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Chapter 3: Parts of Speech in English Phrases Every chapter of this book addresses the question: What do we (the readers

and author of this book) know that makes it possible for us to produce and understand English? Chapter 1 showed that we know about pronunciation and spelling, about word formation, about grammar, and about discourse structure. Chapter 2 looked more closely at what we know about the form, function, and meaning of morphemes and how they pattern together to form English words. Chapter 3 introduced some key concepts needed to explain what we know about grammar (how words pattern in phrases and how phrases pattern in clauses). This book focuses on grammar, and so in this chapter we begin our detailed exploration of the grammatical structure of English phrases, clauses, and sentences. But before we take up the details, let us once more review the approach that we will take, an approach rooted in the analysis and description of function and form, patterns and choices. In Chapter 1, I found it useful, and we hope you found it interesting, to look very closely at a poem by Emily Dickinson. Even though it was composed of only two short sentences totaling 19 words, we spent several pages exploring the complexity of its language. Here is another passage for you to read (and I hope enjoy). Its language is as straightforward and direct as was Emily Dickinsons. In fact it is very spontaneous. It is a short excerpt from the writing journal of a student in a first year college composition course. The student was instructed to write in the journal often, using writing as a stimulus to looking more closely at the world around him and as a way to gather observations, ideas, and language that might provide the raw material for assigned essays in the course. Here is the passage: 3.1 A Passage from Doug Webbs Journal I bought a book today. My favorite kind. A paperback. Paperbacks are so much better than hardbacks; they're not so heavy; they bend. But what is most peculiar about paperbacks is the way they never lie flat after they've been opened and read from a few times. It's almost as if they were inviting you to jump back in, make a return visit, maybe get really acquainted this time. Hardback books are so big -- cumbersome too, and they're always just too big to go into your biggest pocket. They seem to try to impress with their squared off corners and their unnecessary thickness. I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh! And there's another thing hardbacks can't do -- they never quite take on the appearance of their owners. You know the way a paperback gets because you carry it around all the time -- full of papers, notes about assignments, scribbles and comments and underlinings. And the corners always get bent up and begin to separate into layers, and they always get dirty around the edges, and better than that, they're full of funny little memories like coffee stains and little pieces of coconut and sometimes even bubble gum. Paperbacks can be almost like friends because you get to know them so well, I guess; that's probably the reason I have a house full of them. But hardbacks, they're hopeless. You never get to know them; they're just too impersonal. Maybe they just don't approve of me; they're probably even snobbish towards my paperbacks that always surround and outnumber them. I bet they don't like having to be so close to the swinish multitudes. But I bet my paperbacks have more fun. As delightful and spontaneous as the language of this passage is, we will find out that aspects of its grammar are so subtle and intricate that we will not have explained them fully even by the end of this book. On the other hand, the passage contains many examples of some of the more

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common grammatical structures in English, and thus provides us with some excellent examples to start our discussion of parts of speech and their roles in the grammar of English phrases. (In order to focus on a particular point we may wish to make, we will at times make small revisions in a selection from Dougs passage, but in every case, the parts of speech and the grammatical patterns in my revisions will closely parallel the ones that Doug used when he composed the passage.) Let us begin by examining several noun phrases that appear in Dougs passage. 3.2 paperbacks a book my favorite kind your biggest pocket the swinish multitudes coffee stains What did Doug Webb have to know about the grammar of the English noun phrase in order to compose these phrases, and what do we have to know in order to understand them? Think about this question and read the phrases in 3.2 one more time before you read on. In order to write or understand such phrases, Doug knew and we must, of course, know the meanings of the words, but that is not the focus of grammar. The focus of grammar is on what we have to know in order to produce or understand, say, my favorite kind as an English noun phrase in a way that we wouldnt interpret kind favorite my as an English noun phrase, even though it contains the same words with the same meanings. The display in 3.3 below lists the first kind of thing we need to know: (1) patterns of positions in the noun phrase (given here with examples of Doug Webbs noun phrases that contained the positions). 3.3 noun phrase > HEAD (paperbacks) noun phrase > DETERMINER + HEAD (a book) noun phrase > MODIFIER + HEAD (coffee stains) noun phrase > DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD (my favorite kind) The arrowhead symbol in each of the above four patterns can be read to mean the formal phrase or clause category named to the left of the arrowhead may have within it the functional positions listed to the right of the arrowhead, in the order listed. The display in 3.4 below lists the second kind of thing we need to know in order to produce and understand English noun phrases: (2) available choices of the parts of speech that can occupy each position in each noun phrase pattern (again with examples of words in Doug Webbs noun phrases that belong to those part-of-speech categories). 3.4 HEAD : noun (paperbacks, book, kind, pocket, multitudes, stains) DETERMINER : definite article (the) DETERMINER : indefinite article (a) DETERMINER : possessive article (my, your), MODIFIER : adjective (favorite, bookish, swinish) 36

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MODIFIER : noun (coffee) The colon symbol in each of the above choice lines can be read to mean into the position named on the left of the colon, one can choose to place a word belonging to the part of speech listed on the right of the colon. Using the patterns in 3.3 and the choices in 3.4, we can construct an analysis of the noun phrase my favorite kind that would look like 3.5: 3.5 noun phrase (my favorite kind) DETERMINER possessive article (my) MODIFIER adjective (favorite) HEAD noun (kind) A speaker of, say, French or Spanish (where most MODIFIER adjectives follow HEAD nouns) who was trying to learn English would be likely to say my kind favorite, instead of my favorite kind, at least until the English patterns and choices were mastered. In the remainder of this chapter, we will discuss and define 23 English parts of speech. In so doing, we will also look more closely at the grammar of the phrases within which the parts of speech occur, beginning with the noun phrase. Several parts of speech that can occupy functional positions in the noun phrase will be defined in detail. Then several other parts of speech that occupy functional positions in the prepositional phrase, the verb phrase, the linking verb phrase, the adjective phrase, and the adverb phrase will be discussed and defined. NOUN PHRASES AND PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES The patterns and choices that we use in constructing and interpreting noun phrases are so complex that no grammar book has ever fully described them. The patterns and choices discussed in this chapter (even though more complex than in the brief introductory discussion we have just concluded) will be greatly simplified versions of what actually happens in the English language. (In Chapter 8, after we have sharpened our skills at grammatical analysis, we will take yet another look at some of those complexities of the noun phrase.) In 3.6 below you will find the noun phrase patterns that we will be working with for the next few chapters. 3.6 noun phrase > HEAD noun phrase > DETERMINER + HEAD noun phrase > POST DETERMINER + HEAD noun phrase > MODIFIER + HEAD noun phrase > DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD noun phrase > DETERMINER + POST DETERMINER + HEAD noun phrase > POST DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD noun phrase > DETERMINER + POST DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD noun phrase > HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > DETERMINER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > POST DETERMINER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > MODIFIER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > DETERMINER + POST DETERMINER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER 37

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noun phrase > DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > POST DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER noun phrase > DETERMINER + POST DETERMINER + MODIFIER + HEAD + POST MODIFIER That certainly looks like a formidable dose of terminology to try to digest! Let me list the patterns again in the same order, but this time using abbreviations and giving examples: 3.7 np> H: (books) np> D: + H: (the books) np> POD: + H: (three books) np> M: + H: (large books) np> D: + M: + H: (the large books) np> D: + POD: + H: (the three books) np> POD: + M: + H: (three large books) np> D: + POD: + M: + H: (the three large books) np> H: + PM: (books from the library) np> D: + H: + PM: (the books from the library) np> POD: + H: + PM: (three books from the library) np> M: + H: + PM: (large books from the library) np> D: + POD: + H: + PM: (the three books from the library) np> D: + M: + H: + PM: (the large books from the library) np> POD: + M: + H: + PM: (three large books from the library) np> D: + POD: + M: + H: + PM: (the three large books from the library) That is a little less formidable (once you become comfortable with the abbreviations). Notice that the abbreviation for the noun phrase (np>) has the arrowhead attached to it, signifying that the noun phrase, like all phrases and clauses, by definition, has patterns of functional positions associated with it. Notice that the abbreviations for functional positions like DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, MODIFIER, HEAD, and POST MODIFIER have a colon attached to them, signifying that functional positions, by definition, have one or more choices associated with them. That is, at each functional position in a pattern, a speaker of a language knows what formal categories -- parts of speech, phrases, or even clauses -- can occupy that position. More about this shortly. 38

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Let us now take a look at an even simpler way to represent the fourteen patterns in the English noun phrase that were displayed in 3.6 and 3.7: 3.8 np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) All sixteen patterns are summarized in this one line. This is made possible by the use of parentheses. If you look at the fourteen patterns listed with complete functional labels in 3.6 and with abbreviations for those functional labels in 3.7, you will notice that only HEAD (H:) appears in all of them. This means that a noun phrase must contain a HEAD. However, all of the other functional labels appear in some patterns but not in other patterns. This means that those functional positions are optional in the noun phrase. We showed this in 3.8 by placing the abbreviations for those functional positions in parentheses. Any functional position in parentheses may or may not occur in a given noun phrase. If it does occur, it must occur in the order indicated by the pattern. For Example, DETERMINERS are always first and POST MODIFIERS are always last; POST DETERMINERS follow any co-occurring DETERMINERS and precede any co-occurring MODIFIERS, etc. We could also represent all of the examples given in 3.7 by using parentheses: 3.9 (the) (three) (large) books (from the library) All sixteen example noun phrases listed in 3.7 are implicitly represented in 3.9. Now that we have an efficient way of representing fourteen patterns that occur in English noun phrases, let us take a closer look at the choices that are available at each of the positions in those patterns. We will begin by looking at some of the parts of speech that can occupy the HEAD position in a noun phrase. At this point we will look closely at only four of the many parts of speech that can do so: the noun (n...), the personal pronoun (perspro...), the demonstrative pronoun (dempro...), and the possessive pronoun (posspro...). Notice that abbreviations for partof-speech labels are in lower case letters and have three unspaced ellipsis dots attached to them. This will help to distinguish them from the abbreviations of all functional positions (which are in upper case letters and have colons attached to them) and from the abbreviations for other formal categories, those for phrases and clauses, (which have arrowheads attached to them). Here is how the grammar of the noun phrase is displayed when it includes both the patterns and the choices available at the HEAD position: 3.10 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) Some Choices Available at the HEAD Position in the English Noun Phrase H: n... H: perspro... H: dempro... H: posspro... An alternate way of listing the choices available at the HEAD position that would allow us to list the abbreviation H: only once would be this: 39

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3.11 Some Choices Available at the HEAD Position in the English Noun Phrase H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... Instead of listing each choice on a separate line, all choices can be listed on one line separated by commas -- as long as we remember that only one of the items separated by commas may be chosen. We have already looked at the definition of nouns in some detail (early in Chapter 3); however, we will define them again, along with personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, and possessive pronouns, in the succinct format that we will use to define parts of speech throughout this chapter, and in later chapters. 3.12 nouns (n...) (a) Form: All nouns are defined formally by listing (pure form): air, bee, car, dog, egg, fan, goat, etc. We can also identify the form of some nouns by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates nouns, for example: -er as in worker, -or as in director, -ment as in treatment, -ness as in happiness, -ity as in sanity, etc. We can also identify the form of many nouns by noting that they have one of two inflectional suffixes that can be attached to nouns: (i) plural, as in churches, tacks, thumbs, oxen, teeth, fish, etc., and (ii) possessive, as in Mary's, Pat's, Tom's, etc. (The plural and possessive inflectional suffixes can occur together on a noun, but are usually signaled by one s followed by an apostrophe as in my friends houses. On rare occasions, both inflectional suffixes can be separately signaled as in the word childrens, where en signals the presence of the plural inflectional suffix and s signals the presence of the possessive inflectional suffix.) (b) Function: Nouns may function as the HEAD (H:) of a noun phrase (np>), e.g., the young doctor; they may also function as a MODIFIER (M:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., coffee stains. (c) Meaning: Nouns typically name persons (John, Fatima, worker), places (Chicago, Disneyland, library), things (pen, door, milk, house), qualities (redness, strength, humility), actions (resistance, arrival), abstract concepts (idea, truth), etc. 3.13 personal pronouns (perspro...) (a) Form: Personal pronouns are defined formally only by listing (pure form): I, you, she, he, it, we, you, they, me, you, her, him, it, us, you, them. (Because this is a closed class, this can be, and is, a complete list.) (b) Function: Personal pronouns function as HEAD (H:) of a noun phrase (np>), e.g., They have arrived; John saw them. Personal pronouns differ from nouns in that they cannot be preceded by DETERMINERS, POST DETERMINERS, or MODIFIERS (*the you, *three us *happy they). (An asterisk -- * -- in front of a cited word, phrase, clause, or sentence indicates that the word or words so marked do not conform to some principle of English structure.) (c) Meaning: Personal pronouns express information about (i) case (i.e., grammatical function in the clause): I, you, she, he, it, we, they are nominative (i.e., they HEAD noun phrases that function as SUBJECT -- She arrived -- or SUBJECT COMPLEMENT -- The winner was she -); 40

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me, you, her, him, it, us, them are accusative (i.e., they HEAD noun phrases that function as DIRECT OBJECT -- I saw her --, INDIRECT OBJECT -- I gave her some money --, or OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION -- I gave some money to her); (ii) number: I, she, he, it, me, her, and him are singular; we, they, us, and them are plural; you may be either singular or plural; (iii) person: I, me, we, and us are first person (i.e., they include reference to the speaker); you is second person (i.e., it refers to the person or persons addressed by the speaker); she, he, it, her, him, they, and them are third person (i.e., they refer to a person, thing, or persons spoken about); and (iv) gender: she, and her are feminine; he, and him are masculine; it is neuter. Here is a listing of the personal pronouns, with the various meanings that they convey: nominative, singular, first person (I) nominative, singular, second person (you) nominative, singular, third person, feminine (she) nominative, singular, third person, masculine (he) nominative, singular, third person, neuter (it) nominative, plural, first person (we) nominative, plural, second person (you) nominative, plural, third person (they) accusative, singular, first person (me) accusative, singular, second person (you) accusative, singular, third person, feminine (her) accusative, singular, third person, masculine (him) accusative, singular, third person, neuter (it) accusative, plural, first person (us) accusative, plural, second person (you) accusative, plural, third person (them) 3.14 demonstrative pronouns (dempro...) (a) Form: Demonstrative pronouns are defined formally only by listing (pure form): this, that, these, those. (Because this is a closed class, this can be, and is, a complete list). (b) Function: Demonstrative pronouns function as HEAD (H:) of a noun phrase (np>), e.g., This is the library; She saw that. Like most other pronouns, demonstrative pronouns cannot be preceded by DETERMINERS, POST DETERMINERS, or MODIFIERS (*the this, *three these *happy those). (c) Meaning: Demonstrative pronouns express information about (i) number: this and that are singular and these and those are plural, and about (ii) place: this and these are relatively near to the speaker; that and those are not near. Here is a listing of the demonstrative pronouns with the meanings that they convey: singular, near (this) singular, not near (that) plural, near (these) plural not near (those)

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3.15 possessive pronouns (posspro...) (a) Form: Possessive pronouns are defined formally only by listing (pure form): mine, yours, hers, his, its, ours, yours, theirs. (Because this is a closed class, this can be, and is, a complete list.) (b) Function: Possessive pronouns function as HEAD (H:) of a noun phrase (np>), e.g., Mine have arrived; John saw theirs. (Possessive pronouns differ from nouns in that they cannot be preceded by DETERMINERS, POST DETERMINERS, or MODIFIERS *the yours, *three ours *happy theirs. ) (c) Meaning: All possessive pronouns refer to an entity as being possessed by the person or persons that the pronoun refers to (e.g., mine could refer to a pencil that is possessed by me); they also express information about the number, person, and, in some cases, the gender of the possessor. Here is a listing of the possessive pronouns with the meanings that they convey: possessed, singular, first person (mine) possessed, singular, second person (yours) possessed, singular, third person, feminine (hers) possessed, singular, third person, masculine (his) possessed, singular, third person, neuter (its) possessed, plural, first person (ours) possessed, plural, second person (yours) possessed, plural, third person (theirs) Now that we have defined four parts of speech that can occupy the HEAD position in the noun phrase let us take a look at some parts of speech that can occupy the DETERMINER position in the noun phrase. Here is how the grammar of the noun phrase is displayed when it includes, in addition to the patterns, the choices available at both the DETERMINER and the HEAD positions: 3.16 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) Some Choices Available at the DETERMINER and HEAD Positions in the English Noun Phrase D: dart..., iart..., demart..., possart... H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... In 3.16, we have printed the line describing the choices available at the DETERMINER position in boldface type. The abbreviations stand for the following four parts of speech: the definite article (dart...), indefinite articles (iart...), demonstrative articles (demart...), and possessive articles (possart...). You will find definitions of those parts of speech in 3.17 to 3.20. 3.17 the definite article (dart...) (a) Form: The definite article is defined formally only by listing (pure form): the. (This word is the only member of this part of speech), e.g., the book.

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(b) Function: The definite article functions as DETERMINER (D:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., the book, the beautiful flower. (c) Meaning: When the definite article is the DETERMINER in a noun phrase, it conveys the idea that the speaker or writer of the sentence thinks that the listener or reader can identify the particular entity or entities referred to by the HEAD noun; e.g., if someone says, I bought a pencil, the speaker may have a very specific pencil in mind, but does not think that the listener can identify it; if however, the same speaker were to say, I bought the pencil, referring to the very same specific pencil, the speaker is also conveying the idea that the listener also knows exactly which pencil (e.g., the one you and I saw at the mall yesterday . . .). 3.18 indefinite articles (iart...) (a) Form: Indefinite articles are defined only by listing (pure form): a/an, some, and any are the most common; however, several other words belong to this part of speech: all, each, every, either, neither and no. (b) Function: Indefinite articles function as DETERMINER (D:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., a new car, some old houses (note that every word listed in (a) can substitute for either a or some in the examples just given. (c) Meaning: Indefinite articles display a complex array of meanings. All of the meanings relate to the HEAD noun that they DETERMINE: (i) They can have the feature universal, e.g. all new cars, or partitive, e.g., some new cars. (ii) They can be singular, e.g. a new car, or plural, e.g. some new cars. (iii) Indefinite articles that occur with nouns that can be counted (and made plural) have the feature count, e.g., a new car, some old houses; those that can occur with nouns that cant be counted or made plural have the feature noncount, e.g. some information, any information, no information (but not *an information). (iv) Some indefinite articles have a negative (as opposed to positive) meaning: neither and no. (v) The indefinite article any typically occurs in negative or interrogative contexts, and is thus said to be nonassertive, e.g. She doesnt have any money, Does she have any money? In the affirmative sentence corresponding to these sentences, some would be used: She has some money, and is thus given the semantic feature assertive. (vi) The indefinite articles, either and neither are singular and countable; we need the semantic feature of two to distinguish their meanings from no and any, respectively: no book vs. neither book and any book vs. either book. Several indefinite articles can, in different contexts, have more than one of the meanings just discussed, as the following listing indicates. Examine the list and try to invent sentences where the indefinite article has the meaning listed in each line. [universal, positive, count, singular, every] every (book) [universal, positive, count, singular, each] each (book) [universal, positive, count, plural] all (books) [universal, positive, noncount] all (information) [universal, negative, count, singular] no (book) [universal, negative, count, singular, of two] neither (book) [universal, negative, count, plural] no (books) [universal, negative, noncount] no (information) [partitive, assertive, count, singular] a (book) ~ an (apple) [partitive, assertive, count, plural] some (books) [partitive, assertive, noncount] some (information) 43

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[partitive, nonassertive, count, singular] any (book) [partitive, nonassertive, count, singular, of two] either (book) [partitive, nonassertive, count, plural] any (books) [partitive, nonassertive, noncount] any (information) 3.19 demonstrative articles (demart..) (a) Form: Demonstrative articles are defined formally only by listing (pure form): this, that, these, those. (Because this is a closed class, this can be, and is, a complete list.) (b) Function: Demonstrative articles function as DETERMINER (D:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., This book is in the library; She saw that movie. (c) Meaning: Demonstrative articles express information about (i) number: this and that are singular and these and those are plural and about (ii) place: this and these are relatively near to the speaker; that and those are not near. Here is a listing of the demonstrative articles with the meanings that they convey: singular, near (this) singular, not near (that) plural, near (these) plural, not near (those) 3.20 possessive articles (possart...) (a) Form: Possessive articles are defined formally only by listing (pure form): my, your, her, his, its, our, your, their. (Because this is a closed class, this can be, and is, a complete list.) (b) Function: Possessive articles function as DETERMINER (D:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., her car, my old hat, their fire engine. (c) Meaning: Possessive articles convey information about case, number, person, and gender, as with personal pronouns. The number, person, and gender meanings are in fact the same as with personal pronouns; the case, however is always and only genitive. The term genitive means DETERMINER and possessor of the HEAD noun. Here is a listing of the possessive articles with the meanings that they convey: genitive, singular, 1st person (my) genitive, singular, 2nd person (your) genitive, singular, 3rd person, feminine (her) genitive, singular, 3rd person, masculine (his) genitive, singular, 3rd person, neuter (its) genitive, plural, 1st person (our) genitive, plural, 2nd person (your) genitive, plural, 3rd person (their) Now that we have defined some parts of speech that can occupy the HEAD position in the noun phrase and some parts of speech that can occupy the DETERMINER position, let us take a look some parts of speech that can occupy the POST DETERMINER position in the noun phrase. 44

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Here is how the grammar of the noun phrase is displayed when it includes, in addition to the patterns, the choices available at the DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, and HEAD positions: 3.21 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) Some Choices Available at the DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, and HEAD Positions in the English Noun Phrase D: dart..., iart..., demart..., possart... POD: crdnum..., ordnum..., genord... H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... In 3.21, we have printed the line describing the choices available at the POST DETERMINER position in boldface type. The abbreviations stand for the following three parts of speech: cardinal numerals (crdnum...), ordinal numerals (ordnum...), and general ordinals (genord...). You will find definitions of those parts of speech in 3.22 to 3.23. 3.22 cardinal numerals (crdnum...) (a) Form: Cardinal numerals are defined formally only by listing (pure form): one, two, three, four, etc. (b) Function: Cardinal numerals function as POST DETERMINER (POD:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., the three winners, his one bad habit. (c) Meaning: Cardinal numerals specify the number of members of the class designated by the HEAD noun. 3.23 ordinal numerals (ordnum...) (a) Form: Ordinal numerals are defined formally only by listing (pure form): first, second, third, fourth, etc. (b) Function: Ordinal numerals function as POST DETERMINER (POD:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., her third novel, the ninth floor. (c) Meaning: Ordinal numerals specify the position of the HEAD noun in a numbered sequence. 3.24 general ordinals (genord...) (a) Form: General ordinals are defined formally only by listing (pure form): another, other, next, last, past, previous, etc. (b) Function: General ordinals function as POST DETERMINER (POD:) in a noun phrase (np>), e.g., the next book, the other flower.

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(c) Meaning: General ordinals typically specify the position of the HEAD noun in an unnumbered sequence. So far in this section, we have defined some parts of speech that can occupy the HEAD, DETERMINER, and POST DETERMINER positions. Let us now look at the parts of speech that can occupy the MODIFIER position in the noun phrase. Here is how the grammar of the noun phrase is displayed when it includes, in addition to the patterns, the choices available at the DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, MODIFIER and HEAD positions: 3.25 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) Some Choices Available at the DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, MODIFIER, and HEAD Positions in the English Noun Phrase D: dart..., iart..., demart..., possart... POD: crdnum..., ordnum..., genord... M: adj..., n... H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... In 3.25, we have printed the line describing the choices available at the MODIFIER position in boldface type. The abbreviations stand for the following two parts of speech: adjective (adj...) and noun (n...). You will find a definition of the adjective in 3.26, immediately below. We have, of course, already defined the noun, and the short version of its definition appeared above in 3.12. 3.26 adjectives (adj...) (a) Form: Adjectives are defined formally by listing (pure form): angry, bad, big, clear, dark, good, etc. We can also identify the form of some adjectives by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates adjectives, for example: -y in watery, -ful in helpful, -less in careless, -en in golden, -able in breakable, -ous in glorious, -ish in childish, etc. We can also identify the form of many one- or two-syllable adjectives by noting that they have one of two inflectional suffixes that can be attached to adjectives: (i) -er, as in angrier, worse, bigger, clearer, darker, better etc. (ii) -est, as in angriest, worst, biggest, clearest, darkest, best, etc. (b) Function: Adjectives have two functional positions: (i) MODIFIER (M:) in a noun phrase (np>): the young doctor, and (ii) HEAD (H:) in an adjective phrase (adjp>): she was very angry. (c) Meaning: Adjectives typically describe qualities of associated nouns, e.g., size (large), color (blue), shape (round), emotional state (angry), etc., etc. So far in this section, we have defined some parts of speech that can occupy the HEAD, DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, and MODIFIER positions in the noun phrase. The one remaining position, the POST MODIFIER position, which follows the HEAD position, does not allow individual parts of speech to occupy it. Only phrases and clauses can occupy it. At this point, we will look only at one of the types of phrases that can occupy the POST MODIFIER position, the prepositional phrase. Here is how the grammar of the noun phrase is displayed when it includes, in addition to the patterns, some choices available at all of the positions in those patterns: DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, MODIFIER, HEAD, and POST MODIFIER:

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3.27 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) Some Choices Available at the DETERMINER, POST DETERMINER, MODIFIER, HEAD, and POST MODIFIER Positions in the English Noun Phrase D: dart..., iart..., demart..., possart... POD: crdnum..., ordnum..., genord... M: adj..., n... H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... PM: pp> In 3.27, we have printed the line describing the choices available at the POST MODIFIER position in boldface type. The abbreviation pp> stands for prepositional phrase. Earlier, in 3.7, we listed several example noun phrases containing the POST MODIFYING prepositional phrase from the library. The longest of the examples was the three large books from the library. The prepositional phrase has two functional positions within it, the RELATER (R:) position and the OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION (OP:) position. The RELATER position is occupied by a preposition (p...), for example, from in from the library, and the OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION position is typically occupied by a noun phrase, for example the library in from the library. Here is the complete grammar of the prepositional phrase (patterns and choices): 3.29 The Only Pattern in the English Prepositional Phrase pp> R: + OP: Choices Available at the RELATER and OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION Positions in the English Prepositional Phrase R: p... OP: np> In 3.30 you will find the definition of the preposition as a part of speech. 3.30 prepositions (p...) (a) Form: Prepositions are defined formally only by listing (pure form): at, after, before, by, for, from, in, of, on, to, with (and many others). (b) Function: Prepositions function as RELATER (R:) in prepositional phrases (pp>), e.g., at the movies, from the library, with her best friend. (c) Meaning: Prepositions have a variety of concrete and abstract relational meanings, e.g., concrete location (at the movies, on the table), abstract location (on time), direction (to the moon), source (from the south), and many, many more. Here, for reference and comparison, are the grammars of the English noun phrase and the English prepositional phrase as developed in this section: 3.31 Some Patterns in the English Noun Phrase np> (D:) + (POD:) + (M:) + H: + (PM:) 47

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Some Choices in the English Noun Phrase D: dart..., iart..., demart..., possart... POD: crdnum..., ordnum..., genord... M: adj..., n... H: n..., perspro..., dempro..., posspro... PM: pp> 3.32 The Only Pattern in the English Prepositional Phrase pp> R: + OP: Choices Available at the RELATER and OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION Positions in the English Prepositional Phrase R: p... OP: np> Here is a grammatical analysis of the noun phrase the three large books from the library based on 3.31: 3.33 noun phrase (the three large books from the library) DETERMINER definite article (the) POST DETERMINER cardinal numeral (three) MODIFIER adjective (large) HEAD noun (books) POST MODIFIER prepositional phrase (from the library) Here is a grammatical analysis of the prepositional phrase from the library based on 3.32: 3.34 prepositional phrase (from the library) RELATER preposition (from) OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION noun phrase (the library) The noun phrase the library would, in turn, be analyzed as follows: 3.35 noun phrase (the library) DETERMINER definite article (the) HEAD noun (library) The three separate analyses in 3.33, 3.34, and 3.35 could be combined into one, using the outlining principle that calls for indenting any items that are subparts of a higher item: 3.36 noun phrase (the three large books from the library) DETERMINER definite article (the) POST DETERMINER cardinal numeral (three) MODIFIER adjective (large) HEAD noun (books) 48

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POST MODIFIER prepositional phrase (from the library) RELATER preposition (from) OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION noun phrase (the library) DETERMINER definite article (the) HEAD noun (library) There is an alternate way of displaying the grammatical analysis of a noun phrase like the three large books from the library. This alternate display format uses the abbreviations that we have proposed for the functional positions and formal categories in the noun phrase. As we saw in Chapter 3, it is called a grammatical tree diagram. Here is how the patterns and choices in the three large books from the library would be represented in such a display:
3.37 np> D: POD: M: dart crdnum adj H: n PM: pp> R: p OP: np> D: H: dart n the three large books from the library

Notice that, in a grammatical tree diagram, the positions within a phrase are represented by solid lines drawn from immediately beneath a phrase label such as np> or pp> (or, we will see later, a clause label) to the abbreviation for the name of the relevant position such as D:, POD:, M:, H: and PM:. It would actually be more accurate to write a position label, such as M: for MODIFIER, directly on the line, because that is exactly what the label applies to: the position represented by the line. To put it another way, the line and the M: that label the position of the word large in the three large books from the library are labels for the space within the noun phrase between the words three and books; this space (position) is, of course, occupied by the word large. The label adj..., on the other hand, labels the form -- the letters l-a-r-g-e -- as belonging to the part of speech, adjective. Notice also, that a part of speech label like adj... does not have positions within it and thus does not have an arrowhead attached to it and consequently is not connected to large with a solid line. The dotted line that connects adj... to large simply indicates that the word large is a member of the part-of-speech category adj... (adjective). The dotted line is also a reminder that a set of defining semantic features in square brackets could be included in the diagram between the part-of-speech label and the spelling of the word (cf. the last section in Chapter 3). Grammatical tree diagrams such as the one in 3.37 were already discussed in the section on constituent structure in Chapter 3 and will be discussed in additional detail in Chapter 6. They will appear from time to time throughout this book. They are especially useful when we need to look at a grammatical structure that contains several levels of phrases within phrases, or even clauses within clauses. Most grammatical issues can be examined and discussed using the display format we have been using up to this point, where the unabbreviated formal label of a phrase or clause is written in front of the phrase or clause to be analyzed (which itself is written in

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parentheses). Then, indented on the next several lines, each position within that phrase or clause is listed along with the formal label of the word or words occupying that position; then the actual word or words to which the functional and formal labels apply are written at the end of the line in parentheses. In 3.38, we have used this format, which we will refer to as the outline format, to analyze one of the noun phrases from the passage by Doug Webb that appeared toward the beginning of this section: the appearance of their owners. 3.38 noun phrase (the appearance of their owners) DETERMINER definite article (the) HEAD noun (appearance) POST MODIFIER prepositional phrase (of their owners) RELATER preposition (of) OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION noun phrase (their owners) DETERMINER possessive article (their) HEAD noun (owners) PRACTICE 10 (TWO TYPES OF CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS) Carefully examine the analysis presented immediately above in 3.38 of the noun phrase the appearance of their owners. See if you can translate that analysis into a tree diagram like the one in 3.37. PRACTICE 11 (TWO TYPES OF CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS II) Try using both the outline format and the tree diagram format to analyze these two other noun phrases from the Doug Webb passage (a) notes about assignments, and (b) little pieces of coconut. PRACTICE 12 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH) In this section of this chapter, we have defined 13 parts of speech that can appear in English noun phrases: nouns, personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, possessive pronouns, definite articles, indefinite articles, demonstrative articles, possessive articles, cardinal numerals, ordinal numerals, general ordinals, adjectives, and prepositions. In order for you to understand the grammar developed throughout this book, to analyze the English sentences using it, and to teach both of these skills to others, you must now take up a task that will occupy you throughout this chapter: You must LEARN (in the sense of know for the rest of your life and never forget) all the details of the form, function, and meaning of the thirteen parts of speech in the noun phrase (and of any additional parts of speech we examine from here on out). When we tell this to our students, one of them invariably asks, You mean we have to memorize all of these three-part definitions? My answer is No, memorizing isnt good enough. Things that you memorize, you tend to forget after a test; you must learn those definitions in such a way that you will never forget them. How might you go about doing that? Here is a suggestion: Using half slips of paper or five-by-eight-inch index cards, make three study cards for each part of speech (a total of 39 study cards for the thirteen parts of speech in the noun phrase). On the blank side of the card write the name and abbreviation of the part of 50

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speech, e.g., noun (n...), and underneath that the word form on the first card, function on the second card, and meaning on the third card. On the lined side of the card copy in pen in your best handwriting (do not type or photocopy) the relevant part of the definition of that part of speech (copy all of it; dont leave out any detail or example). Remember, you must make three such cards for each of the 13 parts of speech -- a total of 39 cards. Shuffle the cards. It is very important to shuffle the cards so that you can learn each definition part out of context. If you dont shuffle them, then there is no point in making cards; you could study the matter as it appears in the book. Then begin studying them the way you study any set of flash cards. Place a marker card on the bottom so that you will know when you have worked completely through the stack; then begin. Look at the unlined side where you have written, e.g., noun (n...) form. Try to say or write what is on the other side of the card; if you cannot do so, and you wont be able to the first few times through, then turn the card over and study it. If you didnt know it, then put it on the bottom of the stack to be shuffled and studied again when you have worked through the stack completely. When you can say or write what is on the other side of the card, set it aside, because you now know it. Keep working on the stack, until you can say and write all the information on the backs of all 39 cards. It will take several study sessions to be able to do this. There is no short cut to achieving complete mastery of the details of these definitions. And you MUST achieve such mastery if you are going to be able to understand and use the content of the remaining chapters of this book. (And here is another source of motivation: Most users of this book are preparing to be teachers, and the one thing that people in the real world -- parents of your students, your fellow teachers, your supervisors, and business and community leaders -expect an English teacher to know is how to define parts of speech, so why not get the bulk of that knowledge behind you as you work through this chapter!) FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 10 (TWO TYPES OF CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS)
np> D: H: dart n R: p PM: pp> OP: np> D: H: possart n the appearance of their owners

FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 11 (TWO TYPES OF CONSTITUENT STRUCTURE DIAGRAMS II) (a) noun phrase (notes about assignments) HEAD noun (notes) POST MODIFIER prepositional phrase (about assignments) RELATER preposition (about) OBJECT OF A PREPOSITION noun phrase (assignments) HEAD noun (assignments)

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np> H: n R: p PM: pp> OP: np> H: n notes about assignments

(b) noun phrase (little pieces of coconut) MODIFIER adjective (little) HEAD noun (pieces) POST MODIFIER prepositional phrase (of coconut) RELATER preposition (of) OBJECTOF A PREPOSITION noun phrase (coconut) HEAD noun (coconut)
np> M: adj H: n PM: pp> R: p OP: np> H: n little pieces of coconut

FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 12 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH) In the remaining sections of this chapter, ten additional parts of speech will be introduced. When each one is defined, make three study cards for it just like the ones you have made for the 13 parts of speech in the noun phrase. Shuffle the new cards in with the old ones and keep studying until you have no more cards in the study stack (because you will have set them aside into the stack of learned cards). The test that we give our students at the end of this chapter has two parts. The first is a set of short essays requiring definitions of parts of speech that include example sentences containing them. The second part is a set of sentences in which we underline words and require my students to write the abbreviation of the function and the part of speech label of each underlined word into designated spaces on the test sheet. Following the final section of this chapter, we will provide some practice sentences in which you can perform this kind of labeling on all of the parts of speech that we will have examined up to that point.

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VERB PHRASES AND LINKING VERB PHRASES Here is the passage from Doug Webbs journal that we examined in the last section. Read it again. After you do so, we will use some of Dougs sentences to help us examine English verb phrases and linking verb phrases. 3.39 (= 3.1) A Passage from Doug Webbs Journal I bought a book today. My favorite kind. A paperback. Paperbacks are so much better than hardbacks; they're not so heavy; they bend. But what is most peculiar about paperbacks is the way they never lie flat after they've been opened and read from a few times. It's almost as if they were inviting you to jump back in, make a return visit, maybe get really acquainted this time. Hardback books are so big -- cumbersome too, and they're always just too big to go into your biggest pocket. They seem to try to impress with their squared off corners and their unnecessary thickness. I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh! And there's another thing hardbacks can't do -- they never quite take on the appearance of their owners. You know the way a paperback gets because you carry it around all the time -- full of papers, notes about assignments, scribbles and comments and underlinings. And the corners always get bent up and begin to separate into layers, and they always get dirty around the edges, and better than that, they're full of funny little memories like coffee stains and little pieces of coconut and sometimes even bubble gum. Paperbacks can be almost like friends because you get to know them so well, I guess; that's probably the reason I have a house full of them. But hardbacks, they're hopeless. You never get to know them; they're just too impersonal. Maybe they just don't approve of me; they're probably even snobbish towards my paperbacks that always surround and outnumber them. I bet they don't like having to be so close to the swinish multitudes. But I bet my paperbacks have more fun. In 3.40 you will find some of Dougs sentences (sometimes adapted) that contain verb phrases (which we have italicized), and in 3.41 you will find some of his sentences that contain linking verb phrases (also italicized). 3.40 Some Sentences with Verb Phrases Italicized (from the Passage by Doug Webb) (a) They bend. (b) I bought a book today. (c) They have been opened. (d) They were inviting you. 3.41 Some Sentences with Linking Verb Phrases Italicized (from the Passage by Doug Webb) (a) Hardbacks are hopeless. (b) That is the reason. (c) Paperbacks can be friends. (d) They get dirty around the edges. (e) They seem to try to impress. (f) I sometimes feel as if a hardback is trying to scare me away. What do Dougs verb phrases and linking verb phrases tell us about the grammar of those two phrases in English? First of all, they tell us that both types of phrases can be composed of one word as in the verb phrases, bend and bought, and the linking verb phrases, are, is, get, seem, and 53

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feel. Whether or not either a verb or linking verb is the only word in its respective phrase, we label its functional position MAIN PREDICATER (MP:). This is a position comparable to the HEAD position in a noun phrase: Like a HEAD noun, a MAIN PREDICATER verb or linking verb can constitute an entire phrase all by itself. In 3.42 you will find statements of patterns and choices for both the verb phrase and the linking verb phrase that capture this insight: 3.42 A Pattern in the English Verb Phrase vp> MP: A Choice in the English Verb Phrase MP: v... A Pattern in the English Linking Verb Phrase lvp> MP: A Choice in the English Linking Verb Phrase MP: lv... Here are definitions of verbs and linking verbs as parts of speech; reading these definitions will also help you to understand something about the distinction between the verb phrase and linking verb phrase, in which they function respectively as MAIN PREDICATERS: 3.43 verbs (v...) (a) Form: Verbs are defined formally by listing (pure form): arrive, build, carve, etc. We can also identify the form of some verbs by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates verbs: -ize as in symbolize, -ify as in verify, -ate as in demonstrate, etc. We can also identify the form of many verbs by noting that they have one of four inflectional suffixes that can be attached to verbs: (i) present tense, as in fizz, fizzes; hit, hits; carve, carves; etc. (ii) past tense, as in sighted, fussed, rammed, chose, taught, had, did, etc. (iii) -ing participle, as in hitting, choosing, having, etc. (iv) -en participle, as in sighted, fussed, rammed, had, chosen, eaten, done, known, etc. (Take note that many verbs spell the past tense and past participle form the same: In She sighted a UFO, sighted has the past tense inflectional suffix; however in She has sighted a UFO or A UFO was sighted, sighted has the -en participle inflectional suffix.) (b) Function: Verbs function as MAIN PREDICATER (MP:) in a verb phrase (vp>), e.g., He was studying, She should have eaten, It arrived. (c) Meaning: Verbs typically express actions (build, run, say), processes (grow), or states (own), etc. 3.44 linking verbs (lv...) (a) Form: Linking verbs are defined formally by listing (pure form): be, become, look, seem, feel, appear, smell, taste etc. (In principle, we should be able to identify the form of some linking verbs by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates linking verbs, but in fact, few, if any, such derived linking verbs seem to exist in English a student of mine once suggested that personify or exemplify might fill the bill: Lincoln personified honest/honesty.) We can also identify the form of many linking verbs by noting that they have one of four inflectional suffixes that can be attached to linking verbs: (i) present tense, as in appear, appears; am, is, are; feel, feels; etc. (ii) past tense, as in appeared; was, were; became; felt; seemed; etc. (iii) -ing 54

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participle, as in appearing, being, becoming, feeling, seeming, etc. (iv) -en participle, as in appeared, been, become, felt, seemed, etc. (Take note that some linking verbs spell the past tense and past participle form the same: In She seemed happy, seemed has the past tense inflectional suffix; however in She has seemed happy, seemed has the -en participle inflectional suffix.) (b) Function: Linking verbs function as MAIN PREDICATER (MP:) in a linking verb phrase (lvp>), e.g., He has seemed very happy. She is becoming a doctor. It is a book. Linking verb phrases may be followed by a SUBJECT COMPLEMENT noun phrase (She is becoming a doctor) or adjective phrase (He has seemed very happy), which is linked back to the SUBJECT by the linking verb that is the MAIN PREDICATER in the linking verb phrase. (c) Meaning: Linking verbs typically express states of being (be, look, appear, seem) becoming (become); they may also express certain sense experiences (feel, smell, taste). or

The following sentences, cited above from the Doug Webb passage, indicate that other parts of speech (called auxiliaries) may precede a verb or linking verb in their respective phrases: Paperbacks can be friends, They have been opened, They were inviting you. 3.45 you will find analyses of the verb phrase or linking verb phrase in these sentences. 3.45 (a) Paperbacks can be friends. linking verb phrase (can be) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (can) MAIN PREDICATER linking verb (be) (b) They have been opened. verb phrase (have been opened) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (opened) (c) They were inviting you. verb phrase (were inviting) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (were) MAIN PREDICATER verb (inviting) Notice that we cannot change the order of the two auxiliaries in 3.45b; we cannot say *They been have opened. In fact, all four types of auxiliaries listed in 3.45 can occur in one verb phrase, but when they do, they must occur in a fixed order. In 3.46 you will find a pattern that expresses both the possibility that up to four auxiliaries may precede a verb and a specification of the fixed order in which they must occur: 3.46 vp> and lvp> (MODHP:) + (PERFHP:) + (PROGHP:) + (PASSHP:) + MP: This pattern represents the essence of the structure of the verb phrase and linking verb phrase: The pattern indicates that there must be a MAIN PREDICATER (MP:) and that it is in the final position; we know this because its abbreviation is not in parentheses and is listed after all the other abbreviations. The four HELPING PREDICATERS are all optional. Any one or more of them may or may not appear in a given verb phrase or linking verb phrase. However, when two or more occur together, they must occur in the indicated order: MODAL HELPING 55

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PREDICATER (MODHP:), PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER (PERFHP:), PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER (PROGHP:), and PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER (PASSHP:). (PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATERS do not, in fact, occur in linking verb phrases.) Here is a simplified representation of the choices in the verb phrase and linking verb phrase that relate to the positions specified by the patterns in 3.46: 3.47 MP: v..., lv... MODHP: modaux... can, may, will, shall, must, . . . PERFHP: perfaux... have word-en PROGHP: progaux... be word-ing PASSHP: passaux... be word-en The MAIN PREDICATER is always and only a verb or linking verb; the MODAL HELPING PREDICATER is always and only a modal auxiliary; the PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER is always and only a perfect auxiliary; the PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER is always and only a progressive auxiliary, and the PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER is always and only a passive auxiliary. Here is a sentence in which all four types of auxiliaries occur: 3.48 Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. verb phrase (should have been being prosecuted) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (should) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (been) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (being) MAIN PREDICATER verb (prosecuted) And here are part-of-speech definitions of these four types of English auxiliaries: 3.49 modal auxiliaries (modaux...) (a) Form: Modal auxiliaries are defined formally both by listing (pure form): can, may, will, shall, could, might, would, should, must (and a few others) and by allowing two inflectional suffixes: (i) the present tense suffix, as in can, may, will, shall, must , e.g., She can speak French. (but note that the third-person-singular-agreement 's' variant of the present tense inflectional suffix morpheme does not occur with modal auxiliaries -- e.g., we do not say *She cans speak French.) -- and (ii) the past tense inflectional suffix, as in could, might, would, should, e.g., Yesterday, she said she could speak French. (b) Function: Modal auxiliaries function as MODAL HELPING PREDICATER (MODHP:) in a verb phrase (vp>) or linking verb phrase (lvp>), e.g., Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. The position labeled by MODHP: is always and only the first position in the phrase. (c) Meaning: Modal auxiliaries express the speaker's attitude about what is going on in a sentence: ability (She can fly jets), possibility (It may rain), certainty (The sun will rise tomorrow), obligation (Americans must pay income taxes), etc.

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3.50 the perfect auxiliary (perfaux...) (a) Form: The perfect auxiliary is defined formally by listing (pure form): Only one word belongs to this part of speech: have. It may occur with two inflectional suffixes attached: (i) the present tense inflectional suffix as in They have eaten lunch and She has eaten lunch and (ii) the past tense inflectional suffix as in She had eaten lunch. The perfect auxiliary have is always followed by an -en participle (i.e., a word ending in the -en participle inflectional suffix). (b) Function: The perfect auxiliary functions as PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER (PERFHP:) in a verb phrase (vp>) or linking verb phrase (lvp>), e.g., Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. The position labeled by PERFHP: is the second position in the phrase if a modal auxiliary co-occurs and the first position otherwise. (c) Meaning: The presence of the perfect auxiliary in the verb phrase can convey two ideas: (i) the action going on in a sentence has duration, e.g., I have shopped at that grocery store for ten years; or (ii) the action going on in the sentence took place at an indefinite time in the past, e.g., I have visited Chicago; I can therefore give you advice about hotels. 3.51 the progressive auxiliary (progaux...) (a) Form: Progressive auxiliaries are defined formally by listing (pure form): Only one word belongs to this part of speech: be. It may occur with three inflectional suffixes attached: (i) the present tense inflectional suffix as in They are eating lunch and She is eating lunch; (ii) the past tense inflectional suffix as in They were eating lunch and She was eating lunch; and (iii) the past participle inflectional suffix as in They have been eating lunch. The progressive auxiliary be (in all its inflected forms) is always followed by a present participle (i.e., a word ending in the -ing present participle inflectional suffix). (b) Function: The progressive auxiliary functions as PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER (PROGHP:) in a verb phrase (vp>) or linking verb phrase (lvp>), e.g., Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. The position labeled by PROGHP: is the third position in the phrase if a both a modal auxiliary and a perfect auxiliary co-occur, the second position if only one of them co-occurs, and the first position otherwise. (c) Meaning: The presence of the progressive auxiliary in the verb phrase indicates that the action going on in the sentence is in progress at the time of the sentence: Mary is studying as we speak; Mary was studying at 10:00 p.m., when I called her. 3.52 the passive auxiliary (passaux...) (a) Form: Passive auxiliaries are defined formally by listing (pure form): Only one word belongs to this part of speech: be. It may occur with four inflectional suffixes attached: (i) -prs as in Lunch is eaten at noon; (ii) -pst as in Lunch was eaten at noon; (iii) -ing as in The game was being played when the earthquake occurred; (iv) -en as in They have been captured by the enemy. The passive auxiliary, be, is always followed by a past participle (i.e., a word ending in the -en inflectional suffix).

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(b) Function: PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER (PASSHP:) in the verb phrase (vp>), e.g., Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. The position labeled by PASSHP: is the fourth position in the phrase if all three other auxiliaries co-occur, the third position if only two of them co-occur, the second position if only one of them co-occurs, and the first position otherwise (i.e., if it is the only auxiliary). (c) Meaning: The presence of the passive auxiliary in the verb phrase indicates that the SUBJECT of the sentence is not performing the action signaled in the PREDICATER, but is being acted upon by some other entity, explicitly named in a prepositional phrase beginning with by, e.g., They have been captured by the enemy, or implicitly implied by the understood prepositional phrase, by someone, e.g., Those criminals should have been being prosecuted (by someone). The structures of the verb phrase and linking verb phrase are further complicated by the fact that a SENTENCE NEGATER negative not can occur after whatever auxiliary happens to be first and by the fact that the PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary (do, does, or did) will precede not if no other auxiliary is available. Here are some examples from Doug Webbs passage on paperback books: 3.53 (a) Hardbacks can not do another thing. verb phrase (can not do) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (can) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (do) (b) They do not approve of me. PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary (do) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (approve) Here is what the pattern with a PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary would look like: 3.54 vp> and lvp> PROHP: + SN: + MP: Here are the choices that are related to the above pattern: 3.55 PROHP: proaux... do, does, did SN: neg... not MP: v..., lv... The two above example sentences from Doug Webbs journal point out the fact that there are two separate do morphemes that can appear in English words; both are spelled do, does, or did: the MAIN PREDICATER verb do as in Hardbacks can not do another thing, and the PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary do as in They do not approve of me. Both can occur in the same sentence, e.g., He did not do his homework. Another way of understanding the positioning of the SENTENCE NEGATER negative not in English is to imagine yourself explaining how English makes sentences negative to an international friend who is living with your family while studying English. You would tell your friend this: To make a sentence 58

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negative, put the word not after the first auxiliary, and if there is no auxiliary, then you need to invent the auxiliary do, does or did just so that you can place not after it. Here are the negative versions of all of the sentences from Doug Webbs journal that were cited at the beginning of this section. 3.56 Negative Versions of some of Doug Webbs Verb Phrases (a) They do not bend. (b) I did not buy a book today. (c) They have not been opened. (d) They were not inviting you. 3.57 Negative Versions of some of Doug Webbs Linking Verb Phrases (a) Hardbacks are not hopeless. (b) That is not the reason. (c) Paperbacks can not be friends. (d) They do not get dirty around the edges. (e) They do not seem to try to impress. Did you notice in sentences 3.57a and 3.57b that the SENTENCE NEGATER negative not follows the MAIN PREDICATER linking verb be when it is the only word in a linking verb phrase? That is, we do not say *Hardbacks do not be hopeless, as we would with other linking verbs and with verbs. To account for this we need to add the following pattern and choice to the grammar of the lining verb phrase as so far discussed: 3.58 A Pattern in the Linking Verb Phrase lvp> MP: + SN: Some Choices in the Linking Verb Phrase Related to the above Pattern MP: lv... be SN: neg... In a the next section of this chapter, after we have defined adverbs and looked at the structure of the adverb phrase, we will look at yet another complication: verb phrases and linking verb phrases can also contain adverb phrases that function as MEDIAL CLAUSE COMPLEMENTS, as in 3.59. 3.59 She has just recently completed her degree. verb phrase (has just recently completed) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (has) MEDIAL CLAUSE COMPLEMENT adverb phrase (just recently) MAIN PREDICATER verb (completed) For now, we will ignore such possibilities. Think of the grammar of the verb phrase as having the relatively simple patterns and choices represented in this section -- with the caveat that a SENTENCE NEGATER negative not can occur after whichever one of the five types of HELPING PREDICATERS is the first HELPING PREDICATER in its verb phrase or linking 59

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

verb phrase, or after the MAIN PREDICATER linking verb be if it is the only word other than not in its linking verb phrase. The following displays, numbered 3.60 and 3.61, contain part-of-speech definitions of the proauxiliary and the negative. 3.60 The proauxiliary (proaux...) (a) Form: Proauxiliaries are defined by listing: Only one word belongs to this part of speech: do. It may occur with two inflectional suffixes attached: (1) -prs as in They do not speak French and She does not speak French and (2) -pst as in They/she did not speak French. The name proauxiliary is parallel to the name pronoun; i.e., proauxiliaries stand in for auxiliaries (e.g., in negative sentences when another auxiliary is not available) the way pronouns stand in for nouns. The English prefix pro- comes from the Latin word pro, which means for. (b) Function: Proauxiliaries function as PRO HELPING PREDICATER (PROHP:) in a verb phrase (vp>) or linking verb phrase (lvp>) -- though never in a linking verb phrase whose MAIN PREDICATER is be. There will never be any other auxiliaries, when do occurs. It typically occurs before SN: neg... not when there is no other auxiliary available (as in the sentences given as examples under Form) It also occurs in interrogative clauses (Does she speak French? What language does she speak?). (c) Meaning: When do, does, or did appears, the stem do has no meaning of its own; it really serves as a carrier of the meaning of the present or past tense inflectional suffix. 3.61 The negative (neg...) (a) Form: The negative is defined by listing: Only one word really belongs to this part of speech: not (although never seems to fit into many of the same positions and conveys a similar meaning). It takes no suffixes of any kind. Some grammar books refer to this part of speech as the negative particle or the negative adverb. (b) Function: The negative functions as SENTENCE NEGATER (SN:) in the verb phrase (vp>) and linking verb phrase (lvp>), e.g., The mail has not arrived. That statement is not true. (c) Meaning: It actually denies the truth of the entire sentence (even though it is a constituent of the vp> or lvp>). For example, The mail has not arrived means that it is not true that the mail has arrived; the word not doesnt just refer, say, to the word arrived. In 3.62, 3.63, and 3.64 you will find a summary of the patterns and choices in the English verb phrase and linking verb phrase that were discussed in this section: 3.62 Patterns> in the Verb Phrase (a) vp> MP: (b) vp> MODHP: + (SN:) + (PERFHP:) + (PROGHP:) + (PASSHP:) + MP: (c) vp> PERFHP: + (SN:) + (PROGHP:) + (PASSHP:) + MP: (d) vp> PROGHP: + (SN:) + (PASSHP:) + MP: (e) vp> PASSHP: + (SN:) + MP: (f) vp> PROHP: + SN: + MP: 60

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

3.63 Patterns> in the Linking Verb Phrase (a) lvp> MP: (b) lvp> MODHP: + (SN:) + (PERFHP:) + (PROGHP:) + MP: (c) lvp> PERFHP: + (SN:) + (PROGHP:) + MP: (d) lvp> PROGHP: + (SN:) + MP: (e) lvp> PROHP: + SN: + MP: [Except when MP:lv... be.] (f) lvp> MP: lv... be + SN: [Instead of the pattern in the previous line.] 3.64 CHOICES: in the Verb Phrase and Linking Verb Phrase (a) MP: v..., lv... (b) MODHP: modaux... can, may, will, shall, must, . . . (c) PERFHP: perfaux... have word-en (d) PROGHP: progaux... be word-ing (e) PASSHP: passaux... be word-en (Passive auxiliaries do not occur in the lvp>.) (f) PROHP: proaux... do (g) SN: neg... not PRACTICE 13 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH II) We have examined eight new parts of speech in this section: verbs, linking verbs, modal auxiliaries, the perfect auxiliary, the progressive auxiliary, the passive auxiliary, the proauxiliary, and the negative. Make three study cards for each part of speech, as you did with the parts of speech in the noun phrase, shuffle those cards in with any noun phrase cards that you have not yet mastered, and begin studying them intensively. PRACTICE 14 (DIAGRAMMING VERB PHRASES AND LINKING VERB PHRASES) Below, you will find several analyses of English verb phrases and linking verb phrases in the outline format. Each of these has already appeared in the section just completed. Translate them into the tree diagram format. If you have trouble getting started, dont be afraid to take a peek at the answer to the first item in the feedback section following this section.
(a) They have been opened. PREDICATER verb phrase (have been opened) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (opened) (b) Paperbacks can be friends. PREDICATER linking verb phrase (can be) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (can) MAIN PREDICATER linking verb (be) (c) They were inviting you. PREDICATER verb phrase (were inviting) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (were)

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PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

MAIN PREDICATER verb (inviting) (d) Those criminals should have been being prosecuted. PREDICATER verb phrase (should have been being prosecuted) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (should) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (been) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (being) MAIN PREDICATER verb (prosecuted) (e) Hardbacks can not do another thing. PREDICATER verb phrase (can not do) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (can) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (do) (f) They do not approve of me. PREDICATER verb phrase (do not approve) PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary (do) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (approve)

PRACTICE 15 (ANALYZING VERB PHRASES AND LINKING VERB PHRASES) Identify the verb phrase or linking verb phrase in each of the declarative clauses listed below, and then analyze it in either the outline format or the tree diagram format. Immediately following the list of declarative clauses you will find an analytical procedure that can help you determine the correct version of the tree diagram of the verb phrase or linking verb phrase in each of the sentences.
(a) Edgar should have solved the problem. (b) Maria may be the best teacher. (c) The graduates gave some books to the library. (d) Emily has been reciting poetry. (e) I have been having headaches. (f) The message was decoded. (g) The witness was being stubborn. (h) Canada will be negotiating with France. (i) The cake should have been eaten. (j) The dean had been an anthropologist. (k) The grades have not been posted. (l) Mary did not arrive. (m) We are not studying German. (n) Those students do not know the answer. (o) The mail may not have been delivered.

An Analytical Procedure for Diagramming Verb Phrases and Linking Verb Phrases
Step One: Begin the analysis by copying the declarative clause onto a separate sheet of paper leaving a few inches of blank working space above it. Then place square brackets around the whole verb phrase or linking verb phrase. The verb phrase or linking verb phrase may be composed simply of

62

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

a verb or linking verb without any accompanying words. It may also have one or more auxiliaries preceding it (after the first of which, the word not might appear). Or it could consist of a present or past tensed form of the linking verb be followed by not. As we saw in Chapter 3, every verb phrase or linking verb phrase functions as a PREDICATER (P:) in its clause, and so we will place that label above the vp> or lvp> label that we assign to the verb phrase or linking verb phrase. Begin the actual diagram by writing P: high in the space and directly above the bracketed words. Write the label vp> directly under the P: (you may later decide to change vp> to lvp>). When you have finished doing that, determine the functional and formal label of every word in the vp> or lvp> and draw the solid and dotted lines as appropriate. Here are some additional steps that can help you do that until it becomes second nature (in doing steps two to five, ignore the word not if it appears): Step Two: Is the first word inside the left bracket a modal auxiliary (modaux... can, may, will, shall, could, might, would, should, or must)? If so, it is a MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary; diagram as follows:
P: vp>

MODHP: modaux word

Step Three: Do have, has, or had appear followed by a word with the -en participle inflectional suffix attached to it? (For many common verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliaries that suffix is spelled "en" or "ne"; for most verbs, it is spelled the same as the past tense inflectional sufix -- with "d" or "ed" or even "t.") If so, it is a PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary; diagram as follows:
P: vp>

(MODHP:)

PERFHP: perfaux

word

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Step Four: Do am, is, are, was, were, be, or been appear followed by a word with the -ing participle inflectional suffix attached to it? (For all English verbs, linking verbs, and auxiliaries, this suffix is spelled "ing.") If so, it is a PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary; diagram as follows:
P: vp>

(MODHP:)

(PERFHP:)

PROGHP: progaux

word

Step Five: Do am, is, are, was, were, be, being, or been appear followed by a word with the -en participle inflectional suffix attached to it? (For many common verbs, that suffix is spelled "en" or "ne"; for most verbs, it is spelled the same as the past tense inflectional suffix -- with "d" or "ed" or even "t.") If so, it is a PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary; diagram as follows:
P: vp>

(MODHP:)

(PERFHP:)

(PROGHP:)

PASSHP: passaux word

Step Six: Now focus on the last word inside the right bracket. Its functional label is MAIN PREDICATER (MP:), and its part-of-speech label is either verb (v...) or linking verb (lv...). Decide which (by referring to the definitions of verb and linking verb on pp. 81 and 82), and diagram as appropriate in one of the following ways (there may or may not be one or more auxiliaries already in the diagram). If the MAIN PREDICATER is indeed a linking verb (lv...), be sure to change the phrase label under P: from vp> to lvp>.
P: vp>

(MODHP:)

(PERFHP:)

(PROGHP:)

(PASSHP:)

MP: v

word

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PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

P: lvp.

(MODHP:) (PERFHP:)

(PROGHP:)

(PASSHP:) MP: lv word

Step Seven: In negative declarative clauses not appears after the first auxiliary; its functional label is SENTENCE NEGATER (SN:), and its part-of-speech label is negative (neg...):
P: (l)vp>

?HP: ?aux word

SN: () neg not

Step Eight: In addition to the four types of auxiliaries referred to in steps two to six, the proauxiliary (proaux...) may also appear in negative declarative clauses: If do, does, or did appears preceding SN:neg..., its functional label is PRO HELPING PREDICATER (PROHP:), its part-of-speech label is proauxiliary (proaux...), and it is diagrammed as follows:
P: (l)vp>

PROHP: proaux

SN: neg

MP: (l)y

do, does, did

not

word

FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 13 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH II) You should alternate work on studying your part-of-speech definition cards with work on practicing the analysis of verb phrases and linking verb phrases. Because you will have begun to study the defining facts of form, function, and meaning of each part of speech, you will find it easier to recognize them when doing analyses. Conversely, because you will have worked on such analyses, you will find, when you go back to studying the cards, that the contents of the cards are something more than just words -- they will connect to actual hands-on experiences.

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FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 14 (DIAGRAMMING VERB PHRASES AND LINKING VERB PHRASES)


(a) P: vp>

PERFHP: PASSHP: MP: perfaux passaux v

They (b)

have P: lvp>

been

opened

MODHP: modaux

MP: ly

Paperbacks (c)

can P: vp>

be

friends

PROGHP: progaux They (d) were

MP: v. inviting you. P: vp>

MODHP: PERFHP: PROGHP: modaux perfaux progaux

PASSHP: passaux

MP: v

Those criminals

should

have

been

being

prosecuted.

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PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

(e)

P: vp>

MODHP: SN: MP: modaux neg v

Hardbacks (f)

can

not P: vp>

do

another thing.

PROHP: proaux They do

SN: neg not

MP: v approve of me.

FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 15 (ANALYZING VERB PHRASES AND LINKING VERB PHRASES) The answers are presented here in outline format. If you used the analytical procedure to work out the answers in the tree diagram format, you should have little difficulty evaluating the correctness of your tree diagrams by comparing them to the answers given in the outline format. (a) Edgar should have solved the problem. PREDICATER verb phrase (should have solved) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (should) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) MAIN PREDICATER verb (solved) (b) Maria may be the best teacher. PREDICATER linking verb phrase (may be) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (may) MAIN PREDICATER linking verb (be) (c) The graduates gave some books to the library. PREDICATER verb phrase (gave) MAIN PREDICATER verb (gave) (d) Emily has been reciting poetry. PREDICATER verb phrase (has been reciting) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (has) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (reciting) (e) I have been having headaches. PREDICATER verb phrase (have been having) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (having)

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(f) The message was decoded. PREDICATER verb phrase (was decoded) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (was) MAIN PREDICATER verb (decoded) (g) The witness was being stubborn. PREDICATER linking verb phrase (was being) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (was) MAIN PREDICATER linking verb (being) (h) Canada will be negotiating with France. PREDICATER verb phrase (will be negotiating) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (will) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (be) MAIN PREDICATER verb (negotiating) (i) The cake should have been eaten. PREDICATER verb phrase (should have been eaten) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (should) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (eaten) (j) The dean had been an anthropologist. PREDICATER linking verb phrase (had been) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (had) MAIN PREDICATER linking verb (been) (k) The grades have not been posted. PREDICATER verb phrase (have not been posted) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (posted) (l) Mary did not arrive. PREDICATER verb phrase (did not arrive) PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary (did) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (arrive) (m) We are not studying German. PREDICATER verb phrase (are not studying) PROGRESSIVE HELPING PREDICATER progressive auxiliary (are) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (studying) (n) Those students do not know the answer. PREDICATER verb phrase (do not know) PRO HELPING PREDICATER proauxiliary (do) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) MAIN PREDICATER verb (know)

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(o) The mail may not have been delivered. PREDICATER verb phrase (may not have been delivered) MODAL HELPING PREDICATER modal auxiliary (may) SENTENCE NEGATER negative (not) PERFECT HELPING PREDICATER perfect auxiliary (have) PASSIVE HELPING PREDICATER passive auxiliary (been) MAIN PREDICATER verb (delivered) ADJECTIVE AND ADVERB PHRASES Here, again, is the passage from Doug Webbs journal that we examined in the last two sections. Read it one last time. After you do so, we will use some of Dougs sentences to help us examine English adjective phrases and adverb phrases. 3.65 (= 3.1) A Passage from Doug Webbs Journal I bought a book today. My favorite kind. A paperback. Paperbacks are so much better than hardbacks; they're not so heavy; they bend. But what is most peculiar about paperbacks is the way they never lie flat after they've been opened and read from a few times. It's almost as if they were inviting you to jump back in, make a return visit, maybe get really acquainted this time. Hardback books are so big -- cumbersome too, and they're always just too big to go into your biggest pocket. They seem to try to impress with their squared off corners and their unnecessary thickness. I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh! And there's another thing hardbacks can't do -- they never quite take on the appearance of their owners. You know the way a paperback gets because you carry it around all the time -- full of papers, notes about assignments, scribbles and comments and underlinings. And the corners always get bent up and begin to separate into layers, and they always get dirty around the edges, and better than that, they're full of funny little memories like coffee stains and little pieces of coconut and sometimes even bubble gum. Paperbacks can be almost like friends because you get to know them so well, I guess; that's probably the reason I have a house full of them. But hardbacks, they're hopeless. You never get to know them; they're just too impersonal. Maybe they just don't approve of me; they're probably even snobbish towards my paperbacks that always surround and outnumber them. I bet they don't like having to be so close to the swinish multitudes. But I bet my paperbacks have more fun. In 3.66 you will find some of Dougs sentences (sometimes adapted) that contain adjective phrases (which we have italicized), and in 3.67 you will find some of his sentences that contain adverb phrases (also italicized). 3.66 Some Sentences with Adjective Phrases Italicized (from the Passage by Doug Webb) (a) They are hopeless. (b) Hardback books are so big. (c) They are too impersonal. (d) They always get dirty around the edges. (e) That is most peculiar about paperbacks.

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3.67 Some Sentences with Adverb Phrases Italicized (from the Passage by Doug Webb) (a) I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh. (b) They almost always get dirty around the edges. (c) Thats probably the reason I have a house full of them. (d) You never get to know them. (e) My paperbacks always surround them. The grammars of both the adjective phrase and the adverb phrase are much simpler than the grammars of the noun phrase, verb phrase, and linking verb phrase. Let us look at each in turn. In 3.68 below you will find a partial grammar (some patterns and choices) of the English adjective phrase. Here, in plain English, is what the patterns and choices assert: An adjective phrase must have a HEAD adjective, which may or may not be preceded by a MODIFIER intensifier and may or may not be followed by an ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT prepositional phrase. (The grammar of the prepositional phrase is the same as when it occurs as POST MODIFIER in a noun phrase.) 3.68 Some Patterns in the English Adjective Phrase adjp> (M:) + H: + (ADJC:) Some Choices in the English Adjective Phrase M: int... H: adj... ADJC: pp> Here are the adjective phrases in Doug Webbs five sentences analyzed according to the patterns and choices in 3.68; please examine them carefully noting how each of the options represented in 3.68 is exemplified by one or more of them: 3.69 (a) They are hopeless. adjective phrase (hopeless) HEAD adjective (hopeless) (b) Hardback books are so big. adjective phrase (so big) MODIFIER intensifier (so) HEAD adjective (big) (c) They are too impersonal. adjective phrase (too impersonal) MODIFIER intensifier (too) HEAD adjective (impersonal) (d) They always get dirty around the edges. adjective phrase (dirty around the edges) HEAD adjective (dirty) ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT prepositional phrase (around the edges)

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(e) That is most peculiar about paperbacks. adjective phrase (most peculiar about paperbacks) MODIFIER intensifier (most) HEAD adjective (peculiar) ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT prepositional phrase (about paperbacks) Here is a reprint of the part-of-speech definition of adjectives, which we already examined in the section on noun phrases; it was presented there because, in addition to the function we are currently discussing (HEAD of an adjective phrase), adjectives can also function as a MODIFIERS in noun phrases: 3.70 (= 3.26) adjectives (adj...) (a) Form: Adjective are defined formally by listing (pure form): angry, bad, big, clear, dark, good, etc. We can also identify the form of some adjectives by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates adjectives, for example: -y in watery, -ful in helpful, -less in careless, -en in golden, -able in breakable, -ous in glorious, -ish in childish, etc. We can also identify the form of many one- or two-syllable adjectives by noting that they have one of two inflectional suffixes that can be attached to adjectives: (i) -er, as in angrier, worse, bigger, clearer, darker, better etc. (ii) -est, as in angriest, worst, biggest, clearest, darkest, best, etc. (b) Function: Adjectives have two functional positions: (i) MODIFIER (M:) in a noun phrase (np>): the young doctor, and (ii) HEAD (H:) in an adjective phrase (adjp>): she was very angry. (c) Meaning: Adjectives typically describe qualities of associated nouns, e.g., size (large), color (blue), shape (round), emotional state (angry), etc., etc. Here is the definition of the new part of speech that occurs in adjective phrases, the intensifier: 3.71 intensifiers (int...) (a) Form: Intensifiers are defined by listing: quite, rather, somewhat, so, too, very (and several others) (b) Function: Intensifiers function as MODIFIERS (M:) in both adjective phrases (adjp>) (e.g., very happy ) and adverb phrases (advp>) (e.g., rather carefully ). (c) Meaning: They intensify the meaning of the adjective or adverb which they MODIFY. (See examples in (b) immediately above.) In 3.72 below you will find a partial grammar (some patterns and choices) of the English adverb phrase. Here, in plain English, is what the patterns and choices assert: An adverb phrase must have a HEAD adverb, which may or may not be preceded by a MODIFIER intensifier. 3.72 Some Patterns in the English Adverb Phrase advp> (M:) + H:

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Some Choices in the English Adverb Phrase M: int... H: adv... Here are the adverb phrases in three of Doug Webbs sentences analyzed according to the patterns and choices in 3.72; please examine them carefully noting how each of the options represented in 3.72 is exemplified by one or more of them: 3.73 (a) I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh. adverb phrase (sometimes) HEAD adverb (sometimes) (b) They almost always get dirty around the edges. MODIFIER intensifier (almost) HEAD adverb (always) (c) That is probably the reason I have a house full of them. HEAD adverb (probably) Here is the part-of-speech definition of adverbs followed by a reprint of the definition of intensifiers, the two parts of speech that occur in adverb phrases: 3.74 adverbs(adv...) (a) Form: Adverbs are defined by listing (pure form): afterwards, beautifully, carefully, probably, sometimes, then, there, etc. We can also identify the form of some adverbs by noting that the last derivational suffix in the word is one that creates adverbs, for example:-ly in carefully, -wise in clockwise, -ways in sideways, -ward in backward, etc. We can also identify the form of a few one-syllable adverbs by noting that they have one of two inflectional suffixes that can be attached to such adverbs: (i) -er, as in quicker, faster, and very few others. (ii) -est, as in quickest, fastest, and very few others. (b) Function: Adverbs function as HEAD (H:) in an adverb phrase (advp>): She writes very carefully. They have recently moved. (c) Meaning: Adverbs typically indicate time (then), place (here, there), manner (carefully, quietly), etc. 3.75 ( = 3.71) intensifiers (int...) (a) Form: Intensifiers are defined by listing: quite, rather, somewhat, so, too, very (and several others) (b) Function: Intensifiers function as MODIFIERS (M:) in both adjective phrases (adjp>) (e.g., very happy ) and adverb phrases (advp>) (e.g., rather carefully ). (c) Meaning: They intensify the meaning of the adjective or adverb, which they MODIFY. (See examples in (b) immediately above.) 72

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

All of the adverb phrases in Doug Webbs passage were inside verb phrases or linking verb phrases in the middle of his sentences. In fact, adverb phrases also commonly occur at the beginning or end of sentences, e.g., Sometimes I feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me; I feel a hardback book is trying to scare me sometimes. Furthermore, adverb phrases at the beginning or end of a sentence can have MODIFIER intensifiers, e.g., Very quietly, the cat was stalking the mouse; The cat was stalking the mouse very quietly. The last two example sentences are not from Doug Webbs passage; we made them up. The third member of the set, with the adverb phrase inside the verb phrase, would be The cat was very quietly stalking the mouse. In all three sentences, the internal structure of the adverb phrase is the same: very is a MODIFIER intensifier and quietly is a HEAD adverb. Early in Chapter 5, when we examine the patterns in the declarative clause, we will see that the function of the adverb phrase is labeled CLAUSE COMPLEMENT in all three DECLARATIVE CLAUSES, but we use the specific labels INITIAL CLAUSE COMPLEMENT, MEDIAL CLAUSE COMPLEMENT, or FINAL CLAUSE COMPLEMENT depending on whether the adverb phrase is at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of the declarative clause. When it is in the middle, it is actually inside the verb phrase or linking verb phrase, immediately following the first auxiliary, if there is one, and the SENTENCE NEGATER negative not if it occurs. PRACTICE 16 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH III) We have examined two new parts of speech in this section: intensifiers and adverbs. Make three study cards for each part of speech, as you did with the parts of speech in earlier sections, shuffle those cards in with any of the earlier part-of-speech cards that you have not yet mastered, and begin studying them intensively. PRACTICE 17 (DIAGRAMMING ADJECTIVE PHRASES) Below you will find three declarative clauses that were cited in this section. Each one contains an adjective phrase that has been analyzed in the outline format. Translate the analysis of each of the three adjective phrases into the tree diagram format. (a) They are too impersonal. adjective phrase (too impersonal) MODIFIER intensifier (too) HEAD adjective (impersonal) (b) They always get dirty around the edges. adjective phrase (dirty around the edges) HEAD adjective (dirty) ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT prepositional phrase (around the edges) (c) That is most peculiar about paperbacks. adjective phrase (most peculiar about paperbacks) MODIFIER intensifier (most) HEAD adjective (peculiar) ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENT prepositional phrase (about paperbacks)

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PRACTICE 18 (DIAGRAMMING ADVERB PHRASES) Below you will find two declarative clauses that were cited in this section. Each one contains an adverb phrase that has been analyzed in the outline format. Translate the analysis of each of the two adverb phrases into the tree diagram format. (a) I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh. adverb phrase (sometimes) HEAD adverb (sometimes) (b) They almost always get dirty around the edges. MODIFIER intensifier (almost) HEAD adverb (always) PRACTICE 19 (CHAPTER REVIEW: LABELING PARTS OF SPEECH) Following this paragraph you will find some practice sentences to work on. The meaning of each sentence follows more or less coherently from the preceding sentences, and together they parallel the content of Doug Webbs passage about paperback books. However, we have greatly revised Dougs passage because it contains many more parts of speech than the 23 we have looked at in this chapter and because several of the parts of speech we have defined appear in functional positions in Dougs passage that we have not yet discussed. Only the six phrase types that we have discussed in this chapter appear in these practice sentences, and all of the sentences are simple declarative clauses. Remember that we have learned that prepositional phrases can appear as POST MODIFIERS within noun phrases and as ADJECTIVE COMPLEMENTS within adjective phrases. Adverb phrases can also appear inside verb phrases and linking verb phrases, but we have not yet actually looked at the patterns that account for this. Your specific analytical task in working with these sentences is this: Determine the functional label and part-ofspeech label of each word in each sentence, and then write each sentence with the labels of each word preceding the word. (You should probably write each word and its labels inside a set of square brackets just to make it clear to which word a given set of labels applies.) Sentence (a) would look like this: (a) [H: perspro... I] [PERFHP: perfaux... have] [PROGHP: progaux... been] [MP: v... buying] [D: iart... some] [H: n... books] [H: adv... recently]. To perform this task, you need already to have done several rounds of studying what is now a total of 69 flash cards. You will also need constantly to reread and study the various sections of this chapter that talk about the patterns and choices in the various English phrases in which this chapters 23 parts of speech appear. Please forgive us if we remind you one last time: There is no short cut to achieving the kind of mastery of this chapter that you MUST have if you are going to be able to understand and use the content of the remaining chapters of this book, and if you are going to present yourself to the world as an English language professional. (a) I have been buying some books recently. (b) They are my favorite kind of books. (c) They are inexpensive paperbacks. (d) Paperbacks are not so heavy. (e) One quality is very peculiar about paperbacks. (f) They never lie flat. 74

PARTS OF SPEECH IN ENGLISH PHRASES

(g) Yesterday, I was reading two paperbacks from the library simultaneously. (h) That inspired me. (i) I should become more comfortable with visits to libraries (j) Hardback books do not understand my system of values. (k) Rigidity is their first attribute. (l) They are always too big for my biggest pocket. (m) Their square corners seem arrogant. (n) Excessive thickness is their next attribute. (o) Occasionally, I have felt uncomfortable about hardback books. (p) Quite frequently, I read the paperbacks in my backpack. (q) Some paperbacks in my possession may have been borrowed. (r) Often, funny comments have been scribbled in them. (s) Mine are full of coffee marks. (t) Little pieces of coconut sometimes appear in the pages of my paperback books (u) Those hardback books are hopeless. (v) You never become familiar with them. (w) Quite arrogantly, they do not tolerate the swinish multitudes. (x) I know one important thing. (y) My paperbacks have a huge amount of fun. FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 16 (STUDYING THE DEFINITIONS OF PARTS OF SPEECH III) Let us reinforce a point that we made earlier. Why have we suggested that you make three separate cards for each part of speech (one for form, one for function, and one for meaning)? And why have we suggested that you shuffle all of your part-of-speech cards together each time you begin a study cycle? We have some students who are very uncomfortable shuffling the cards, insisting on studying the information in the same order in which it was presented in the book. But if you do that, there is no reason to make cards, you should just study the book! The reason to make the cards, and to write them rather than type or photocopy the information, is that additional neural networks in your brain are stimulated to learn by the very act of writing. It is almost as if information travels through your pen or pencil, up your arm, and to your brain in a way that it doesnt when just coming in through your eyes. The reason to shuffle the cards each time you study them is this: You want to learn the information about the form, function, and meaning of each part of speech as independent, context-free information. If you study it only in the context of the whole definition, as presented in this book, your knowledge of it is dependent on the context (e.g., what the book says about the form of a noun helps you remember what it says about a nouns function). When you keep encountering the information in different contexts, by shuffling the cards, you will learn it better and remember it longer. FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 17 (DIAGRAMMING ADJECTIVE PHRASES)
(a) adj>

M: int They are too

H: adj impersonal

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(b) H:

adjp> ADJC: pp> R: p OP: np> D: H: dart n They always get dirty adjp> around the edges.

(c)

M: H: int adj

ADJC: pp>

R: p

OP: np>

H: n

That

is

most

peculiar

about

paperbacks

FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 18 (DIAGRAMMING ADVERB PHRASES)


(a) advp> H: adv I sometimes feel as if a hardback book is trying to scare me away and then laugh. (b) advp>

M: int

H: adv

They almost always get dirty around the edges.

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FEEDBACK TO PRACTICE 19 (CHAPTER REVIEW: LABELING PARTS OF SPEECH) (a) [H: perspro... I] [PERFHP: perfaux... have] [PROGHP: progaux... been] [MP: v... buying] [D: iart... some] [H: n... books] [H: adv... recently]. (b) [H: perspro... They] [MP: lv... are] [D: possart... my] [M: adj... favorite] [H: n... kind] [R: p... of] [H: n... books]. (c) [H: perspro... They] [MP: lv... are] [M: adj... inexpensive] [H: n... paperbacks]. (d) [H: n... Paperbacks] [MP: lv... are] [SN: neg... not] [M: int... so] [H: adj... heavy]. (e) [POD: crdnum... One] [H: n... quality] [MP: lv... is] [M: int... very] [H: adj... peculiar] [R: p... about] [H: n... paperbacks]. (f) [H: perspro... They] [H: adv... never] [MP: lv... lie] [H: adj... flat]. (g) [H: adv... Yesterday], [H: perspro... I] [PROGHP: progaux... was] [MP: v... reading] [POD: crdnum... two] [H: n... paperbacks] [R: p... from] [D: dart... the] [H: n... library] [H: adv... simultaneously]. (h) [H: dempro... That] [MP: v... inspired] [H: perspro... me]. (i) [H: perspro... I] [MODHP: modaux... should] [MP: lv... become] [M: int... more] [H: adj... comfortable] [R: p... with] [H: n... visits] [R: p... to] [H: n... libraries]. (j) [M: n... Hardback] [H: n... books] [PROHP: proaux... do] [SN: neg... not] [MP: v... understand] [D: possart... my] [H: n... system] [R: p... of] [H: n... values]. (k) [H: n... Rigidity] [MP: lv... is] [D: possart... their] [POD: ordnum... first] [H: n... attribute]. (l) [H: perspro... They] [MP: lv... are] [H: adv... always] [M: int... too] [H: adj... big] [R: p... for] D: possart... my] [M: adj... biggest] [H: n... pocket]. (m) [D: possart... Their] [M: adj... square] [H: n... corners] [MP: lv... seem] [H: adj... arrogant]. (n) [M: adj... Excessive] [H: n... thickness] [MP: lv... is] [D: possart... their] [POD: genord... next] [H: n... attribute]. (o) [H: adv... Occasionally], [H: perspro... I] [PERFHP: perfaux... have] [MP: lv... felt] [H: adj... uncomfortable] [R: p... about] [M: n... hardback] [H: n... books]. (p) [M: int... Quite] [H: adv... frequently], [H: perspro... I] [MP: v... read] [D: dart... the] [H: n... paperbacks] [R: p... in] [D: possart... my] [H: n... backpack]. (q) [D: iart... Some] [H: n... paperbacks] [R: p... in] [D: possart... my] [H: n... possession] [MODHP: modaux... may] [PERFHP: perfaux... have] [PASSHP: passaux... been] [MP: v... borrowed]. (r) [H: adv... Often], [M: adj... funny] [H: n... comments] [PERFHP: perfaux... have] [PASSHP: passaux... been] [MP: v... scribbled] [R: p... in] [H: perspro... them]. (s) [H: posspro... Mine] [MP: lv... are] [H: adj... full] [R: p... of] [M: n... coffee] [H: n... marks]. (t) [M: adj... Little] [H: n... pieces] [R: p... of] [H: n... coconut] [H: adv... sometimes] [MP: v... appear] [R: p... in] [D: dart... the] [H: n... pages] [R: p... of] [D: possart... my] [M: n... paperback] [H: n... books]. (u) [D: demart... Those] [M: n... hardback] [H: n... books] [MP: lv... are] [H: adj... hopeless]. (v) [H: perspro... You] [H: adv... never] [MP: lv... become] [H: adj... familiar] [R: p... with] [H: perspro... them]. (w) [M: int... Quite] [H: adv... arrogantly], [H: perspro... they] [PROHP: proaux... do] [SN: neg... not] [MP: v... tolerate] [D: dart... the] [M: adj... swinish] [H: n... multitudes]. (x) [H: perspro... I] [MP: v... know] [POD: crdnum... one] [M: adj... important] [H: n... thing]. (y) [D: possart... My] [H: n... paperbacks] [MP: v... have] [D: iart... a] [M: adj... huge] [H: n... amount] [R: p... of] [H: n... fun].

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