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Kemunculan Perspektif Behaviorisme Setiap hari kita cuba menjelaskan tingkahlaku orang yang kita tahu.

Kita tanya, "Mengapa Kumar memutuskan hubungan dengan Shanti?" "Mengapa ahli parliamen itu menerima rasuah?". Mungkin kita menjawab Kumar merasa terancam dengan kebolehan academik Shanti. Ahli parliamen itu seorang yang tamak. Walau pun kita tidak boleh nampak Kumar terancam atau ahli parliamen itu tamak kita gunakan tingkahlaku mereka untuk menerangkan tindakan mereka. agaimana pun ahli psikologi seperti Watson, !olman, "uthries, !horndike dan Skinner tidak setuju dengan membuat in#eren tentang kewujudan sesuatu tingkahlaku atau kelakuan. Menurut mereka, kita tidak boleh memutuskan Kumar $terancam$ kerana tinkahlaku tersebut tidak boleh dilihat. %uma kita boleh melihat Kumar memutuskan hubungan dengan Shanti dan kita tidak boleh buat apa&apa in#eren selain daripada itu. 'nilah yang menjadi pegangan perspekti# behaviorisme, kajian harus menumpukan kepada kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas ()&"* dan gerak balas itu mesti boleh dilihat berlaku dan direkod. J.B. Watson (1878-1958) Watson digelar sebagai $bapa beha+iorisme$. eliau sangat terpengaruh dengan hasil kerja ,a+lo+ dan menerima pela-iman klasik sebagai cara penting pembelajaran berlaku. .leh kerana dia mengutamakan tingkahlaku yang boleh diperhatikan, beliau mengaitkan segala tingkahlaku dengan pergerakan. %ontohnya, dia si#atkan $perasaan$ sebagai pergekaran otot&otot dalam perut dan $percakapan$ sebagai pergerakan otot&otot dalam tekak.

/ksperimen yang jalankan dengan seorang bayi bernama $Albert$. Watson memakai topeng untuk menakutkan Albert. Seorang bayi bernama Albert didedahkan kepada seekor tikus. ayi itu bermain dengan haiwan itu tanpa menunjukkan apa jua ketakutan. 0alam situasi yang berlainan, Albert diberikan tikus yang sama, tetapi kali ini ia diikuti dengan satu bunyi kuat. Setiap kali tikus itu diberikan kepada Albert, bunyi kuat itu terdengar yang membuat bayi itu gelisah dan menangis. Kemudian tikus itu diberikan kepada Albert, tanpa bunyi kuat bayi itu enggan menyentuh tikus itu dan terus menangis. Apakah telah terjadi? Teori Pelaziman Cuba Jaya (Theory of Trial and Error Conditioning ) oleh E. L. Thorndike !horndike (1234&1545*, seorang ahli psikologi Amerika, mendapat ija-ah kedoktoran (,h0* pada usia 64 tahun dan mula mengajar di !eachers$ %ollege, %olumbia 7ni+ersity. eliau tidak begitu setuju dengan teori pela-iman klasik yang diperkenalkan oleh '+an ,a+lo+. eberapa tahun sebelum ,a+lo+, !horndike (1234&1545* menjalankan kajian dan menguatarakan apa yang dinamakan $pembelajaran cuba jaya' (trial and error learning*. aginya, prinsip asas pembelajran ialah pengaruh ganjaran dan denda dan organisme akan membuat sesuatu yang akan membawa keseronokan. Sebaliknya, organisme berkenaan akan mengelakkan melakukan sesuatu yang membawa kesakitan atau membahayakan diri. Menurutnya, ganjaran mendorong organisme mengulangi seusatu gerak balas manakala denda pula boleh menyekat organisme daripada melakukan sesuatu gerak balas. 0ialah pengasas awal teori )angsangan&"erak alas ()&"* atau Stimulus-Response (S-R). 0engan perkataan lain, organisme mengaitkan "erak alas tertentu dengan )angsangan tertentu. !horndike melabelkan jenis pembelajaran ini sebagai 'Pembelajaran Instrumental atau peran' yang diperluaskan kemudian oleh .8. Skinner.

Eksperimen Thorndike !horndike menjalankan berbagai eskperimen dengan menggunakan suatu alat yang direka bentuk dan dipanggil 'pu!!le bo".' Manakala ,a+lo+ menggunakan anjing, !horndike kerap menggunakan kucing. 0ia mengurung seekor kucing yang lapar dalam pu!!le bo" yang mempunyai kunci. 9ika kucing itu akan cuba dengan mencakar peti itu dan jika ia berjaya menekan kunci peti itu, pintu akan terbuka dan kucing itu akan dapat keluar ke arah makanan yang disediakan. !horndike telah perhatikan behawa kucing itu telah melakukan bermacam&macam tindakan (proses cuba&jaya* untuk keluar hinggalah haiwan itu tertekan kunci dan pintu terbuka. Masa yang diambil oleh kucing itu untuk membuka pintu pu--le bo: dicatat. eberapa jam kemudian kucing yang lapar itu dimasukkan ke dalam peti yang sama. Kali ini, haiwan itu berjaya menekan kuci pntu dalam masal yang lebih singkat berbanding dengan percubaan pertama. Kucing itu dikatakan telah menguasai atau belajar. 'aitu, organisme itu telah mempelajari gerak balas yang betul untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi. 1) Hukuman Kesediaan (Law of Readiness) Organisme bersedia bertindak ====> Organisme bertindak ====> Organisme puas Organisme bersedia bertindak ====> Organisme TIDAK bertindak ====> Organisme kecewa Organisme TIDAK bersedia bertindak ===== Organisme dipaksa bertindak ====> Organisme kecewa ) Hukum Latihan (Law of !ercise) Kaitan antara R-G akan menjadi lebih kuat sekiranya organisme melakukan atau melatih seberapa kerap yang boleh. Jika latihan berkurangan, kaitan R-G akan mula menjadi lemah. !) Hukum Kesan (Law of ffect) Ikatan antara R-G akan bertambah kukuh jika terdapat kesan yang memuaskan apabila sesuatu gerak balas dihasilkan. Iaitu, ganjaran bertindak menguatkan kaitan R-G. Sekiranya, organisme mengalami keadaan yang tidak selesa akhibat daripada tindakannya, kaitan R-G akan menjadi lemah.

Ed"ard Lee Thorndike 187# - 19#9 erdasarkan kajian&kajian yang dijalankan (pada 151;, 15;6, 15;;*, !horndike mencadangkan prinsip&prinsip berikut mengenai pembelajaran< $%J%K&'( Connectionism ()&" Asas !eori !horndike* E ! Thorndike "#$%& ' #(&() !eori !horndike dan Aplikasi dalam ,embelajaran. agaimana teori !horndike cuba menerangkan pembelajaran manusia? Teori'Teori Cadan*an Thorndike =atar belakang !horndike dan teori&teori yang diperkenalkan.

+ajor Phenomenon of Classical Conditionin* aca bahagian bertajuk $!horndike > the =aw o# /##ect$ Kemunculan Perspektif Behaviorisme Setiap hari kita cuba menjelaskan tingkahlaku orang yang kita tahu. Kita tanya, "Mengapa Kumar memutuskan hubungan dengan Shanti?" "Mengapa ahli parliamen itu menerima rasuah?". Mungkin kita menjawab Kumar merasa terancam dengan kebolehan academik Shanti. Ahli parliamen itu seorang yang tamak. Walau pun kita tidak boleh nampak Kumar terancam atau ahli parliamen itu tamak kita gunakan tingkahlaku mereka untuk menerangkan tindakan mereka. agaimana pun ahli psikologi seperti Watson, !olman, "uthries, !horndike dan Skinner tidak setuju dengan membuat in#eren tentang kewujudan sesuatu tingkahlaku atau kelakuan. Menurut mereka, kita tidak boleh memutuskan Kumar $terancam$ kerana tinkahlaku tersebut tidak boleh dilihat. %uma kita boleh melihat Kumar memutuskan hubungan dengan Shanti dan kita tidak boleh buat apa&apa in#eren selain daripada itu. 'nilah yang menjadi pegangan perspekti# behaviorisme, kajian harus menumpukan kepada kaitan antara rangsangan dan gerak balas ()&"* dan gerak balas itu mesti boleh dilihat berlaku dan direkod. J.B. Watson (1878-1958) Watson digelar sebagai $bapa beha+iorisme$. eliau sangat terpengaruh dengan hasil kerja ,a+lo+ dan menerima pela-iman klasik sebagai cara penting pembelajaran berlaku. .leh kerana dia mengutamakan tingkahlaku yang boleh diperhatikan, beliau mengaitkan segala tingkahlaku dengan pergerakan. %ontohnya, dia si#atkan $perasaan$ sebagai pergekaran otot&otot dalam perut dan $percakapan$ sebagai pergerakan otot&otot dalam tekak.

/ksperimen yang jalankan dengan seorang bayi bernama $Albert$. Watson memakai topeng untuk menakutkan Albert. Seorang bayi bernama Albert didedahkan kepada seekor tikus. ayi itu bermain dengan haiwan itu tanpa menunjukkan apa jua ketakutan. 0alam situasi yang berlainan, Albert diberikan tikus yang sama, tetapi kali ini ia diikuti dengan satu bunyi kuat. Setiap kali tikus itu diberikan kepada Albert, bunyi kuat itu terdengar yang membuat bayi itu gelisah dan menangis. Kemudian tikus itu diberikan kepada Albert, tanpa bunyi kuat bayi itu enggan menyentuh tikus itu dan terus menangis. Apakah telah terjadi? $u)ukan( Conditioned Emotional ,eactions oleh 9. .Watson > )osalie )ayner (156?* aca tentang eksperimen ke atas $Albert$. Behaviorism ' The modern note in psycholo*y

oleh 9. . Watson (1565* Eksperimen Thorndike !horndike menjalankan berbagai eskperimen dengan menggunakan suatu alat yang direka bentuk dan dipanggil 'pu!!le bo".' Manakala ,a+lo+ menggunakan anjing, !horndike kerap menggunakan kucing. 0ia mengurung seekor kucing yang lapar dalam pu!!le bo" yang mempunyai kunci. 9ika kucing itu akan cuba dengan mencakar peti itu dan jika ia berjaya menekan kunci peti itu, pintu akan terbuka dan kucing itu akan dapat keluar ke arah makanan yang disediakan. !horndike telah perhatikan behawa kucing itu telah melakukan bermacam&macam tindakan (proses cuba&jaya* untuk keluar hinggalah haiwan itu tertekan kunci dan pintu terbuka. Masa yang diambil oleh kucing itu untuk membuka pintu pu--le bo: dicatat. eberapa jam kemudian kucing yang lapar itu dimasukkan ke dalam peti yang sama. Kali ini, haiwan itu berjaya menekan kuci pntu dalam masal yang lebih singkat berbanding dengan percubaan pertama. Kucing itu dikatakan telah menguasai atau belajar. 'aitu, organisme itu telah mempelajari gerak balas yang betul untuk menyelesaikan masalah yang dihadapi.

erdasarkan kajian&kajian yang dijalankan (pada 151;, 15;6, 15;;*, !horndike mencadangkan prinsip& prinsip berikut mengenai pembelajaran<

1) Hukuman Kesediaan (Law of Readiness) Organisme bersedia bertindak ====> Organisme bertindak ====> Organisme puas Organisme bersedia bertindak ====> Organisme TIDAK bertindak ====> Organisme kecewa Organisme TIDAK bersedia bertindak ===== Organisme dipaksa bertindak ====> Organisme kecewa ) Hukum Latihan (Law of !ercise) Kaitan antara R-G akan menjadi lebih kuat sekiranya organisme melakukan atau melatih seberapa kerap yang boleh. Jika latihan berkurangan, kaitan R-G akan mula menjadi lemah. !) Hukum Kesan (Law of ffect) Ikatan antara R-G akan bertambah kukuh jika terdapat kesan yang memuaskan apabila sesuatu gerak balas dihasilkan. Iaitu, ganjaran bertindak menguatkan kaitan R-G. Sekiranya, organisme mengalami keadaan yang tidak selesa akhibat daripada tindakannya, kaitan R-G akan menjadi lemah.

Ed"ard Lee Thorndike 187# - 19#9

$%J%K&'( Connectionism ()&" Asas !eori !horndike* E ! Thorndike "#$%& ' #(&() !eori !horndike dan Aplikasi dalam ,embelajaran. agaimana teori !horndike cuba menerangkan pembelajaran manusia? Teori'Teori Cadan*an Thorndike =atar belakang !horndike dan teori&teori yang diperkenalkan. +ajor Phenomenon of Classical Conditionin* aca bahagian bertajuk $!horndike > the =aw o# /##ect$

Classics in the History of Psychology


#n internet resour$e developed by %hristopher &. 'reen (ork )niversity* +oronto* ntario ()eturn to %lassi$s inde:*

C-./0T0-.E/ E+-T0-.1! ,E1CT0-.2 By John B 3atson and ,osalie ,ayner"#(45)


8irst published in ,ournal o- ."perimental Psy$hology, /(0), 1&14. 'n recent literature +arious speculations ha+e been entered into concerning the possibility o# conditioning +arious types o# emotional response, but direct e:perimental e+idence in support o# such a +iew has been lacking. '# the theory ad+anced by Watson and Morgan @1A to the e##ect that in in#ancy the original emotional reaction patterns are #ew, consisting so #ar as obser+ed o# #ear, rage and lo+e, then there must be some simple method by means o# which the range o# stimuli which can call out these emotions and their compounds is greatly increased. .therwise, comple:ity in adult response could not be accounted #or. !hese authors without adeBuate e:perimental e+idence ad+anced the +iew that this range was increased by means o# conditioned re#le: #actors. 't was suggested there that the early home li#e o# the child #urnishes a laboratory situation #or establishing

conditioned emotional responses. !he present authors ha+e recently put the whole matter to an e:perimental test. /:perimental work had been done so #ar on only one child, Albert . !his in#ant was reared almost #rom birth in a hospital en+ironmentC his mother was a wet nurse in the Darriet =ane Dome #or 'n+alid %hildren. Albert$s li#e was normal< he was healthy #rom birth and one o# the best de+eloped youngsters e+er brought to the hospital, weighing twenty&one pounds at nine months o# age. De was on the whole stolid and unemotional. Dis stability was one o# the principal reasons #or using him as a subject in this test. We @p.6A #elt that we could do him relati+ely little harm by carrying out such e:periments as those outlined below. At appro:imately nine months o# age we ran him through the emotional tests that ha+e become a part o# our regular routine in determining whether #ear reactions can be called out by other stimuli than sharp noises and the sudden remo+al o# support. !ests o# this type ha+e been described by the senior author in another place.@6A 'n brie#, the in#ant was con#ronted suddenly and #or the #irst time successi+ely with a white rat, a rabbit, a dog, a monkey, with masks with and without hair, cotton wool, burning newspapers, etc. A permanent record o# Albert$s reactions to these objects and situations has been preser+ed in a motion picture study. Manipulation was the most usual reaction called out. #t no time did this in-ant ever show -ear in any situation. !hese e:perimental records were con#irmed by the casual obser+ations o# the mother and hospital attendants. Eo one had e+er seen him in a state o# #ear and rage. !he in#ant practically ne+er cried. 7p to appro:imately nine months o# age we had not tested him with loud sounds. !he test to determine whether a #ear reaction could be called out by a loud sound was made when he was eight months, twenty&si: days o# age. !he sound was that made by striking a hammer upon a suspended steel bar #our #eet in length and three&#ourths o# an inch in diameter. !he laboratory notes are as #ollows< .ne o# the two e:perimenters caused the child to turn its head and #i:ate her mo+ing hand C the other stationed back o# the child, struck the steel bar a sharp blow. !he child started +iolently, his breathing was checked and the arms were raised in a characteristic manner. .n the second stimulation the same thing occurred, and in addition the lips began to pucker and tremble. .n the third stimulation the child broke into a sudden crying #it. !his is the #irst time an emotional situation in the laboratory has produced any #ear or e+en crying in Albert. @p.;A We had e:pected just these results on account o# our work with other in#ants brought up under similar conditions. 't is worth while to call attention to the #act that remo+al o# support (dropping and jerking the blanket upon which the in#ant was lying* was tried e:hausti+ely upon this in#ant on the same occasion. 't was not e##ecti+e in producing the #ear response. !his stimulus is e##ecti+e in younger children. At what age such stimuli lose their potency in producing #ear is not known. Eor is it known whether less placid children e+er lose their #ear o# them. !his probably depends upon the training the child gets. 't is well known that children eagerly run to be tossed into the air and

caught. .n the other hand it is eBually well known that in the adult #ear responses are called out Buite clearly by the sudden remo+al o# support, i# the indi+idual is walking across a bridge, walking out upon a beam, etc. !here is a wide #ield o# study here which is aside #rom our present point. !he sound stimulus, thus, at nine months o# age, gi+es us the means o# testing se+eral important #actors. '. %an we condition #ear o# an animal, e.g.* a white rat, by +isually presenting it and simultaneously striking a steel bar? ''. '# such a conditioned emotional response can be established, will there be a trans#er to other animals or other objects? '''. What is the e##ect o# time upon such conditioned emotional responses? 'F. '# a#ter a reasonable period such emotional responses ha+e not died out, what laboratory methods can be de+ised #or their remo+al? '. !he establishment o# conditioned emotional responses. At #irst there was considerable hesitation upon our part in making the attempt to set up #ear reactions e:perimentally. A certain responsibility attaches to such a procedure. We decided #inally to make the attempt, com#orting oursel+es by the re#lection that such attachments would arise anyway as soon as the child le#t the sheltered en+ironment o# the nursery #or the rough and tumble o# the home. We did not begin this work until Albert was ele+en months, three days o# age. e#ore attempting to set up a conditioned response we, as be#ore, put him through all o# the regular emotional @p.4A tests. 1ot the slightest sign o- a -ear response was obtained in any situation. !he steps taken to condition emotional responses are shown in our laboratory notes. 00 2onths / &ays 1. White rat suddenly taken #rom the basket and presented to Albert. De began to reach #or rat with le#t hand. 9ust as his hand touched the animal the bar was struck immediately behind his head. !he in#ant jumped +iolently and #ell #orward, burying his #ace in the mattress. De did not cry, howe+er. 6. 9ust as the right hand touched the rat the bar was again struck. Again the in#ant jumped +iolently, #ell #orward and began to whimper. 'n order not to disturb the child too seriously no #urther tests were gi+en #or one week. 00 2onths 03 &ays 1. )at presented suddenly without sound. !here was steady #i:ation but no tendency at #irst to reach #or it. !he rat was then placed nearer, whereupon tentati+e reaching mo+ements began with the right hand. When the rat nosed the in#ant$s le#t hand, the hand was immediately withdrawn. De started to reach #or the head o# the animal with the #ore#inger o# the le#t hand, but withdrew it suddenly be#ore contact. 't is thus seen that the two joint stimulations gi+en the pre+ious week were not without e##ect. De was tested with his blocks immediately a#terwards to see i# they shared in the process o#

conditioning. De began immediately to pick them up, dropping them, pounding them, etc. 'n the remainder o# the tests the blocks were gi+en #reBuently to Buiet him and to test his general emotional state. !hey were always remo+ed #rom sight when the process o# conditioning was under way. 6. 9oint stimulation with rat and sound. Started, then #ell o+er immediately to right side Eo crying.@p.GA ;. 9oint stimulation. 8ell to right side and rested upon hands, with head turned away #rom rat. Eo crying. 4. 9oint stimulation. Same reaction. G. )at suddenly presented alone. ,uckered #ace, whimpered and withdrew body sharply to the le#t. H. 9oint stimulation. 8ell o+er immediately to right side and began to whimper. 3. 9oint stimulation. Started +iolently and cried, but did not #all o+er. 2. )at alone. +he instant the rat was shown the baby began to $ry. #lmost instantly he turned sharply to the le-t* -ell over on le-t side* raised himsel- on all -ours and began to $rawl away so rapidly that he was $aught with di--i$ulty be-ore rea$hing the edge o- the table. !his was as con+incing a case o# a completely conditioned #ear response as could ha+e been theoretically pictured. 'n all se+en joint stimulations were gi+en to bring about the complete reaction. 't is not unlikely had the sound been o# greater intensity or o# a more comple: clang character that the number o# joint stimulations might ha+e been materially reduced. /:periments designed to de#ine the nature o# the sounds that will ser+e best as emotional stimuli are under way. ''. When a conditioned emotional response has been established #or one object, is there a trans#er? 8i+e days later Albert was again brought back into the laboratory and tested as #ollows< 00 2onths 04 &ays 1. !ested #irst with blocks. De reached readily #or them, playing with them as usual. !his shows that there has been no general trans#er to the room, table, blocks, etc. 6. )at alone. Whimpered immediately, withdrew right hand and turned head and trunk away. ;. locks again o##ered. ,layed readily with them, smiling and gurgling. @p.HA 4. )at alone. =eaned o+er to the le#t side as #ar away #rom the rat as possible, then #ell o+er, getting up on all #ours and scurrying away as rapidly as possible. G. locks again o##ered. )eached immediately #or them, smiling and laughing as be#ore. !he abo+e preliminary test shows that the conditioned response to the rat had carried o+er completely #or the #i+e days in which no tests were gi+en. !he Buestion as to whether or not there is a trans#er was ne:t taken up. H. )abbit alone. !he rabbit was suddenly placed on the mattress in #ront o# him. !he reaction was pronounced. Eegati+e responses began at once. De leaned as #ar away #rom

the animal as possible, whimpered, then burst into tears. When the rabbit was placed in contact with him he buried his #ace in the mattress, then got up on all #ours and crawled away, crying as he went. !his was a most con+incing test. 3. !he blocks were ne:t gi+en him, a#ter an inter+al. De played with them as be#ore. 't was obser+ed by #our people that he played #ar more energetically with them than e+er be#ore. !he blocks were raised high o+er his head and slammed down with a great deal o# #orce. 2. 0og alone. !he dog did not produce as +iolent a reaction as the rabbit. !he moment #i:ation occurred the child shrank back and as the animal came nearer he attempted to get on all #ours but did not cry at #irst. As soon as the dog passed out o# his range o# +ision he became Buiet. !he dog was then made to approach the in#ant$s head (he was lying down at the moment*. Albert straightened up immediately, #ell o+er to the opposite side and turned his head away. De then began to cry. 5. !he blocks were again presented. De began immediately to play with them. 1?. 8ur coat (seal*. Withdrew immediately to the le#t side and began to #ret. %oat put close to him on the @p.3A le#t side, he turned immediately, began to cry and tried to crawl away on all #ours. 11. %otton wool. !he wool was presented in a paper package. At the end the cotton was not co+ered by the paper. 't was placed #irst on his #eet. De kicked it away but did not touch it with his hands. When his hand was laid on the wool he immediately withdrew it but did not show the shock that the animals or #ur coat produced in him. De then began to play with the paper, a+oiding contact with the wool itsel#. De #inally, under the impulse o# the manipulati+e instinct, lost some o# his negati+ism to the wool. 16. 9ust in play W. put his head down to see i# Albert would play with his hair. Albert was completely negati+e. !wo other obser+ers did the same thing. De began immediately to play with their hair. W. then brought the Santa %laus mask and presented it to Albert. De was again pronouncedly negati+e. 00 2onths 53 &ays 1. locks alone. ,layed with them as usual. 6. )at alone. Withdrawal o# the whole body, bending o+er to le#t side, no crying. 8i:ation and #ollowing with eyes. !he response was much less marked than on #irst presentation the pre+ious week. 't was thought best to #reshen up the reaction by another joint stimulation. ;. 9ust as the rat was placed on his hand the rod was struck. )eaction +iolent. 4. )at alone. 8ell o+er at once to le#t side. )eaction practically as strong as on #ormer occasion but no crying. G. )at alone. 8ell o+er to le#t side, got up on all #ours and started to crawl away. .n this occasion there was no crying, but strange to say, as he started away he began to gurgle and coo, e+en while leaning #ar o+er to the le#t side to a+oid the rat. H. )abbit alone. =eaned o+er to le#t side as #ar as possible. 0id not #all o+er. egan to whimper but reaction not so +iolent as on #ormer occasions. @p.2A 3. locks again o##ered. De reached #or them immediately and began to play.

All o# these tests so #ar discussed were carried out upon a table supplied with a mattress, located in a small, well&lighted dark&room. We wished to test ne:t whether conditioned #ear responses so set up would appear i# the situation were markedly altered. We thought it best be#ore making this test to #reshen the reaction both to the rabbit and to the dog by showing them at the moment the steel bar was struck. 't will be recalled that this was the #irst time any e##ort had been made to directly condition response to the dog and rabbit. !he e:perimental notes are as #ollows< 2. !he rabbit at #irst was gi+en alone. !he reaction was e:actly as gi+en in test (H* abo+e. When the rabbit was le#t on Albert$s knees #or a long time he began tentati+ely to reach out and manipulate its #ur with #ore#ingers. While doing this the steel rod was struck. A +iolent #ear reaction resulted. 5. )abbit alone. )eaction wholly similar to that on trial (H* abo+e. '?. )abbit alone. Started immediately to whimper, holding hands #ar up, but did not cry. %on#licting tendency to manipulate +ery e+ident. 11. 0og alone. egan to whimper, shaking head #rom side to side, holding hands as #ar away #rom the animal as possible. 16. 0og and sound. !he rod was struck just as the animal touched him. A +iolent negati+e reaction appeared. De began to whimper, turned to one side, #ell o+er and started to get up on all #ours. 1;. locks. ,layed with them immediately and readily. .n this same day and immediately a#ter the abo+e e:periment Albert was taken into the large well&lighted lecture room belonging to the laboratory. De was placed on a table in the center o# the room immediately under the skylight. 8our people were present. !he situation @p.5A was thus +ery di##erent #rom that which obtained in the small dark room. '. )at alone. Eo sudden #ear reaction appeared at #irst. !he hands, howe+er, were held up and away #rom the animal. Eo positi+e manipulatory reactions appeared. 6. )abbit alone. 8ear reaction slight. !urned to le#t and kept #ace away #rom the animal but the reaction was ne+er pronounced. ;. 0og alone. !urned away but did not #all o+er. %ried. Dands mo+ed as #ar away #rom the animal as possible. Whimpered as long as the dog was present. 4. )at alone. Slight negati+e reaction. G. )at and sound. 't was thought best to #reshen the reaction to the rat. !he sound was gi+en just as the rat was presented. Albert jumped +iolently but did not cry. H. )at alone. At #irst he did not show any negati+e reaction. When rat was placed nearer he began to show negati+e reaction by drawing back his body, raising his hands, whimpering, etc. 3. locks. ,layed with them immediately. 2. )at alone. ,ronounced withdrawal o# body and whimpering. 5. locks. ,layed with them as be#ore. 1?. )abbit alone. ,ronounced reaction. Whimpered with arms held high, #ell o+er backward and had to be caught. 11. 0og alone. At #irst the dog did not produce the pronounced reaction. !he hands were held high o+er the head, breathing was checked, but there was no crying. 9ust at this

moment the dog, which had not barked be#ore, barked three times loudly when only about si: inches #rom the baby$s #ace. Albert immediately #ell o+er and broke into a wail that continued until the dog was remo+ed. !he sudden barking o# the hitherto Buiet dog produced a marked #ear response in the adult obser+ersI @p.1?A 8rom the abo+e results it would seem that emotional trans#ers do take place. 8urthermore it would seem that the number o# trans#ers resulting #rom an e:perimentally produced conditioned emotional reaction may be +ery large. 'n our obser+ations we had no means o# testing the complete number o# trans#ers which may ha+e resulted. '''. !he e##ect o# time upon conditioned emotional responses. We ha+e already shown that the conditioned emotional response will continue #or a period o# one week. 't was desired to make the time test longer. 'n +iew o# the imminence o# Albert$s departure #rom the hospital we could not make the inter+al longer than one month. Accordingly no #urther emotional e:perimentation was entered into #or thirty&one days a#ter the abo+e test. 0uring the month, howe+er, Albert was brought weekly to the laboratory #or tests upon right and le#t&handedness, imitation, general de+elopment, etc. Eo emotional tests whate+er were gi+en and during the whole month his regular nursery routine was maintained in the Darriet =ane Dome. !he notes on the test gi+en at the end o# this period are as #ollows< 0 (ear 50 &ays 1. Santa %laus mask. Withdrawal, gurgling, then slapped at it without touching. When his hand was #orced to touch it, he whimpered and cried. Dis hand was #orced to touch it two more times. De whimpered and cried on both tests. De #inally cried at the mere +isual stimulus o# the mask. 6. 8ur coat. Wrinkled his nose and withdrew both hands, drew back his whole body and began to whimper as the coat was put nearer. Again there was the stri#e between withdrawal and the tendency to manipulate. )eached tentati+ely with le#t hand but drew back be#ore contact had been made. 'n mo+ing his body to one side his hand accidentally touched the coat. De began to cry at once, nodding his head in a +ery peculiar manner (this reaction was an entirely new one*. oth hands were withdrawn as #ar as possible #rom the coat. !he coat @p.11A was then laid on his lap and he continued nodding his head and whimpering, withdrawing his body as #ar as possible, pushing the while at the coat with his #eet but ne+er touching it with his hands. ;. 8ur coat. !he coat was taken out o# his sight and presented again at the end o# a minute. De began immediately to #ret, withdrawing his body and nodding his head as be#ore. 4. locks. De began to play with them as usual. G. !he rat. De allowed the rat to crawl towards him without withdrawing. De sat +ery still and #i:ated it intently. )at then touched his hand. Albert withdrew it immediately, then leaned back as #ar as possible but did not cry. When the rat was placed on his arm he withdrew his body and began to #ret, nodding his head. !he rat was then allowed to crawl against his chest. De #irst began to #ret and then co+ered his eyes with both hands. H. locks. )eaction normal.

3. !he rabbit. !he animal was placed directly in #ront o# him. 't was +ery Buiet. Albert showed no a+oiding reactions at #irst. A#ter a #ew seconds he puckered up his #ace, began to nod his head and to look intently at the e:perimenter. De ne:t began to push the rabbit away with his #eet, withdrawing his body at the same time. !hen as the rabbit came nearer he began pulling his #eet away, nodding his head, and wailing "da da". A#ter about a minute he reached out tentati+ely and slowly and touched the rabbit$s ear with his right hand, #inally manipulating it. !he rabbit was again placed in his lap. Again he began to #ret and withdrew his hands. De reached out tentati+ely with his le#t hand and touched the animal, shuddered and withdrew the whole body. !he e:perimenter then took hold o# his le#t hand and laid it on the rabbit$s back. Albert immediately withdrew his hand and began to suck his thumb. Again the rabbit was laid in his lap. De began to cry, co+ering his #ace with both hands. @p.16A 2. 0og. !he dog was +ery acti+e. Albert #i:ated it intensely #or a #ew seconds, sitting +ery still. De began to cry but did not #all o+er backwards as on his last contact with the dog. When the dog was pushed closer to him he at #irst sat motionless, then began to cry, putting both hands o+er his #ace. !hese e:periments would seem to show conclusi+ely that directly conditioned emotional responses as well as those conditioned by trans#er persist, although with a certain loss in the intensity o# the reaction, #or a longer period than one month. .ur +iew is that they persist and modi#y personality throughout li#e. 't should be recalled again that Albert was o# an e:tremely phlegmatic type. Dad he been emotionally unstable probably both the directly conditioned response and those trans#erred would ha+e persisted throughout the month unchanged in #orm. 'F. "0etachment" or remo+al o# conditioned emotional responses. 7n#ortunately Albert was taken #rom the hospital the day the abo+e tests were made. Dence the opportunity o# building up an e:perimental techniBue by means o# which we could remo+e the conditioned emotional responses was denied us. .ur own +iew, e:pressed abo+e, which is possibly not +ery well grounded, is that these responses in the home en+ironment are likely to persist inde#initely, unless an accidental method #or remo+ing them is hit upon. !he importance o# establishing some method must be apparent to all. Dad the opportunity been at hand we should ha+e tried out se+eral methods, some o# which we may mention. ('* %onstantly con#ronting the child with those stimuli which called out the responses in the hopes that habituation would come in corresponding to "#atigue" o# re#le: when di##erential reactions are to be set up. (6* y trying to "recondition" by showing objects calling out #ear responses (+sual* and simultaneously stimulating the erogenous -ones (tactual*. We should try #irst the lips, then the nipples and as a #inal resort the se: organs. (;* y trying to "recondition" by #eeding the subject candy or other #ood just as the animal is shown. !his method calls #or the #ood control o# the subject. (4* y building up "constructi+e" acti+ities around the object by imitation and @p.1;A by putting the hand through the motions o# manipulation. At this age imitation o# o+ert motor acti+ity is strong, as our present but unpublished e:perimentation has shown. 'E%'0/E!A= . S/)FA!'.ES

(a* !humb sucking as a compensatory de+ice #or blocking #ear and no:ious stimuli. 0uring the course o# these e:periments, especially in the #inal test, it was noticed that whene+er Albert was on the +erge o# tears or emotionally upset generally he would continually thrust his thumb into his mouth. !he moment the hand reached the mouth he became imper+ious to the stimuli producing #ear. Again and again while the motion pictures were being made at the end o# the thirty&day period, we had to remo+e the thumb #rom his mouth be#ore the conditioned response could be obtained. !his method o# blocking no:ious and emotional stimuli (#ear and rage* through erogenous stimulation seems to persist #rom birth onward. Fery o#ten in our e:periments upon the work adders with in#ants under ten days o# age the same reaction appeared. When at work upon the adders both o# the in#ants arms are under slight restraint. .#ten rage appears. !hey begin to cry, thrashing their arms and legs about. '# the #inger gets into the mouth crying ceases at once. !he organism thus apparently #rom birth, when under the in#luence o# lo+e stimuli is blocked to all others.@;A !his resort to se: stimulation when under the in#luence o# no:ious and emotional situations, or when the indi+idual is restless and idle, persists throughout adolescent and adult li#e. Albert, at any rate, did not resort to thumb sucking e:cept in the presence o# such stimuli. !humb sucking could immediately be checked by o##ering him his blocks. !hese in+ariably called out acti+e manipulation instincts. 't is worth while here to call attention to the #act that 8reud$s conception o# the stimulation o# erogenous -ones as being the e:pression o# an original "pleasure" seeking principle may be turned about @p.14A and possibly better described as a compensatory (and o#ten conditioned* de+ice #or the blockage o# no:ious and #ear and rage producing stimuli. (b* /Bual primacy o# #ear, lo+e and possibly rage. While in general the results o# our e:periment o##er no particular points o# con#lict with 8reudian concepts, one #act out o# harmony with them should be emphasi-ed. According to proper 8reudians se: (or in our terminology, lo+e* is the principal emotion in which conditioned responses arise which later limit and distort personality. We wish to take sharp issue with this +iew on the basis o# the e:perimental e+idence we ha+e gathered. 8ear is as primal a #actor as lo+e in in#luencing personality. 8ear does not gather its potency in any deri+ed manner #rom lo+e. 't belongs to the original and inherited nature o# man. ,robably the same may be true o# rage although at present we are not so sure o# this. !he 8reudians twenty years #rom now, unless their hypotheses change, when they come to analy-e Albert$s #ear o# a seal skin coat & assuming that he comes to analysis at that age & will probably tease #rom him the recital o# a dream which upon their analysis will show that Albert at three years o# age attempted to play with the pubic hair o# the mother and was scolded +iolently #or it. (We are by no means denying that this might in some other case condition it*. '# the analyst has su##iciently prepared Albert to accept such a dream when #ound as an e:planation o# his a+oiding tendencies, and i# the analyst has the authority and personality to put it o+er, Albert may be #ully con+inced that the dream was a true re+ealer o# the #actors which brought about the #ear. 't is probable that many o# the phobias in psychopathology are true conditioned emotional reactions either o# the direct or the trans#erred type. .ne may possibly ha+e to belie+e that such persistence o# early conditioned responses will be #ound only in persons

who are constitutionally in#erior. .ur argument is meant to be constructi+e. /motional disturbances in adults cannot be traced back to se: alone. !hey must be retraced along at least three collateral lines & to conditioned and trans#erred responses set up in in#ancy and early youth in all three o# the #undamental human emotions. 6ootnotes @1A $/motional )eactions and ,sychological /:perimentation,$ #meri$an ,ournal oPsy$hology, April, 1513, Fol. 62, pp. 1H;&134. @6A $,sychology #rom the Standpoint o# a eha+iorist,$ p.6?6. @;A !he stimulus to lo+e in in#ants according to our +iew is stroking o# the skin, lips, nipples and se: organs, patting and rocking, picking up, etc. ,atting and rocking (when not conditioned* are probably eBui+alent to actual stimulation o# the se: organs. 'n adults o# course, as e+ery lo+er knows, +ision, audition and ol#action soon become conditioned by joint stimulation with contact and kinaesthetic stimuli.

Classics in the History of Psychology


#n internet resour$e developed by %hristopher &. 'reen (ork )niversity* ntario ()eturn to inde:*

BE7180-,02+ '' T7E +-/E,. .-TE 0. P29C7-!-:9 By John B 3atson "#(4()


Introdu$tion. When ' innocently committed mysel# to meet ,ro#essor Mac0ougall in debate, ' understood that all that was reBuired o# me was to gi+e a brie# account o# the new eha+ioristic mo+ement in psychology now rapidly #orging to the #ront. Dad ' known that my presentation was e:pected to take the present #orm ' #ear timidity would ha+e o+ercome me. ,ro#essor Mac0ougall$s #orensic ability is too well. known, and my own shortcomings in that direction are too well known, #or me knowingly to o##er him combat. So ' think the only sel#&protecti+e plan is to disregard all contro+ersial

de+elopments and attempt to gi+e here a brie# rJsumJ o# eha+iorism && the modern note in psychology @p. 2A && and to tell why it will work and why it will work and why the current introspecti+e psychology o# ,ro#essor Mac0ougall will not work. 6hat is the 7ehavioristi$ note in psy$hology8 ,sychology is as old as the human race. !he tempting o# /+e by the serpent is our #irst biblical record o# the use o# psychological methods. May ' call attention to the #act, though, that the serpent when he tempted /+e did not ask her to introspect, to look into her mind to see what was going on. Eo, he handed her the apple and she bit into it. We ha+e a similar e:ample o# the eha+ioristic psychology in "recian mythology, when the golden apple labeled "8or the 8airest" was tossed into a crowd o# society women, and again when Dippomenes, in order to win the race #rom Atalanta, threw golden apples in #ront o# her, knowing #ull well that she would check her swi#t #light to pick them up. .ne can go through history and show that early psychology was eha+ioristic && grew up around the notion that i# you place a certain thing in #ront o# an indi+idual or a group o# indi+iduals, the indi+idual or @p. 5A group will act, will do something. eha+iorism is a return to early common&sense. !he keynote is< "i+en a certain object or situation, what will the indi+idual do when con#ronted with it. .r the re+erse o# this #ormulation< Seeing an indi+idual doing something, to be able to predict what object or situation is calling #orth that act. eha+ioristic psychology, then, stri+es to learn something about the nature o# human beha+ior. !o get the indi+idual to #ollow a certain line, to do certain things, what situation shall ' set up? .r, seeing the crowd in action, or the indi+idual in action, to know enough about beha+ior to predict what the situation is that leads to that action. !his all sounds realC one might say it seems to be just common&sense. Dow can any one object to this #ormulation? And yet, #ull o# common&sense as it is, this eha+ioristic #ormulation o# the problem o# psychology has been a +eritable battleground since 1516. !o understand why this is so, let us e:amine the more conser+ati+e type o# psychology which is represented @p. 1?A by ,ro#essor Mac0ougall. ut to understand at all adeBuately the type o# psychology which he represents we must take one little peep at the way superstitious responses ha+e grown up and become a part o# our +ery nature. Religious 7a$kground o- Introspe$tive Psy$hology. Eo one knows just how the idea o# the supernatural started. 't probably had its origin in the general la-iness o# mankind. %ertain indi+iduals who in primiti+e society declined to work with their hands, to go out hunting, to make #lints, to dig #or roots, became eha+ioristic psychologists obser+ers o# human nature. !hey #ound that breaking boughs, thunder, and other sound&producing phenomena would throw the primiti+e indi+idual #rom his +ery birth into a panicky state (meaning by that< stopping the chase, crying, hiding, and the like*, and that in this state it was easy to impose upon him. !hese la-y but good obser+ers began to speculate on how wonder#ul it would be i# they could get some de+ice by which they could at will throw in indi+iduals

into this #earsome attitude @p. 11A and in general control their beha+ior. !he colored nurses down south ha+e gained control o+er the children by telling them that there is some one ready to grab them in the darkC that when it is thundering there is a #earsome power which can be appeased by their being good boys and girls. Medicine men #lourished && a good medicine man had the best o# e+erything and, best o# all, he didn$t ha+e to work. !hese indi+iduals were called medicine men, soothsayers, dream interpreters, prophets && deities in modern times. Skill in bringing about these emotional conditionings o# the people increasedC organi-ation among medicine men took place, and we began to ha+e religions o# one kind or another, and churches, temples, cathedrals, and the like, each presided o+er by a medicine man. ' think an e:amination o# the psychological history o# people will show that their beha+ior is much more easily controlled by #ear stimuli than by lo+e. '# the #ear element were dropped out o# any religion, that religion would not sur+i+e a year. !he chie# medicine man in a #amily @p. 16A group is, o# course, always thc #ather. 'n the still larger group "od or 9eho+ah takes the place o# the #amily #ather. !hus e+en the modern child #rom the beginning is con#ronted by the dicta o# the medicine man && be that his #ather, the soothsayer o# the +illage, the "od or 9eho+ah. Da+ing been brought up in this attitude o# authority, he ne+er Buestions their written or spoken statements. De accepts them at their #ace +alue. De has ne+er de+iated #rom them, neither ha+e his associates, and hence has ne+er had an opportunity to pro+e or doubt their worth. !his accounts #or the hold religion and superstition ha+e upon our li#e. 't accounts #or the psychology current to&day in practically e+ery uni+ersity. 't partly accounts #or the con+incingness o# ,ro#essor Mac0ougall$s argument #or purpose. #n ."ample o- Su$h %on$epts. .ne e:ample o# such a concept is that e+ery indi+idual has a soul. !his dogma has been present in human psychology #rom earliest antiBuity. Eo one has e+er touched the soul, or has seen one in a test tube, or has in any way come into a relationship @p. 1;A with it as he has with the other objects o# his daily e:perience. Ee+ertheless, to doubt it is to become a heretic and once might possibly e+en ha+e led to the loss o# one$s head. /+en to&day #or a uni+ersity man to Buestion it in many institutions is to sign his own pro#essional death warrant. Medie+al philosophy not only accepted the concept o# the soul, but tried to de#ine it, to deal with it as they dealt with objects o# e+eryday e:perience. %onseBuently, in the philosophy o# the Middle Ages we #ind such Buestions hotly debated as to the number o# angels which can stand on the point o# a needle. With the de+elopment o# the physical sciences which came with the renaissance, a certain release #rom this sti#ling soul&cloud was obtained. A man could think o# astronomy, the celestial bodies and their motions, o# gra+itation and the like, without in+ol+ing soul, although the early scientists were as a rule de+out %hristiansC ne+ertheless, they early began to lea+e soul out o# their test tubes. ,sychology and philosophy, howe+er, in dealing as they @p. 14A thought with non&material objects, #ound it di##icult to sidestep, and hence the concepts o# mind and soul come down to the latter part o# the nineteenth

century. 't was the boast o# Wundt$s students, in 12H5, when the #irst psychological laboratory was established, that psychology had at last become a science without a soul. 8or #i#ty years we ha+e kept this pseudo&science e:actly as Wundt laid it down. All that Wundt and his students really accomplished was to substitute #or the word "soul" the word "consciousness." #n ."amination o- %ons$iousness. 8rom the time o# Wundt on, consciousness becomes the keynote o# psychology. 't is the keynote to&day. 't has ne+er been seen, touched, smelled, tasted, or mo+ed. 't is a plain assumption just as unpro+able as the old concept o# the soul. And to the eha+iorist the two terms are essentially identical, so #ar as their metaphysical implications are concerned. !o show how unscienti#ic is the concept, look #or a moment at William 9ames$ de#inition o# psychology< ",sychology is the description and e:planation o# states @p. 1GA o# consciousness as such." Starting with a de#inition which assumes what he starts out to pro+e, he escapes his di##iculty by an argumentum ad hominum. "%onsciousness && oh, yes, e+erybody must know what this $consciousness$ is." When we ha+e a sensation o# red, a perception, a thought, when we will to do something, or when we purpose to do something, or when we desire to do something, we are being conscious. 'n other words, they do not tell us what consciousness is, but merely begin to put things into it by assumption, and then when they come to analy-e consciousness, naturally they #ind in it just what they put into it. %onseBuently, in the analysis o# consciousness made by certain o# the psychologists you #ind, as elements, sensations and their ghosts, the images. With others you #ind not only sensations, but so&called a##ecti+e elementsC in still others you will #ind such elements as will && the so&called conati+e element in consciousness. With some psychologists you will #ind many hundreds o# sensations o# a certain typeC others will maintain that only a #ew o# that type e:ist. @p. 1HA And so it goes. =iterally, millions o# printed pages ha+e been published on the minute analysis o# this intangible something called "consciousness." And how do we begin work upon it? Eot by analy-ing it as we would a chemical compound, or the way a plant grows. Eo, those things are material things. !his thing we call consciousness can be analy-ed only by sel#&introspection, turning around, and looking at what goes on inside. 'n other words, instead o# ga-ing at woods and trees and brooks and things, we must ga-e at this unde#ined and unde#inable something we call consciousness. As a result o# this major assumption that there is such a thing as consciousness, and that we can analy-e it by introspection, we #ind as many analyses as there are indi+idual psychologists. !here is no element o# control. !here is no way o# e:perimentally attacking and sol+ing psychological problems and standardi-ing methods. +he #dvent o- the 7ehaviorists. 'n 1516 the eha+iorists reached the conclusion that they could no longer be content @p. 13A to work with the intangibles. !hey saw their brother scientists making progress in medicine, in chemistry, in physics. /+ery new disco+ery in those #ields was o# prime importance, e+ery new element isolated in one laboratory could be isolated in some other laboratoryC each new element was immediately taken up in the warp and woo# o# science as a whole. May ' call your attention to radium, to wireless, to

insulin, to thyro:in, and hundreds o# others? /lements so isolated and methods so #ormulated immediately began to #unction in human achie+ement. Eot so with psychology, as we ha+e pointed out. .ne has to agree with ,ro#essor Warner 8ite that there has ne+er been a disco+ery in subjecti+e psychologyC there has been only medie+al speculation. !he eha+iorist began his own #ormulation o# the problem o# psychology by sweeping aside all medie+al conceptions. De dropped #rom his scienti#ic +ocabulary all subjecti+e terms such as sensation, perception, image, desire, purpose, and e+en thinking and emotion as they were originally de#ined. @p. 12A 6hat has he set up in their pla$e8 !he eha+iorist asks< Why don$t we make what we can obser+e the real #ield o# psychology? =et us limit oursel+es to things that can be obser+ed, and #ormulate laws concerning only the obser+ed things. Eow what can we obser+e? Well, we can obser+e behavior -- what the organism does or says. And let me make this #undamental point at once< that saying is doing && that is, behaving. Speaking o+ertly or silently is just as objecti+e a type o# beha+ior as baseball. !he eha+iorist puts the human organism in #ront o# him and says< What can it do? When does it start to do these things? '# it doesn$t do these things by reason o# its original nature, what can it be taught to do? What methods shall society use in teaching it to do these things? Again, ha+ing taught it to do these things, how long will that organism be able to do them without practice? With this as subject matter, psychology connects up immediately with li#e. We ha+e known #or a long time that we cannot get our animal to introspect and @p. 15A tell us about its consciousness, but we can keep it without #ood, we can put it in a place where the temperature is low, or the temperature is high, where #ood is scarce, where se: stimulation is absent, and the like, and we $an obser+e its beha+ior in those situations. We #ind that without asking it anything, we can, with this systematic, controlled obser+ation, tell +olumes about what each animal does, both by reason o# its unlearned acti+ities and through acti+ities which it has to learn. We soon get to the point where we can say it is doing so and so because o# so and so. !he rule, or measuring rod, which the eha+iorist puts in #ront o# him always is< %an ' describe this bit o# beha+ior ' see in terms o# "stimulus and response"? y stimulus we mean any object in the general en+ironment or any change in the physiological condition o# the animal, such as the change we get when we keep an animal #rom se: acti+ity, when we keep it #rom #eeding, when we keep it #rom building a nest. y response we mean that system o# organi-ed acti+ity that we see @p. 6?A emphasi-ed anywhere in any kind o# an animal, as building a skyscraper, drawing plans, ha+ing babies, writing books, and the like. !he eha+iorist$s psychology is based upon re#le:es such as the neuro&physiologist studies. 8irst then we must make clear what these are. =et us assume (until obser+ation gi+es us an e:act #ormulation* that there are at birth a large number o# ontogenetic, embryologic responses or "re#le:es." ' pre#er the term "sBuirmings." /+en i# there were

only a hundred to start with (and there are many thousands*, the process o# "conditioning," working according to the law o# permutations and combinations, would establish many millions o# total responses && a #ar greater number than the en+ironment e+er calls on e+en the most +ersatile human being to make. Eow what do we mean by "conditionmg" embryologic responses? !he process o# conditioning is #amiliar to all. 't plays a much more important rKle in human beha+ior than is generally supposed. ' need only summari-e a #ew #acts here. We start with the assumption e:pressed abo+e @p. 61A that the in#ant e:hibits certain de#inite un$onditioned responses or "sBuirmings" at birth (7* ). Eow some de#inite stimulus must call out each o# these responses. So #ar as known #rom obser+ation o# the in#ant, this stimulus can call out this response in ad+ance o# any training. =et us call such stimuli un$onditioned stimuli (7* S.

Again let us interject the possibility here that e+en this relationship between unconditioned stimulus and unconditioned response @p. 66A may not be a biologically gi+en datum. 'ntra&uterine conditioning may ha+e been the process which established it in embryologic li#e. All we mean by unconditioned stimuli and unconditioned responses is that, as obser+ers, we #ind at the moment o# birth that certain stimuli will calI out certain responses. 'n the diagram abo+e, # is such an unconditioned stimulus, 1 is such an unconditioned response. Eow i# we take 7 (which, so #ar as we know, may be any object in the uni+erse*, and let it stimulate the organism simultaneously with # #or a certain number o# times (sometimes e+en once is enough*, it also there&a#ter will arouse 1. 'n the same way we can make %* &* . call out 1C in other words, we can make any object at will call out 1 (stimulus substitution*. !his does away with the old hypothesis that there is any inherent or sacred connection with or association o# one object with another. rder in the universe is merely a matter o- $onditioning. We start to write at the le#t o# the page and go to the right. !he 9apanese starts at the top o# the page and @p. 6;A goes down. !he beha+ior o# the /uropean is just as orderly as the beha+ior o# the 9apanese. All such so&called connections are built in. !his shows how the stimulus side o# our li#e gets

more and more complicated as li#e goes onC how one stimulus comes soon to be able to call out not only 1 in the scheme in the diagram abo+e, but many other responses as well. ut how do rea$tions become more complicated? Eeurologists ha+e studied integrations but mainly their number and comple:ity, and how they are called out in an organi-ation already de+eloped, what their seBuences are (#or e:ample, in the scratch re#le:*, what neural architecture is in+ol+ed in them, and so on. ut they ha+e not been particularly interested in their origin. 'n the #ollowing diagram we assume that at birth # will call out 1, 7 will call out 6, % will call out ;. When the three stimuli are applied in Buick succession, they will still call out a pattern reaction, the components o# which are 1, 6, ; (i# mutual inhibitions do not enter in*. So #ar there is no integration. Suppose, howe+er, ' apply a single stimulus 9 each @p. 64A time ' apply #* 7 and %. 'n a short time the single stimulus 9 can #unction alone in place o# stimuli, 7 and %C in other words, the single stimulus 9 can call out all three responses "1, 6 and ;."

8or e:ample, the sight o# your wi#e entering the room may call out the integrated social response which we will call (, consisting o# (1* rising #rom your chair, (6*, bowing, (;* o##ering her a chair. ' would call this an integrated response. .ur problem in social conditioning there#ore is to #ind the kinds o# indi+idual responses we want brought together to #orm some pattern @p. 6GA o# response demanded by society, then to locate the indi+idual stimuli which will call out these responses and substitute #or that whole group o# stimuli a single stimulus && o#ten a +erbal one. All +erbal commands are o# this type, #or e:ample, ")ight #ront into lineI" !he +erbal stimulus is 9 o# our diagram, the separate mo+ements necessary to e:ecute this maneu+er illustrate the "1, 6, ;," o# our diagram. 'n this way, which may seem a little complicated unless one is #amiliar with the establishment o# conditioned responses the eha+iorist tries to take the old +ague concept o# habit #ormation and to gi+e it a new and e:act scienti#ic #ormulation in terms o# conditioned responses. .n this basis the most complicated o# our adult habits are e:plicable in terms o# chains o# simple conditioned responses. +he 7ehaviorist -inds no s$ienti-i$ eviden$e -or the e"isten$e o- any vitalisti$ prin$iple, such, #or e:ample, as ,ro#. Mac0ougall$s "purpose," in his e:planation o# the increasing

comple:ity o# beha+ior as we pass #rom in#ancy to adulthood. 't @p. 6HA is a truism in science that we should not bring into our e:planation any +italistic #actor. We need nothing to e:plain beha+ior but the ordinary laws o# physics and chemistry !here are many things we cannot e:plain in beha+ior just as there are many things we cannot e:plain in physics and chemistry, but where objecti+ely +eri#iable e:perimentation ends, hypothesis, and later theory, begin. ut e+en theories and hypotheses must be couched in terms o# what is already known about physical and chemical processes. De then who would introduce consciousness, either as an epiphenomenon or as an acti+e #orce interjecting itsel# into the chemical and physical happenings o# the body, does so because o# spiritualistic and +italistic leanings. !he eha+iorist cannot #ind consciousness in the test&tube o# his science. lie #inds no e+idence anywhere #or a stream o# consciousness, not e+en #or one so con+incing as that described by William 9ames. De does, howe+er, #ind con+incing proo# o# an e+er&widening stream o# beha+ior. !o understand this stream o# beha+ior @p. 63A we must #irst sur+ey the acti+ity o# the new&born in#ant, and enumerate the unconditioned responses and the unconditioned stimuli that call them out. Eot all unconditioned responses are present at birth. %ertain o# them appear at #airly de#inite inter+als a#terwards. And this inBuiry is not being undertaken #or the purpose o# classi#ication. !he in#ormation is sought because these stimuli and responses are the "raw material" out o# which our child, adolescent and adult, is to be built up. =o+e, #ear and rage beha+ior begin at birth, just as do snee-ing, hiccoughing, #eeding, mo+ements o# the leg, laryn:, grasping, de#ecation, urination, crying, erection o# penis, smiling, de#ense and other mo+ements. )eaching, blinking and others begin at a later stage. Some o# these embryologic responses persist throughout the li#e history o# the indi+idual, others disappear. Most important o# all, conditioned responses are almost immediately built on these embryologic #oundations. 8or e:ample, the child will smile at birth (7* )C stroking the lips and other skin @p. 62A o# the body (7* S (and certain intraorganic stimuli* will e+oke it. So the birth situation may be represented diagrammatically thus<

%onsider #ear. .ur work has shown that the #undamental unconditioned stimulus (7* S calling out a #ear reaction is a loud sound or loss o# support. /+ery child ' ha+e e:amined, with one e:ception, @p. 65A in appro:imately a thousand, will catch his breath, pucker his lips, cry, or, i# older, crawl away, when a loud sound is gi+en behind his head, or when the blanket on which be is lying is suddenly jerked #orward. Eothing else in the whole uni+erse will produce #ear in early in#ancy. Eow it is +ery easy to make the child #ear e+ery other object in the uni+erse. All one has to do is to show the object and strike a steel bar behind his head, repeating the procedure once or twice. !hus<

So #ar ' ha+e described the process o# conditioning or building. ,ossibly the process o# breaking down or unconditioning is the more important one. Work on it has hardly begun, so ' can only sketch the process @p. ;?A roughly in a #ew words. Suppose ' set up a conditioned #ear&reaction to gold #ish in a glass bowl, in an in#ant eighteen months old who is just beginning to talk, by means o# the process already described. !he moment the child sees the #ish bowl he says " ite." Eo matter how rapid his walk, he checks his step the moment he comes within se+en or eight #eet o# the #ish bowl. '# ' li#t him by #orce and place him in #ront o# it, he cries and tries to break away and run. Eo psychoanalyst, no

matter how skill#ul, can remo+e such a #ear by analysis. Eo ad+ocate o# reasoning can remo+e it by talking to the child about the beauti#ul #ishes, how they mo+e, li+e and ha+e their being. So long as the #ish is not present, you can, by such +erbal organi-ation, get the child to say "Eice #ish, #ish won$t biteC" but immediately you show him the #ish, the #ormer reaction recurs. !ry another method. =et his brother, aged #our, who has no #ear o# #ish, come up to the bowl and put his hands in the bowl and catch the #ish. Eo amount o# watching a #earless child play with these @p. ;1A harmless animals will remo+e the #ear #rom the toddler. !ry shaming him, making a scapegoat o# him. Lour attempts are eBually #utile. =et us try, howe+er, this simple method. ,lace the child at meal time at one end o# a table ten or twel+e #eet long, and mo+e the #ish bowl to the e:treme other end o# the table and co+er it. 9ust as soon as the meal is placed be#ore him remo+e the co+er #rom the bowl. '# disturbance occurs, e:tend your table and place the bowl still #arther o##, so #ar away that no disturbance occurs. /ating takes place normally, nor is digestion inter#ered with. )epeat the procedure on the ne:t day, but mo+e the bowl a little nearer. 'n #our or #i+e days the bowl can be brought right up to the #ood tray without causing the slightest disturbance. !hen take a small glass dish, #ill it with water and mo+e the dish back, and at subseBuent meal times bring it nearer and nearer to him. Again in three or #our days the small glass dish can be put on the tray alongside o# his milk. !he old #ear has been dri+en out by training, unconditioning has taken place, and this unconditioning @p. ;6A is permanent. ' think this method is based on re&training the +isceral component o# a total bodily reactionC in other words, to remo+e the #ear the intestine must be conditioned. Eow ' think one reason why so many psychoanalytic "cures" are not permanent is because the intestine is not conditioned simultaneously with the +erbal and manual components. 'n my opinion, the analyst cannot re&train the intestine by any system o# analysis or +erbal instruction because in our past training words ha+e not ser+ed as stimuli to intestinal response. &oes 7ehavior Psy$hology leave out anything8 ,ro#essor Mac0ougall will doubtless tell you that the eha+iorist selects his problems. De will admit that the kind o# work ' ha+e sketched is +aluable to society, but he will tell you that there are many other phases in psychology which the eha+iorist studiously and possibly ignorantly dismisses. .ne such prob1cm is "thinking." Dow can you e:plain "thought" in eha+ioristic terms? !o do so reBuires considerable time. !he increasing dominance o# language @p. ;;A habits in the beha+ior o# the de+eloping child leads naturally o+er into the beha+iorist$s conception o# thinking. !he beha+iorist makes no mystery o# thinking. De holds that thinking is beha+ior, is motor organi-ation, just like tennis playing or gol# or any other #orm o# muscular acti+ity. ut what kind o# muscular acti+ity? !he muscular acti+ity that he uses in talking. !hinking is merely talking, but talking with concealed musculature. ' ask you to take any child (as ' ha+e been doing with two lately* when he #irst begins to talk. ,eep through the keyhole and watch him in the early morning. De will sit up in bed with his toys, talk aloud to his toys, talk about them. When a little older, he will plan out

his day aloud, say aloud that his nurse is going to take him #or a walk, that his daddy is going to bring him an auto. 'n other words, he talks o+ertly when alone just as naturally as he works o+ertly with his hands. A social #actor comes in. !he #ather gets to the point when his own morning nap is disturbed. De yells out "keep Buiet." !he child begins then to mumble to himsel# && a @p. ;4A great many indi+iduals ne+er pass this stage, and they mumble to themsel+es all through li#e whene+er they try to think. !he #ather does not like the child$s mumbling any better than his talking aloud, and so he may slap him on the lips. 8inally, the parents get the child to the point where he talks silently to himsel#. When his lips are closed, it is nobody$s business what is going on below. !hus we come to beha+e as we please i# we do not gi+e any e:ternal motor sign o# it && in other words, our thoughts are our own. Eow a #urther Buestion comes up #or serious consideration< 0o we think only in terms o# words? ' take the position to&day that whene+er the indi+idual is thinking, the whole o# his bodily organi-ation is at work (implicitly* && e+en though the #inal solution shall he a spoken, written or sub+ocally e:pressed +erbal #ormulation. 'n other words, #rom the moment the thinking problem is set #or the indi+idual (by the situation he is in* acti+ity is aroused that may lead #inally to adjustment. Sometimes the acti+ity goes on (1* in terms o# implicit @p. ;GA manual organi-ationC (6* more #reBuently in terms o# implicit +erbal organi-ationC (;* sometimes in terms o# implicit (or e+en o+ert* +isceral organi-ation. '# (1* or (;* dominates, thinking takes place without words. A diagram will make clear my present con+ictions about thinking. 'n this diagram ' take it #or granted that the body has been simultaneously organi-ed to respond to a series o# objects, manually, +erbally, and +iscerally. ' take it #or granted #urther that only one o# the objects, the initial one, S1, is at hand, and that it starts the body to work on its problem o# thinking. !he object actually present may be a person asking the indi+idual a Buestion. "Will 9 lea+e his present job to become ($s partner?" y hypothesis the world is shut o##, and he has to think his problem out. !he diagram shows clearly that thinking in+ol+es all three sets o# our organi-ed reaction system. Eote that R:1 can arouse ;:6, RR6, R'6C whereas R;1 may call out R:6, R;6, R'6C and R'1 calls out R:6, R;6 or R'6C and that all @p. ;3A o# them ser+e, respecti+ely, as kinesthetic, laryngeal or +isceral substitutes #or S6, the ne:t real object in the series o# objects originally producing the organi-ation. Eote that, in accordance with the diagram, thinking acti+ity may go on #or a considerable time without words. '# at any step in the process the )L organi-ation does not appear, thinking goes on without words.

@alone on p. ;HA 't seems reasonable, does it not, to suppose that thinking acti+ity at successi+e moments o# time may be kinesthetic, +erbal or +isceral (emotional* ? When kin&esthetic organi-ation becomes blocked, or is lacking, then the +erbal processes #unctionC i# both are blocked, the +isceral (emotional* organi-ation becomes dominant. y hypothesis, howe+er, the #inal response or adjustment, i# one is reached, must be +erbal (sub+ocal*. !his line o# argument shows how one$s total organi-ation is brought into the process o# thinking. ' think it shows clearly that manual and +isceral organi-ations are operati+e in thinking e+en when no +erbal processes are present && it shows that we @p. ;2A could still think in some sort o# way e+en i# we had no wordsI We thus think and plan with the whole body. ut since, as ' ha+e already pointed out, word organi-ation is, when present, probably usually dominant o+er +isceral and manual organi-ation, we can say that thinking is largely sub+ocal talking&pro+ided we hasten to e:plain that it can occur without words. Words are thus the conditioned (%* S substitutes #or our world o# objects and acts. !hinking is a de+ice #or manipulating the world o# objects when those objects are not present to the senses. !hinking more than doubles our e##iciency. 't enables us to carry our day world to bed with us and manipulate it at night or when it is a thousand miles away. ,sychoanalysts when taking an indi+idual out o# a bad situation o#ten #orget that the patient carries the bad +erbal situation to the new location. Most o# the happy results o# analysis are due to the #act that the analyst builds up a new word world correlated with a new +isceral and a new manual world. !here can be no +irtue in analysis per se. !his is the end o# my little story. ' ha+e had opportunity only to hurl at the reader a #ew eha+ioristic wordsC it is beyond reason to e:pect him to react #a+orably to a scienti#ic #ormulation which throws out o# adjustment so much o# his pre+ious organi-ation. '# it ser+es to make you only a little more critical o# our present easy&going psychological #ormulations, ' shall rest content. !o accept eha+iorism #ully and #reely reBuires a slow growth && the putting away o# old habits and the #ormulation o# new. eha+iorism is new wine that cannot be poured into old bottles.

Connectionism "E Thorndike)


-vervie;< !he learning theory o# !horndike represents the original S&) #ramework o# beha+ioral psychology< =earning is the result o# associations #orming between stimuli and responses. Such associations or "habits" become strengthened or weakened by the nature and #reBuency o# the S&) pairings. !he paradigm #or S&) theory was trial and error learning in which certain responses come to dominate others due to rewards. !he hallmark o# connectionism (like all beha+ioral theory* was that learning could be adeBuately e:plained without re#ering to any unobser+able internal states. !horndike$s theory consists o# three primary laws< (1* law o# e##ect & responses to a situation which are #ollowed by a rewarding state o# a##airs will be strengthened and become habitual responses to that situation, (6* law o# readiness & a series o# responses can be chained together to satis#y some goal which will result in annoyance i# blocked, and (;* law o# e:ercise & connections become strengthened with practice and weakened when practice is discontinued. A corollary o# the law o# e##ect was that responses that reduce the likelihood o# achie+ing a rewarding state (i.e., punishments, #ailures* will decrease in strength. !he theory suggests that trans#er o# learning depends upon the presence o# identical elements in the original and new learning situationsC i.e., trans#er is always speci#ic, ne+er general. 'n later +ersions o# the theory, the concept o# "belongingness" was introducedC connections are more readily established i# the person percei+es that stimuli or responses go together (c.#. "estalt principles*. Another concept introduced was "polarity" which speci#ies that connections occur more easily in the direction in which they were originally #ormed than the opposite. !horndike also introduced the "spread o# e##ect" idea, i.e., rewards a##ect not only the connection that produced them but temporally adjacent connections as well. 2cope<1pplication< %onnectionism was meant to be a general theory o# learning #or animals and humans. !horndike was especially interested in the application o# his theory to education including mathematics (!horndike, 1566*, spelling and reading (!horndike, 1561*, measurement o# intelligence (!horndike et al., 1563* and adult learning (!horndike at al., 1562*. E=ample> !he classic e:ample o# !horndike$s S&) theory was a cat learning to escape #rom a "pu--le bo:" by pressing a le+er inside the bo:. A#ter much trial and error beha+ior, the cat learns to associate pressing the le+er (S* with opening the door ()*. !his S&) connection is established because it results in a satis#ying state o# a##airs (escape #rom the

bo:*. !he law o# e:ercise speci#ies that the connection was established because the S&) pairing occurred many times (the law o# e##ect* and was rewarded (law o# e##ect* as well as #orming a single seBuence (law o# readiness*. Principles< 1. =earning reBuires both practice and rewards (laws o# e##ect Me:ercise* 6. A series o# S&) connections can be chained together i# they belong to the same action seBuence (law o# readiness*. ;. !rans#er o# learning occurs because o# pre+iously encountered situations. 4. 'ntelligence is a #unction o# the number o# connections learned. ,eferences> !horndike, /. (151;*. /ducational ,sychology< !he ,sychology o# =earning. Eew Lork< !eachers %ollege ,ress. !horndike, /. (1561*. !he !eacher$s Word ook. Eew Lork< !eachers %ollege. !horndike, /. (1566*. !he ,sychology o# Arithmetic. Eew Lork< Macmillan. !horndike, /. (15;6*. !he 8undamentals o# =earning. Eew Lork< !eachers %ollege ,ress. !horndike, /. at al. (1563*. !he Measurement o# 'ntelligence. Eew Lork< !eachers %ollege ,ress. !horndike, /. et al. (1562*, Adult =earning. Eew Lork< Macmillan )ele+ant Web ,ages< 8or more about !horndike and his work, see< http<MMwww.indiana.eduMNintellMethorndike.shtml http<MMwww.psy.pd:.eduM,si%a#eMKey!heoristsM!horndike.htm

Burrhus *. +kinner Skinner bermula pengajiannya dalam bidang biologi dan didedahkan kepada penulisan Watson dan ,a+lo+. ,ada tahun 15;1, dia memperolehi ija-ah kedoktoran (,h0* dalam bidang psikologi dari 7ni+ersiti Dar+ard. Skinner telah menjalankan berbagai kajian dan buku pertamanya +he 7ehavior o- rganisms ditulis pada tahun 15;2 yang menghuraikan prinsip&prinsip utama pela-iman operan (operant*. ,erkataan

$operan$ dicipta oleh Skinner yang membawa maksud bertindak ke atas. ,ela-iman operan ialah apabila organisme menghasilkan sesuatu gerak balas kerana organisme itu mengoperat (atau operating* ke atas persekitarannya. %ontohnya, seekor anjing akan menghulurkan kaki depannya sekiranya ia ketahui bahawa tingkahlaku itu akan diikuti dengan makanan. egitu juga dengan seorang budak yang mengemaskan tempat tidur jika dia tahu dia akan dibelanja makan ais krim. Perbezaan antara Pelaziman -peran den*an Pelazimam Klasik 0alam pela-iman klasik, organisme tidak mengubah keadaan persekitan. Misal kata, anjing ,a+lo+ tidak ada pilihan untuk bertindak dengan mengeluarkan air liur apabila diberikan makanan dan bunyi loceng. Manakala, dalam pela-iman operan, organisme mempunyai pilihan untuk bertindak atau tidak kerana gerak balasnya menentukan rangsangan (makanan* yang diberikan. Prinsip'Prinsip 1sas Pelaziman -peran Menurut Skinner, pela-iman operan terdiri daripada dua konsep utama< a* ,/E/"7DAE (rein-or$ement* yang terbahagi kepada ,/E/"7DAE ,.S'!'8 dan ,/E/"7DAE E/"A!'8. b* 0/E0A (punishment* Pene*uhan Positif "Positive Reinforcement) Apa jua rangsangan yang boleh menambahkan kebarangkalian sesuatu tingkahlaku itu akan berlaku disi#atkan sebagai ,eneguhan ,ositi#. %ontoh<& (1* !ikus yang menekan kunci pintu (lever* dan diberikan makanan akan mengulang tingkahlakku itu dengan harapan mendapat makanan. (6* Seorang budak yang menyelesaikan kerja rumahnya dapat menonton !F akan mengulang tingkahlaku itu. (;* ,ekerja yang mencapai prestasi tinggi dalam kerjanya diberikan bonus. Adakah pekerja itu akan mengulang kelakuan berkenaan? ,erlu diingat bahawa sesuatu peneguhan boleh merupakan benda, sosial (seperti pujian* atau token (seperti markah ujian*. Pene*uhan .e*atif "Negative Reinforcement) Apa jua rangsangan yang menyakiti atau yang mewujudkan keadaan tidak selesa boleh menambahkan kebarangkalian sesuatu tingkahlaku itu akan berlaku dipanggil ,eneguhan Eegati#. .rganisme kemungkinan mengulang tingkahlaku yang dapat mengelak atau mengurangkan keadaan yang negati#. %ontoh<& (1* !ikus yang dikejutkan dengan elektrik akan terus menekan alat yang dapat mengurangkan kejutan elektrik. (6* 'bu akan mengangkat bayinya yang menangis kerana tidak tahan melihat dan mendengar anaknya memekik&pekik.

/enda "Punishment) Apa jua rangsangan yang menyebabkan kebarangkalian sesuatu gerak balas atau tingkahlaku yang terhasil berkurangkan atau langsung dihapuskan. %ontoh<& (1* udak yang tidak membantu ibu tidak diberi peluang bermain bola (iaitu, mengentikan keseronokkan*. $u)ukan( Baca artikel berikut $ein,or-ement Theor. !enerangkan prinsip-prinsip peneguhan, proses peneguhan dan contoh-contoh peneguhan dalam kehidupan seharian /ositi0e $ein,or-ement( & +e1,-2nstru-tiona1 E3er-ise

"ontoh, bukan contoh dan analisis kes-kes peneguhan positi#. 45erant 6onditionin7 Ringkasan tentang teori Skinner. 45erant 6onditionin7 in Edu-ation $plikasi pela%iman operan dalam pendidikan Pembentukan Tin*kahlaku +elalui Pelaziman -peran "Shaping Behaviour) erasaskan pela-iman operan, Skinner (15G1* memperkembangkan teknik $pembentukan$ (shaping* bagi melatih haiwan menguasai tingkahlaku komplek yang juga rele+an kepada tingkahlaku manusia. !eknik pembentukan terlibat dengan meneguhkan organisme setiap kali ia bertindak ke arah yang diingini sehingga ia menguasai atau belajar gerak balas berkenaan dan tidak lagi meneguhkan gerak balas itu lagi. ,rosedur pembentukan boleh digunakan untuk mengawal tingkahlaku orang. %ontoh< Seorang pelajar yang sentiasa berjenaka dan menjadi pelawak dalam kelas. ,erakuan rakan sebaya (peer approval* memperkukuhkan kelakuan pelajar berkenaan. Apabila pelajar&pelajar lain ketawa tentang apa yang disebut atau melakukan, dia digalakkan untuk terus berjenaka dalam kelas. ,elajar berkenaan mungkin tidak akan menjadi pelawak jika tiada siapa dalam kelas ketawa apabila diberjenaka. %ontoh< Apabila seorang memberi ceramah, reaksi pendengar dapat mempengaruhi bagaimana penyampai bertindak. Segolongan pelajar mengangguk kepala mereka dan ini telah menyebabkan pensyarah mereka bergerak dengan lebih cepat dalam kelas. :eneralisasi? /iskriminasi dan Pen*hapusan "eneralisasi< ,eneguhan yang hampir sama dengan peneguhan asal juga boleh menghasilkan gerak balas yang sama. 0iskriminasai< .rganisme bergerak balas terhadap sesuatu peneguhan tetapi tidak terhadap peneguhan lain. ,enghapusan< "erak balas yang wujud akan berperingkat& peringkat terhapus apabila peneguhan atau ganjaran tidak diberikan lagi. Jadual Pene*uhan "Schedule of Reinforcement) erdasarkan kajian menggunakan tikus dan burung merpati, Skinner dapati bahawa cara peneguhan diberi boleh mempengaruhi gerak balas atau respons. Apakah hubungan di antara cara peneguhan diberikan dan gerak balas atau pembelajaran? 9adual ,eneguhan yang diperkenalkan oleh Skinner hasil daripada kajian& kajian yang dijalankan mencadangkan dua cara peneguhan, iaitul ,eneguhan erterusan (%ontinuous )ein#orcement* dan ,eneguhan erkala (Fariable )ein#orcement*. Pene*uhan Berterusan< Setiap kali sesuatu gerak balas dihasilkan, organisme menerima ganjaran atau peneguhan. Pene*uhan Berkala< "anjaran atau peneguhan diberi menurut kekerapan tertentu atau masa tertentu. MisalnyaC ganjaran diberi menurut nisbah atau ganjaran menurut masa. 2enurut 1isbah a* Eibah tetap ($#i:ed ratio$* ialah apabila peneguhan diberikan setelah beberapa gerak balas berlaku. m.s. nisbah 6?<1 ialah setiap 6? gerak balas yang wujud 1 peneguhan berikan. b* Eisbah berubah ($+ariable ratio$* ialah apabila peneguhan diberikan setelah beberapa gerak balas wujud tetapi kadarnya tidak tetap. m.s. kadang kala nisbahnya ialah 6?<1 dan dalam keadaan lain nisbahnya ialah 1?<1. 2enurut 2asa a* Masa tetap ($#i:ed inter+al$* ialah apabila peneguhan diberikan pada akhir masa yang ditetapkan. m.s. jika masa yang ditetapkan ialah 1 minitC peneguhan diberikan kepada gerak balas yang wujud selepas 1 minit. b* Masa berubah ($+ariable inter+al$* ialah apabila peneguhan diberikan pada akhir masa yang ditetapkan tetapi masa yang ditetapkan berbe-a mengikut gerak balas yang wujud.

,AF=.F
,ada awal tahun 15??an, seorang ahli #isiologi )usia bernama '+an ,a+lo+ menjalankan satu siri percubaan secara sistematik dan sainti#ik dengan tujuan mengkaji bagaimana pembelajaran berlaku pada sesuatu organisme. ,a+lo+ mengasaskan kajiannya pada $hukum perkaitan$ (<aw o- #sso$iation) yang di utarakan oleh ahli #alsa#ah Lunani awal seperti Aristotle. Menurut pendapat ini, sesuatu organisme akan teringat sesuatu kerana sebelum ini organisme berkenaan telah mengalami sesuatu yang berkaitan. %ontohnya, apabila kita melihat sebuah kereta mewah, kita mungkin membuat andaian pemandu itu adalah seorang kaya atau seorang terkemuka. Andaian ini bergantung kepada pengalaman kita yang lampau. Eksperimen +enunjukkan Pelaziman Klasik erdasarkan hukum perkaitan ini, ,a+lo+ mencadangkan bahwa proses asas pembelajaran ialah pembentukan perkaitan antara )AE"SAE"AE ()* dan sesuatu "/)AK A=AS ("*. ,a+lo+ cuba membuktikan teori pembelajaran ini dengan menjalankan kajian ke atas anjing (lihat peralatan eksperimen di sebelah*. 0ia dapati bahawa apabila anjing melihat bekas dengan makanan, air liur haiwan itu keluar. 0ia membuat kesimpulan bahawa anjing tersebut telah $belajar$ mengaitkan bekas makanan yang dilihat dengan makanan yang akan diberikan kelak. ,a+lo+ melanjutkan kajiannya dengan menguji hipotesis bahawa sesuatu organisme boleh diajar bertindak dengan pemberian sesuatu rangsangan. /era1atan Eks5erimen /a01o0 +e8e1um /e1a9iman R&& 'makanan( ))))))) G&& 'keluar air liur( R& 'loceng( ))))))) &ak ada G& 'air liur tidak keluar( +emasa /e1a9iman R& 'loceng( * R&& 'makanan( ))))) G&& 'keluar air liur( +e1e5as /e1a9iman R& 'loceng( ))))))))) G& 'keluar air liur( +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ Kun-i )!! O )angsangan !ak !erla-im (7nconditioned Stimulus* )! O )angsangan !erla-im (%onditioned Stimulus* "!! O "erak alas !ak !erla-im (7nconditioned )esponse* "! O "erak alas !erla-im (%onditioned )esponse* 1pakah kesimpulan yan* dapat dibuat daripada kajian Pavlov@ #) Pen*uasaan ( c!uisition)

,enguasaan atau bagaimana organisme mempelajari sesuatu gerak balas atau respons baru berlaku berperingkat&peringkat. 9uga lebih kerap organisme itu mencuba, lebih kukuh penguasaan berkenaan. 4) :eneralisasi ("eneralisation) 0alam eksperimennya, ,a+lo+ juga telah menggunakan bunyi loceng yang berlainan nada, tetapi anjing itu masih mengeluarkan air liur. 'ni menunjukkan bahawa sesuatu organisme yang telah terla-im dengan dikemukakan sesuatu rangsangan tak terla-im ()!! seperti loceng* juga akan menghasilkan gerak balas terla-im ("! O keluar air liur* walau pun rangsangan itu berlainan atau hampir sama (iaitu, nada loceng yang berlainan*. 0engan perkataan lain, organisme itu dapat membuat generalisasi bahawa bunyi yang berlainan atau hampir sama mungkin diikuti dengan gerak balas (makanan*. A) /iskriminasi (#iscrimination) ,+lo+ juga dapati bahawa apabila dia menukar nada bunyi loceng, anjing itu masih mengeluarkan air liur. ila nada bunyi loceng itu jauh berbe-a daripada bunyi loceng yang asal, anjing berkenaan tidak mengeluarkan air liur. 'ni menunjukkan bahawa organisme berkenaan dapat membe-akan atau mendikriminasi antara rangsangan yang dikemukakan dan memilih untuk tidak bertindak atau bergerak balas. 'aitu, sesuatu organisme berkebolehan untuk bergerak balas kepada sesuatu rangsangan tetapi tidak kepada rangsangan yang lain. &) Pen*hapusan (E$tinction) Sekiranya sesuatu rangsangan terla-im (loceng* tidak diikuti dengan rangsangan tak terla-im (makanan*, lama kelamaan organisme itu tidak akan bergerak balas. 'aitu, gerak balas berperingkat&peringkat terhapus. 20an /etro0i-h /a01o0 (18#9 - 19!:)

$%J%K&'(
Berikut ini adalah beberapa ;ebsite yan* meneran*kan den*an lebih lanjut tentan* pelaziman klasik 2iapakah 0van Pavlov@ iogra#i ,a+lo+ ,ada pendapat anda, apakah kaitan antara bidang #isiologi dengan psikologi pembelajaran? Classical Conditionin* Artikel ini menerangkan secara mudah pela-iman klasik. erikan contoh&contoh bagaimana pela-iman klasik berlaku dalam kehidupan seharian? Conditionin* and !earnin* aca bahagian pertama tentang isu&isu pembelajaran dan penerangan tentang pela-iman klasik. &51ikasi /e1a9iman K1asik da1am Kehidu5an +eharian Bsin* Classicial vs -perant Conditionin* 0isenaraikan ialah 2 jenis tingkahlaku. Anda dikehendaki mengenal pasti sama ada tingkahlaku& tingkahlaku tersebut adalah pela-iman klasik atau pela-iman operan. Classical conditionin* could link disorders and brain dysfuntion? reseachers su**est eth A-ar, A,A Monitor .nline.

Classical Conditionin* Apakah tingkahlaku yang terla-im? agaimana mempertingkatkan tingkahlaku melalui pela-iman klasik? agaimana mengurangkan kewujudan tinkahlaku melalui mela-imin klasik? Apakah peranan pela-iman klasik dalam kehidupan seharian dan situasi pendidikan? Topik +odule #> 2ejarah +odule A> Pelaziman -peran +odule &> Pembelajaran 2osial < Pemerhatian

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