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THE EFFECT OF CODE-MIXING (THAI-ENGLISH) IN PRINT

ADVERTISEMENTS ON PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE AND


UNDERSTANDING, ATTITUDES AND PURCHASE INTENTION:
CONSUMERS EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AS A MODERATOR





THANYARAT CHANTAROTHAI
Advisor: Assistant Professor Vilaivan Aroonmanakun





A RESERACH PAPER SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF
THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF
MASTER OF ARTS
IN
ENGLISH FOR CAREERS
LANGUAGE INSTITUTE, THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY
BANGKOK, THAILAND
MARCH 2011
ABSTRACT

The purpose of this research was to analyze the effect of code-mixing (Thai-
English) in print advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitudes
and purchase intention. In addition, another objective was to explore the relationship
between code mixing and the consumers educational background which was as a
moderator.
The subjects of this study were 120 Thai females living in Bangkok and
neighboring provinces. The subjects consisted of respondents holding qualifications
lower than a bachelor's degree and people who obtained a bachelor's and postgraduate
degree. They were selected by using stratified random sampling to complete the self-
administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions for demographic
information. In addition, they answered closed-ended questions with semantic
differential scales for information about the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in
print advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitude, as well as
purchase intention. Moreover, two facial skincare whitening products were selected
as samples for this research study. Both of them were adjusted into two types of
language used in the advertisement: Thai monolingual and code mixed (Thai-English)
language attached with the questionnaire. The findings were analyzed using the SPSS
to find descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage and mean.
The results obtained showed the majority of respondents believed that
advertisements containing code-mixing could convey messages effectively, provide
better knowledge and understanding than Thai monolingual advertisements, as well
as create a positive attitude toward language in advertising and product image.
However, code-mixing in advertisements had no effect on attitudes toward
advertisements as a whole and could not convince them to buy the products or had no
effect on their purchase intention.
There is a correlation between the use of code-mixing and consumers
educational background; code-mixing (Thai-English) in advertisements created better
knowledge, understanding, attitudes towards language and product image than not
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using mixed English terms for high educated consumers. In contrast, the use of code-
mixing had a significant effect only on product image for low educated consumers.
However, code-mixing (Thai-English) did not cause better attitudes toward
advertisements as a whole and had no influence on the purchase intentions for both
groups of respondents who were at different educational levels.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This research could not have been accomplished without the generous support
and help by a number of people. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all
who contributed to this study.
First and foremost, my deepest gratitude is extended to my research advisor,
Assistant Professor Vilaivan Aroonmanakun, for her useful advice, understanding and
encouragement in completing this research.
Furthermore, I would like to thank all the instructors at the Thammasat
University Language Institute for giving me the valuable knowledge and experiences
that helped guide my research.
Special thanks are also due to Ms.Siriwan Ritraumsup for her coordination
during my study.
Last but not least, I have been fortunate to have my family, several friends and
colleagues who were willing to give me detailed suggestions on how to improve this
study and their great encouragement in completing this research.

Thammasat University Thanyarat Chantarothai
Bangkok, Thailand March 2011



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CONTENTS

PAGE
ABSTRACT ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iv
CONTENTS v
CHAPTER

1. INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Objectives of the Study 4
1.3 Definitions of Terms 4

2. REVIEW OF LITERATURE 7
2.1 Code Mixing 7
2.2 Advertising 9
2.3 Consumer Decision-Making 10
2.4 Consumers Educational Background 11
2.5 Relevant Research 12

3. METHODOLOGY 15
3.1 Subjects 15
3.2 Data Collection 15
3.3 Procedures 16

4. RESULTS 19
4.1 Demographic Data of the Respondents 19
vi

4.2 The Effect of Code-Mixing (Thai-English) in Print Advertisements on


Product Knowledge and Understanding, Attitudes and Purchase
Intention 21
4.3 The Effect of Code-Mixing (Thai-English) in Print Advertisements on
Product Knowledge and Understanding, Attitudes and Purchase Intention
by Using Consumer Educational Background as a Moderator 22

5. CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 37
5.1 Summary of the Study 37
5.2 Summary of the Findings 38
5.3 Discussion 41
5.4 Recommendations for Further Research 43

REFERENCES 44
APPENDIXES 46
A. Questionnaire in English for Code-Mixing Advertisement 46
B. Questionnaire in English for Thai Monolingual Advertisement 51
C. Questionnaire in Thai for Code-Mixing Advertisement 56
D. Questionnaire in Thai for Thai Monolingual Advertisement 63
E. The Advertisements of Facial Skincare Whitening Products 70

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND

In the midst of a struggling economy and the intense competition of the
business world, companies need to initiate a variety of marketing strategies to present,
advertise and sell their products in the best possible way. Advertising has become one
of the most successful communication methods on which many companies are willing
to spend a large amount of money in order to persuade consumers to purchase their
products or services. In the present, we cannot deny that advertising has become a part
of our everyday life whenever we open a newspaper, magazine, turn on radio, TV or
mobile phone, access the internet or even look at the signs in the public places.
Nielsen Media Research (2010) showed that the estimated total advertising
expenditure in Thailand in J uly 2010 was 8.3 billion baht. The top three brand groups
during J anuary J uly 2010 were Happy mobile phone system, Isuzu pickups and
Coke soft drink respectively.
Advertisement aims to inform, persuade, and remind the consumer. The
advertising language is very important because it not only attracts the customers
attention, but also arouses their behavioral intention and is powerful in conveying the
message. In order to secure a number of readers and to compete with many other
similar advertising messages, advertisers try to make their advertisements as powerful
as possible. Today advertising is one of the largest industries influencing our lives,
and therefore, the language used in advertising has a powerful influence over people
and their behaviors.
In recent years, the trend of using code-mixed language has become a common
global phenomenon and has been used in large quantities in advertisements. Lis
study (as cited in Chen, 2006, p.468) found that there are four major reasons for
mixing English with the native language. Firstly, the English equivalent is used in
place of native language to avoid offensive or embarrassing words. Secondly, the
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English expression may be preferred because of its more general or specific meaning
compared with the native language. The third is bilingual punning to create a double
meaning if the English equivalent shares some sounds with the native language.
Lastly, an English expression may also be preferable because it is more economical
compared to the native language in terms of linguistic effort. Many high-frequency
English terms are used by many Hong Kong people without hesitation when the
purpose of communication is to convey the message clearly and efficiently.
Moreover, the main reason for using code-mixing in advertisements is that they serve
to attract the attention of audiences. In addition, the use of code mixed statements may
invoke professional recognition and technology associations, and result in a
professional image, which in turn has an impact on the purchasing behavior of
consumers. Furthermore, Leung (2010) stated that code-mixing has become socially
and communicatively unavoidable (p.417) in the current globalized society in which
people from different languages and cultures can connect or communicate through
advanced technologies. However, Martin (2002) found that even though a large part
of the research in code-mixing has been limited to spoken discourse, many scholars
having taken an interest in this phenomenon in its written form as it appears in
advertising copy. For example, Takashi 1990 conducted linguistic analyses of
J apanese advertisements, and Martin 2002 did his Ph.D. dissertation on
English/French code-mixing in advertising in France.
With respect to the current language situation in Thailand, English seems to be
widely used and has great influence to Thai society. Huebner (2006) stated that in the
1960s, English was spoken by only a few elite Thais; now, however, many people
whose employment brings them into contact with the international community speak
English with some degree of proficiency. Moreover, at the higher levels of education,
English is the language of specialized knowledge and also a symbol of modernity and
professionalism. Nowadays, many Thai people often mix English expressions into
their words in both speaking and writing. There is frequent Thai-English mixing in
communication among Thais from different age groups and different genders. For
example, English is often particularly mixed in the sentences or utterances among
well educated people, in TV programs, music lyrics and print advertisements.

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Most of the previous research of code-mixing focused on broadcast media and


analyzed the forms of code-mixing, types of code-mixing and attitudes of the
audience, one research related to the study of code mixing was Code-mixing of
English and Thai in Thai Television Music Program conducted by Thanutcha
Preechaamornkul (2005). She focused on three major parts of code-mixing words in
Thai television music programs; 1) grammatical pattern 2) the function of code-
mixing based on applied linguistic functions and 3) nativized features based on the
process of nativized features of English words. She found that the majority of code-
mixing used in Thai television music program were nouns, verbs, adjectives and
interjection. Code-mixing was used frequently for emphasis and clarification even if
Thai equivalents existed. In addition, there were six nativized features found in Thai
television music programs: truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift,
reduplication and word order shift. In addition, another research was English-Thai
Code-Mixing: A Study of Thai Television Programmes and the Audience Attitudes
conducted by Worawalan Sopee (2002). She found that every television presenter in
every discussion program used English-Thai code-mixing in various categories such
as nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives and abbreviations. However, a majority of the
audiences partially accepted code-mixed language, especially the use of terminologies
in computer, business and healthcare. Nevertheless, the audiences preferred the
presenters to use Thai language as much as possible in order to avoid the difficulty of
understanding the English language.
Even though most of the previous research of code-mixing in Thailand
focused on broadcast media because they are a popular means of mass communication
and have been a major entertainment medium in Thailand, the code-mixed language
also has been found in large quantities in print advertisements. Unfortunately, there
have been quite a few studies done on code-mixing (Thai-English) in print media. In
order to make the research on code-mixing more varied, therefore, the researcher will
study a different aspect which is the effect of code mixing (Thai-English) in print
advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitudes towards
advertisements and purchase intention. The advertisements of facial skincare
whitening products in magazines were selected because their advertisements contain
the obvious code mixed language in lexical level. Nielsen Media Research (2010)
4

showed that this kind of product is the top expenditure in advertising in magazines in
J anuary August 2010 with about 80 million baht. Furthermore, magazines can be
good indicators showing the code-mixing practices in print advertisements which may
reflect the relative importance of the mixed languages in Thai society. Pennycook
(2010) suggests that it is great if we understand language from a local attitude or
thinking because the ways in which languages are used and thought about are never
just only language but also about community and society.
In addition, this study aims to analyze the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English)
in print advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitudes, purchase
intention and consumers educational background as a moderator. However, this
project does not include the analysis of code-mixing form, types of code-mixing and
the reasons of using code-mixing in written language.

1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The objectives of this study are the following:
1.2.1 To find out whether the code-mixed statement in advertisements can
actually convey messages to the audience effectively.
1.2.2 To determine what is the consumers attitude towards the use of code
mixing in print advertisements.
1.2.3 To test the effects of code mixing on consumers purchase intention.
1.2.4 To explore the relationship between code mixing and consumers
educational background in product knowledge, attitudes towards advertisements and
purchase intention.

1.3 DEFINITION OF TERMS

The definition of the terms of this study is as follows:
1.3.1 Advertising
Advertising is defined as a form of communication intended to persuade an
audience (viewers, readers or listeners) to purchase or take some action upon
products, ideals, or services. It includes the name of a product or service and how that
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product or service could benefit the consumer, to persuade a target market to purchase
or to consume that particular brand. Brands are paid for or identified through sponsors
and viewed via various media (Advertising, n.d.). According to OGuinn, Allen,
and Semenik (2000) advertising also has an important role in marketing. It is relevant
to important aspects of the marketing process which are 1) designing a marketing mix,
2) achieving effective market segmentation, product differentiation and positioning,
3) contributing to revenue and profit generation and 4) enhancing consumer
satisfaction.
1.3.2 Code-mixing
Code-mixing is defined as all cases where lexical items and grammatical
features from two languages appear in one sentence (Muysken, 2000). For the purpose
of this paper, the code-mixing is limited to the language mixture of Thai and English
found within one and the same sentence. However, grammatical features are not
included in this study because it will be focused only on the impact of code-mixing on
consumers product knowledge, attitude and purchase intention.
1.3.3 Print Advertisement
Print advertisement refers to the advertisement in a printed medium such as
newspaper, magazine or trade journal (Advertising, n.d., p. 7). This paper focuses on
magazines because they can be great tools for cosmetic and skin care products to
advertise and reach their specific market segments. OGuinn, Allen, and Semenik
(2000) stated that the advantage of magazines over other media is the ability of
magazines to attract a highly selective audience and magazines can be read repeatedly
over a week or a month while some of them are saved for long periods as future
reference.
1.3.4 Product Knowledge
Product knowledge is defined as a consumers understanding and knowledge
about a product or service. The product knowledge is one of the important constructs
in consumer behavior and can influence how consumers assess products because they
usually make decisions based on the information in their memories



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1.3.5 Attitude
Rekeachs study (as cited in Phipps & Simmons, 1995, p. 198) defined attitude
as to a learned orientation or disposition, toward an object or situation, which
provides a tendency to respond favourably or unfavourably to the object of situation.

1.3.6 Purchase Intention
Purchase intention refers to a plan to buy a particular product or service in
the future by target consumers. It is also a result of a consumers interaction, attitude
and perception towards that product or service.





CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter is divided into four topics: (1) Code Mixing, (2) Advertising, (3)
Consumer Decision-Making, and (4) Consumers Educational Background

2.1 CODE-MIXING

Poplack (1980) defined code-mixing as the mixing of two or more languages
within a sentence, while the term code-mixing defined in Bhatia and Ritchies study
(as cited in Leung, 2010, p. 49) was the mixing of various linguistic units
(morphemes, words, modifiers, phrases, clauses and sentences) primarily from two
participating grammatical systems within a sentence. Moreover, Muysken (2000)
stated that the code-mixing refers to all cases where lexical items and grammatical
features from two languages appear in one sentence. The patterns of intra-sentential
code-mixing are divided into three different basic processes. The first approach is the
insertion of a foreign lexical or entire constituent into a given structure of another
language, which is similar to borrowing. Second is the alternation between structures
from languages, which is akin to the switching of codes between utterances. The last
one is congruent lexicalization of material from a different lexical inventory into a
shared grammatical structure, which is similar to style shifting and monolingual
linguistic variation. Stanlaw (1987) explained that one important reason for the use
of English loanwords is that they provide linguistic tools that individuals can use in
personal and highly creative ways whereas Takashi (1990) pointed out that there are
five reasons why there is a phenomenon of mixing between English and native
language in the society. First, mixed English words can fill a lexical gap because of
no native equivalent. Second, there are terminologies which are more technical and
special terms and cannot be replaced by native equivalents. Third, the use of mixed
English words is to avoid direct expressions referring to embarrassing things in some
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topics, such as sex. Fourth, the mixed English words can convey a modernity and
sophistication. Lastly, they are trade names that are used directly without translation.
The concept of code-mixing in this study is derived from the code-mixing
concept as proposed by Muysken, but grammatical features are not included in this
study. According the phenomenon, mixing language between local and English
language has become a common practice in many countries and seems to be a popular
phenomenon in Asia, English expressions are also commonly found in Thai
advertisements today. So instead of investigating code-mixing between Thai and
English in the spoken language, the current study focuses on the impact of the mixture
of Thai and English in print advertisements on consumers product knowledge,
attitude and purchase intention to prove whether code-mixing (Thai-English) is able
to achieve these aims of advertising or not. Moreover, English words in this study are
common English words, product names and terminologies which are mixed into Thai
language.
The reason why terminologies are included in this analysis is in recent years
terminologies have been used in large quantities in advertisements. As advertising
language is perceived to be creative, attract attention, arouse interest, create desire and
inspire action, advertisements are usually packed with various distinguishing elements
like parallelism, ellipsis, incomplete sentences, alliteration, assonance, rhyme, catchy
print, unpredicted spelling and other creative language such as code mixing and
terminology. Hongs study (as cited in Chuang, Tsai, Cheng, & Sun, 2009, p. 485)
defined terminologies as the advertising messages that are associated with the
functions of products based on scientific specification and technology. In addition,
Leung (2010) stated in the research that advertising language is highly stylized. Yet
it has to work within a fixed set of restrictions, such as legal matters, and what is
deemed as more trivial issues such as space. With such limitations in mind,
advertising language has to be so carefully crafted with the intention to manipulate
and persuade consumers on lexical level with the combination of visual image. The
language of advertising is therefore quite a restricted genre.



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2.2 ADVERTISING

According to marketing strategy, promotion is the communication dimension
of the strategy and has as its purpose to inform, persuade, or remind the consumer
about products, services, or ideas. There are four common types of promotion i.e.
personal selling, publicity, sales promotion and advertising. Burrow and Eggland
(1995) defined advertising as any paid form of non-personal communication sent
through a mass medium by an organization about its products or services (p. 523).
The role of advertising in marketing relates to four important aspects of the marketing
process. First, in the marketing mix, it is to focus on the ability of the advertising
effort to communicate to target audience about the value which the products or
services have to offer. Second, advertising also plays an important role in supporting
the companys general marketing strategies which are market segmentation, product
differentiation and positioning. Third, advertising plays a significant role in
contributing to revenue and profit. Fourth, advertising has a role in creating customer
satisfaction.
Advertising is the most common type of promotion which has many
advantages. It can reach to the masses at a relatively low cost per person. In addition,
the advertisement can reach geographically diverse people at the same time and is a
very expressive form of promotion because the combination of color, print, sound and
motion can make the emotional benefits. Finally, the message can be repeated and
reinforces as many times as the advertiser selects. On the other hand, there are also
many disadvantages, such as it is a one-way communication from advertiser to
consumer in which the consumer cannot ask any questions. Furthermore, it is difficult
to control whether the advertisement is directed to the target customer or not. Lastly,
the total cost of placing advertisements is very expensive. OGuinn, Allen, and
Semenik (2000) discussed that advertisements in magazines also have both
advantages and disadvantages. For their advantages, magazines can attract a highly
selective audience based on demographics, lifestyles or special interests. Magazines
also offer a wide range of creative opportunities, both size of the ad, color, use of
white space and playing off the special interests of the target audience. Moreover,
magazines can be kept for long period which increases the chance of readership.
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However, there are limitations for advertising in magazines as well, such as limited
reach and frequency as well as the high cost.

2.3 CONSUMER DECISION-MAKING

For effective advertising, advertisers need to understand consumer behaviors
and their decision-making process. Mason and Ezell (1987) pointed out that the
process of consumer decision-making consists of six stages called the hierarchy of
effects model. First, awareness is the ability of a consumer to recall a brand name
either with or without prompting. Second, knowledge is the ability of a consumer to
describe the important attributes of a product or service. Third, liking is the attitude of
the consumer towards a product or service. Fourth, preference is the degree to which a
consumer feels more positive about a product or service relative to other offerings.
Fifth, conviction is the likelihood that the consumer will purchase the product or
service. Finally, purchase is the acquisition of a product or service. Such a model is
provided in Figure 1.

Figure 1 General Model of the Hierarchy of Effects

Purchase
Conviction
Preference
Liking
Knowledge
Awarene
From this model marketers or advertisers should realize that not all their
consumers are at the same stage and not all people at one stage move onto the next
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stage. Furthermore, some people may need more time before moving onto the next
stage than others.
On the other hand, Burrow and Eggland (1995) explained that for maximizing
chances of a successful sale, the mental stages of consumer decision-making has only
five stages i.e. attention, interest, desire, conviction and action (AIDCA approach).
The AIDCA approach has been used for many years by sales and marketing
professionals. Normally, a customer must focus attention on an advertisement or sale
presentation first and it is important to get the customers interest in the product. A
customer moves from interest to desire when it is clear that the product meets
important needs. The desire turns to conviction when the customer determines the
product is a good value and the best choice. That leads to action, or the purchase of
the product. Sellers, marketing professionals and advertisers who are able to
determine which of the AIDCA stages each customer is at will be able to provide the
specific information that each customer needs. Such a model is provided in Figure 2
Figure 2 AIDCA Approach
Attention Interest Desire Conviction Action

Moreover, Christ (2009) claimed that there are several influences affecting
consumer buying behavior, which can be classified as internal influences and external
influences. The internal influences are knowledge, attitude, personality, lifestyle and
motivation, whereas the external influences consist of group membership and
purchase situation (as cited in Tangchakvaranont, 2010, p10). Although different
researchers developed slightly different models, the basic idea is the same, which is
that people experience a sequence of psychological stages before purchasing a
product.

2.4 CONSUMERS EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

In the current language situation, Thais now have a better knowledge of
English than they had in the past and English has a strong influence on the Thai
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language. This is the reason why Thai people tend to increase their use of English
code mixing in their daily life. The consumers educational level can be a good
indicator of their language proficiency with regard to understanding English. English
language proficiency is the ability of an individual to speak or perform in English.
Some of them may not be well-educated, some of them have limited English skills;
therefore, they may not fully understand advertisements containing English words. In
contrast, those people with higher education and higher linguistic intelligence are
typically good at reading, memorizing words and learning foreign languages very
easily. They also have high verbal memory, recall, and an ability to understand
foreign languages. Furthermore, consumer knowledge is one of the important
constructs in consumer behavior and information processing (Alba & Hutchinson
1987). Rao and Monroe (1988) found that product knowledge can influence how
consumers assess products. Consumers with varying levels of knowledge in a specific
product category respond differently to advertisements. Toncar and Munch (2001)
reported that when advertising agencies adopt incomplete product information,
consumers could not fully understand and they may lose the control over the
information.

2.5 RELEVANT RESEARCH

Several past studies relating to the use of code-mixing in media are as follows:
Leung (2010) studied An Empirical Study on Code Mixing in Print
Advertisements in Hong Kong. The purpose of this study was to investigate the
effect of code mixing (Chinese English) on print advertisements. The results
showed that most code-mixed advertisements could be understood. Furthermore,
convenience products and shopping products were noticed to be suitable to be
advertised with code-mixing. Last but not least, young people and well-educated
people preferred code mixing in advertisements.
The study of Chen (2006) The mixing of English in magazine advertisement
in Taiwan, revealed the top ten frequently used English expressions. Moreover, this
research found that English is often used to add to the colorfulness and attraction of
the advertisement. The results also indicated that most respondents had positive
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attitudes towards the use of code-mixing (Chinese English) in magazine


advertisements.
The research on English-Thai Code Mixing: A Study of Thai Television
Programmes and the Audience Attitudes by Worawalan Sopee (2545) was done to
identify and evaluate the phenomenon of English-Thai code-mixing on Thai television
in terms of its characteristics and frequency of occurrence and to analyze the
audiences attitudes. The results indicated that the majority of noun words were used
and English code mixing was most frequently found in news programs. Furthermore,
most of the audiences have a neutral attitude towards the appropriateness of using
English words mixed with Thai sentences.
Thanutcha Preechaamornkul (2005) conducted a research Code-mixing of
English and Thai in Thai Television Music Program to investigate three major parts
of English words mixed into Thai television music programs; grammatical patterns,
the function of code-mixing based on applied linguistic functions and the process of
nativized features of English words. It was found that the majority of code-mixing
used in Thai television music programs were nouns, verbs, adjectives and interjection.
Code-mixing was used frequently for emphasis and clarification even when Thai
equivalents existed. In addition, there were six nativized features found in Thai
television music programs: truncation, hybridization, conversion, semantic shift,
reduplication and word order shift.
The study on The Effect of Terminologies on Attitudes towards
Advertisements and Brands: Consumer Product Knowledge as a Moderator was
conducted by Chuang, Tsai, Cheng, and Sun (2009) in order to find out the
relationship between advertisement terminology and consumer product knowledge in
the attitudes towards advertisements and brands. This study revealed that low
consumer product knowledge individuals form significantly more favorable
advertisement attitudes and brand attitudes towards advertisements with terminologies
than towards advertisements without terminologies, but no differentially favorable
advertisement attitudes and brand attitudes are formed for high consumer product
knowledge individuals.
For this research, it is worth studying the effect of code mixing (Thai-English)
in print advertisements on product knowledge, attitudes towards advertisements and
14

purchase intention to find out whether a code-mixed statement is able to achieve the
objective of the advertising or not. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to
investigate the relationship between code mixing and consumers educational
background in product knowledge, attitudes towards advertisements and purchase
intention.





CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes: (1) the subjects, (2) data collection, (3) the procedures
used in the collection and analysis of the data and (4) the data analysis.

3.1 SUBJECTS

The subjects of this study were Thai females living in Bangkok and
surroundings including Nondhaburi, Pratumthani, Nakornprathom, Samutprakarn,
Samutsakorn and Samutsongkram. They were selected by using stratified random
sampling which was a combination of randomization and categorization. It means that
120 Thai females from different age were randomly approached in Bangkok at
shopping malls, business areas, educational institutions, organizations and companies.
They were divided into two groups according to educational level i.e. a low
educational group having educational level lower than a Bachelors degree and a high
educational group graduating in Bachelors degree or postgraduate level. The
expected number of respondents in this research was 80% from 150 people, with 120
females responding to the questionnaires.

3.2 DATA COLLECTION

Research Instrument
A self-administered questionnaire with 69 closed-ended questions was used in
this study (see Appendix A). It was divided into two parts as follows:

Part 1: Demographic Information
The objective of this part was to survey demographic data of the respondents.
There were nine questions focusing on age, nationality, educational background,
status of reading magazines, name of magazines, frequency of reading magazines,
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interest in advertisements of the respondents when they read magazines and attention
to advertisements in magazines.

Part 2: Information about the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in print
advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitude as well as purchase
intention
The second part consisted of 60 questions; 30 questions focused on code-
mixing (Thai-English) advertisement and the other 30 were used for Thai
monolingual advertisements. Both sets of questions were categorized as follows:
Items 1-7: Test of product knowledge and understanding
Items 8-14: Test of attitude towards language
Items 15-23: Test of attitude towards product image
Items 24-28: Test of purchase intention
Items 29-30: Test of attitude towards advertisements as a whole
Moreover, two facial skincare whitening products (Sisley and Loreal) were
selected as samples for this research study. Both of them were adjusted into two types
of language used in the advertisement: Thai monolingual and code mixed (Thai-
English) language attached with this section, including a statement with semantic
differential scales to access level of agreement. Respondents were asked to indicate
their answers by marking a continuum (with a tick or an X) between two bipolar
adjectives at the extremes (1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree).

3.3 PROCEDURES

3.3.1 The questionnaires were distributed to 150 females in various places in
Bangkok and surrounding areas in J anuary 2011. Participants were asked for their co-
operation before answering the questionnaire and asked to return the completed
questionnaire within the same day. The participants were randomly divided into four
conditions:
1. Females having low educational background: questionnaire consisted of
code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisement of product A.
17

2. Females having high educational background: questionnaire consisted of


code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisement of product A.
3. Females having low educational background: questionnaire consisted of
code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisement of product B.
4. Females having high educational background: questionnaire consisted of
code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisement of product B.
Furthermore, in order to avoid the order effect, the order of questions of code-
mixing and Thai monolingual advertisement was randomly switched. The
respondents were asked to complete scales to assess their product knowledge and
understanding, attitudes, as well as purchase intention towards both code-mixing
(Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisements.
3.3.2 After the questionnaires were collected, data analysis was made by using
the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 12.0 to calculate the
frequency, percentage and mean. The hypotheses were tested by using Paired Sample
t-test. The data retrieved from the first part of questionnaire were results from
questions for screening the data of respondents such as educational background and
status of reading magazines as well as questions for investigating frequency of
reading magazines, interest in the advertisements and attention to advertisements in
magazines. They were analyzed in the form of descriptive statistics, which included
frequency and percentage.
The data retrieved from the second part of the questionnaire were answers
from 60 closed-ended questions. The semantic differential scales were used to
measure degree of product knowledge and understanding, attitude as well as purchase
intention of the respondents towards code mixing (Thai-English) and Thai
monolingual statements in print advertisements. Furthermore, the data from this part
were analyzed in the form of descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation). The
semantic differential scales were ranged from 1 to 7 (1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly
agree). The larger numbers indicated more positive responses to the advertisements.
3.3.3 Moreover, there was comparison between the result of code-mixing
(Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisement towards product knowledge and
understanding, attitude towards language, product image and advertisement as a
whole as well as purchase intention to examine the overall effects of the use of code-
18

mixing in print advertisement according to first three objectives of the study.


Furthermore, to investigate the relationship between code mixing and consumers
educational background on the above mentioned aspects, there was comparison
between the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual
advertisement by using respondents educational background as a moderator. The
results will be described and revealed in the next chapter.



CHAPTER FOUR

RESULTS

This chapter is divided into three sections: (1) Demographic data of the
respondents, (2) The effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in print advertisements on
product knowledge and understanding, attitudes as well as purchase intention, and (3)
The effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in print advertisements on product
knowledge and understanding, attitudes as well as purchase intention by using
consumers educational background as a moderator.

4.1 DEMOGRAPHIC DATA OF THE RESPONDENTS

The first part of the questionnaire focuses on the respondents demographic
data: age, nationality, place of residence, educational background, status of reading
magazines, name of magazine(s), frequency of reading magazines, interest in
advertisements of the respondents when they read magazines and attention to
advertisements in magazines.
All of the respondents in this study are Thai. With respect to their place of
residence, 87.5% live in Bangkok, while the rest live in the neighboring provinces,
i.e., 5% in Nondhaburi, 4.2% in Pathumthani and 3.3% in Samutprakarn. Half of the
respondents (50%) hold qualifications lower than a bachelor's degree, while the rest
obtained a bachelor's degree or higher, with college graduates accounting for 37.5%
and those who have a postgraduate degree at 12.5%.
All other information was displayed in the form of frequency and percentage
of the respondents as following:

Table 1. Status of Reading Magazines of the Respondents
Read magazines Frequency Percentage
Yes 112 93.3
No 8 6.7
Total 120 100.0

Table 1 indicates that the respondents read magazines (93.3%),while the
remaining respondents dont read magazine (6.7%).
20

Table 2. Frequency of Reading Magazines of the Respondents
Frequency of reading magazine(s) Frequency Percentage
More than once in a day 7 6.3
Once in a day 8 7.1
More than once in a week but not every day 50 44.6
Once in a week 21 18.8
Less often 26 23.2
Total 112 100.0

As shown in table 2, 44.6% of the respondents read magazines more than once
in a week but not every day, followed by less often (23.2%), once in a week (18.8%),
once in a day (7.1%) and more than once in a day (6.3%).

Table 3. Interest in the Advertisements of the Respondents When They Read
Magazines
Interest Frequency Percentage
Very interested 2 1.8
Interested 35 31.3
Moderately interested 36 32.1
Of little interest 34 30.4
Uninterested 5 4.5
Total 112 100.0

Table 3 shows 32.1% of the respondents were moderately interested in the
advertisements when they read magazines, followed by interested (31.3%), of little
interest (30.4%), uninterested (4.5%) and very interested (1.8%).

Table 4. Attention of the Respondents to Advertisements in Magazines
Attention Frequency Percentage
Always 1 .9
Very Often 8 7.1
Sometimes 68 60.7
Rarely 30 26.8
Never 5 4.5
Total 112 100.0

As shown in table 4, 60.7% of the respondents sometimes paid attention to
advertisements when they read magazines, 26.8% rarely, 7.1% very often, 4.5%
never, 0.9% always.
21

According to the result from table 1-4, the majority of respondents tended to
not pay much attention to advertisements in magazines. Moreover, the chance of
reading magazines also was not so often, only more than once in a week but not every
day; however, most of them seemed to be interested in the advertisements when they
read magazines.

4.2 THE EFFECT OF CODE-MIXING (THAI-ENGLISH) IN PRINT
ADVERTISEMENTS ON PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE AND
UNDERSTANDING, ATTITUDES AS WELL AS PURCHASE INTENTION

This section focuses on the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in print
advertisements on knowledge and understanding, attitudes towards language, product
image and advertisements as a whole as well as purchase intention by comparing
them with Thai monolingual advertisements. Closed-ended questions with a semantic
differential scale were used to measure the degree of attitude with the factor
components. The findings show in the form of mean and statistic deviation.

Table 5. Overall Effects of Code-Mixing in Print Advertisements on Product
Knowledge and Understanding, Attitude Towards Language, Product Image and
Advertisements as a Whole as well as Purchase Intention
Description Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai monolingual
advertisements
t df P

x
S.D. Level of
agreement
x
S.D. Level of
agreement

1. Knowledge and
understanding

4.74 1.02 Slightly
Agree
4.02 1.02 Neutral 5.118 119 .000*
2. Attitude toward
language
4.45 1.08 Slightly
Agree

4.18 1.13 Neutral 2.054 119 .042*
3. Attitude towards
product image

4. Attitude toward
advertisements as a
whole

4.23


4.11
0.98


1.09
Neutral


Neutral
3.85


4.23
1.06


1.12
Neutral


Neutral
4.048


1.129
119


119
.000*


.261
5. Purchase intention 3.58 1.08 Slightly
Disagree
3.58 1.20 Slightly
Disagree
.089 119 .929
*p < 0.05.
22

Table 5 indicates that the use of code-mixing in print advertisements caused
better knowledge and understanding than Thai monolingual advertisements. The
respondents slightly agreed that code-mixed language in advertisements conveyed
messages effectively evidenced by the mean of 4.74, while they had neutral opinion
toward Thai monolingual advertisement (x =4.02).
In addition, the respondents gave their opinions that the use of code-mixed
statements in advertisements could create more positive attitude toward language,
evidenced by the mean of 4.45 on attitude toward code-mixed language scale. The
mean for product image is 4.23, more than the absence of code-mixed statements
(3.85). On the other hand, as revealed by table 5, the use of either code-mixed or Thai
monolingual statements in advertisements had no significant impact on a consumers
attitude toward advertisement as a whole. The respondents had neutral attitude toward
both code-mixing and Thai monolingual advertisements. The means for code-mixing
and Thai monolingual are 4.11 and 4.23 respectively.
Lastly, table 5 indicates that the use of either code-mixed or Thai monolingual
statements in advertisements generally had no significant impact on customers
purchase intention. The respondents slightly disagreed with overall statements testing
purchase intention evidenced by the mean of 3.58 of both code-mixing (Thai-English)
and Thai monolingual advertisements.

4.3 THE EFFECT OF CODE-MIXING (THAI-ENGLISH) IN PRINT
ADVERTISEMENTS ON PRODUCT KNOWLEDGE AND
UNDERSTANDING, ATTITUDES AND PURCHASE INTENTION BY USING
CONSUMER EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND AS A MODERATOR

As one of objectives of the study is to explore the relationship between code
mixing and consumer educational background on knowledge and understanding,
attitudes and purchase intention, there was comparison between the effect of code-
mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual advertisements. In addition, the
respondents were divided into two groups according to their educational level: Low
educational background respondents held qualifications lower than a bachelor's
23

degree while high educational background respondents obtained a bachelor's degree
or higher. The findings show in the form of mean and statistic deviation.

Table 6. Product Knowledge and Understanding When the Respondents Read
Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai Monolingual Statements in Advertisements
Low educational background High educational background
Item Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai monolingual
advertisements
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements

x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
1. I understand messages clearly.

4.17 Neutral 4.82 Slightly
Agree
5.65 Moderately
Agree

3.73 Neutral
2. I think the language in this print
advertisement is informative.

4.20 Neutral 4.52 Slightly
Agree
5.45 Moderately
Agree
3.50 Slightly
Disagree
3. I think the language in this print
advertisement gives me knowledge
about the product.
4.48 Slightly
Agree
4.67 Slightly
Agree
5.47 Moderately
Agree
3.58 Slightly
Disagree

4. I think the language in this print
advertisement gives me more
understanding about the product.

5. If some Thai translated words in
this print advertisement are changed
into English it gives me more
understanding about the
product.(Thai monolingual ad) / If
some English translated words in
this print advertisement are changed
into Thai it gives me more
understanding about the
product.(Code-mixing ad)


4.35



4.43

Neutral



Neutral

4.52



3.92

Slightly
Agree


Neutral

5.35



3.45

Moderately
Agree


Slightly
Disagree


3.55



5.27


Slightly
Disagree


Slightly
Agree

6. The language in this print
advertisement does not confuse me.

3.80 Neutral 4.65 Slightly
Agree
5.22 Slightly
Agree
3.43 Slightly
Disagree
7. The language in this print
advertisement can be read smoothly.

3.75 Neutral 4.58 Slightly
Agree
4.83 Slightly
Agree
3.38 Slightly
Disagree
Product knowledge and
understanding (overall)
4.17 Neutral 4.52 Slightly
Agree
5.32 Slightly
Agree
3.52 Slightly
Disagree
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.

24

From table 6, the relationship between code-mixing (Thai-English) statements
in print advertisements and consumers educational background on product
knowledge and understanding of the respondents shows as following:

Low Educational Background

The low educational background respondents had neutral opinion with overall
statements testing on product knowledge and understanding towards code-mixing
(Thai-English) advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.17. For the details, 36.7%
of them slightly agree that the language in code-mixed print advertisements gives
them knowledge about the product (x = 4.48), followed by if some English
translated words in this code-mixed advertisement are changed into Thai makes them
more understanding about the product ( x = 4.43). However, they gave neutral
opinion that the language in code-mixed advertisement can be read smoothly. (x =
3.75).
In addition, they slightly agreed with overall statements testing on product
knowledge and understanding towards Thai monolingual advertisements evidenced by
the mean of 4.52. For the details, 31.7% of low educational background respondents
slightly agreed that they understood messages clearly (x =4.82), followed by the
language in the print advertisement gives them knowledge about the product ( x
=4.67). Nevertheless, they had neutral agreement with if some Thai translated words
in this print advertisement are changed into English makes me more understanding
about the product at the lowest score, evidenced by the mean of 3.92.

High educational background

The high educational background respondents slightly agreed with overall
statements testing on product knowledge and understanding towards code-mixing
(Thai-English) advertisements evidenced by the mean of 5.32. For the details, 31.7%
of them moderately agreed with understanding messages clearly ( x =5.65), followed
by they think the language in this print advertisement gives them knowledge about the
25

product ( x =5.47). On the other hand, they slightly disagreed if some English
translated words in this print advertisement are changed into Thai makes me more
understanding about the product ( x =3.45).
In addition, they slightly disagreed with overall statements testing on product
knowledge and understanding towards Thai monolingual advertisement evidenced by
the mean of 3.52. For the details, 31.7% of the respondents slightly agreed that if
some Thai translated words in this print advertisement are changed into English
makes me more understanding about the product ( x =5.27), followed by
understanding messages clearly ( x =3.73). Nevertheless, they slightly disagreed that
the language in Thai monolingual advertisements can be read smoothly ( x =3.38).

Table 7. Paired Sample T-Test between Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai
Monolingual Advertisements on Product Knowledge and Understanding
Respondents Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Paired
Differences
t df P
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
Low education 4.17 0.83 4.52 0.94 -0.35 0.92 2.978 59 .004*
High education 5.32 0.85 3.52 0.83 1.80 1.27 10.981 59 .000*
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.
*p <0.05.

As shown in table 7, when paired sample t-test was used, a significant impact
on product knowledge and understanding was found between code mixing (Thai-
English) and Thai monolingual advertisements (t>0 and p<0.05). Table 7 reveals that
consumers with high educational background had more product knowledge and
understanding when code-mixed statements were used in advertisements than Thai
monolingual advertisements but those consumers having low educational background
had less product knowledge and understanding when code-mixed (Thai-English)
statements were used in advertisements than Thai monolingual advertisements.
26

Table 8. Attitude towards Language When the Respondents Read Code-Mixing
(Thai-English) and Thai Monolingual Advertisements

Low educational background High educational background
Item
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements

x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
8. I feel comfortable with the
language used in this print
advertisement.

3.95 Neutral

4.58

Slightly
Agree
5.02

Slightly
Agree

4.23 Neutral
9. I feel at ease with the
language used in this print
advertisement.

3.92

Neutral 4.20 Neutral 4.88

Slightly
Agree
4.12 Neutral
10. The language used in this
print advertisement is not
irritating.

3.83

Neutral

4.53 Slightly
Agree
4.82

Slightly
Agree

4.13 Neutral
11. I think the language used
in this print advertisement is
good.

4.02

Neutral 4.25 Neutral 5.03 Slightly
Agree

4.03 Neutral
12. I think the language used
in this print advertisement is
favorable.

3.95 Neutral 3.98 Neutral 5.05

Slightly
Agree

3.78 Neutral
13. I feel positive about the
language used in this print
advertisement.

4.10

Neutral 4.22 Neutral 5.07

Slightly
Agree

4.22 Neutral
14. I like the language used
in this print advertisement.

3.88

Neutral 4.23 Neutral 4.82

Slightly
Agree

4.07 Neutral
Attitude toward language
(overall)
3.95 Neutral 4.29 Neutral 4.95

Slightly
Agree
4.08 Neutral
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.

As shown in table 8, the result of respondents attitudes towards code-mixing
(Thai-English) language used in advertisements compared with the use of Thai
monolingual shows as following:
27

Low educational background

The low educational background respondents had neutral attitude towards
using code-mixing (Thai-English) in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 3.95.
For the details 53.3% of the respondents had neutral attitude towards feeling positive
about the code-mixed language used in advertisements (x =4.10), followed by the
language used in this print advertisement is good (x =4.02). But they gave neutral
attitude towards code-mixed language used in this print advertisement is not
irritating at the lowest point ( x =3.83).
Furthermore, they had neutral attitude towards using Thai monolingual in
advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.29. For the details, 43.3% of the
respondents slightly agree with I feel comfortable with Thai monolingual used in this
print advertisement (x =4.58), followed by the language used in this print
advertisement is not irritating ( x =4.53). However, they gave neutral attitude towards
the language used in this print advertisement is favorable at the lowest point (x
=3.98).

High educational background

The high educational background respondents slightly agreed towards using
code-mixing (Thai-English) in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.95. For the
details, 26.7% of the respondents slightly agreed with I feel positive about the code-
mixed language used in this print advertisement (x =5.07), followed by the
language used in this print advertisement is favorable (x =5.05). Nevertheless, they
slightly agreed with the code-mixed language used in this print advertisement is not
irritating and I like the language used in this print advertisement as the lowest
point ( x =4.82).
On the other hand, they had neutral attitude towards using Thai monolingual
in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.08. For the details, 33.3% of the
respondents gave neutral attitude towards I feel comfortable with the language used
28

in this print advertisement as the highest point (x =4.23), followed by I feel positive
about the language used in this print advertisement (x =4.22). However, they had
neutral attitude towards the language used in this print advertisement is favorable as
the lowest point ( x =3.78).

Table 9. Paired Sample T-Test between Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai
Monolingual Advertisements on Attitude toward Language
Respondents Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Paired
Differences
t df P
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
Low education 3.95 0.95 4.29 1.17 -0.34 1.24 -2.097 59 .040*
High education 4.95 0.96 4.08 1.09 0.87 1.35 4.983 59 .000*
Note. Low educational background respondents held qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.
*p <0.05.

From table 9, when paired sample t-test was used, a significant impact on
attitude towards language was found between the use of code-mixed (Thai-English)
and Thai monolingual statements in advertisements (t>0 and p<0.05). Table 9 shows
that consumers having high educational background have more positive attitude
towards code-mixed (Thai-English) language than Thai monolingual statements in
advertisements. On the other hand, consumers having low educational background
have positive attitudes towards Thai monolingual statements more than code-mixed
(Thai-English) language.









29

Table 10. Attitude towards Product Image When the Respondents Read Code-
Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai Monolingual Advertisements
Low educational background High educational background
Item Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements

x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
15. The language used in this print
advertisement makes me interested
in the product.
4.05 Neutral 4.03 Neutral 4.00 Neutral 3.92 Neutral

16. I think the language used in this
print advertisement is attractive.


4.08

Neutral

4.00

Neutral

4.02

Neutral

3.80

Neutral
17. I think the language used in this
print advertisement has strong
appeal.
4.02 Neutral 3.92 Neutral 3.90 Neutral 3.63 Neutral
18. I think the language used in this
advertisement makes me believe in
the quality of the product.

4.15 Neutral 4.12 Neutral 3.97 Neutral 3.82 Neutral
19. I think the language used in this
print advertisement is persuasive.

4.28 Neutral 3.97 Neutral 3.97 Neutral 3.63 Neutral
20. I think the language used in this
print advertisement makes the
product image good.

4.65 Slightly
Agree

4.07 Neutral 4.33 Neutral 3.62 Neutral
21. I think the language used in this
print advertisement makes the
product image modern.

4.78

Slightly
Agree

4.02 Neutral 4.50

Slightly
Agree

3.50 Slightly
Disagree
22. I think the language used in this
print advertisement makes the
product image premium.

4.43

Neutral 3.85 Neutral 4.45

Slightly
Agree

3.73 Neutral
23. I think the language used in this
print advertisement makes the
product image satisfactory.

4.25 Neutral 4.02 Neutral 4.33 Neutral 3.65

Neutral
Attitude towards the product image
(overall)
4.30 Neutral 4.00 Neutral 4.16 Neutral 3.70 Neutral
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.

From table 10, the attitudes towards product image when the respondents read
code-mixing (Thai-English) advertisements comparing with Thai monolingual
advertisements shows as below:
30

Low educational background

The low educational background respondents had neutral attitude towards
product image when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in advertisements
evidenced by the mean of 4.30. For the details, 45% of the respondents had neutral
attitude towards the code-mixed language used in this print advertisement makes the
product image modern (x =4.78), followed by the language used in this print
advertisement makes the product image good (x =4.65). However, they gave neutral
attitude towards the code-mixed language used in advertisement has strong appeal
at the lowest point ( x =4.02).
Moreover, they also gave neutral attitude towards product image when Thai
monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.00. For the
details, 45% of them had neutral attitude that the language used in this advertisement
makes me believe in the quality of the product (x =4.12) as the strongest point,
followed by the language used in this print advertisement makes the product image
good ( x =4.07). However, they gave neutral attitude that the language used in this
print advertisement makes the product image premium (x =3.85) at the lowest point.

High educational background

Table 10 indicates that high educational background respondents gave neutral
attitude towards product image when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in
advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.16. For the details, 26.7% of the
respondents slightly agreed that the code-mixed language used in this print
advertisement makes the product image modern (x =4.50), followed by the code-
mixed language used in this print advertisement makes the product image premium
(4.45). At the lowest point, they had neutral attitude towards the code-mixed
language used in this print advertisement has strong appeal ( x =3.90).
In addition, they also had neutral attitude towards product image when Thai
monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 3.70. For the
31

details, 40% of the respondents had neutral attitude towards Thai monolingual used
in this print advertisement makes them interested in the product the most ( x =3.92),
followed by the language used in this advertisement makes them believe in the
quality of the product (x =3.82). At the lowest score, they slightly disagreed with
the language used in this print advertisement makes the product image modern (x
=3.50).

Table 11. Paired Sample T-Test between Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai
Monolingual Advertisements on Attitude toward Product Image
Respondents Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Paired
Differences
t df P
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
Low education 4.30 0.82 4.00 1.04 0.30 0.92 2.530 59 .014*
High education 4.16 1.13 3.70 1.06 0.46 1.14 3.153 59 .003*
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.
*p <0.05.

As shown in table 11, when paired sample t-test was used, a significant impact
on attitude towards product image was found between code-mixing (Thai-English)
and Thai monolingual advertisements (t<0 and p<0.05). In the opinions of both
respondents having high educational background and low educational background,
code-mixing (Thai-English) advertisements created positive attitude towards product
image more than Thai monolingual advertisements.






32

Table 12. Attitude towards Advertisement as a Whole When the Respondents Read
Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai Monolingual Advertisements
Low educational background High educational background
Item Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements

x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
29. I understand this print
advertisement as a whole.

4.20

Neutral

4.67 Slightly
Agree
4.28 Neutral 4.30 Neutral
30. I like the overall of this
print advertisement.
4.17 Neutral 3.97 Neutral 4.00 Neutral 3.80 Neutral
Attitude toward
advertisement as a whole
4.08 Neutral 4.42 Neutral 4.14 Neutral 4.05 Neutral
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.

From table 12, the attitude towards advertisement as a whole when the
respondents read code-mixing (Thai-English) advertisements by comparing with Thai
monolingual advertisements shows as following:

Low educational background

As can be seen in table 12, the low educational background respondents also
gave neutral attitude towards advertisement as a whole when code-mixing (Thai-
English) was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.08. For the details,
they had neutral attitude towards understanding code-mixing print advertisement as a
whole more than like the overall of the print advertisement ( x =4.20, 4.17).
In addition, they also had neutral attitude towards advertisement as a whole
when Thai monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.42.
For the details, they slightly agreed with understanding Thai monolingual print
advertisement as a whole more than like the overall of the print advertisement (x
=4.67, 3.97).

33

High educational background

As shown in table 12, the high educational background respondents had
neutral attitude towards advertisement as a whole when code-mixing (Thai-English)
was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.14. For the details, they also
had neutral attitude towards understanding code-mixed print advertisement as a whole
more than like the overall of the print advertisement (x =4.28, 4.00).
Furthermore, they also had neutral attitude advertisement as a whole when
Thai monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.05. For the
details, they gave neutral attitude towards understanding Thai monolingual print
advertisement as a whole more than like the overall of the advertisement (x =4.30,
3.80).

Table 13. Paired Sample T-Test between Code-Mixing (Thai-English and Thai
Monolingual Advertisements on Attitude towards Advertisement as a whole
Respondents Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Paired
Differences
t df P
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
Low education 4.08 1.07 4.42 1.15 -0.34 1.18 -2.179 59 .033*
High education 4.14 1.11 4.05 1.06 0.09 1.13 .629 59 .532
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.
*p <0.05.

From table 13, when paired sample t-test was used, no significant impact on
attitude towards advertisement as a whole was found between code-mixing (Thai-
English) and Thai monolingual advertisements (t>0 and p<0.05) for consumers with
high educational background. Code-mixing advertisements could not create more
positive attitude toward advertisement as a whole than Thai monolingual
advertisements. While consumers having low educational background had better
34

attitude toward advertisement as a whole with Thai monolingual advertisements than
code-mixing (Thai-English) advertisements.

Table 14. Purchase Intention When the Respondents Read Code-Mixing (Thai-
English) and Thai Monolingual Advertisements
Low educational background High educational background
Item Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements

x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
x
Level of
agreement
24. I would consider buying
the product advertised.

3.87

Neutral 3.92 Neutral 3.83 Neutral 3.63 Neutral
25. It is probable that I will
buy the product advertised.

3.67 Neutral 3.80 Neutral 3.70 Neutral 3.53 Slightly
Disagree
26. It is very likely that I will
buy the product advertised.

3.60 Neutral 3.98 Neutral 3.63 Neutral 3.40 Slightly
Disagree
27. I would seek out the
product advertised.

3.35 Slightly
Disagree
3.55 Slightly
Disagree
3.53 Slightly
Disagree
3.28 Slightly
Disagree
28. I would definitely like to
buy the product advertised.

3.18 Slightly
Disagree
3.47 Slightly
Disagree
3.47 Slightly
Disagree
3.18 Slightly
Disagree
Purchase intention
(overall)
3.53 Slightly
Disagree
3.74 Neutral 3.63 Neutral

3.41 Slightly
Disagree
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.

As shown in table 14, the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English) in
advertisements on purchase intention of the respondents by comparing with Thai
monolingual shows as below:

Low educational background

The low educational background respondents slightly disagreed with purchase
intention when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in advertisements evidenced by
35

the mean of 3.53. For the details, 56.7% of the respondents gave neutral opinion that
they would consider buying the product advertised (x =3.87), followed by it is
probable that they will buy the product advertised (x =3.67). However, they slightly
disagreed that they would definitely like to buy the product advertised ( x =3.18).
Moreover, they had neutral agreement with purchase intention when Thai
monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 3.74. For the
details, 40% of the respondents gave neutral opinion towardit is very likely that I
will buy the product advertised as the highest point (x =3.98), followed by they
would consider buying the product advertised (x =3.92). For the lowest point, they
slightly disagreed that they would definitely like to buy the product advertised (x
=3.47).

High educational background

The high educational background respondents had neutral opinion about
purchase intention when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in advertisements
evidenced by the mean of 3.63. For the details, 38.3% of the respondents had neutral
opinion that they would consider buying the product advertised (x =3.83), followed
by it is probable that they will buy the product advertised (x =3.70). And they slightly
disagreed that they would definitely like to buy the product advertised ( x =3.47).
In addition, they slightly disagreed with purchase intention when Thai
monolingual was used in advertisements evidenced by the mean of 3.41. For the
details, 31.7% of the respondents gave neutral opinion that they would consider
buying the product advertised ( x =3.63), followed by it is probable that I will buy the
product advertised ( x =3.53). At the lowest point, they slightly disagreed that they
would definitely like to buy the product advertised (x =3.18).



36

Table 15. Paired Sample T-Test between Code-Mixing (Thai-English) and Thai
Monolingual Advertisement on Purchase Intention
Respondents Code-mixing
(Thai-English)
advertisements
Thai
monolingual
advertisements
Paired
Differences
t df P
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
x
S.D.
Low education 3.53 0.97 3.74 1.10 -0.21 0.84 -1.933 59 .058
High education 3.63 1.19 3.41 1.27 0.22 1.14 1.537 59 .130
Note. Low educational background respondents hold qualifications lower than a
bachelor's degree while high educational background respondents obtained a
bachelor's degree or higher.
*p <0.05.

As shown in table 15, when paired sample t-test was used, no significant
impact on purchase intention was found between code- mixing (Thai-English) and
Thai monolingual advertisements (p>0.05). Therefore, in the opinions of both
respondents having high and low educational background, code-mixing (Thai-
English) advertisements did not have effect on their purchase intention more than
Thai monolingual advertisements.

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS, DISCUSSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This research paper has provided a preliminary study of the effect of
code-mixing (Thai-English) in print advertisements on product knowledge and
understanding, attitudes toward advertisements and purchase intention. It aims to
examine the relation between code mixing and consumers educational background,
attitudes and purchase intention. A total of 120 self-administered questionnaires were
collected from Thai females living in Bangkok and neighboring provinces and
selected by using stratified random sampling. The present study helps to understand
the effects of using code-mixing (Thai-English) and the relationship between code
mixing and consumers educational background in product knowledge and
understanding, attitudes toward advertisements and purchase intention.

5.1 SUMMARY OF THE STUDY
5.1.1 Objectives of the Study
The study aims to investigate the effect of code-mixing (Thai-English)
in print advertisements on product knowledge and understanding, attitudes and
purchase intention. The sub-objective of this study was to explore the relationship
between code mixing and consumers educational background in product knowledge,
attitudes toward advertisements and purchase intention.

5.1.2 Subjects, Data Collection and Procedures
5.1.2.1 The subjects of this study were 120 Thai females living in
Bangkok and neighboring provinces including Nondhaburi, Pratumthani,
Nakornprathom, Samutprakarn, Samutsakorn and Samutsongkram. The subjects
consisted of 60 respondents holding qualifications lower than a bachelor's degree, 45
people obtained a bachelor's degree and 15 respondents had a postgraduate degree.
They were selected by using stratified random sampling which was a combination of
randomization and categorization.
38

5.1.2.2 The study was conducted using a self-administered
questionnaire with 69 closed-ended questions. The questionnaire consisted of two
parts: demographic information and information about the effect of code-mixing
(Thai-English) in print advertisements on product knowledge and understanding,
attitudes toward advertisements as well as purchase intention. In addition, two facial
skincare whitening products were selected as samples for this study. Both of them
were adjusted into two types of language used in advertisements: Thai monolingual
and code mixed (Thai-English) language.
5.1.2.3 The data obtained from questionnaires were analyzed using the
Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program version 12.0 for frequency,
percentage, mean and standard deviation. Moreover, the hypotheses were tested by
using Paired Sample t-test.

5.2 SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS

5.2.1 Demographic Information of the Respondents
The total number of respondents was 120 Thai females. The majority
of the respondents lived in Bangkok. Half of the respondents (50%) hold
qualifications lower than a bachelor's degree, while the rest obtained a bachelor's
degree or higher. The majority of respondents seemed to not pay attention to
advertisements in magazines much. Moreover, the chance of reading magazines also
was not so often; only more than once in a week but not every day. However, most of
them tended to be interested in the advertisements when they read magazines.

5.2.2 The Effect of Code-Mixing (Thai-English) in Print Advertisements
on Product Knowledge and Understanding, Attitudes as well as Purchase
Intention.
39.2% of the respondents believed that advertisements containing
code-mixing could convey messages effectively and created better knowledge and
understanding than Thai monolingual advertisements evidenced by the mean of 4.74.
40% of the respondents thought that the advertisements containing code-mixing
39

created positive attitude toward language in advertising (
x
=4.45) and 40.8% of them
had positive attitude toward product image when mixed English terms were used in
advertisements (
x
=4.23). On the other hand, they believed that the use of code-
mixed statements in advertisements did not have an impact on their attitudes toward
advertisement as a whole.
Furthermore, 43.3% of the respondents generally gave opinions that
advertisements containing code-mixing could not convince them to buy the product
and had no influence on their purchase intention.

5.2.3 The Effect of Code-Mixing (Thai-English) in Print Advertisements
on Product Knowledge and Understanding, Attitudes as well as Purchase
Intention by Using Consumer Educational Background as a Moderator
5.2.3.1 It was found that advertisements containing code-mixing could
convey messages to the audience effectively better than Thai monolingual for
respondents with high educational background, but the respondents with low
educational background had product knowledge and understanding when code-mixed
(Thai-English) statements were used in advertisements less than Thai monolingual
advertisements. 35% of high educational background respondents agreed that they
had product knowledge and understanding towards code-mixing (Thai-English)
advertisements evidenced by the mean of 5.32. Moreover, 31.7% of them gave the
highest level of agreement with understanding messages clearly. In contrast, they
slightly disagreed that they got product knowledge and understanding towards Thai
monolingual advertisement evidenced by the mean of 3.52. In addition, 51.7% of low
educational background respondents had only neutral agreement that they had product
knowledge and understanding towards code-mixing (Thai-English) advertisement
evidenced by the mean of 4.17. They thought that they had better product knowledge
and understanding towards Thai monolingual advertisement evidenced by the mean of
4.52.
5.2.3.2 The significant impact on attitude towards language was found
between the use of code-mixed (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual statements in
advertisements. Advertisements containing code-mixing caused more positive attitude
40

toward language in advertisements than Thai monolingual for respondents with high
educational background, but those respondents with low educational background had
more positive attitudes towards Thai monolingual statements than code-mixed (Thai-
English) language. 31.7% of the high educational background respondents had
positive attitude toward code-mixed language in advertisements (
x
=4.95) while they
had only neutral attitude towards using Thai monolingual in advertisements evidenced
by the mean of 4.08. On the other hand, low educated respondents had only neutral
attitude towards using code-mixed (Thai-English) language evidenced by the mean of
3.95 but the mean for attitude towards using Thai monolingual in advertisements was
at 4.29.
5.2.3.3 The study shows that both two groups of respondents thought
that advertisements containing code-mixing created positive attitude toward product
image. The high educated group had more positive attitude towards product image
when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in advertisements than Thai monolingual
advertisements at the means of 4.16 and 3.70 respectively. Moreover, low educated
respondents also had more positive attitude towards product image when code-mixing
(Thai-English) was used in advertisements than Thai monolingual at the mean of 4.30
and 4.00 respectively.
5.2.3.4 It was found that advertisements containing code-mixing could
not create more positive attitude toward advertisements as a whole than Thai
monolingual for both two groups of respondents. No significant impact on attitude
towards advertisement as a whole was found between code-mixing (Thai-English) and
Thai monolingual advertisement for consumers with high educational background.
They had neutral attitudes at the means of 4.14 and 4.05 respectively. While
consumers having low educational background had less positive attitude toward
advertisements as a whole when code-mixing (Thai-English) was used in
advertisements than Thai monolingual advertisements. They gave attitudes at the
means of 4.08 and 4.42 respectively.
5.2.3.5 The study shows that no significant impact on purchase
intention was found between code-mixing (Thai-English) and Thai monolingual
advertisements. So advertisements containing code-mixing had no more influence on
41

consumers purchase intention than Thai monolingual for both groups of respondents.
40% of high educated respondents gave neutral opinion for code-mixing (Thai-
English) as well as 31.7% of them slightly disagreed when Thai monolingual was
used in advertisements. The means of level of agreement were 3.63 and 3.41
respectively. Moreover, 46.7% of low educated respondents slightly disagreed with
code-mixing (Thai-English) as well as 40% of them had neutral agreement with Thai
monolingual advertisements. The means of level of agreement were 3.53 and 3.74
respectively.

5.3 DISCUSSION

The findings of this study have raised some significant issues as follows:
5.3.1 The researcher finds that the use of code-mixing in advertisement had
significant impact on knowledge or understanding, attitudes towards language and
product image. This result coincides with previous similar studies of Leung (2010)
and Chen (2006). They found that most code-mixed advertisements could be
understood and most of respondents had quite positive attitudes towards the use of
code-mixing in magazine advertisements. Since the use of code-mixing was perceived
to present better knowledge, understanding and product image than Thai monolingual
in advertisements, advertisers should consider using appropriate English terms mixed
into Thai language to create an attention-getting advertisement and positive feelings
such as modernization and professionalism. However, it is suitable for general target
audiences without the limitation of consumers social identities.
5.3.2 The study finds that the use of code-mixing in advertisement has no
affect on attitudes toward advertisement as a whole and a consumers purchase
intentions. Christs research (as cited in Tangchakvaranont, 2010, p. 10) found that
several influences affecting consumer buying behavior could be classified as internal
influences and external influences. The internal influences were knowledge, attitude,
personality, lifestyle and motivation, whereas the external influences consisted of
group membership and purchase situation. Moreover, the components of print
advertisements are not only text parts but also visuals. The visuals are usually more
important than copy; they are more effective in attracting readers' attention and can
42

instantly present the product in a motivating way. Moreover, there are also many
influential factors affecting a consumers purchase intention such as product
knowledge, design, features, brand and price. Furthermore, cosmetics are experiential
products, therefore the degree of product knowledge does affect purchase intention.
Businesses should provide consumers with complete product information. For those
with lower product knowledge, they might rely on pricing as the main deciding factor.
Thus, businesses can target this type of consumers with attractive prices.
5.3.3 There is a correlation between the use of code-mixing and consumers
educational background. In those with high educational background, code-mixing
(Thai-English) in advertisements created better knowledge, understanding, attitudes
towards language and product image than not using mixed English terms. In contrast,
for those with lower educational background, the use of code-mixing had no
significant effect on product image. Alba and Hutchinson (1987); Bettan and Park
(1980) found that consumers educational level could be a good indicator of their
language proficiency with regard to understanding English. In addition, consumer
knowledge was one of the important constructs in consumer behavior and information
processing. This belief concurs with this research conclusion. Furthermore, the
researcher found that consumers with lower educational background were less
familiar with English terms or specialized information relevant to advertised products
so the effects of code-mixing on their knowledge, or understanding and attitudes
towards language were not good. Therefore, understanding consumer-level variables
of the target market before making any advertising decision is very significant.
5.3.4 The study finds a correlation between the use of code-mixing and
consumers educational background. The use of mixed English terms could create
positive attitudes toward product image for both consumer groups. This conclusion
coincides with the research of Wei-Yu Chen (2006) which found that the use of code
mixed statements may invoke professional recognitions, professional images,
technology associations, and positive attributes such as internationalization, creativity
and modernization.
5.3.5 In this study, the researcher found the relationship between the use of
code-mixing and consumers educational background. The use of code-mixing (Thai-
English) did not cause better attitudes toward advertisements as a whole and had no
43

influence on the purchase intentions of both groups of respondents who had different
educational levels. This result correlates with the explanation about successful sale
mental stages of consumer decision-making by Burrow and Eggland (1995). They
found that after focusing attention on an advertisement, a consumer normally moves
from interest to desire when it is clear that the product meets important needs. The
desire turns to conviction when the customer determines the product is a good value
and the best choice. That leads to action, or the purchase of the product. For this
research, since most of respondents might think that type of products did not meet
their needs or were not a good value, the samples of code-mixing (Thai-English)
advertisement could not turn their interest to desire and had no effect on their
purchase intention.
The use of too many English expressions in advertisement may disadvantage
those people who are not familiar with English. So advertisers should be aware of the
social status, differences of educational level and English competence of targeted
audiences. Moreover, the advertisers should determine whether code-mixing matches
with their target market properly or not.

5.4 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH

This study used only print media as a means of advertising, future studies can
explore other communication genres such as electronic media to ascertain whether the
effects of code-mixing (Thai-English) and consumers educational background would
be different. It would be useful to examine the effect of code-mixing in
advertisements of more products to enhance our understanding more widely. Further
research can be expanded to study the use of mixed English terms on product
packages.

REFERENCES

Advertising. (n.d.). Retrieved September 2, 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org
Alba, J . W., & Hutchinson, W. (1987). Dimension of consumer expertise. Journal of
Consumer Research, 13, 411454.
Burrow, J ., & Eggland, S. (1995). Marketing foundations and functions. Cincinatti:
South-Western College.
Chen, C. (2006). The mixing of English in magazine advertisements in Taiwan
[Electronic version]. World Englishes,25, 467-478.
Chuang, S., Tsai, C., Cheng, Y., & Sun, Y. (2009). The effect of terminologies on
attitudes toward advertisements and brands: Consumer product knowledge as
a moderator [Electronic version]. J Bus Psychol, 24, 485-491.
Huebner, T. (2006). Bangkoks linguistic landscapes: Environmental print, code
mixing and language change [Electronic version]. International Journal of
Multilingualism, 3(1), 31-51.
Leung, C. (2010). An empirical study on code mixing in print advertisements in Hong
Kong [Electronic version]. Asian Journal of Marketing, 4(2), 49-61.
Martin, E. (2002). Cultural images and different varieties of English in French
television commercials. English Today, 18, 8-20.
Mason, J ., & Ezell, H. (1987). Marketing principles and strategy. Plano: Business.
Muysken, P. (2000). Bilingual speech: A typology of code-mixing. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press.
Nielsen Media Research. (2010, J uly). AdEx promote. Retrieved September 2, 2010,
from http://www.adassothai.com
OGuinn, T., Allen, C., & Semenik, R. (2000). Advertising. Cincinatti: South-Western
College.
Pennycook, A. (2010). Popular cultures, popular languages, and global identities. In
N. Coupland (Eds.), The handbook of language and globalization (pp. 592-
604). West Sussex, United Kingdom: Blackwell.
Phipps, R., & Simmons, C. (1995). Understanding customers. Oxford, United
Kingdom: Butterworth-Heinemann.
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Poplack, S., (1980). Sometimes Ill start a sentence in Spanish y termin en espaol:
Towards a typology of codeswitching. Linguistics, 18(7/8), 581-618.
Rao, A. R., & Monroe, K. B. (1988). The moderating effect of prior knowledge on
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Takashi, K. (1990). A sociolinguistic analysis of English borrowings in J apanese
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Thanutcha Preechaamornkul (1996). Code-mixing of English and Thai in Thai
television music programs. Chiang Mai: Chiang Mai University.
Toncar, M. F., & Munch, W. A. (2001). Consumer responses to tropes in print
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Varaporn Tangchakvaranont (2010). Attitudes of customers in Bangkok in making a
decision to choose a Toyota passenger car. Bangkok: Thammasat University.
Worawalan Sopee (2002). English-Thai code mixing: A study of Thai television
programmes and the audience attitudes. Bangkok: Ramkhamhaeng
University.


APPENDIX A
Questionnaire in English for Code-Mixing Advertisement

INTRODUCTION
This questionnaire is part of a research for the purpose of an academic study in
the area of language in advertising. Please be assured that the information obtained
through this questionnaire will be treated with confidentiality and used solely for the
purpose of this study. Your generous assistance in answering this questionnaire is
greatly appreciated. Please complete the questionnaire to the best of your ability.
Thank you.

Part 1: Personal data
Please put () on the answer of each question that corresponds to your personal
data.
1. Age
Below 18 years old
25 years old 34 years old
45 years old 54 years old
18 years old 24 years old
35 years old 44 years old
55+years old

2. Nationality

Thai Other.. (please specify)

3. Place to Stay
Bangkok Nondhaburi
Samutprakarn Samutsongkram
Samutsakorn Nakornprathom
Pathumthani Other.. (please specify)

47

4. Educational Background

Lower than Bachelors Degree Bachelors Degree
Postgraduate Other.. (please specify)

5. Do you read magazine?
Yes (please answer questions 6A-6D) No

6A. Which magazine(s) do you read? (you may select more than one)

Dichan HiSo Party Image
Khunying Kullastree Kwanruen
Lips Lisa Ploy Gam Petch
Praew Priew Sakulthai
Sudsapda Volume CLEO
Cosmopolitan Elle Seventeen
Other.. (please specify)
6B. In general, how often do you read magazine(s) nowadays?
More than once in a day Once in a day
More than once in a week but not every day Once in a week
Less often
6C. When you read magazine(s), are you interested in the advertisements?
Very interested Interested
Moderately interested Of little interest
Uninterested
6D. When you read magazine(s), do you pay attention to the advertisements?
Always Very Often
Sometimes Rarely
Never

48

Part 2:
7. Please look at the advertisement and indicate to what extend you agree with
following statements on a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree).

Advertisement #1 Code-mixing:
(Read and Rate) Strongly Strongly
Disagree Agree
1 I understand messages
clearly.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 I think the language in this
print advertisement is
informative.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 I think the language in this
print advertisement gives
me knowledge about the
product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


4 I think the language in this
print advertisement gives
me more understanding
about the product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


5 If some English translated
words in this print
advertisement are changed
into Thai it gives me more
understanding about the
product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


6 The language in this print
advertisement does not
confuse me.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 The language in this print
advertisement can be read
smoothly.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7



8 I feel comfortable with the
language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

49

9 I feel at ease with the


language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 The language used in this
print advertisement is not
irritating.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

11 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is good.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is favorable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13 I feel positive about the
language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14 I like the language used in
this print advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15 The language used in this
print advertisement makes
me interested in the
product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is attractive.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
has strong appeal.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

18 I think the language used
in this advertisement
makes me believe in the
quality of the product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


19 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is persuasive.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

50

20 I think the language used


in this print advertisement
makes the product image
good.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

21 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
modern.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


22 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
premium.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


23 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
satisfactory.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


24 It is probable that I will
buy the product advertised.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25 It is very likely that I will
buy the product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26 I would consider buying
the product advertised.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

27 I would seek out the
product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

28 I would definitely like to
buy the product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

29 I understand this print
advertisement as a whole.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

30 I like the overall of this
print advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


APPENDIX B
Questionnaire in English for Thai Monolingual Advertisement

INTRODUCTION
This questionnaire is part of a research for the purpose of an academic study in
the area of language in advertising. Please be assured that the information obtained
through this questionnaire will be treated with confidentiality and used solely for the
purpose of this study. Your generous assistance in answering this questionnaire is
greatly appreciated. Please complete the questionnaire to the best of your ability.
Thank you.

Part 1: Personal data
Please put () on the answer of each question that corresponds to your personal
data.
1. Age
Below 18 years old
25 years old 34 years old
45 years old 54 years old
18 years old 24 years old
35 years old 44 years old
55+years old

2. Nationality

Thai Other.. (please specify)

3. Place to Stay
Bangkok Nondhaburi
Samutprakarn Samutsongkram
Samutsakorn Nakornprathom
Pathumthani Other.. (please specify)

52

4. Educational Background

Lower than Bachelors Degree Bachelors Degree
Postgraduate Other.. (please specify)

5. Do you read magazine?
Yes (please answer questions 6A-6D) No

6A. Which magazine(s) do you read? (you may select more than one)

Dichan HiSo Party Image
Khunying Kullastree Kwanruen
Lips Lisa Ploy Gam Petch
Praew Priew Sakulthai
Sudsapda Volume CLEO
Cosmopolitan Elle Seventeen
Other.. (please specify)
6B. In general, how often do you read magazine(s) nowadays?
More than once in a day Once in a day
More than once in a week but not every day Once in a week
Less often
6C. When you read magazine(s), are you interested in the advertisements?
Very interested Interested
Moderately interested Of little interest
Uninterested
6D. When you read magazine(s), do you pay attention to the advertisements?
Always Very Often
Sometimes Rarely
Never

53

Part 2:
7. Please look at the advertisement and indicate to what extend you agree with
following statements on a scale of 1 (Strongly Disagree) to 7 (Strongly Agree).

Advertisement #1 Code-mixing:
(Read and Rate) Strongly Strongly
Disagree Agree
1 I understand messages
clearly.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2 I think the language in this
print advertisement is
informative.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

3 I think the language in this
print advertisement gives
me knowledge about the
product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


4 I think the language in this
print advertisement gives
me more understanding
about the product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


5 If some Thai translated
words in this print
advertisement are changed
into English it gives me
more understanding about
the product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


6 The language in this print
advertisement does not
confuse me.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7 The language in this print
advertisement can be read
smoothly.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7



8 I feel comfortable with the
language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

54

9 I feel at ease with the


language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10 The language used in this
print advertisement is not
irritating.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

11 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is good.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is favorable.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13 I feel positive about the
language used in this print
advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14 I like the language used in
this print advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15 The language used in this
print advertisement makes
me interested in the
product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is attractive.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
has strong appeal.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

18 I think the language used
in this advertisement
makes me believe in the
quality of the product.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


19 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
is persuasive.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

55

20 I think the language used


in this print advertisement
makes the product image
good.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

21 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
modern.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


22 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
premium.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


23 I think the language used
in this print advertisement
makes the product image
satisfactory.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7


24 It is probable that I will
buy the product advertised.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25 It is very likely that I will
buy the product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26 I would consider buying
the product advertised.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

27 I would seek out the
product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

28 I would definitely like to
buy the product advertised.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

29 I understand this print
advertisement as a whole.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

30 I like the overall of this
print advertisement.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

APPENDIX C
Questionnaire in Thai for Code-Mixing Advertisement







1

1.
18
25 34
45 54
18 24
35 44
55

2.
.. ()
3.

57



.. ()
4.

.. ()
5. ?
( 6A-6D)
6A. ? ( 1 )






.. ()
6B.
1 1
1 1
58


6C. ?



6D. ?



2:

7.

7 1 ( ) - 7 ( )
# 1:


1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

59

3


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


5



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


6



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


8


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

60

11

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

18


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


19



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

61

20



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


21


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


22



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


23



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


24


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

62

28

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

29

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7


APPENDIX D
Questionnaire in Thai for Thai Monolingual Advertisement







1

1.
18
25 34
45 54
18 24
35 44
55

2.
.. ()
3.

64



.. ()
4.

.. ()
5. ?
( 6A-6D)
6A. ? ( 1 )






.. ()
6B.
1 1
1 1
65


6C. ?



6D. ?



2:

7.

7 1 ( ) - 7 ( )
# 1:


1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

2


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

66

3


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

4



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


5




1 2 3 4 5 6 7


6



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

7


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


8


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

9


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

10


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

67

11

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

12


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

13


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

14

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

15



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

16


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

17


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

18


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


19



1 2 3 4 5 6 7

68

20



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


21


1 2 3 4 5 6 7


22



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


23



1 2 3 4 5 6 7


24


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

25

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

26


1 2 3 4 5 6 7

27

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

69

28

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

29

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

30

1 2 3 4 5 6 7


APPENDIX E
The Advertisements of Facial Skincare Whitening Products

71

72

73