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Reading 1. topic: big picture 2. scope: what does the author want to talk about 3.

purpose (most important) a. to describe neutral b. to analyze neutral c. to explain neutral d. to compare/contrast neutral (no strong verbs) e. to advocate (persuade) not neutral, believes sth, wants to persuade f. to rebut (argue) not neutral (strong verb or neutral verb with strong tone ) never choose the choice that makes the author not neutral 1. think TSP (topic, scope, purpose) 2. paragraph 1: intro or topic 3. read first and last sentence of every paragraph (enough to get you mapped) 4. active reading: talking to yourself while reading Background Topic Support Implication (the result or conclusion at the end of sth, implying action should be taken) question types 1. when to leave ans blank? 2. between 2, guess 3. when to guess? 1. global (primary purpose, main idea) a. verb scan b. very first word is a verb. c. Neutral author, not criticize, etc no strong verbs d. Eliminate verbs that don't support authors purpose e. Avoid too narrow or too broad (not the verb that was discussed in one paragraph) f. Ask yourself: can your answer that could be the title? Say enough but not too much g. Blurp: read everytime. Gets you background or answers. Can give you the purpose 2. Detail (line numbers, according to the passage, which of the following is, the author explicitly states, ) a. Read the whole sentence always. Don't cut off the sentence and read only parts of it. b. Most of the time asks you to paraphrase whats in the passage c. Try to paraphrase

d. Avoid or be aware of buzz words (words used exactly the same way) e. Choices containing buzz words might contain boundary words f. Avoid boundary words (one word that makes entire sentence wrong), it makes the choice out of scope answer, irrelevant answer.) g. In SAT, half right, entirely wrong 3. Function (in order to, for the purpose of) a. Pretend you are the author. Ask yourself , why did I do this. b. What is the motivation of the author? c. Generally either to support, give an example, illustrate, demonstrate d. Always see the topic sentence (most of the time, the first sentence, or ahead of example) e. Look at topic sentence first 4. combination question a. Strategy is function questions 5. Inference question (suggest, imply, agree with, conclusion, assertion) a. What is the answer that must be true? b. The most simple, that uses no extremes (no all, any, will happen, can happen) soft answer like (some,might) c. Answer still must be supported 6. vocab in context (as it is, used here, in context) a. not a common meaning b. read the entire sentence, cover up the word. c. Don't look at the choices first d. Go to the sentence, cover up the word, put your own word, then see the answer choices. e. Read the whole sentence f. Cover up the word: put your own word in g. Don't look at answer choices first h. Avoid common meanings Logic bridging X=y causation X= only cause Y=result X= a bites Y= all dogs bite Between : assumption that all dogs are a

Assumption: what must be true that allows y to happen What we attack: what the argument is based on Strengthen argument: strengthening the assumption, neither X nor Y State it directly Use evidence such as numbers Weaken: undermine, subvert, weaken, sabotage Weaken the assumption - x has nothing to do with y - y actually cause x - z cause y e.g. only like earth, life can exist the assumption is only

contrasts - while - although - despite Definition: after a semi-colon, so___ that, as Cause/effect: after, since, thus, leading to