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# GEBZE INSTITUTE OF HIGH TECHNOLOGY

## DYB_501 FINITE ELEMENTS AND SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS

PREFACE This web site is intended for graduate students who takes finite elements and software

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1) Discrete Methods 2) Continuous Problem

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other hand you could use shortcuts buttons above for easy reach to the codes. 1. FINITE ELEMENTS: STIFFNESS MATRICES 1.1. Introduction stiffness matrices while solving problems in numerical analysis methods. First of all, let us indicate major numerical analysis methods; rigid body element with contact to another. differantial equations by finite difference approximation. boundary value problem (discritization).

applications lecture in Gebze Institute of High Technology. It assumes that the student is familiar with basic calculus, computer programming and differential equations in physics and general knowledge of creating matrices in numerical analysis methods. For beginners we offer to follow pages and then check matlab open source codes that attached to the paper. On the

The purpose of this information is to use some examples on how to formulate finite element

## FEM ; Finite Element Method: Solve linear and nonlinear

BEM ; Boundary Element Method: Solve integral equations making of Green functions discritizing boundary only. The main problem in finite elements is to find and build local or global stiffness matrices, below we try to show some examples on truss, frame, plane stress and plane strain elements.

## 1.2. Stiffness matrix for truss [spring] element

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ktruss=
EA L
degree of freedom.

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Fig 1. Spring element (E=modulus of elasticity, A=cross section area , L=member length , k= spring coefficent)

For truss

=E*

Stress=E*strain

F/A= EA
L

F= EA
L

Force=stiffness*deformation

We can define an element stiffness matrix for each of the spring element (that one shown in

Fig 1.) where the size of the element stiffness matrix is (n*n), and n is the total number of degrees of freedom associated with the element. For the example in Fig 1, there are two

[k] {u}= {f}, we apply this equation, [k]=stiffness matrix, {u}=displacement vector, {f}=
force vector

k11 k21

k12 ui fi = k22 uj fj

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fxj=
EA EA EA ( ui uj ) = ui uj (eq. 2.) L L L Arrange eq. 1 and eq 2.; EA EA fxi L L ui = fxj EA EA uj L L EA L

fxi=

EA EA EA ( ui uj ) = ui uj (eq 1.) L L L

1 1 ui fxi = 1 1 uj fxj
end displacement

## Stiffness matrix for truss

end forces

For creating finite elements methods, we should follow three steps, a) preprocessing_input data b) computation_build system matrices c) postprocessing_process numerical output to graphs, contour tables

A little try: Writing stiffness matrix and system equation for the figure just below;

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Assemble global matrix;
k1 + k2 k2 0 k2 k2 + k3 k3

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*) Steps for solving the system; 1) Descritization 2) Define DOF (degree of freedom) 3) Write element stiffnessmatrices 4) Assemble global matrix 5) Arrange global matrix 6) Solve matrix for unknown displacement 7) Solve for element internal forces System as shown above; There are 4 points, 3 elements and 3 DOF. For element 1:
k1 k1 k1 k1

For element 2:
k2 k2 k2 k2

For element 3:
k3 k3 k3 k3

0 u2 0 k3 u3 = 0 k3 u4 F

## [k] {u}= {f},

Solve for U1, U2, U3, Element internal forces; For element 1;
fi k1 = fj k1 k1 0 k1 u2

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fxi 1 1 ui = u fxj 1 1 j

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For element 2;

fxi 1 1 ui = u fxj 1 1 j

For element 3;
fi k3 = fj k3

k3 u3 k3 u4

To identify some circumstances that facing while solving finite element problems;

## 2) Transformation matrix for truss in global coordinates

teta = =

= tan 1

yj yi xj xi

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ui = ui .cos + vi sin
^ ^ ^ ^

u j = u j .cos + v j sin

## ^ ui ^ vi ui cos sin 0 0 ^ [ ] uj = 0 0 cos sin uj ^ vj

Transformation matrix

{u} = [T ] U

{}
^

2.

## Solve for nodal displacement and member forces?

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2.2. Question for Frame element

Solving strategy (MATLAB CODE) Define joints, element properties Define degree of freedom (DOF) Define elements stiffness matrix in local coordinates Define elements transformation matrices Write stiffness matrix in global coordinates Define global stiffness matrix and global vector Arrange element stiffness in global stiffness

Use MATLAB to write a simple program to calculate displacement and internal forces of the frame members (E=25KN/m)
Solving strategy (MATLAB CODE)

## Define codes for plane stress and Plane Strain

Solving strategy(MATLAB CODE)

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