir vaIue (T!M2). !n
TimeML Ihe IemporaI expressions are marked wiIh Ihe T!M3
Iag, which purporIs Io indicaIe an improvemenI wiIh respecI Io
533 Olga A. Kuchar et al., Isnt It About Time?, IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, vol. 26
(3), 8083, (2006).
534 Andrea Setzer and Robert Gaizauskas, Annotating Events and Temporal Information in
Newswire Texts, (paper presented at LREC-2000, Proceedings, 12871294, 2000).
535 Ferro et al., 2005.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
343
previous Iags.
OIher associaIed resources have been deveIoped aIigned Io
TimeML. Time8ank is a TimeML annoIaIed corpus made up oI 183
US press arIicIes.
S36
TARS! is a seI oI IooIs Ior IemporaI exIracIion
oI inIormaIion which incIudes IemporaI expression recognisers
S37

and evenIs.
S38
The anaIysers oI IemporaI reIaIionships beIween
evenIs shouId aIso be menIioned.
S39
The drawback is Iheir sIiII
young course oI deveIopmenI and Ihe IacI IhaI aII oI Ihem have
been creaIed Ior Ihe ngIish Ianguage.
</;'Tb? 0'(2&/)6/*" #"0 24#&#26'&/(6/2(
This markup Ianguage has Ihree basic Iags: T!M3, VNT,
S!CNAL and Ihree Iink subIypes: TL!NK, AL!NK and SL!NK. NexI a
brieI expIanaIion oI each Iag is presenIed:
- T!M3 is used Io mark IemporaI expressions: 21 st Mcrch
2010, ycstcrdcy, ct 6 PM, ncxt yccr.
- VNT is used Io mark evenIs menIioned in a IexI: to occur,
to hclicvc, to study, to hcgin.
- S!CNAL is used Io annoIaIe IemporaI signaIs: hcjorc, cjtcr,
during.
- TL!NK is used Io mark IemporaI reIaIionships: Louisc
wcnt to Mcdrid jrom thc 1st to thc 7th oj Fchrucry (Ihe IemporaI
inIormaIion is reIaIed Io Ihe evenI Io go).
536 James Pustejovsky et al., TimeBank 1.2, Linguistic Data Consortium, Philadelphia, PA.
(2006).
537 Verhagen et al., 2005op. cit.
538 Roser Saur et al., Evita: A Robust Event Recognizer for QA Systems, (paper presented at
HLT/EMNLP 2005, proceedings, 700707, 2005).
539 Inderjeer Mani et al., Tree Approaches to Learning TLINKs in TimeML, Technical Report
CS-07- 268, Computer Science Department, Brandeis University. Waltham, USA, (2007).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
344
- AL!NK is used Io annoIaIe aspecIuaI reIaIionships: Mcry
will hcgin prcscntction oj hcr pcpcr ct 12 noon (Ihe verb wiII begin
is showing a phase oI Ihe evenI).
- SL!NK is used Io annoIaIe reIaIionships oI modaIiIy or
evidenIiaIiIy: john scid hc would go to Mcdrid in Fchrucry (con|eIure
is made previousIy Ihe reaIisaIion oI Ihe evenI).
TimeML oIIers Ihe possibiIiIy oI expressing diIIerenI
granuIariIies. !I owns Iour Iypes Ior Iime expression (T!M3):
- DATS is used Ior expressions reIerring Io a caIendar: on
thc 22 nd oj Mcrch 2010, lcst Sundcy, ycstcrdcy.
- DAY T!MS is used Ior a IemporaI expression Iess Ihan a
day: this cjtcrnoon, ct twcnty minutcs to thrcc. AIIenIion shouId be
paid Io Ihe disIincIion beIween Ihese Iwo Iypes oI Iimes because oI
Ihe diIIerenI granuIariIy oI Ihe expressions.
- DURAT!ON is used Io describe duraIion in Iime: jor jour
dcys, two yccrs cgo.
- ST is used Ior expressions oI repeIiIion in Iime: twicc c
wcck, cvcry cight dcys.
The reIerenIiaI IemporaI expressions are bound Io Ihe
documenI daIe Ihrough an aIIribuIe caIIed AnchorTime IhaI
enabIes esIabIishing a IemporaI axis. Thus noI onIy meIadaIa and
pubIishing daIe are used buI aIso Ihe IemporaI expressions oI Ihe
enIire documenI. These expressions exIend gueries noI onIy Io
Ihe pubIishing daIe buI aIso Io Ihe Iime evenIs occur, in which
period oI Iime, how Iong Ihey IasI, eIc. !n Ihe case oI diIIuse or
vague expressions, Ihe semanIic IimiIs wouId be deIermined by Ihe
duraIion oI evenIs Ihrough Ihe TL!NK Iag, whose vaIues are based
on Ihe 13 binary reIaIionships oI AIIen's IemporaI aIgebra.
S40
540 James F, Allen, Maintaining knowledge about temporal interval, Communications of ACM,
26, 11, 832843 (1983).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
345
/,19"-"'".:
The purpose oI our meIhodoIogy is Io anaIyse and
sysIemaIise Ihe IexIs making use oI Ihe IemporaI semanIic
annoIaIion Io incorporaIe Ihese naIuraI Ianguage expressions inIo
a C!S.
S41
1. LinguisIic processing oI Ihe corpus conIaining Ihe Iasks
oI IokenisaIion IemmaIisaIion and PDS Tcgging.
2. TemporaI expressions in hisIoricaI corpus
3. ManuaI idenIiIicaIion and normaIisaIion oI Ihe IemporaI
expressions wiIh TimeML.
4. Towards creaIing IooIs Ior auIomaIicaIIy exIracIing
IemporaI inIormaIion Irom IexI.
S. !ncorporaIion oI TimeML as parI oI a geodaIabase
%*&)7( )&*2'((/"5
The IoIIowing process is proposed Io exIracI Ihe IemporaI
inIormaIion Irom Ihe corpus:
1. TokenisaIion: consisIs oI breaking down a compIex
expression inIo simpIer ones and work wiIh Ihem separaIeIy.
The sysIem shouId be abIe Io parIiIion expressions in words and
senIences.
2. LemmaIisaIion: aII Ihe words beIonging Io Ihe IinguisIic
IamiIy oI each Iemma are buiII using Ihe morphoIogic cIass Io IhaI
eIIecI.
541 Marta Guerrero Nieto et al., Incorporating TimeML into a GIS, (paper presented at 11th
International Conference on Intelligent Text Processing and Computational Linguistics, CICLing 2010,
proceedings IJCLA, vol.1 (1-2), 269283, 2010).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
346
3. POS Tagging: Ihis meIhod Iags morphoIogicaIIy and
IexicaIIy every word oI Ihe IexI wiIh Ihe avaiIabIe inIormaIion oI a
Iexicon, a speciIic domain dicIionary.
The auIomaIic processor conIaining Ihe described Iasks is
Tree Tagger.
S42
The choice oI Ihis anaIyser has been due Io Ihe easy
incorporaIion oI new vocabuIary wiIhin iIs Iexicon. The diIIicuIIy
regarding IemmaIisaIion has Io do wiIh Ihe procedure due Io Ihe
speciIic characIerisIics oI Ihe IexIs (16
Ih
cenIury Spanish): Ihe Iack
oI speIIing normaIisaIion, use oI abbreviaIions and aggIuIinaIions,
eIc. renders necessary Ihe semi-auIomaIic IemmaIisaIion. The POS
Tagging has aIso been carried ouI semi-auIomaIicaIIy since iIs Iexicon
is presenI-day Spanish. The Tree Tagger aIIows incorporaIing new
Iexicon manuaIIy. The semi-auIomaIic procedure has been resorIed
Io because Ihis IooI is unabIe Io guess word Iags noI appearing in iIs
Iexicon.

<';)*&#, 'J)&'((/*"( /" 4/(6*&/2#, 2*&)7(
The seIecIed corpus is made up oI 20 IeIIers wriIIen in prose
deaIing wiIh reciprocaI Irade beIween Simn Ruiz and his Irade
commissioner in Lisbon. The IemporaI characIerisIics oI Ihe IexI
documenIs are:
a) They conIain a rich, everyday vocabuIary, such as de
pocos dIas a esIa parIe" (Irom a Iew days hiIher), dicz dcl quc vicnc
(tcnth oj ncxt) or "c tcntos dcs" (wiIhin IhaI many days). There may
be diIIerenI expressions wiIh Ihe same meaning: c muchos dcs
542 Helmut Schmid, Probabilistic Part-of-Speech Tagging Using Decission Trees, (paper
presented at International Conference on New Methods in Language Processing, Proceedings, Manchester,
UK, 4449,1994).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
347
or "muchos dcs hc" (many days ago).
b) TemporaI expressions are cIassiIied inIo deIined,
reIerenIiaI and diIIuse. MosI oI Ihem are reIerenIiaI or deicIic in Ihe
corpus, i.e. Ihey reIer Io Ihe narraIive Iime in which Ihe documenI
is pIaced: "cycr (ycstcrdcy), "lc scmcnc pcscdc (lcst wcck).
c) There are oIher incompIeIe, vague or diIIuse IemporaI
expressions: aIgn dIa" (some day), por muchos aos" (Ior many
years), and Ios dIas pasados" (Ihe pasI Iew days).
d) There are aIso expressions which may or may noI have a
IemporaI meaning depending on Ihe conIexI. Some oI Ihem conIain
Ihe word "ticmpo (timc): "y cn ticmpo tcnto cstrccho (cnd within
such c limitcd pcriod oj timc) mccning "ct prcscnt, "ct this timc; thc
word "chorc(now): "no hcy, por chorc, quc cntcndcr cn cllo (jor thc
timc hcing thcrc is no nccd to know chout it) mccning 'momcnt'; or
thc word "hrcvcdcd (shortncss, hrcvity): "quc lo cnhic con hrcvcdcd
(it should hc scnt cs soon cs possihlc).
AIIhough Ihe markup Ianguage is sIandard, ad|usImenI
Io oId Spanish has been necessary since Ihe coIIecIed IemporaI
expressions oIIer unigue characIerisIics in regard Io sIrucIure and
Iexicon seIecIion, i.e. iI is necessary Io deIermine Ihe IimiIs and
characIerizaIion oI Ihe IemporaI expressions oI Ihe corpus.

<';)*&#, #""*6#6/*" *9 64' 2*&)7(
The deIiniIion and seIecIion oI Ihe IemporaI aspecIs is
deIermined by Ihe markup Ianguage, as weII as Ihe properIies or
speciIied aIIribuIes oI every one oI Ihem. or Ihis reason, in order
Io carry Ihrough Ihe process oI IemporaI annoIaIion Io compIeIion,
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
348
iI is necessary Io idenIiIy and normaIise Ihese expressions, i.e. Io
carry ouI a semanIic inIerpreIaIion. AI Ihe presenI Iime a guide
is avaiIabIe in ngIish, Chinese and !IaIian, buI Ihere is aIso an
ongoing adapIaIion Io Spanish.
S43
Since we are deaIing wiIh a
Spanish hisIoricaI corpus, iI has been necessary Io adapI Ihe guide
in accordance Io Ihe IinguisIic varieIy. !I is reIevanI Io noIe IhaI
Ior Ihe Iime being no sIudies have been underIaken abouI Ihe
correspondence in oId CasIiIian in TimeML. So Iar Ihe ground on
which work abouI IemporaI exIracIion has been done in newspaper
or IegaI IexIs.
S44
AIIer idenIiIicaIion oI IemporaI expressions in Renaissance
CasIiIian, Ihe nexI sIep has been Ihe use oI TimeML annoIaIion. or
Ihis purpose Ihe DocumenI Type DeIiniIion (DTD) conIains aII Ihe
eIemenIs, vaIues and aIIribuIes TimeML is made up oI. rom Ihe
beginning ML has been chosen as markup meIaIanguage.
NexI an exampIe is shown oI Ihe corpus oI normaIizaIion
oI Ihese IemporaI expressions in TimeML where Ihe guide vaIues
appear: T!M3, VNT, S!CNAL and TL!NK.
La de v.m. de 1S desIe he recebido en esIe dia" (IhaI Irom
your honour oI Ihe 1S Ih oI Ihis monIh ! have received on Ihis day)
S!CNAL sid="sid1"
de
/S!CNAL
T!M3 Iid="Iid12" Iype="DAT" vaIue="1S67-0S-1S"
543 Roser Saur et al., Annotating Time Expressions in Spanish, TimeML Annotation Guidelines
(in Press).
544 Frank Schilder and Andrew McCulloh, Temporal information extraction from legal
documents, In Annotating, Extracting and Reasoning about Time and Events, eds. Katz, G., Pustejovsky,
J., Schilder, F., Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, vol. 05151 (2005), http://drops.dagstuhl.de/opus/
volltexte/2005/313 (accessed February 26, 2010).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
349
anchorTime!D="Iid11"
1S desIe
/T!M3
VNT eid="eid28" aspecI="PRCT!V" mood="NON"
pos="VR8" vIorm="NON"
cIass="OCCURRNC" Iense="PRSNT" sIem="RC!8!R"
recebido
/VNT
S!CNAL sid="sid2"
en
/S!CNAL
T!M3 Iid="Iid13" Iype="DAT" vaIue="1S67-0S-28"
anchorTime!D="Iid11"
esIe dia
/T!M3
T!M3 Iid="Iid11" Iype="DAT" vaIue="1S67-0S-28"
28 de mayo de 1S67
/T!M3
TL!NK reIType="!NCLUDs" Iid="Iid31" Iime!D="Iid13"
reIaIedTovenI!nsIance="eid28"
signaI!d=" sid2"/
TL!NK reIType="8OR" Iid="Iid31" Iime!D="Iid12"reIa
IedTovenI!nsIance="eid28"
signaI!d=" sid1"/

The TL!NKs represenI Ihe IemporaI reIaIionships exisIing
beIween Iwo evenIs, Iwo Iimes, or beIween an evenI and a Iime. !n
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
350
Ihe exampIe, Ihe evenI wouId be he recebido" (! have received),
which is accompanied by Iwo IemporaI expressions, 15 dcstc
(thc 15
th
oj this month) cnd "cstc dic" (this dcy). The IemporaI
reIaIionships beIween Ihese Ihree eIemenIs are marked wiIh Ihe
TL!NK Iag.
!I is reIevanI Io remember IhaI Ihe ML is noI inherenI Io Ihe
TimeML since Ihe IaIIer may Iurn inIo oIher IormaIs; as a maIIer oI
IacI, a web annoIaIion IooI is being deveIoped IhaI generaIes daIa
in daIabase IabIes Irom IexI annoIaIion
S4S
.


<*8#&0( 2&'#6/"5 6**,( 9*& #76*;#6/2#,,R 'J6&#26/"5
6';)*&#, /"9*&;#6/*" 9&*; 6'J6
Approach by paIIerns has been used Ior deIecIion oI IemporaI
expressions. The IirsI sIep consisIs oI manuaI idenIiIicaIion oI
IemporaI expressions, which impIies Ihe necessary preprocessing
oI Ihe corpus; subseguenIIy paIIerns are generaIed in order Io
generaIise Ihe ruIes. Once Ihis is achieved, we inIend Io incorporaIe
Ihose paIIerns auIomaIicaIIy, sIage which is sIiII Io be deveIoped,
aIIhough we wiII describe Ihe ruIes deduced.
There are various IooIs Ior Ihe deIecIion and normaIisaIion
oI IemporaI inIormaIion in ngIish, rench, Spanish and Chinese
S46
,
545 BAT: Brandeis Annotation Tool: http://www.timeml.org/site/bat/ (accessed February 26,
2010).
546 Inderjeet Mani and George Wilson, Robust Temporal Processing of News, (paper presented
at 38th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, proceedings, New Brunswick,
New Jersey, 2000); Nikolai Vazov, A System for Extraction of Temporal Expressions from French Texts
based on Syntactic and Semantic Constraints, (paper presented at ACL Workshop on Temporal and Spatial
Information Processing, proceedings, 96103, 2001); Estela Saquete et al., Recognizing and Tagging
Temporal Expressions in Spanish, (paper presented at workshop on Annotation Standards for Temporal
Information in Natural Language, LREC 2002); Wu Mingli et al., CTEMP: A Chinese Temporal Parser for
Extracting and Normalizing Temporal Information, (paper presented Second International Joint Conference
on Natural Language Processing, proceedings (IJCNLP05), Jeju Island, Korea, October 11- 13, 694706,
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
351
however none oI Ihem may be empIoyed Ior our sIudy case. Taking
inIo accounI Ihe chosen corpus, a seI oI grammaIicaI ruIes have
been deduced regardIess oI Ihe conIexI, which have been reIaIed
Io Ihe Iags and vaIues oI Ihe TimeML. !n IhaI respecI, iI shouId be
menIioned IhaI Ihe diIIerence beIween Ihe IemporaI expression
and Ihe exIenIs deIined by Ihe markup Ianguage (i.e. when
each IemporaI expression begins and ends) has been respecIed.
8y agreemenI Ihe T!M3's exIenIs do noI incIude Ihe iniIiaI
preposiIion which is marked wiIh Ihe S!CNAL Iag.
The nexI IabIe shows Ihe grammaIicaI ruIes oI Ihe IemporaI
expressions presenI in Simn Ruiz's IeIIers Ior Ihe subseguenI
deveIopmenI oI an auIomaIic idenIiIier oI aII Ihe Iimexes. The
cIassiIicaIion in IabIe 2 provides Ihe range oI granuIariIies oI Ihe
TimeML; so Iar we have noI Iaken inIo accounI Ihe naIure oI Ihese
expressions Io make Ihe cIassiIicaIion, wheIher deIined, deicIic,
undeIermined or Iuzzy; Ihis wouId be needed Ior Ihe creaIion oI a
normaIiser oI expressions, since iI is necessary, among oIher Ihings,
Io keep Ihe conIexI in mind. On Ihe oIher hand, Ihe uniIs appearing
in Ihe corpus may be seen on Ihe IabIe, so iI is anIicipaIed IhaI Ihe
number oI ruIes couId grow when considering a Iarger corpus. The
Iime uniIs (TU) appearing on Ihe corpus are day, week,
2005).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
352
<#=,' @C CrammaIicaI ruIes Ior recogniIion oI IemporaI expressions.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
353
K"2*&)*&#6/*" *9 </;'Tb #( )#&6 *9 # 5'*0#6#=#('
AIIer having annoIaIed Ihe corpus in TimeML we go on
wiIh Ihe inIegraIion oI Ihe IexI in Ihe geographic inIormaIion
sysIem. The C!S have diIIerenI daIa IormaIs, aII oI which assume
a daIabase-orienIed sIrucIuring oI inIormaIion: geodaIabases,
IabIes in MS Access, IabIes in MS xceI (wiIh cerIain resIricIions),
eIc. The porIing oI TimeML annoIaIion inIo any oI Ihese IormaIs is
guaranIeed by Ihe IacI IhaI TimeML does noI aIIow Ior redundanI
enIiIies, and hence iI provides a sIabIe, predicIabIe sIrucIure, so IhaI
a reIaIionaI daIabase couId be designed Io sIore Ihe inIormaIion
conIained by TimeML annoIaIion. The IoIIowing sIrucIure (Iigure
1) conIains aII Ihe eIemenIs, aIIribuIes and vaIues oI TimeML.
However, Ihis design can be modiIied iI we do noI wanI Io consider
aII enIiIies oI Ihe markup Ianguage or wanI Io incIude oIhers.
B/5C>. SIrucIure oI TimeML based on Ihe DTD in Ihe geodaIabase; every Iag
conIains iIs corresponding IabIe.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
354
8eIore having Ihe inIormaIion wiIhin Ihe geodaIabase,
iI is necessary Io consider IurIher processing oI Ihe aIIribuIes oI
Ianguage, especiaIIy wiIh respecI Io Ihe enIiIy Iimex3, in order Io be
abIe Io operaIe wiIh Ihem in geodaIabase. inaIIy, Ihe visuaIizaIion
oI Ihe annoIaIed corpus wiII depend on characIerisIics Ihe
hisIoricaI evenIs described; Ior exampIe iI we were deaIing wiIh Ihe
binnacIe oI a ship's capIain, Ihe represenIaIion oI shipping rouIes,
goods IransporIed, oceanic currenIs, winds and sIorms couId be
emphasized, buI iI Ihe corpus was made up oI IexIs describing Iand
voyages, Ihe represenIaIion deIaiIs wouId be subsIanIiaIIy diIIerenI,
highIighIing oIher aspecIs. !n Ihis regard, as Iar as represenIaIion
oI Ihe IinguisIic annoIaIion oI Ihe corpus is concerned, we may add
IhaI Ihis is a IuIure Iine oI research which invoIves Ihe dynamic
dispIay oI evenIs.
],6#'16 &%- -564#665"%
This work represenIs an iniIiaI sIep addresses Io exIend
semanIic IemporaI incorporaIing TimeML inIo a C!S. or Ihe Iime
being Ihe C!S have imposed a simpIe sIrucIure concerning Iime
IhaI does noI suiI Ihe needs and uses oI Ihe hisIoricaI C!S. !n cerIain
recenI scienIiIic invesIigaIions iI is poinIed ouI IhaI IexI documenIs
provide a IexicaI and semanIic richness which is noI usuaIIy
Iound in Ihese geographic IooIs, and Ihey are orienIed Ioward
naIuraI Ianguage narraIives
S47
. or Ihis reason Ihe use oI TimeML
in hisIoricaI C!S appIicaIions is advocaIed Io incorporaIe a more
compIex semanIic sIrucIure and Ihe use oI naIuraI Ianguage Irom
547 Katheleen Stewart Hornsby and Naicong Li, Conceptual framework for modeling dynamic
paths from natural language expressions, Transactions in GIS 13(s1), 2745 (2009).
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
355
hisIoricaI IexIs. As menIioned, Ihe appIicaIion oI Ihe semanIics
IieId Io Ihe C!S has been addressed Irom diIIerenI IronIs, Ihe spaIiaI
inIormaIion orienIaIion has been prevaIenI by and Iarge, whiIe Ihe
IemporaI semanIics has been negIecIed, and Ihe research work
Iocused on Ihe use oI corpora has been scarce. The advanIages
IhaI can poinI ouI oI using TimeML are iIs sIandard characIer, iIs
IormaI as a daIabase, iIs appIicabiIiIy Io any Ianguage since iI has
goI a deIined grammar, and above aII iIs properIies, since iI enabIes
ordering oI evenIs in a IimeIine. TimeML, Iike oIher markup
Ianguages, aIIows massive IreaImenI oI IexI inIormaIion.
Some oI Ihe IimiIaIions Io carry ouI Ihe proposaI have been
described:
(a) Io achieve Ihe represenIaIion oI Ihe IemporaI inIormaIion
Iagged in Ihe corpus, Ihe Ceographic !nIormaIion SysIem shouId
have a spaIio-IemporaI daIabase aIIowing sIorage and guerying
oI Ihe inIormaIion coming Irom Ihe corpus, i.e. a IemporaI C!S
reIIecIing Ihe TimeML;
(b) corpora Iagged in TimeML are scarce Ior Ianguages
oIher Ihan ngIish which prevenIs Ihe use oI auIomaIic Iearning
Iechnigues and gives rise Io Ihe use oI semi-auIomaIic and manuaI
annoIaIion;
(c) adapIaIion oI TimeML Io oId CasIiIian is needed Io
IaciIiIaIe idenIiIicaIion oI IemporaI expressions in Ihis Iype oI
IexIs. !n Ihe IuIure we inIend Io achieve Ihe recogniIion and
normaIisaIion oI IemporaI expressions in wider Spanish hisIoricaI
corpora, as weII as Ihe inIegraIion oI IemporaI and spaIiaI IinguisIic
annoIaIion. urIhermore, we wiII conIinue deepen in Ihe processing
oI IemporaI expressions in order Io achieve a more eIIicienI anaIysis
and represenIaIion in a C!S.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
356
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
357
89, "C,$&15"%&' 61$#41#$, ") 9561"$54&'
0&$5150, 695CC5%.J & .,%,$&' $,V5,+ ")
?%"+',-., -564"V,$: 1""'6
Q#19"$J R,$%,$ ;49,'1m,%6
(Ri|ksuniversiIeiI Croningen, The NeIherIands)

7%1$"-#415"%
ConIemporary mariIime-economic hisIory is dominaIed
by Iwo opposiIe approaches. The IirsI Iype oI sIudies Iooks Ior
macroeconomic Irade deveIopmenIs on Ihe basis oI numeric daIa.
!n Ihis approach, names oI shipmasIers and ships are noI processed
and daIa abouI Ihe movemenI oI ships is reduced Io a number
aIIached Io speciIic pIaces.
S48
TypicaIIy, Ihis approach is used in
posiIivisI anaIyses oI hisIoricaI phenomena.
S49
The second approach
548 For examples, see: Jake T. Knoppers, Dutch Trade with Russia from the time of Peter I to
Alexander I: a quantitative study in eighteenth century shipping (Montral: ICES, 1976), 3 vols. Pierrick
Pourchasse, Le commerce du Nord. La France et le commerce de lEurope septentrionale au XVIIIe sicle
(Rennes : Presses Universitaires de Rennes, 2006) 390 pp. J. Tomas Lindblad, Swedens Trade with the Dutch
Republic, 1738-1795: a quantitative analysis of the relationship between economic growth and international
trade in the eighteenth century (Assen: Van Gorcum, 1982) xiii, 201 pp. George Welling, Te Prize of
Neutrality: trade relations between Amsterdam and North America 1771-1817: a study in computational
history (PhD diss., University of Groningen, 1998) ix, 261 pp. Simon Van Brakel, Statistische en andere
gegevens betrefende onzen handel en scheepvaart op Rusland gedurende de 18e eeuw, Bijdragen en
mededeelingen van het historisch genootschap 34 (1913): 350-405. Milja Van Tielhof, Te Mother of all
trades: the Baltic grain trade in Amsterdam from the late 16th to the early 19th century (Leiden: Brill, 2002)
xvii, 370, [15] pp.
549 Kurt Dopfer, Werner Scheltjens, Why is economic history an evolutionary science? Unifed
rule approach employing Dutch maritime shipping as exemplar (unpublished research article).
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
358
does incIude aIphanumeric daIa abouI Ihe name oI Ihe shipmasIer,
Ihe ship and iIs movemenI. OIIen Ihis Iype oI mariIime-economic
sIudies Iakes Ihe Iorm oI smaII-scaIe sampIe sIudies in which daIa
abouI one or Iwo years is examined in deIaiI and represenIed in
Ihe Iorm oI a narraIive accounI.
SS0
!n some cases, sampIe sIudies
consIiIuIe parI oI Iarger guanIiIaIive sIudies oI Ihe IirsI Iype; Ihen,
Ihey are used Io prove Ihe reIiabiIiIy oI a source on Ihe basis oI in
exIenso comparison wiIh one or more simiIar sources.
SS1

The goaI oI Ihis paper is Io presenI a seI oI generaI anaIyIicaI
IooIs IhaI are deemed Io heIp researchers oI mariIime hisIory Io
discover signiIicanI eIemenIs oI Ihe sIrucIure oI hisIoricaI mariIime
shipping IhaI wouId oIherwise remain invisibIe. !I is hoped IhaI
Ihese IooIs wiII heIp researchers oI mariIime hisIory Io generaIe
new hypoIheses. The IooIs in Ihis paper are based on exisIing
meIhods Ior expIoraIory daIa anaIysis. Their IheoreIic IoundaIion
is evoIuIionary; Ihe IooIs are consIrucIed in such a way IhaI Ihey
aIIow Io discern and inIerpreI processes oI originaIion, adopIion
and reIenIion.
SS2


550 For examples, see: Pieter Dekker, Friese schippers op de Amsterdamse Oostzeevaart in 1731,
It beaken: meidielingen fan de Fryske Akademy 39 (1977): 229-262. George Welling, Price-supply relations
on the Amsterdam staple-market 1778, in From Dunkirk to Danzig: Shipping and Trade in the North Sea
and the Baltic, 1350-1850, ed. W.G. Heeres et.al. (Hilversum: s.n., 1988). Piet Boon, West Friesland and the
Sound (1681-1720). Sound Toll Registers, Sound Toll Tables and the Facts in West Friesland, in: ibidem,
171-189.
551 Jake T. Knoppers, A Comparison of the Sound Toll Accounts and the Amsterdam
Galjootsgeldregisters, Scandinavian Economic History Review 24 (1976): 93-113.
552 Kurt Dopfer and Jason Potts, Te general Teory of Economic Evolution (London/New York:
Routledge, 2008) 134 pp.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
359
A&6,
The presenIed seI oI IooIs was appIied previousIy in a
hisIoricaI case-sIudy anaIysis.
SS3
The hisIoricaI case is as IoIIows.
!n 1703, Ihe Russian Czar PeIer Ihe CreaI Iounded SI. PeIersburg
wiIh Ihe parIicuIar inIenIion oI creaIing a New AmsIerdam". AII
oI Russia's poIicies (Ioreign and domesIic) were direcIed Iowards
Ihe reaIizaIion oI Ihis goaI.
SS4
The execuIion oI PeIer Ihe CreaI's
pIan succeeded in Ihe course oI one generaIion. AIready in 1724,
SI. PeIersburg had acIuaIIy become Russia's New AmsIerdam".
The basic guesIions oI Ihe casesIudy are Ihe IoIIowing: (1) Did
Ihe IoundaIion oI Ihe ciIy oI SI.PeIersburg in Ihe IirsI haII oI
Ihe eighIeenIh cenIury change Ihe sIrucIure oI DuIch mariIime
shipping? (2) WhaI parIicuIar inIIuence did Ihe IoundaIion oI
Ihis Russian ciIy have on Ihe DuIch shipping services indusIry?
These guesIions have been sIudied aI IengIh, using hisIoricaI ship
movemenI daIa as a source and appIying a varieIy oI anaIyIicaI
Iechnigues.
The speciIic geographicaI and IemporaI boundaries oI Ihe
case-sIudy pIay a secondary roIe in Ihis meIhodoIogicaI paper.
The presenIed seI oI IooIs is oI a generaI naIure and is hoped Io
be oI inIeresI Io mariIime hisIorians regardIess oI Iheir speciIic
geographicaI and IemporaI areas oI speciaIizaIion.
553 Werner Scheltjens, De invloed van ruimtelijke verandering op operationele strategien in de
vroeg-moderne Nederlandse scheepvaart: een case-study over de Nederlandse scheepvaart in de Finse Golf en
op Archangel, 1703-1740 (Groningen: Barkhuis Publishing, 2009) 320 pp.
554 Jurij Michajlovi Lotman, Semiotika goroda i gorodskoj kultury: Peterburg (Tartu: Tartuskij
Gosudarstvennyj Universitet, 1984) 139 pp. M. Burovskij, Peterburg kak geografeskij fenomen (Sankt-
Peterburg: Aletejja, 2003) 30-74. Maks ngman, Finljandcy v Peterburge (Sankt-Peterburg: Evropejskij
Dom, 2005) 70-75. Kenneth Rolf Hellebust, Te Real St. Petersburg, Te Russian Review, 62 (2003): 495-
507.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
360
A&6,<61#-: $,6#'16
The resuIIs oI Ihe case sIudy diIIer IundamenIaIIy Irom
Ihe Iindings oI previous anaIyses conducIed on Ihe basis oI a
posiIivisI (neocIassicaI) approach. 8ased on guanIiIicaIion, one
Ihe one hand, oI aII arrivaIs aI AmsIerdam oI DuIch ships coming
Irom Russian porIs in Ihe 8aIIic and WhiIe Seas, and, on Ihe oIher
hand, oI Ihe Ionnage carried by each ship as weII as Ihe size oI each
ship, Ihe Canadian hisIorian ]ake Th. Knoppers has reached Ihe
IoIIowing concIusions
SSS
: (1) Civen Ihe Ionnage oI cargo exporIed,
SI. PeIersburg never repIaced ArchangeI; (2) Civen Ihe number
oI arrivaIs aI AmsIerdam, Narva and ArchangeI wouId be more
imporIanI Ior DuIch shipping wiIh Russia Ihan SI. PeIersburg
IhroughouI Ihe enIire eighIeenIh cenIury; (3) Civen Ihe size oI
Ihe ships, Ihe imporIance oI SI. PeIersburg Ior DuIch shipping
wiIh Russia shouId be vaIued even Iower Ihan whaI Ihe previous
parameIers aIready suggesIed.
Thanks Io Ihe diIIerenI anaIyIicaI Iechnigues, in which Ihe
resIricIive properIies oI guanIiIicaIion were avoided in Iavor oI
boIIom-up aggregaIion preserving individuaI economic acIions, iI
couId be shown IhaI Ihe popuIaIion oI DuIch shipmasIers acIive
on Ihe SI. PeIersburg rouIe represenIed a new popuIaIion wiIh
characIerisIics guiIe diIIerenI Irom Ihose oI Ihe ArchangeI or
Narva popuIaIions. The size oI Ihe ships used on Ihe SI.PeIersburg
rouIe was indeed smaIIer, buI Ihe vaIue oI Ihe goods carried (noI
Iheir Ionnage!) was much Iarger. The eIIecI oI Ihe IoundaIion oI SI.
PeIersburg on DuIch shipping wiIh Russia couId conseguenIIy be
555 Knoppers, Dutch trade with Russia, vol. 1.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
361
described as a conIinuous sIrucIuraI change IhaI originaIed in
individuaI carriers, evoIved inIo popuIaIions oI shipmasIers and
evenIuaIIy Iead Io re-coordinaIion in (parI oI) Ihe DuIch mariIime
shipping services indusIry.

K&1&6,16
Ship movemenI daIa were Iaken Irom Ihree diIIerenI sources:
Ihe Danish Sound ToII RegisIers, Ihe DuIch CaI|ooIsgeIdregisIers,
and Ihe SchipgeIdregisIer oI Abraham Kramer.
SS6
AII Ihree
daIaseIs based on Ihese sources cover roughIy Ihe Iime period
1703-1740, i.e. Ihe period oI Ihis case-sIudy. Their spaIiaI coverage
is compIemenIary. The Danish Sound ToII RegisIers provide
inIormaIion abouI passages oI DuIch ships Ihrough Ihe Sound aI
Isinore and aIIow reconsIrucIing mariIime IraIIic beIween Ihe
8aIIic and NorIh Seas. The CaI|ooIsgeIdregisIers record arrivaIs
oI DuIch ships Irom Ihe 8aIIic and WhiIe Seas aI AmsIerdam. The
SchipgeIdregisIer oI Abraham Kramer IisIs DuIch ships deparIing
aI AmsIerdam on a Irip Io ArchangeI.
ThroughouI Ihe paper, reIerence wiII be made Io sIrucIuraI
eIemenIs oI Ihe Navigocorpus daIabase on uropean mariIime
shipping in Ihe 17
Ih
and 18
Ih
cenIuries
SS7
oI which aII Ihree daIaseIs
are now parI. The consIiIuenI parIs oI Ihe Navigocorpus daIabase
sIrucIure are poinIs (geographicaI IocaIions), cargoes, Iaxes and
556 Stadsarchief Amsterdam, nr. 6. Archief van de Directie van de Moscovische Handel (DMH),
inv. nrs. 58-61, 123. Stadsarchief Amsterdam, nr. 78. Archief van de Directie van de Oostersche Handel en
Reederijen, inv. nrs. 96-99.Tresoar, Leeuwarden: Microflm copy of the Danish Sound toll registers. Films
167-209.
557 ANR 342/2007 Navigocorpus. Silvia Marzagalli, Prsentation du projet Navigocorpus,. Revue
dHistoire Maritime 8 (2007): 337-339.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
362
acIions. or movemenI daIa anaIysis, Navigocorpus' uniIorm
poinI deIiniIion IieIds pIay a key roIe. These IieIds deIine each
poinI (or geographicaI IocaIion) regisIered in Ihe daIabase by iIs
name, IuncIion, rang and observaIion sIaIus in a ship movemenI
regisIraIion.
B/57&' D? Navigocorpus daIabase sIrucIure, uniIorm poinI deIiniIion IieIds

;1$#41#$, ") 19, C&C,$

!n Ihe remainder oI Ihis paper, ! wiII Iocus on Ihe Iechnigues
IhaI have been appIied in Ihe case-sIudy anaIysis. SpeciIicaIIy, ! wiII
describe and assess compuIaIionaI aggregaIion and inIormaIion
visuaIizaIion oI enIiIies and popuIaIions oI shipmasIers and Ihe
varieIy oI Iorms Ihese IechnicaI procedures Iook.
SS8
Cuided by
558 Database operations, like deconstruction of the data into data items, standardization and
reconstruction, will not be discussed separately, although they are fundamental for the successful execution
of the consequent technical procedures of computational aggregation and information visualization. A large
body of literature on database operations in historical studies exists. For relevant information with regard to
(maritime-)historical databases, see: Welling, Te Prize of Neutrality, 80-112. Gerrit Bloothoof, Assessment
of Systems for Nominal Retrieval and Historical record Linkage, Computers and the Humanities 32 (1998):
39-56. J. van Bavel, Demografsche reproductie en sociale evolutie: Geboortebeperking in Leuven 1846-1910
(PhD Diss., University of Leuven, 2001) 363-408. Peter Wakelin, Comprehensive Computerisation of
a very large documentary Source: the Portbooks Project at Wolverhampton Polytechnic, History and
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
363
PeugueI and Andrienko's IypoIogy oI basic descripIive Iasks
SS9
, !
wiII Iry Io provide a generaI overview oI Ihe Iechnigues previousIy
appIied in Ihe case-sIudy anaIysis. OnIy generaI Iasks aimed aI Ihe
discovery oI enIiIy and popuIaIion behaviour wiII be discussed,
and wiIhin Ihis seIecIion oI Iasks onIy Ihose IhaI guesIion Iime in
a generaI way (i.e. IooIs Ior Ihe anaIysis oI Iime momenIs are IeII
ouI).
AppIicaIion oI Ihese IimiIaIions resuIIs in a seIecIion oI Iour
basic descripIive Iasks IhaI are deemed appropriaIe Io discover
Ihe operaIionaI sIrucIure oI hisIoricaI mariIime shipping. The Iour
basic descripIive Iasks guesIion enIiIies, popuIaIions, IocaIions
and seIs oI IocaIions. The IisI couId be exIended wiIh Iime-reIaIed
guesIions, buI Ihis IaIIs ouI oI Ihe scope oI Ihis paper.
S60

<#=,' >? Overview oI basic knowIedge discovery Iasks. 8ased on Andrienko,
Andrienko and CaIaIsky (2003)
Computing [1987]: 109-115.
559 N. Andrienko and G. Andrienko, Exploratory Analysis of Spatial and Temporal Data: A
systematic Approach (Springer, 2006), xvi, 703 pp. D.J. Peuquet, Its about time: a conceptual framework
for the representation of temporal dynamics in geographic information systems, Annals of the Association
of American Geographers 84(1994) : 441-461., Donna J. Peuquet, Making Space for Time: Issues in Space-
Time Data Representation, GeoInformatica 5 (2001): 11-32.
560 For more information of time-related questions and the corresponding basic descriptive tasks,
see Natalia Andrienko, Gennady Andrienko and Peter Gatalsky, Exploratory spatio-temporal visualization:
an analytical review, Journal of Visual Languages and Computing 14 (2003): 504-541.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
364
ach oI Ihese Iasks wiII be deveIoped IurIher making a
disIincIion beIween Ihree cogniIive operaIions - idenIiIicaIion,
cIassiIicaIion and comparison - , which deIine Ihe sIrucIure and
Iay-ouI oI Ihe anaIyIicaI IooIs corresponding Io Ihe basic descripIive
Iasks. !I musI be cIear Irom Ihe ouIseI IhaI Ihe paper wiII Iocus
soIeIy on providing a generaI review oI anaIyIicaI IooIs and noI
on Iheir inIerpreIaIion. AII Ihe IooIs IhaI wiII be presenIed beIow
are 'simpIe' IooIs IhaI do noI reguire programming skiIIs. Two
main IooIs were deveIoped wiIh Ihe aim oI IaciIiIaIing Ihe above
menIioned cogniIive operaIions Ior Ihe Iour basic descripIive Iasks
inIroduced earIier.
ach oI Ihem has a range oI possibIe visuaIizaIions and ! wiII
Iocus expIiciIIy on Ihose visuaIizaIions IhaI are - in my opinion - Ihe
mosI advanIageous Ior Ihe idenIiIicaIion oI enIiIies and IocaIions.
Some oI Ihese visuaIizaIions wiII be absIracI; some oIhers wiII make
use oI C!S IooIs. !n Ihe IoIIowing paragraphs, ! wiII brieIIy address
Ihe sIrucIure oI a basic daIa series upon which expIoraIory daIa
anaIysis can be based ( S). Then, ! wiII presenI Ihe Iwo main IooIs
IhaI were deveIoped wiIh Ihe aim oI IaciIiIaIing idenIiIicaIion and
cIassiIicaIion Ior Ihe seIecIed basic descripIive Iasks ( 6 and 7). !n
paragraph 8, ! reIurn Io Ihe case-sIudy Ior a brieI appIicaIion
oI Ihe presenIed IooIs in a comparaIive seIIing. The paper cIoses
wiIh an overview oI Iasks, cogniIive operaIions and Iheir respecIive
IooIs IoIIowed by an overaII assessmenI oI Ihe presenIed meIhod (
9 and 10).

Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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365
M&654 K&1& 6,$5,6
AII Ihe anaIyIicaI IooIs presenIed in Ihis paper are buiII
upon daIa series IhaI conIains aI IeasI Ihe IoIIowing variabIes:
name oI Ihe shipmasIer, Iime, homeporI, direcIion oI Ihe movemenI
and one or more poinIs oI graviIy wiIh Iheir respecIive IuncIions
in a regisIered geographicaI Ira|ecIory.
S61
!n Ihese daIa series, Ihe
number oI regisIraIions is counIed Ior previousIy esIabIished Iime
inIervaIs (usuaIIy one year) and Ior a previousIy esIabIished Iime
period. The resuII is a daIaseI IhaI capIures Ihe movemenI in Iime
oI individuaI shipmasIers. This daIaseI is in IacI a Iwo-dimensionaI
absIracIion oI Ihe regisIered movemenI oI individuaI shipmasIers
and serves as Ihe basis Ior IurIher expIoraIion oI hisIoricaI ship
movemenI daIa by means oI idenIiIicaIion, cIassiIicaIion and
comparison.
<#=,' @? 8asic daIa series schema. A = deparIure, O = observaIion, T =
desIinaIion
SeveraI guanIiIicaIions are immediaIeIy possibIe using Ihe
basic daIa series IabIe, buI onIy one oI Ihem wiII be discussed brieIIy
561 It is important to note that the name of a shipmaster and/or the name of a ship are used to
identify economic entities in historical ship movement data rather than specifc persons or ships.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
366
here, because oI Ihe speciIic inIeresI Ihey presenI Ior Ihe Iopic oI
Ihis paper. !I is Ihe Ireguency disIribuIion oI porIs oI deparIure in
Ihe 8aIIic Ior DuIch shipmasIers aI Iime momenIs 171S and 1740. !n
Ihis exampIe, DuIch shipmasIers consIiIuIe Ihe given seI oI enIiIies.
!I shouId be noIed IhaI a seI oI enIiIies can be deIined on Ihe basis
oI a number oI criIeria ranging Irom idenIicaI homeporI Io sharing
desIinaIion, cargo carried or even cerIain IemporaI characIerisIics.
O5.#$, ZJ PoinIs oI deparIure oI DuIch ships in Ihe 8aIIic 171S. Map creaIed
by ].P. Dedieu (NS de Lyon)
Comparison oI Ihe Ireguency disIribuIion oI porIs oI
deparIure in Ihe 8aIIic Ior DuIch shipmasIers in 171S and 1740
immediaIeIy brings Io IighI a series oI changes. irsI oI aII, iI can be
seen IhaI Ihe Swedish coasI was abandoned in 1740, whiIe in 171S
severaI Swedish porIs were used by DuIch shipmasIers. SecondIy, a
cIear upswing in Ihe amounI oI ship movemenIs can be read Irom
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
367
Ihe maps, providing evidence Ior Ihe disIurbing eIIecIs oI warIare
in Ihe 8aIIic on mariIime shipping. ThirdIy, and mosI imporIanIIy,
comparison oI Ihe 171S and 1740 maps shows IhaI inIensive
shipping Io Ihe CuII oI inIand musI have emerged aIIer 171S. On
Ihe 1740 map, Ihe CuII oI inIand, wiIh iIs porIs SI. PeIersburg,
Narva, Vyborg, RevaI, and HeIsingIors, appears as one oI Ihe core
regions oI DuIch shipping acIiviIy in Ihe 8aIIic, nexI Io Ihe main
porIs Riga, Koningsbergen and Danzig.
O5.#$, WJ PoinIs oI deparIure oI DuIch ships in Ihe 8aIIic 1740. Map creaIed
by ].P. Dedieu (NS de Lyon)
3%151: K:%&054 1""'6

The IirsI anaIyIicaI IooI is drawn up Ior individuaI porIs
(regardIess oI Iheir acIuaI IuncIion in a ship movemenI, incIuding
homeporI, porI oI deparIure, porI oI desIinaIion and inIermediary
porIs oI caII). !I conIains inIormaIion abouI Ihe behaviour oI
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
368
individuaI shipmasIers, groups oI shipmasIers and Iheir reIaIion
Io one speciIied poinI oI graviIy. The IirsI IooI is caIIed enIiIy
dynamics IooIs and iI answers Io Ihe demands oI Ihe IirsI and Ihird
descripIive Iasks.
K0'"6/9/2#6/*"
!denIiIicaIion oI enIiIies in Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI can Iake
a varieIy oI Iorms, buI is mosI eIIicienI when one poinI oI graviIy
and one direcIion oI movemenI are isoIaIed. !n Navigocorpus, Ihis
is done by seIecIing one poinI oI graviIy, one direcIion and adding
eiIher desIinaIion oI deparIure inIormaIion Io Ihe seIecIion.
S62

The variabIe is Ihe name oI Ihe shipmasIer, Ihe seIecIed poinI
oI desIinaIion/deparIure is Ihe consIanI, and Ihe number oI
corresponding regisIraIions is caIcuIaIed Ior a previousIy deIined
Iime inIervaI. !n iIs mosI basic Iorm, Ihe resuII oI Ihis idenIiIicaIion
process is visuaIized as a Iwo-dimensionaI IabIe. AnoIher Iype
oI idenIiIicaIion singIes ouI one rouIe (by seIecIing one poinI oI
deparIure, one poinI oI observaIion and one IinaI desIinaIion) and
is consIrucIed in anaIogy wiIh Ihe IirsI Iype. Again, in iIs mosI basic
Iorm, Ihe resuIIs are visuaIized as a Iwo-dimensionaI IabIe.
!n our case, DuIch shipmasIers consIiIuIe Ihe seI oI enIiIies.
The poinIs oI graviIy IhaI have been sIudied are ArchangeI, Narva,
Vyborg and SI. PeIersburg. The Iime period IhaI has been anaIyzed
is 1703-1740, wiIh IurIher disIincIion made beIween Ihe periods
1703-1717, 1718-1724, 172S-1731 and 1732-1740. The Iime inIervaI
was seI aI one year IhroughouI Ihe casesIudy. !n Ihe IoIIowing IabIe,
562 In Navigocorpus, the choice between destination and departure is made by selecting the
corresponding function in the uniform point defnition felds. A stands for point of departure, O for point
of observation and T for fnal destination.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
369
Ihe enIiIies (i.e. Ihe shipmasIers) regisIered as deparIing Irom poinI
oI graviIy Narva in Ihe period 172S-1731 are idenIiIied.
B/57&' O? nIiIy dynamics IooI, basic IabIe. ragmenI represenIing DuIch
shipping Irom Narva 172S-1731
%,#((/9/2#6/*"
NexI Io Ihe basic visuaIizaIion as a IabIe, Ihe resuIIs oI
idenIiIicaIion oI shipmasIers in Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI can
be aggregaIed in severaI ways. MosI imporIanIIy, cIassiIicaIion
addresses (a) Ihe dynamics oI popuIaIions, (b) Ihe operaIionaI
sIraIegies oI individuaI enIiIies and (c) Ihe behaviour oI seI
oI enIiIies (or popuIaIions). The IaIIer are done appIying Iwo
reIaIed cIassiIicaIion Iechnigues, nameIy: operaIionaI paIIern
cIassiIicaIion and Ihe paIIern densiIy raIe. The Iormer is Ihe resuII
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
370
oI Ihe cIassiIicaIion oI enIiIies according Io Iheir sIaIus wiIhin a
popuIaIion.

#C U"6/6R (6#67( 2,#((/9/2#6/*"
nIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion is based on Iour parameIers:
new and known enIiIy suppIy, incidenIaI parIicipaIion (once)
and reguIar parIicipaIion (more Ihan once) oI enIiIies. During
cIassiIicaIion aII Iour parameIers are reIaIed Io Ihe IoIaI suppIy
(i.e. Ihe size oI a popuIaIion during a cerIain Iime inIervaI), boIh in
absoIuIe numbers and as reIaIive shares.
B/57&' S ? nIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion: deIiniIions
The underIying assumpIion Ior enIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion is
IhaI a rouIe conIinuousIy needs new suppIy in order Io deveIop and
avoid sIagnaIion. However, a rouIe cannoI survive wiIhouI sIabiIiIy
(i.e. a share oI IoIaI suppIy IhaI is ascerIained Ior a number oI
consecuIive years). Through comparison oI Ihe share oI new suppIy
and Ihe share oI known parIicipanIs" on a cerIain rouIe aI a cerIain
poinI in Iime, various sIages in Ihe deveIopmenI oI popuIaIions can
be addressed and anaIyzed. !I aIIows deIermining when sIagnaIion
becomes a probIem, in oIher words: iI aIIows deIermining when
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
371
a rouIe is sIarIing Io decIine. The IirsI Iwo visuaIizaIions oI enIiIy
sIaIus cIassiIicaIion are charIs conIaining inIormaIion abouI
Ihe IoIaI annuaI number oI shipmasIers acIive in one porI and
Ihe amounI oI new shipmasIers enIering Ihe porI in one year, as
opposed Io Ihe number oI shipmasIers IhaI had aIready been in
Ihis porI previousIy. The IirsI charI conIains absoIuIe numbers; Ihe
second one shows reIaIive posiIions.
B/57&' [? nIiIy cIassiIicaIion sIaIus, DuIch shipmasIers on Narva rouIe
1702-1740, absoIuIe numbers
B/57&' >]? nIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion, DuIch shipmasIers on Narva rouIe
1702-1740, reIaIive posiIions
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
372
The Ihird charI visuaIizes Ihe reIaIion beIween shipmasIers
IhaI have been Io Ihe porI under sIudy onIy once as opposed Io Ihe
reIaIive number oI shipmasIers IhaI made more Ihan one |ourney
Io Ihis porI.
B/57&' >>? nIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion, DuIch shipmasIers on Narva rouIe,
incidenIaI vs. reguIar members
nIiIy sIaIus cIassiIicaIion is a verIicaI Iype oI aggregaIion,
in which behaviour oI individuaI shipmasIers is guanIiIied Ior
given Iime inIervaIs (in Ihe charIs above Ihe Iime period was 172S-
1731, Ihe Iime inIervaI one year).
PU NC,$&15"%&' C&11,$% 4'&665)54&15"%
The second Iype oI cIassiIicaIion based on Ihe enIiIy
dynamics IooI is operaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion, providing
breakdowns oI Ihe individuaI behaviouraI paIIerns IhaI shipmasIers
adopIed in Iheir acIiviIies on one rouIe. OperaIionaI paIIern
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
373
cIassiIicaIion is a horizonIaI Iype oI cIassiIicaIion based on Ihe enIiIy
dynamics IabIe. !I provides summary views oI operaIionaI paIIerns
oI individuaI shipmasIers acIive aI a cerIain IocaIion during a given
Iime period. A summary view oI Ihe individuaI paIIerns capIured
by operaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion has IoIaI Iime eIapsed and
IoIaI number oI (reIurn) voyages as iIs parameIers. This summary
view can be enIarged wiIh a paIIern densiIy raIe (PDR), which is
discussed in Ihe IoIIowing paragraph.

B/57&' >@? OperaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion Ior DuIch shipmasIers on
ArchangeI rouIe
2C P#66'&" 0'"(/6R &#6'
The Ihird Iype oI cIassiIicaIion based on Ihe enIiIy dynamics
IabIe is Ihe paIIern densiIy raIe (PDR), which is a caIcuIaIion oI
Ihe Iime Irame oI a parIicuIar operaIionaI paIIern divided by Ihe
number oI voyages execuIed wiIhin Ihis Iime Irame. The cIoser
Ihe paIIern densiIy raIe comes Io Ihe benchmark (8M) (i.e. Ihe
empiricaIIy esIabIished highesI possibIe number oI reIurn voyages
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
374
Io a porI oI caII wiIhin a period oI Iime), Ihe smaIIer Ihe Iime Irame
in which Ihe shipmasIer carried ouI his voyages. The paIIern densiIy
raIe can be read as Ihe number oI years one shipmasIer needs Io
carry ouI one |ourney Io a cerIain desIinaIion, or Io a cerIain seI oI
desIinaIions.
The inIormaIion conIained in Ihe paIIern densiIy raIe is a
reIevanI addiIion Io Ihe Ireguency disIribuIion inIroduced earIier
(see S). Using Ihe benchmark as a IooI Ior cIassiIicaIion, disIincIion
can be made beIween Iour main operaIionaI sIraIegy Iypes. The
IirsI Iype is IhaI oI one-Iime-onIy parIicipanIs. The second Iype is
IhaI oI sporadic (incidenIaI) parIicipanIs who exporIed/imporIed
Irom Iime Io Iime Irom a cerIain IocaIion or a pre-deIined group oI
IocaIions. The Ihird Iype is IhaI oI reguIar parIicipanIs, who were
acIive or even very acIive in shipping Io or Irom a cerIain IocaIion
or a pre-deIined group oI IocaIions during a resIricIed period oI
Iime.
The IourIh Iype is IhaI oI speciaIized parIicipanIs, who have
an operaIionaI paIIern IhaI shows (guasi) permanenI presence in
shipping Io or Irom a cerIain IocaIion or a pre-deIined group oI
IocaIions.
B/57&' >A? OperaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion: a IypoIogy
!n Ihis paper, Ihe paIIern densiIy raIe is based on Ihe maximaI
number oI Sound passages Irom Ihe 8aIIic Io Ihe AIIanIic. !I no such
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
375
passage regisIraIions are avaiIabIe, benchmarking musI be done
Ior speciIic desIinaIions (or desIinaIion cIusIers) or Ior speciIic
homeporIs (or homeporI cIusIers). !I Ihis is Ihe case, Ihe Ireguency
disIribuIion inIroduced earIier wiII be oI heIp discovering reIevanI
desIinaIions or homeporIs Ior a given IocaIion or seI oI IocaIions.
;C&15&' -:%&0546 1""'
The second anaIyIicaI IooI is Ihe spaIiaI dynamics IooI.
This IooI is based on Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI. !I provides deIaiIs
abouI Ihe membership" oI shipmasIers in various popuIaIions and
consisIs oI comparaIive charIs based on Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI.
The spaIiaI dynamics IooI aIIows (1) discerning when shipmasIers
changed rouIes, whiIe aIso (2) providing Ihe necessary inIormaIion
Io esIabIish wheIher or noI such changes occurred in Ihe paIIerns
oI many shipmasIers aI Ihe same Iime. Moreover, Ihe spaIiaI
change IooI aIIows (3) esIabIishing Ihe Iong Ierm eIIecIs oI spaIiaI
shiIIs, making iI possibIe Io separaIe permanenI Irom Iemporary
shiIIs, whiIe aIso (4) making evoIuIions Iowards Ihe esIabIishmenI
oI operaIionaI paIIerns wiIh greaIer compIexiIy visibIe.
K0'"6/9/2#6/*"
The characIerisIics oI a given enIiIy aI a seI oI IocaIions
during Iime period I1 Io I2 Iorm Ihe basic inIormaIion uniIs oI Ihe
spaIiaI dynamics IooI, which has a primary Iocus on seIs oI enIiIies
(popuIaIions). This said, Ihe discovery Iask IhaI is eIemenIary wiIh
regard Io Ihe enIiIy musI noI necessariIy be described separaIeIy.
The spaIiaI characIerisIics oI enIiIies and seIs oI enIiIies can be
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
376
idenIiIied Ihrough one shared procedure.
The idenIiIicaIion process sIarIs wiIh a given seI oI
IocaIions and a given Iime period. nIiIies maIching Ihese criIeria
are seIecIed Irom Ihe basic daIa series. Then, Ihe seIecIed daIa
is dedupIicaIed and maIched, using exisIing record Iinkage
Iechnigues
S63
. The resuIIing daIa seI is a Iime series in which each
appearance oI an enIiIy aI one or more oI Ihe given IocaIions is
highIighIed. One possibIe Iay-ouI oI Ihe spaIiaI dynamics IooI is
Ihe IoIIowing:
B/57&' >D? SpaIiaI dynamics IooI. ragmenI represenIing Ihe spaIiaI
dynamics oI DuIch shipping in Ihe CuII oI inIand and on ArchangeI,
1718-1724. AbbreviaIions: A = ArchangeI, N = Narva, S = SI. PeIersburg, V
= Vyborg.
563 In the presented case-study, record linkage was done in a semi-automated way. Names, frst
names and patronymics were matched with a thesaurus of Dutch names frst. Te non-matches were
attributed standard names on the basis of a previously defned decision-making process. Automatic
record linkage procedures are widely available nowadays. See for instance Link Plus for open-source name
deduplication and matching sofware that uses Soundex and NYSIIS algorithms.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
377
ObviousIy, Ihe above visuaIizaIion has iIs IimiIaIions: Ihere
is no Ireguency daIa avaiIabIe in Ihis represenIaIion. This Ioss is
IimIiIed when Ihe caIIing Ireguency oI Ihe seI oI enIiIies is Iow,
buI iI becomes a probIem when iI is higher and more diIIerenI
IocaIions can be caIIed aI wiIhin Ihe given Iime inIervaI. OIher
visuaIizaIion Iechnigues wiII have Io be soughI Ior Io IackIe Ihis
probIem.
WhiIe Ihe spaIiaI dynamics oI a singIe enIiIy can be read
direcIIy Irom Ihe above represenIaIion, iI is in some cases more
adeguaIe Io reconsIrucI Ihe individuaI shipmasIer's acIiviIies
in deIaiI. This eIaboraIion can be seen as an exIension Io Ihe
spaIiaI dynamics IooI, in Ihe sense IhaI Ihe changes IhaI occurred
in Ihe shipmasIers' acIiviIies are now described wiIhouI Iosing
Ireguency daIa and wiIh Ihe possibiIiIy oI incIuding oIher daIa
Iypes (cargo daIa, ship daIa, eIc). ReconsIrucIion oI Ihe operaIionaI
paIIern oI a singIe shipmasIer invoIves a process IhaI sIarIs wiIh
daIa seIecIion in one or more basic daIa series. The nexI sIeps are
comparison, maIching and compiIaIion inIo one meIaIiIe, which
can be visuaIized using C!S IooIs or represenIed in a descripIive
way.

Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
378
B/57&' >E? !ndividuaI career paIIern, incIuding Navigocorpus' uniIorm
poinI deIiniIion IieIds
Minor diIIerences beIween daIa iIems in Ihe various
sources musI be described in order Io make Ihe underIying maIch
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
379
scoring process IraceabIe. ReconsIrucIion oI Ihe operaIions oI one
singIe shipmasIer is a Iime-consuming process and wiII IhereIore
seIdom be used aI IengIh in mariIime-hisIoricaI research. However,
iI may serve weII as a sIarIing poinI Ior IurIher anaIysis, and when
geospaIiaI visuaIizaIion oI Ihe shipmasIer's operaIions is appIied, iI
may aIso be used as a IooI Ior hypoIhesis generaIion.
%,#((/9/2#6/*"
CIassiIicaIion oI Ihe daIa idenIiIied in Ihe spaIiaI dynamics
IooI is done eiIher Irom an enIiIy poinI oI view or Irom a IocaIionaI
poinI oI view. !n Ihe Iormer case, enIiIies are cIassiIied according
Io Ihe Ireguency oI rouIe changes occurring in Ihe operaIionaI
paIIerns oI shipmasIers aI a given seI oI IocaIions. !n Ihe IaIIer case,
enIiIies are cIassiIied according Io Ihe spaIiaI characIerisIics oI
rouIe changes occurring in Ihe operaIionaI paIIerns oI shipmasIers
aI a given IocaIion. The ouIcome oI Ihese cIassiIicaIions varies
depending on Ihe angIe chosen. AbsIracI views oI rouIe changes
are deemed mosI appropriaIe in boIh cases. 8eIow is a summary
view oI Ihe number oI shipmasIers IhaI carried ouI Iheir IasI reIurn
voyage Io ArchangeI in a given year. The charI beIow visuaIizes Ihe
abandonmenI oI Ihe ArchangeI rouIe, as a conseguence oI PeIer
Ihe CreaI's resIricIive economic poIicies Iowards Ihis WhiIe Sea
porI. The Iurnaround on Ihe ArchangeI rouIe Iook pIace beIween
1718 and 1723. AI IeasI 10 shipmasIers execuIed Iheir IasI voyage Io
ArchangeI each year, wiIh a peak oI 19 in 1723.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
380
B/57&' >F? The abandonmenI oI Ihe ArchangeI rouIe by DuIch shipmasIers,
1718-1731
The above represenIaIion addresses Ihe spaIiaI
characIerisIics oI a parIicuIar kind oI rouIe change (i.e. abandonmenI
oI a rouIe). !I does noI aIIow esIabIishing where Ihe shipmasIer wenI
aIIer having abandoned Ihe ArchangeI rouIe. When cIassiIicaIion
is done according Io Ihe Ireguency oI rouIe changes occurring in
Ihe operaIionaI paIIerns oI shipmasIers aI a given seI oI IocaIions,
Ihe spaIiaI characIerisIics oI Ihese rouIe changes can be addressed.
When concenIraIing IurIher on Ihe shipmasIers who execuIed Iheir
IasI reIurn voyage Io ArchangeI in Ihe period 1718-1724, a sIrucIuraI
spaIiaI evoIuIion can be idenIiIied. 33 DuIch shipmasIers shiIIed
Irom parIicipaIion on Ihe ArchangeI rouIe Io parIicipaIion on one
oI Ihe rouIes Io Ihe easIern parI oI Ihe CuII oI inIand. or seven
oI Ihem, Ihis shiII was a one-oII evenI; Ihe oIher 26 wouId remain
acIive in Ihe easIern parI oI Ihe CuII oI inIand in second haII oI Ihe
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
381
1720s and someIimes up Io Ihe earIy 1730s. ThaI aImosI 1/3 oI Ihe
DuIch shipmasIers IormerIy acIive on Ihe ArchangeI rouIe wouId
venIure an aIIempI on Ihe rouIes Io Ihe easIern parI oI Ihe CuII oI
inIand is sIriking; IhaI Ihis did noI remain a one-oII evenI Ior Ihe
ma|oriIy oI Ihem is even more unexpecIed.
CIassiIicaIion oI spaIiaI dynamics does noI necessariIy
invoIve rouIe changes. The Narva rouIe deveIoped aI greaI pace and
was dominaIed by a group oI reguIar parIicipanIs invoIved in Ihe
exporIaIion oI Iimber Irom Narva Io Ihe NeIherIands. SpeciaIizaIion
as a basic characIerisIic oI Ihe Narva popuIaIion Iinds expression
in Ihe IoIIowing graph, which visuaIizes Ihe dynamics oI Ihe share
oI 'new' and 'known' popuIaIion members. CIearIy, Ihe dominanI
behaviour was IhaI oI risk IimiIaIion and eIIiciency gains Ihrough
Ihe adopIion oI an operaIionaI sIraIegy based on reguIariIy and
repeIiIion. inaIIy, in Ihe Narva popuIaIion a new ruIe emerged
aIIer 1724, nameIy IhaI oI execuIing Iwo reIurn voyages Irom
AmsIerdam Io Narva in Ihe course oI one year.
B/57&' >O? DuIch shipmasIers on Narva rouIe, Iwo reIurn voyages in one
year, 172S-1731 COMPAR!SON
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
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382
A"0C&$56"%
Comparison is a key IeaIure oI boIh Ihe enIiIy and
spaIiaI dynamics IooIs and iI encompasses aII Ihe absIracIions,
aggregaIions and visuaIizaIions described in Ihe previous
paragraphs. Comparison may be as simpIe as comparing previous
absIracI and geospaIiaI represenIaIions oI idenIiIied and cIassiIied
ship movemenI daIa, buI iI may aIso invoIve compIex procedures
when Iarge Iime periods and Iarge seIs oI IocaIions are compared.
AIIer having inIroduced some key aspecIs oI Ihe abandonmenI oI
Ihe ArchangeI rouIe and Ihe emergence oI Ihe Narva rouIe, we wiII
concIude our review oI anaIyIicaI IooIs by comparing Ihe previous
graphs and IabIes wiIh Ihe resuIIs acguired Ior Ihe popuIaIion oI
DuIch shipmasIers acIive aI SI.PeIersburg.
B/57&' >S? ArchangeI vs. SI. PeIersburg, new and known parIicipanIs,
1697-1740
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
383
The conIinuous Iines represenI Ihe emergence oI Ihe SI.
PeIersburg popuIaIion in absoIuIe numbers, disIinguishing beIween
'new' and 'known' popuIaIion members; Ihe doIIed Iines pIoI Ihe
evoIuIion oI new and known parIicipanIs on Ihe ArchangeI rouIe.
We can acknowIedge Ihe IacI IhaI Ihe decIine oI Ihe ArchangeI
popuIaIion and Ihe emergence oI Ihe SI. PeIersburg popuIaIion
coincided, and iI is Iair Io say IhaI Ihis is reIaIed Io Ihe IoundaIion
oI SI. PeIersburg and iIs subseguenI promoIion oI (Ioreign) Irade
Ihrough Ihis new gaIeway (see 1 and 2). !I wouId, however, be
wrong Io assume IhaI DuIch shipping moved Irom Ihe ArchangeI
rouIe Io Ihe SI. PeIersburg rouIe Ior one IundamenIaI reason: boIh
rouIes had disIincI popuIaIions, each wiIh Iheir own properIies,
and - as can be seen on Ihe visuaIizaIion beIow - no signiIicanI
overIap exisIed beIween Ihem.
B/57&' >[? VisuaIizaIion oI overIap beIween popuIaIions oI DuIch
shipmasIers acIive on ArchangeI and SI. PeIersburg rouIes, 1718-1731
!n Ihe above visuaIizaIion, Ihe inIerchangeabiIiIy oI rouIes
is represenIed by Ihe respecIive guanIiIies oI popuIaIion members
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
384
appearing on boIh rouIes during a pre-deIined Iime period. !n Ihe
Iime period 1718-1724 Ihese respecIive percenIages were 18,7S
and 14,63 , in Ihe Iime period 172S-1731 Ihey diminished Io 4,44
and 1,14 Ior Ihe ArchangeI and SI. PeIersburg rouIe respecIiveIy.
The disIincIive properIies oI Ihe SI. PeIersburg rouIe in
DuIch mariIime shipping aIso appear very cIearIy when paIIern
densiIy raIe and operaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion are compared
Ior Ihe ArchangeI, Narva and SI. PeIersburg rouIes.
B/57&' @]? OperaIionaI paIIern cIassiIicaIion Ior ArchangeI, Narva, SI.
PeIersburg and Vyborg popuIaIions oI DuIch shipmasIers, 1732-1740
The shares oI 'new' and 'known' parIicipanIs on Ihe SI.
PeIersburg rouIe diIIer greaIIy Irom Ihe popuIaIion dynamics on Ihe
Narva rouIe. ParIIy, Ihis is due Io Ihe disIincI IocaIion characIerisIics
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
385
oI Narva and SI. PeIersburg, which inIIuenced Ihe size oI Ihe ships
IhaI couId be used Ior shipping Io Ihese desIinaIions.
S64
More
IundamenIaI, however, are Ihe disIincI operaIionaI sIraIegies
IhaI were appIied by eiIher popuIaIion. This diIIerence is direcIIy
reIaIed Io Ihe posiIion oI Narva and SI. PeIersburg in Ihe 8aIIic
commerciaI sysIem. Narva was a Iimber exporI ouIIeI excIusiveIy,
whiIe SI. PeIersburg was Russia's new gaIeway Ior boIh imporIs and
exporIs oI vaIuabIe goods and Iinished producIs. The SI. PeIersburg
popuIaIion seems Io have been a popuIaIion IhaI consIiIuIed oI
many 'incidenIaI' parIicipanIs, meaning IhaI Ihese parIicipanIs
appeared on Ihe SI. PeIersburg rouIe when Ihere were speciIic
opporIuniIies Io seize. The Narva popuIaIion, on Ihe oIher hand,
was dominaIed by speciIic groups oI shipmasIers wiIh Ihe same
origin, which parIicipaIed reguIarIy on Ihe same rouIe. inaIIy,
comparison oI Ihe spaIiaI dynamics oI DuIch shipping Io ArchangeI,
Narva, Vyborg and SI. PeIersburg brings Io IighI Ihe cIusIering
oI Ihe ArchangeI, Narva and Vyborg rouIes as compIemenIary
desIinaIions, whiIe Ihe SI. PeIersburg rouIe conIinues Io sIand ouI.
This is esIabIished on Ihe basis oI a comparison oI Ihe popuIaIions
oI each oI Ihe Iour desIinaIions sIudied. The number oI popuIaIion
members shared wiIh anoIher popuIaIion is used as a measure Ior
overIap beIween desIinaIions.
564 Te harbour of St. Petersburg was shallow and hard to reach for the large ships that called
at Narva, Vyborg and Archangel. For more information, see: Robert E. Jones, Getting the Goods to St.
Petersburg: Water transport from the interior 1703-1811, Slavic Review 43 (1984): 413-433.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
386
B/57&' @>? OverIap beIween ArchangeI, Narva, SI. PeIersburg and Vyborg
popuIaIions oI DuIch shipmasIers as indicaIor oI cIusIering oI desIinaIions,
1732-1740

;#00&$:

!n Ihe previous paragraphs, Iwo main anaIyIicaI IooIs
were inIroduced: Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI ( 6) and Ihe spaIiaI
dynamics IooI ( 7). or boIh IooIs, idenIiIicaIion and cIassiIicaIion
possibiIiIies were examined and represenIed, providing a IoIaI
oI eighI visuaIizaIions wiIh a basic daIa series ( S) as common
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
387
sIarIing poinI. The idenIiIicaIion sIep oI Ihe enIiIy dynamics IooI
resuIIed in Ihe enIiIy dynamics IabIe ( 6.1). This IabIe Ihen served
as Ihe basis Ior Ihree cIassiIicaIion operaIions covering enIiIy
sIaIus ( 6.2.1), operaIionaI paIIerns ( 6.2.2) and paIIern densiIy (
6.2.3). The idenIiIicaIion sIep oI Ihe spaIiaI dynamics IooI resuIIed
in Ihe spaIiaI dynamics IabIe ( 7.1), which in Iurn was Ihe sIarIing
poinI Ior esIabIishing Ihe enIiIy and spaIiaI characIerisIics oI
rouIe changes ( 7.2). Comparison - Ihe Ihird cogniIive operaIion
in our survey ( 8) - Iook Iour diIIerenI Iorms: (1) comparison oI
represenIaIions resuIIing Irom idenIiIicaIion and cIassiIicaIion
(Iigure 1S), (2) visuaIizaIion oI Ihe inIerchangeabiIiIy oI rouIes
(Iigure 16), (3) comparison oI paIIern densiIy raIes Ior seIs oI
enIiIies (Iigure 17) and (4) cIusIering oI rouIes (Iigure 18).
<#=,' A? Overview oI basic knowIedge discovery Iasks wiIh indicaIion oI
corresponding IooIs
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
388
Q66,660,%1
The enIiIy and spaIiaI dynamics IooIs address Ihe
enIrepreneuriaI dimension oI mariIime IransporIaIion. The enIiIy
dynamics IooI aIIows anaIyzing enIrepreneuriaI behaviour, boIh
Ior individuaIs and Ior groups (popuIaIions). !I provides simpIe
IooIs Ior Ihe idenIiIicaIion, cIassiIicaIion and comparison oI some
key IeaIures oI enIrepreneuriaI behaviour. The spaIiaI dynamics
IooI has a primary Iocus on space, and iIs inIeracIion wiIh
enIrepreneuriaI behaviour. The spaIiaI dynamics IooI provides
deIaiIed and muIIi-IaceIed insighIs in Ihe spaIiaI properIies oI
enIrepreneuriaI behaviour, boIh Ior individuaIs and Ior groups.
Temporary and permanenI changes in Ihe operaIionaI sIraIegies
oI popuIaIions oI shipmasIers become apparenI in Ihe absIracI
and geographicaI spaIiaI visuaIizaIion oI mariIime shipping
operaIions. Time is omnipresenI in aII oI Ihe presenIed IooIs,
which is a necessary prereguisiIe Ior Iheir successIuI appIicaIion in
evoIuIionary anaIysis.
The combinaIion oI boIh inIormaIion science and
evoIuIionary economics carries a greaI promise. MariIime-hisIoricaI
research couId become an acknowIedged scienIiIic discipIine
wiIh a cIear research agenda. One poIenIiaI area oI research is
Ihe sIudy oI operaIionaI knowIedge cIusIers and Iheir roIe in Ihe
deveIopmenI oI mariIime shipping in Ihe earIy-modern period.
The underIying idea is IhaI Ihe combinaIion oI inIormaIion science
and Ihe generaI anaIyIicaI Iramework oI evoIuIionary economics
provide Ihe necessary Iechnigues and anaIyIicaI IooIs Io show how
compeIiIion beIween (...) agenIs, based on Ihe core evoIuIionary
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
389
principIes oI varieIy, seIecIion and reIenIion, may produce disIincI
economic regions sharing properIies IhaI diIIerenIiaIe Ihem Irom
eIsewhere".
S6S
Moreover, Ihe evoIuIionary inIormaIion science IhaI
mariIime shipping shouId become, couId serve as a proIound basis
Ior anaIyzing how Ihe emergenI properIies oI economic agenIs
and pIaces co-evoIve and Iead Io diIIerenI Ira|ecIories oI economic
deveIopmenI over space".
S66
This arIicIe onIy presenIs whaI couId become a IypoIogy
oI anaIyIicaI IooIs IhaI can be creaIed empIoying Ihe principIes oI
expIoraIory daIa anaIysis. urIher work is necessary Io incIude a
cIearIy deIined cargo dimension in Ihe scope oI Ihe anaIysis. DaIa
series covering Ionger Iime periods need Io be made avaiIabIe
so IhaI Ihe presenIed IooIs can be eIaboraIed in IhaI direcIion as
weII. On Ihe one hand, Ihe generaI naIure oI daIa anaIysis using
Ihe enIiIy dynamics and spaIiaI change IooIs aIready makes
comparison oI disIanI Iime periods viabIe. A range oI noveI Iopics
Ior IuIure mariIime-hisIoricaI research can easiIy be generaIed
wiIh Ihe simpIe IooIs aI hand. On Ihe oIher hand, Iong Iime series
wiII - iI expIored using Ihe IooIs presenIed in Ihis paper - enhance
Ihe opporIuniIies Io anaIyse Irends, IIucIuaIions and sIrucIuraI
changes in Ihe operaIionaI sIrucIure oI mariIime shipping in a
comprehensive way, preserving aI aII Iimes Ihe cenIraI roIe oI Ihe
individuaI in aII economic acIiviIy, even when daIa is aggregaIed,
cIassiIied and compared.
565 Jrgen Essletzbichler and David L. Rigby, Exploring evolutionary economic geographies,
Journal of Economic Geography 7 (2007): 549-571.
566 Ibidem.
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
390
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
391
Authors bibliography
Ana Crespo Solana: PhD in Geography and History
(Universidad de Cdiz, Spain) and Master in Latinoamerican
History (Universidad Internacional de Andaluca). She has
worked as a research fellow, invited lecturer and associate
professor at several universities and research centres in Spain,
Belgium, Germany and Te Netherlands; and granted by
several institutions. In 2003 she received the Ramon y Cajal
Award of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.
Currently she is Tenured Scientist and Professor specialized
in Caribbean and Atlantic History at the Spanish National
Research Council (CSIC). She has lead several research
project on Atlantic Economic and Social History and Spatial
Humanities as: DynCoopNet (Dynamic Complexity of
Cooperation-Based Self-Organizing Commercial Networks
in the First Global Age), TECT/EUROCORES/ ESF, with J.B
Owens; NACOM (Nations and Communities: comparative
perspectives in Atlantic History) and GlobalNEt, both funded
by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation. She is a
member of several Editorial, Advisory Board and scientifc
committee; and reviewer of the Standing Committee for the
Humanities of the European Science Foundation, the Spanish
Agency for International Cooperation (AECYD), etc. She is
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
392
the author of 7 books and over 60 essays and articles about
the relations between Spain, Te Low Countries and the Baltic
in the XVIII century, especially in the felds of social and
economic history and lead Principal investigator of various
national and international research projects on Spanish
colonial trade, merchant elites, European expansion in the
Atlantic and GIS tools for the study of the Colonial Trade with
America.
David Alonso Garca. Ph. D. for the Complutense University
of Madrid, Department of Modern History where he teaches
since 2004. His area of expertise includes fscal history
and fnancial networks during XVIth, both in Spain and
Europe. He is principal investigator in DynCoopNet network
(managed by Drs. J. W. Owens and A. Crespo), supported by
European Science Foundation, where the key topic attends to
the role of cooperation within merchant networks. Currently
he leads a research project for using GIS technologies in order
to analyze Castilian tax system between 15th- 16
th
centuries.
He organized, with Dra. Ana Crespo, a session in XVth
World Economic History Congress (Utrecht, 2009), about
Selforganizing networks and Trading Cooperation: GIS tools
in the visualization of the Atlantic Economic expansion (1400-
1800). He has been visiting fellow in the London School of
Economics (2000), Universit di Roma La Sapienza (2001),
University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA, 2006) and
Universit di Roma Tre (2010). He has published a numerous
studies, articles and books included in international databases
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
393
and libraries.
J. B. Owens, PhD, is Research Professor of History and
Director of the Geographically-Integrated History Laboratory
at Idaho State University (USA). He is the co-founder of
ISUs innovative, GIS-based graduate program in Historical
Resources Management. Currently, Owens is the lead Principal
Investigator (PI) for a four-year, interdisciplinary, collaborative
research project entitled Understanding social networks
within complex, nonlinear systems: geographically-integrated
history and dynamics GIS [acronym: SOCNET], which is
administered by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF)
Ofce of Cyberinfrastructure (OCI). He is completing a book
on nonlinear dynamics and the emergence of cooperation in
a social environment characterized by seemingly endemic
violence and other confict. Although this situation appears
common in the contemporary world, the book deals with
southeastern Spain from the late 15
th
to the mid-17
th
century.
Professor Monica Wachowicz is currently working at the
University of New Brunswick, Canada. Her research is
focussed on discovering mobility patterns evolving from social
interactions and developing the next generation of services that
can translate mobility patterns into actionable information
about societal lifestyle expectations and needs. Her research
interests are in the areas of geographic knowledge discovery,
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
394
space-time representation and reasoning, and visual analytics.
Mr. Miguel ngel Bernab Poveda has a BSc. in Land
Surveying, MSc. in Fine Arts and PhD. in Education. He is
currently Professor in Cartography at Technical University of
Madrid (UPM) and Head of the Mercator Research Group.
He has led several international projects from the European
Commission. His teaching and research interests include
Spatiotemporal Reasoning, Semiotics and Visualization
of Cartography, Virtual Map Rooms, as well as e-learning
education of Geographical Information Science.
Ms. Mara Jos Garca Rodrguez has a BSc. in Land Surveying
from the Technical University of Madrid (UPM), a MSc.
Geodesy & Cartography and PhD. in Geodesy & Cartography,
both from Alcala University. She has worked on the
DynCoopNet Project, funded by European Science Foundation
(ESF) collaborating with the MERCATOR Research Group
from the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). Her research
is based on implementation of historic data in a Geographic
Information System (GIS) in order to achieve a spatial and
temporal reasoning. Currently, she is associate professor in
Cartography and GIS at Alcala University.
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
Cases of Use for the Study of Trading Cooperation (1400-1800)
395
Adolfo Urrutia Zambrana obtained his Bsc. In computer
Engineering from the National University of Engineering,
Nicaragua. His fnal engineering project was a GIS-based
sofware tool for the calculation of seismic risk. Since 2009
is a Phd Student at Technical University of Madrid, focusing
in spatiotemporal datamining, machine learning techniques
and recommendation systems. He has been involved in
diferent research projects, one of them Dycoopnet (Dynamic
Complexity of Cooperation-Based Self-Organizing Networks
in the First Global Age). Currently he is about to complete a
visit to Wuhan University (China), at which he has involve
in the Transportation Research Center, focused on network-
constrained moving objects behavior: Study case GPS-enabled
taxicabs.
Amlia Polnia: Associate professor of History at the
Department of History, Political and International Studies
at the University of Porto). Her main research interests
are early modern history; Portuguese overseas expansion;
maritime history; social networks; trade networks; overseas
diaspora. She is a researcher of CITCEM (Transdisciplinary
Research Centre Culture/ Space/ Memory) Vice-President
of the IMEHA (International Maritime Economic History
Association); member of the referee panel for Humanities
of the European Science Foundation; former member of
the editorial board of the International Journal of Maritime
History; and member of the editorial board of the Revista da
Journal of Knowledge Management, Economics
and Information Technology
396
Faculdade de Letras-Serie Histria. PI (Principal investigator)
of DynCoopNet (Dynamic Complexity of Cooperation-Based
Self-Organizing Commercial Networks in the First Global
Age), TECT/EUROCORES/ ESF Colaborative Reseach project
and coordinator of the project HISPORTOS Contribution
to the study of the Northwest Portuguese Seaports in the
Early Modern Age (POCTI/HAR/36417/2000). Co-editor of
Maritime History as Global History from the Sixteenth through
the Eighteenth Century in Shipping Efciency and Economic
Growth. 1350-1800, coord. Richard Unger (Leiden, 2011);
Global interactions: Representations of the East and the Far
East in Portugal (Sixteenth Century) in Networks in the First
Global Age: 1400-1800, Delhi, 2011); Womens participation
in labour and business in the European Maritime Societies in
the Early Modern Period in Il ruolo economico della famiglia.
Secs. XIII-XVIII. (Prato, 2009). (Newfoundland, 2011), she
has written: European Seaports as Centres of Economic
Growth
Amndio J.M. Barros is specialized in maritime and in
economic history. Phd degree in History in the University
of Porto (Faculty of Arts), Post-doctoral graduate in the
University of Porto and University of Valladolid. Member of
CITCEM (Transdisciplinar Research Centre-Culture, Space
and Memory). His felds of interest are the mercantile and
maritime commuties in the late medieval and Early Modern
Period. He was awarded with prizes (Academia de Marinha and
Self-organizing Networks and GIS Tools
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Fundao Engenheiro Antnio de Almeida) for his research
in Portugal, and participates in internation transdisciplinar
research projects. His feld of interest is the Discoveries and
Portuguese Expansion (15
th
-17
th
centuries) and he published
books, book chapters and articles in Portugal and abroad.
Most of his work is available in international databases and
libraries.
Esther Prez Asensio is specialized in Geographic Information
Systems (GIS) and Remote Sensing. BA degree in Biological
Sciences, MSc in Analysis and management of landscape, land
and environmental resources, MSc in Geographic Information
Systems, Teaching Assistant for diferent GIS courses. She is
member of the GIS laboratory of the Center for Humanities
and Social Sciences of the Spanish National Research Council
(CSIC). She is member of the Working Group of the Spanish
Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). Fields of interest in her
research are GIScience, data model design, the use of GIS
for historical research, design of GIS datasets, Spatial Data
Infrastructures (SDI), interoperability, geospatial analysis
with GIS, geoinformation visualization, temporal GIS, and
opensource sofware. Recent works focused on designing
historical data model and GIS, development of interoperability
schemes, visual representation of historical time, and analysis
of complex cooperation spatial networks.
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and Information Technology
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Roberto Maestre is specialized in Artifcial Intelligence. He
holds a B.Sc. degree in Computer Engineering (Informatics),
a research M.Sc. in Artifcial intelligence and is currently
working on his Ph.D. in the felds of Logic and Algebra models.
His work as a research engineer in the industry is related
to Big data, NoSQL, network analysis, data visualization
and algorithm parallelization and optimization. He is also
interested in other felds of Artifcial
Intelligence such as Natural Language Understanding and he
is teaching several M.Sc. courses. His recent work projects
are focused on understanding, detecting and predicting the
human behavior in a huge range of social networks, analyzing
the topology and information fow dynamics. His recent
academic works deal with the development of ruled based
expert systems by means of classic and fuzzy Logic with an
algebra approach.
Isabel Del-Bosque is specialized in Cartography, Geographic
Information Systems (GIS) and Spatial Data Infrastructures
(SDI). Graduated as Engineer Surveyor and MSc. in Geodesy
and Cartography. She is responsible for the GIS laboratory
of the Center for Humanities and Social Sciences of the
Spanish National Research Council (CSIC). She is member
of the Spanish SDI Working Group and the National
Technical Committee for Standardization (AENOR) of digital
geographic information. Fields of interest in her research are
digital technologies in cartographic heritage, historical GIS,
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data model, geovisualization, web mapping and geospatial
interoperability. Recent works focused on designing historical
data model and the cultural heritage and development of
interoperability schemes for Historical SDI.
Juan Manuel Snchez-Crespo Camacho - Degree in History
for the Autonoma University of Madrid, Spain, he is technician
in Archives and Data Base. He has been the assistant of Ana
Crespo Solana during the making of the CrespoDynCoopNet
Data Collection and has worked as member of the Crespos
team at the GIS laboratory of the CCHS-CSIC.
Antoni Picazo is specialized in history and geography. BA
Degree in geography (1997) and history (1984) and PhD
in History (cum laudae, 1998) . He is Associate Professor
at the University of Balearic Islands since 1997. Fields of
interest in his research are cartography, trade in the Pacifc
and Indic oceans and the global trade. Recent works focused
on dinamic networks in the Pacifc Ocean. He published a
numerous studies and articles and books which are available
in international databases and libraries.
Rila Mukherjee is Professor of History at University of
Hyderabad, India. Currently works as Director of Institut
de Chandernagor, West Bengal, India. She is the editor of
Networks in the First Global Age 1400-1800 and Pelagic
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and Information Technology
400
Passageways: Te Northern Bay of Bengal Before Colonialism,
both published by Primus Books (New Delhi, 2011). Her
specialization is on the silk trade and merchants in pre-
colonial Bengal.
Ms. Marta Guerrero Nieto has a Bachelor in Spanish Philology
and Linguistic from the Autonomous University of Madrid
(UAM), where she is fnishing a PhD in Computational
Linguistic. She obtained a scientifc scholarship with the
Mercator Research Group (UPM) in 2009. Currently, she is a
investigator in the Knowledge Engineering Research Institute
(IIC) at UAM. Her research interests are temporal semantic,
temporal narratives and computational linguistics.
Mr. Willington Siabato obtained his BSc. degree in Land
Surveying (Hons) from the Distrital University of Colombia.
Ten, he went on to do a Masters Degree in GIS at the
Pontifcia de Salamanca University. He is a Teaching Fellow at
the Department of Surveying Engineering and Cartography,
and Research Assistant at the Laboratory of Geographical
Information Technologies from the Technical University of
Madrid (UPM). His teaching and research interests include
Spatial Analysis, Temporal GIS, Temporal and Spatiotemporal
Reasoning, Geosemantics, Geographic and Temporal
Information Retrieval, and Geoservices. Recently, his research
has focused on Semantic and Temporal Components of
Geographic Information, development of Virtual Map Rooms,
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401
and Aeronautical Information Management Geoservices
based on OGC Standards. Currently, he is writing his doctoral
dissertation on the Integration of Temporal and Semantic
Components into de GI at the UPM jointly with the Instituto
Superior Tcnico (IST/Inesc-ID) and the cole Navale (French
Naval Academy Research Institute).
Mr. Alberto Fernndez Wyttenbach received a BSc. Land
Surveying and a MSc. Geodesy & Cartography, both from the
Technical University of Madrid (UPM). Moreover, he holds an
Executive MBA from the ESIC Business & Marketing School.
He has managed international R&D projects related to the
dissemination of the Cartographic Heritage through the Web
at the Laboratory of Geographical Information Technologies
in UPM. Currently, he is a Market Innovation Ofcer at the
European GNSS Agency (GSA) belonging to the European
Commission.
Werner Scheltjens obtained his MA degree in East-European
Languages and Cultures at the University of Leuven in 2001 and
his PhD at the University of Groningen in 2009. Te topic of
his PhD was the infuence of spatial change on Dutch maritime
shipping in the Gulf of Finland following the foundation of
St. Petersburg in 1703. From January to May 2008, Scheltjens
held a Marie Curie doctoral fellowship at the Paris School
of Economics. From September 2008 to July 2010, he was a
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post-doctoral fellow in Navigocorpus, a maritimehistorical
database project sponsored by the French National Research
Agency. Since August 2010, Scheltjens works as post-doctoral
fellow at the University of Groningen, on a project about the
Dutch maritime transport sector in the early modern period.