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A

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

CONCISE

DICTIONARY
OF

EGYPTIAN
A

ARCHAEOLOGY
FOR STUDENTS AND

HANDBOOK

TRAVELLERS

BY

M.

BRODRICK

and

A.

ANDERSON

MORTON

WITH

80

ILLUSTRATIONS

AND

MANY

CARTOUCHES

METHUEN

" STREET

CO.
W.C.

36 ESSEX

LONDON 1902

0C-n6l967

PREFACE

THIS
with travellers contains

little book the in in


a

has of
a

been

prepared
to

for students

publication
and which would
to

idea

offering
book

Egypt

handy
form

of

reference,
that various

condensed
to

information for in

otherwise
volumes.

have

be

sought
have of the

large
been has

Eeferences but
a

only
the book.
names

occasionally
consulted

given
J

bibliography
at

works

been A In the

placed
selection

the

end of the

of

only

kings'

has of the

been

inserted.

illustrating
form has
most

figures

Egyptian
on

gods
ments monu-

frequently
each
want set
case

represented
chosen.
to

the
not

in from
one

been space,

It has
more

been
one

possible,
aspect
The under
or

of of

depict

than

attributes.

system
the

of

transliteration

adopted
In
or

will the

be

found of form has

heading
names,

"Hieroglyphs."
the the but in Greek

case

particular
has
not

where
to

some

other the word

become been been The

familiar

general
the
more

reader,
common

transliterated,
used,
scarab such
on as

spelling

has

Thothmes,
is

Isis, Serapis, "c.

the the

cover

copied
of Miss

from

fine

green

specimen

in

possession

Molyneux,.

Pitlochry.
Mary Anna Brodrick Anderson Morton

LIST

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

LIST
Vlll

OF

ILLUSTRATIONS

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

ah,

who and

is Thoth disk.

purely
the He is

moon

God,
of the

shares
lunar

with

Khensu and Thoth

emblems
sometimes

crescent

solar

connected

with

{q.v.).
I.
D

Aah-hetep
Wife of

obscure

Seqenen-Ea of the king


XVII. and first

III.,
end mother

an

of of the

Dynasty
Aahmes XVIIIth the

I.,

king
In

of

Dynasty. of M. diggers
at

1860,
coffin

Mariette the

discovered
of this

Thebes but M.

queen,

Mariette
at

being unfortunately
time,
many coffin the mummy valuable is and The in is
was

absent

the of The of
a

robbed

articles. the

cover

shape
from

mummy, bottom. to in the

gilt

top
found

articles
a

cofiin

included

double-

hinged bracelet with on a gi'oundwork of

gold figures,
blue
enamel
; Aah.

CONCISE

DICTIONARY
a

OF

large bracelet opening with


of cedar-wood with

hinge ;
with

an

axe

with

handle ornamented

covered

gold-leafand

carnelian and turquoise lazuli, ; lapis a dagger in a sheath of gold ; a gold chain with pendant scarabaeus ; a largegold collar with hawks' in These heads at each end, etc. objects are now the Cairo Museum. II. She the

Aah-hetep
Nefertari and

was

Aahmes

I., and

daughter of Queen wife of Amen-hetep I.

(Dynasty XVIII.).*
Aahmes I. First king Neb-2:)ehti-Rd. of

Dynasty

XVIII.
,

cir. 1587 her six

B.C.

Nefert-ari

was

had
war

by
of

children.

Aahmes

his queen, and he began the great

independence which resulted in the expulsion He of the Hyksos. captured their capitalHat-nart (Tanis?)and drove them into the Palestine desert. He then Turning subjugated the Mentiu, or Bedawin. Semneh and Nile the the south he went repelled tp up Ethiopians. The body of Aahmes, in a fair state of He Museum. is in the Cairo preservation, appears died in the prime of life. to have
Aahmes

se-Nit,Khnem-ub-Bd,

Amasis

II.,Dynasty

He married the princessAnkhsXXVI., B.C. 572-528. This II. en-Ea-Nefert, daughter of Psammetichus Pharaoh

encouraged
to {q.v.)
a

commercial traders settlement.


an

by opening enterprise
both He with the
as
a

Naukratis
and
as

Greek

free port

place

of

also tide

conquered
of Persian

Cyprus, and made Lydia, in the hope


invasion.

alliance

Croesus, king of

of

stemming

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY In the

3 the
"

Aalu,Fields
of

of.
found

legend of
tomb

Destruction I. and desire where, else-

Mankind,"
we

in the

of Seti His

learn how

people on

that Ea, tired of earth, retired to the sky.

rulingdisobedient
"

was

and fulfilled, the his


own,

having reached which territory

he inspected the upper regions, for he had there chosen

declared

about

him

of gathering his purpose men many tion in it, and created for their future accomodadivisions
'

His heavenly world. and majesty spake : Let there be set a great field,' there I will gather appeared the Field of Eest ; plants in it,'and there appeared the Field of Aaru (Aalu), Therein do I gather as its inhabitants things which the stars (Erman). hang from heaven, even the various of the
' *
' "

It

was

to this
on
"

part of the divine world


the death of the
as
"

that souls made The


"

their way the Dead the divine their


seven

body.
the

Book

of

speaks
in

of it

harvests,"

which

the blessed fields

time

cubits

harvesting. The in height. The


a

produced departedspent barley here grew to


field which of which Aalu led
were

surrounded and
were

by

wall of

iron, broken
ways been

by

several

doors,
to

traversed

Greek

by a river ; the mysterious. The idea has Elysian fields.


or

it

compared

to the

Aamu,

Amu.

The

name

givenby

the

Egyptians to

the Sinaitic Peninsula, who inhabiting were depicted They may be seen probably Semites. of Khnem-hetep II. at Beni the walls of the tomb upon Semitic Hasan they have a distinctly type of ; where the beard bidden forcoloured face, are yellow, and wear to the Egyptians. Their clothes are of a shape and colour peculiar to themselves. the Asiatic tribes
"

Aani. Abbott.

The

Egyptian

name

for

cynocephalus{q.v.).

See Papyri. for


site

Abydos. Greek name of Upper Egypt, nome

of the eighth Abet, capital


near

the

modern

Girgeh.

CONCISE

DICTIONARY I. and
a

OF Eamses II. built fine earliest known the 1st and Ilnd

Seti deityAn-liur. temples here. Abydos was Petrie has

Chief

burial

placefrom

time immemorial

found
to

there the

the burial place says that it was of Osiris,and hence the custom of bringingthe dead, if not to be buried, at least to rest in the sacred cincts prefor a time. (SeeThis.)

royaltombs Dynasties.

they appear

belong to

Tradition

Abydos, Tablets of. One of these was discovered in 1818 by Bankes and given to the British Museum. It is much damaged. The other was found byDiimichen in 1861, and is still in the temple. The first tablet of the chief kings who gives the names reignedover The to Eamses II. second Egypt from Mena tablet, which and ends with Seti L, gives begins with Mena the names of seventy-five kings. It is therefore not but it is valuable as givingthe kings a complete list, in their righthistorical or chronological order.
Acacia.
and Ashic

There

are

now

several
on

kinds

in
sont

Egypt, but
as
"

probablythose
were

mentioned

the monuments Arab


"

Shenti

the respectively

tree, or
flora of for for

Nilotica, and the acacia Seyal. The of immense Egypt being so limited,these were

acacia

tance imporused

being almost carpenteringpurposes. making statues.


as

the

wood only trees affording The wood


was

also

Achoris.
to

Diodorus in II.

Cyprus
xerxes

Dynasty XXIX., who according Siculus, joined forces with the King of unfortunate an campaign against Arta-

king

of

Adet.

One

of the

names

of the solar bark.

of Agriculture. The extraordinary fertility rendered in one sense an agriculture easy The land uncovered after the inundation

the soil
matter.

would

pro-

EGYPTIAX cluce

ARCIIAKOLOGY

But a great three or four successive crops. easily in order to bring of irrigation amount was necessary this the Shadoof the hiter crops to perfection. For also carried two pots used, and men was (q.v.) largely The implements attached to a yoke over the shoiUders. in
use

in ancient

times the

were

very of
a

much

like those wooden of


oxen.

still
^

used
was

by
were

the of The into

Fellsihin.
to

The with

clumsy
broad

plough
The short then and

attached

horns

yoke
sown,

lioes

wood,
seed the The

blades it

handles.

trampled
driven
over

having been stiff muddy


corn

was

soil

it.

when

by sheep being cut with a ripe was

the earth, but just under the ears. small sickle, not near sickle is in most The short-handled, slightly cases of wood, set with flint teeth, so that curved and made

reapingmust have been one of sawing cutting. As soon as the corn was cut, the to gather the officialtenth before the tax collector came The treading out the corn" was grainwas stored. Old the most frequently done by donkeys under were usually employed. Empire, but later, oxen and wheat both ments, are representedon the monuBarley
the process rather than of
''

and

occasionally

the modern was pulled probability heads and the from the separated up by the roots, stalks by a peculiar implement that looks like a comb. \^ cultivated, Vegetablesmust also have been extensively the since they figure so offerings. largely among also grown, the former being Vines and olive trees were trained trellises supported by forked over poles. doleful most Certain papyri and tomb give inscriptions
accounts

which crop This crop dhurra.


a

is

in

all

of be

the

hard

life and This


to harsh
own

miserable

condition is not from


sarily neces-

of

the

labourer. agricultural
to

poverty
treatment

attributed rather

their

but superiors,

to their

improvidence.
son {q.v.),

Ahi.
Ahu. Atum

A form A

of Harpocrates of the

of Hathor.

variant

name

of the

god

Tum

or

{q.v.).

CONCISE The

DICTIONARY of tlie

OF

Akbmim.

Apu

the Greeks, and Shmm or famous in ancient days for its linen
cutters.

Egyptians,Panopolis of Chmim of the Copts. It was


weavers

and

stone

Nestorius extensive have been

died found

there

in banishment. which many

There

is

very

necropohs, in
"

MSS.

notablythe

interesting fragment of the

pseudo-gospelof
Alabaster for The There
on was

Peter.

great deal by the Egyptians of many kinds. statues, sarcophagi, and vases
a

used

chief

quarries were
quarry
near

at

place
There

called

Hat

Nitb.

is another

in the desert behind Minieh,

Dowadiyeh,
near

the east bank

is alabaster
to

but it is not sufficiently Asyiit, compact for use. being quarried

admit

of

Alphabet.
Altar.
' '

Sp.e Hieroglyphs.
"

tables of offerings Although small altars or frequently in the pictures and wall appear decorations of temples and tombs, only one genuine altar has been found in a temple. It is in a court on of the temple of side of the upper court the north el Baliri (Dynasty XVIII.), and is a large stone Der platform measuring about 16ft. Sins, by 13 ft. 9 ins., and about 5 ft. 3 ins. high. There are steps up to it the priest mounted, and side by which the west on discovered This altar was the east. thus faced by Naville M. cavations during his recent ex; until

then, such

form the

from only known at Tel el Amarna. wall-paintings of altar


was

Amam.

for Egyptian name the "Dewhat is usually called A composite creature, part vourer." lioness, part hippopotamus, part crocodile,frequently depicted seated in on a small pylon. She is figured the picturesof the judgment before Amam. The

EGYPTIAX

ARCirAKOLOCiV of the She it has


to test.

7
on

Osiris in the
at Der

"Book

Dead," and
"

the

walls that
not
on

el Medineh. her the function

is called been devour But

she

who

destroys
some

the it

wicked," and
was

supposed by
those very who

could

stand this

judgment point.
II.

littleis known

Amasis Amber.

See Aahmes-se-nit. of and kind


a

Beads in the Vlth amber of

amber Xllth
was was

have from

been the

found

at

Abydos
nearest

Dynasty

tombs.

The

obtainable
some

Baltic,so that

intercourse

the earliest time, know tin which we copper Amen.


to make

fact the

with Europe in possible which is further proved by the Egyptians obtained for alloying

bronze.

frequentlyfound in His name conjunction with Ra than alone. signifies Of the hidden all "the one." gods perhaps he was the one most worshipped,though almost universally with some other god. Thus he always in conjunction
A

god

who

is

more

was

fused

with

with B.'i,

Amsu,

or

Khnemu.

His

in role probably was as a god of the dead, and original late times "much mystic philosophywas evolved out of his name." {See Amen Ra, Amsu.) Amen
-em-

hat.

name

borne
to

by
the
"

four
use

Dynasty XII., but not confined It originated probably in a war


front ! of the
an
"

kings of of royalty.
to

One

of the finest tombs


"

cry, at Beni
"

Amen Hasan Great

the of
"

is that chief

Amen-em-hat

(variant Ameni),

confidential friend of the king Oryx Nome," and learn that he we (Usertsen I.). From the inscriptions behalf made of, his royal w^ith, or on expeditions of these expeditionsw^as One master. against the black peopleof Gush, on the southern Egyptian frontier. Under Mentu-lietep of Dynasty XI., another Amen-em-hat orders to transport the king's received from the quarry the to sarcophagus and its cover eternal resting-place of his lord.

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF and

Amen-em-hat

I., Sc-hetep-ab-Bu, first king


O

Dynasty XII., cir. 2778-2748 b.c, probably of the and most of Tlieban a descendant likely origin, under Mentu-hetep, who was Amen-em-hat a prince (q.v.) of aggressionin all quarters His wars of Dynasty XI. and papyri. in rock inscriptions recorded been have
founder of He and his
successors as are

known internal the he the


''

as

much

for their of the

w^ise home abroad. The

government

for the

gloryof

their victories Se-Nehat." founded


a

Something
to

of the from
at

conditions

country may

be learnt Amen and

Story of
was

temple

Thebes
set

Amen-em-hat

I.,

there

up

red

by granite

of himself. portrait reign he associated


son,
"

Usertsen.
"

years of his with him the throne his young on for this son that he WTote the It was

During

last ten

Precepts
papyrus

contained it would

in the Sallier

Papyrus
de there

II.

From
par

of Berlin

(" Les
seem

Papyrus
that

Berlin,"
^vas

M.

Chabas)

some

mystery about Amen-em-hat

his death.

II.,Nuh-Kait-Eu, third king of Dyn-

r^

uuu

]
he shared the

asty XII., and


the throne of his for

Son
some

of Usertsen

I.,wdth whom

followed the example He years. of his predecessorsin extendingthe southern boundary

possessions, buildingw^ell-fortified places on


protect the

people from the incursions of The region was important on account of its negroes. inscribed An stone at gold and precious stones. certain explorationsin the Abydos commemorates conquered country in search of the preciousproducts. official led by a distinguished One of these expeditions, named Se-Hathor, penetrated beyond the Second
frontier to

10

CONCISE it

DICTIONARY

OF

of this the nekheb

king,and for from inscriptions


at
a

we

are

dependent chiefly
of Aahmes
we

upon

the From

tombs them

and that
or

Penthe

El

Kab.

learn

king made
and the

short but effectual raid into Cush


a

Nubia,

after that undertook

Amukehak,
"

who

w^ere

Amen-hetep I. had two Sensenb six he had by whom, succeeded I., the son by Thothmes of this king is in the Cairo mummy
"

campaign against a Lib^'^an probably_ people. II. and Aah-hetep queens


children. Museum. He
was

successful

of the latter.

The

Amen-hetep II., Aa-khejmm-Ba,

Dynasty

XVIII.
,

ID
cir.
B.C.

1449-1423.
sons,

His of

queen

several

by
As

one

whom,
made

Ta-iia,and he had Thothmes IV., he was


was a

succeeded.
success

usual, he

of which of Amada into


"

temples
have enemy
"

raid into Asia, the the walls of the is chronicled upon also to Karnak. He and appears
as we

been

Nubia,

hear

of

"the

other

being
to show

Napata
all the

of the wall of the town upon forth all the victories of the king among

hung

people of

the negro

land." the

Amen-hetepIII., Neb-madt-Ed,

Nimmuriya

of

3
B.C.

the Tel el Amarna 1414-1379. and His and His

tablets. Dynasty XVIII., cir.


queens
were

Tyi,daughter
had
two
sons

of Yuaa and five

Thuaa,

Kirgipa.
son

He

Amen-hetep IV. succeeded him. a on In the fifth year of his reign he went campaign this there is nothing to but apart from into Ethiopia, him Under record. began the first signs of that a change which, in his son's time, became religious daughters.
reformation.

ECiYPTIAX

ARCHAEOLOGY

11

Anien-hetep IV., Ncfcr-khcjjeni-Fa, Dynasty XVIII.

C
Called cir. B.C. the he

iniiniii

men
KJtu-en-Atoi. He fame in the married Nefertiti
rests

afterwards

1383-1365. The

and

had

six

daughters.

of this

king

entirely upon
country, which

reformation

of the religion

in a more He endeavoured to In'ing brought about. in the adoration of the Aten, or sun's spiritual w^orship of the Theban to disk, and findingthe opposition priests his capital be insurmountable, he removed to a site now known Tel el Amarna, where, aided by his queen, he as tenets, and to raise the sought to inculcate these new moral tone of the people. Of the old deities,Maat, the impersonation of truth, alone appears to have been the king recognized. Unfortunatelyfor the movement

few and within a young, of of his death all traces years the Aten passed worship had

died

endeavour, also though only temporary, was


away. made
to

successful free

art

from

the which and

priestlyconventionalities were ruiningit, and the crafts of this reign show


efforts The
to

arts

distinct
nature.

copy and

from

sculpturesand
for their

birds, animals
the usual

paintingsof markable plants are refreedom from

stilted

representations.

{SeeAten.)
Amen-Ra. the A
Amen

combination and Ea.

of The

gods

chief seat Thebes.

of his He is

at worship was generally repre-

Amen-Ra.

12

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

sented
two

as

and holdingin standing,


in

one

hand On back

the

user are

sceptre, and
tall
a

the of

other

the dnhh.
the and

his head

plumes
cord.
A at

feathers, from

of which

hangs

{Sec Amsu

Ea.)
the

Ament. of and Lower Mut

goddess who
Thebes. with She

takes occasionally
was a

place
of of

feminine
a

form

Amen,

sometimes

represented with
a

sheep's head,
the
crown

sometimes

human

head

and

Egypt.
"

Amenti.
which its
was

The he

Hidden with
over

Land,"
the the dead.

the An

other

world,
Osiris is

in the west rules

sun. settting

lord, and

idea of the

be gathered Egyptian conception of the Amenti may from the pictureson the walls of the tombs of Seti I. the Book of that which and other kings, where is in the Underworld," is inscribed and fullyillustrated. The difficulties that have to be overcome by the Sungod (Ea) during his nightly journey through the
"

underworld twelve the Sun demons the The dwells

are

there

described.

It is divided

into

defined sections, of which


runs

or or cities, by fields, dwellings, a

through all

river,on
eastern

which, in
horizon.

bark,

travels of human of in Amenti

again
and
"

to

the

Many
who

animal

those in form, especially his

form

serpents, beset

path.
form of

"He
a

is Osiris in the

mummy.

all dead, being identified wdth Osiris, overcame their adversaries,and as the Sun-god passed through

again in the east, so they expected in like manner to the blessed life. to pass through Hades An inscription of the time of Cleopatra speaks thus : For as for Amenti it is a land of sleepand darkness, those who are there remain. a dwellingwherein They awake forms, they nevermore sleepin their mummy their fellows, they behold neither their fathers to see
night to
"

the

rise

nor

their where

mothers, their heart is careless of their wives


Since
. . .

and
not
me.

children. I
am.

came

into this

I valley

know

long

for the water


on

that floweth of the

by

I desire the breeze

the bank

that river,

EGYPTIAN it may of the

ARCHAEOLOGY heart in its distress. is


*

13 For the
"

refresh my

name

god
or

^vllo ruleth

here

Utter

Death,'

etc.

Amset
whom and who

Mestha,

one

of the four the

funerary geniito

the

canopic jars were

dedicated,
cardinal

represented
Some of
texts

points.
children
was

Horus,
father.

the say they were others that Osiris

their

Figures
in

of

these

gods have been in occasionally Jaks.) Amsu,


or

found bronze.

faience, and

{See Canopic

called the

alsoMin, Amsi, Armes,


nome ithyphallic

Khem,
the

god

of

Panopolis,the Apu
and As modern

of ancient Akhmim

representing the
and He
as a

Egypt, {(l-i'-)generativepower^
identified

of nature he with Amen-Ea


or

is sometimes called is

Min-AmenT!
Amsu.

Amen-Amsu. monuments

the

on represented tightlyswathed

free, that being raised figure with only one arm if waving the flarjclluiii it holds above the head. as For head-dress the long plumes of Amen. he wears Behind him there are usuallygrowing plants. found statues of this god at Coptos, and thinks "\Tetrie it probable that he was brought by his Avorshippers
from Amt Nebesheh formed for its wine. attributed magical to which were objects of protection, worn were by the livingand powers Some disposedin and about the body of the deceased. of power," inscribed with are hcl-au, i.e. "words the land of Punt. The its site.

or

Pa-Uaz.
nome

nineteentli

of Lower

capitalof Ain-Pehii, the of Tell Egypt. The mound


IJazit,Amsu
It
was

marks the triad

and

Horus

worshipped there.

celebrated

Amulets,

or

CONCISE mentioned from

DICTIONARY in the earhest


"

OF

and

several
were or

are

Book times. used

of the Dead."

They

used rock but

the

Every
in their in

kind
position, comone

of stone

besides
were

frit was
of
more

some or

value, made

Amethyst, garnet,turquoise, obsidian, amber, agate, jasper,lapis lazuli, felspar, and porphyry hematite, malachite, granite,serpentine,
stone particular

colour.

were

all used, and

the

harder

the

substance

the

finer

the work. Scarab,

{q.v.) symbolizes life,possibly


to
one even
"

tAnWi
remains

the

life which of the found in

after death," but it is difficult It has


was one

to tell what most

the

figure represents.
the

important of

amulets, and

been

in every kind of material. It is sometimes large numbers with the dad, and has depictedin combination an independent existence ascribed to it.
""".

"

Tliet.

The made

girdlebuckle
in
some

of

Isis.

An

amulet such
was as

H usually
sins the 156
'^

red

material,

carnelian, jasper,porphyry or glass. The washed of the blood of Isis, which typical
of the
mummy,
wearer.

colour

and
"

placed on frequentlyinscribed
was

It

the away the neck of

with

chapter

of the

Book
An

of the Dead." amulet

"
"

of the placed on the neck word for its protection. The Jimummy signifies The 155th firmness, stability, preservation." ter chap-

Bad.

of the

*'

Book the

of the Dead

"

orders be

it to be made in water

of in

gold.
which

Like dnkham Mut.

thct,it had
flowers An had

to

dipped

lain.

gold, and in the 157th the rubric which chapter of the the commands to be placed on of the Dead Book It symbothe day of burial. neck of the mummy on lized mother of Isis, the the protection goddess.
amulet
"

usually made

of

"

"

EGYPTIAN Usel'li. The

ARCHAEOLOGY collar of

15

gold

which

was

to

be of of his

placed on the neck of burial, to give him power bandages. {See Eubric of the Dead.")
V^

the mummy on to free himself 158th

the

day
Book

from
''

chapter of

Urs. It in is

An

amulet

representingthe
the heads of of hematite. the
"

pillows,or
of the
mies. mum-

head-rests, placed beneath

generallymade
earliest ritual

It is Book of

scribed dethe

the

Dead," chapter 166.

tQ"

Ah. of

tain the heart, the founrepresenting the conscience. sometimes life, typifying An amulet The

Symbolic Eye, an amulet fastened which to the wrist or arm, protected the w^earer from the evil eye, against the bites of serpents,and againstwords spoken in anger or malice.

'^^

"

Uzat.

'^-^

^=^^
sun.

The

two

were

the

Eyes

of

Horus, but in
moon,

some

instances

the left
the

represents the

the

right
It

the

[See Eye,
An

Sacred.) signifying good


"

!Nefer. probably represents


V
pCh Sam. Akh disk abdomen. An
or

amulet
a

luck."

musical

instrument.

amulet Kim.

union. signifying Xn amulet the

representingthe
Found in

sun's the

rising from
An amulet

horizon.

Shen.

thought

to

represent the circle


to
secure

of the sun's life to

orbit,and hence its objectwas the deceased, enduring as the sun.


An amulet

Uaz. It is is

representing a
some

lotus

column.

made of invariably of symbolicalof the gift Hez. The white


crown

green

substance, and

eternal of

youth.

Q
\/

Upper Egypt. Egypt.

Tesher.

The

red

crown

of Lower

10

CO"X^ISE

DICTIONARY

OF

^n^

Menat.

OY

which

was

the sightof signof divine protection, Most supposed to drive away care.

in frequent

Saite times.
w^as

and |_| Neh, symbohzed protection, breast. The XVIII. The


(^
"

laid

on

the

Frog
It

is not
w^as

found

in

use

until

Dynasty

rection. probably symbolicalof the resursign means hieroglyphic "myriads."

The

Fingers.

Generally

found

inside

the

abdomen

of mummies. Stairs the probably signify raising up to heaven. throne of Osiris

/^
and

The

the idea of User. The

royal sceptre,which
and earth.
secure

gave

dominion

over

heaven

To ThePhmwiet. for the deceased.

and justice

moderation

Anastasi.
Ancestors. four the of

See Papyei. The tomb. of ancestors with of of three the


names

names

and of
are

are generations owner a

often inscribed maternal side

Frequently,however, they
the

only

those

of the

house, the

side being reckoned of through the mother's more importance than that through the father. paid by relatives to the Although much attention was descent tombs honour
ancestor

of their of the Hall M.

fathers, and

festivals

were

held
to

in"

dead, this
op

never

amounted "is small

actual

worship.
"

The taken Paris


a

Ancestors
to

chamber in it contains

from

Karnak Prisse.

the
so

BibUotheque

Nationale

by

It is

called because

III. making offerings to of Thothmes representation at of his predecessors. Similar scenes occur sixty-one Sakkfira and Abydos.

18

CONCISE
were

DICTIONARY found of

OF
at

and

mummy

by
B.C.

Arabs

the

foot of the The


''Aa"

western

mountain

the found

Theban

Necropohs.
surnamed

coffin of

Antef II., cir.

2945,

the Great), was (i.e.

by Brugsch Bey

in 1854.

It

is
B.C.

now

in

the

Louvre. second

Another
name,

cir.
madt.

2940, borq the


His

(HI-)' Ba-seslies-ii])
Museum.

Antef

gildedcoffin is in tlie British


B.C.

Antef

IV., IIoT-uali-dnkh, cir.

2902, is only

If
known mention

by

his

brick
name

pyramid
his four

at

Thebes

and

the

of his

in the Abbott

showing the king with the pyramid.

Papyrus. A stela favourite dogs was in

Antef v., Nuh-l-he2)cru-PiCf, cir. b.c.

2852.

An

in-

the decree for the degradationby containing scription this king of Teta, son of Min-hetep probablyone of for bouring harthe feudal princes or a very high official,
"
"

**

enemies," is in the Gizeh


Antef

Museum.

VI., S-Finkh-lca-Bd, cir.

b.c.

2786.

Ninth

and land

last

king

of

Dynasty
undertaken

XL

An in his

of Punt

was

to expedition reign.

the

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOCiV Antha.
A

19

^0^^

goddess imported from Asia, probablyof Phoenician the in origin,often mentioned 11. and of Kamses inscriptions
Eamses
war

III. with

She and

is is

kind

of

goddess

represented
shield, and

armed

hehnet,
"

swinging a battle-axe. She is called Lady of heaven of the and gods," and is queen of in the company usually seen Eeshpu (q-v-)'
lance, and

Antha.

AnubisorAnpu.
The who

"

god presided over embalming, and especially a god of the dead. His cult was very general but to it seems throughout Egypt, have had its centre at Lycopolis also a Lycopolis (Asyut). There was
in the Delta and rise to

where
this the

he fact

was

shipped, wor-

may

have of of is
son

given
of the Anubis

apparent doubling
the texts

god,
of

for

speak
Anubis He and

the

north

and

the south. of As the Osiris

Anpu. and
to

said to be the have


a

Nephthys,
his father
"

swallowed
nature
sun
"

Osiris.

god
he

his father

being
the with of
a

twilight.
a

may He is and of

represent

depicted
the his head
names

human
"

body
One

jackal. Ap-uat
"

is

(q-V.).
A and

Anukit.
Khnemu
Anukit.

goddess,
third Her in the

w4fe

of

triad of

Elephantine. J

distinguishing

20
.

CONCISE is
a

DICTIONARY

OF

head-dress she
wears

crown

called island

the onl}^ "Lady of Sati," of

of feathers, though sometimes of Upper Egypt. She is crown Sati

being
was

the
a

name

for
to

the the

Sehel, where
Sati and Anukit.

there She

temple

goddesses origin.

is

of possibly

Nubian

Anupt.

goddess

found

at

Dendera.

She

sents repre-

the feminine

of Anpu (q.v.). principle the bulls

Apeum, the, often but erroneously called Serapeum was the palace in which the sacred were lodged at Memphis.
"

"

Apis Mausoleum,

the.

The These

excavated

vaults
were

at

the Sakkara, in which after being embalmed. called the

sacred

Apis
are

bulls often

buried

erroneously
^

Serapeum.

(SeeSeeapeum.)

personati Apepi (Greek Apophis). The great serpent, the imof spiritual evil ; and head of the powers of the sun darkness under the form of Ea againstwhom Horus He is represented or as waged his dailywar. a serpent of many folds having a knife stuck into each. As the
sun

went

towards his 39th


to
"

by

Apepi

with The

the west, he was confronted troops of fiends called Qettu, battled with the them
"

Sebau,
Dead" also
a

Sheta, "c., and


is devoted work
"

all

night
is

until dawn.

chapter of
The Book

Book

of the There

details of the combat. of the

entitled

Overthrowing

of Apepi treats ; also Nesi-Amsu), which of this opponent of Ea who is,through Ea, the entirely

(seebelow

opponent
were

of all souls of deceased

identified with

Osiris,who

The dead persons. form another of was

sun-god,lord of the "underworld ; therefore on the sun's ultimate victory depended their safety. In some find Apepi identified with instances we Typhon, and in Graeco-Eoman times with Set. ''Apepi was called He therefore never a god. represents,not a regularlyoccurring phenomenon, but an irregular
the

EGYPTIAN and the


cavern. as
'

ARCHAEOLOGY He forced
names

21
storm-

occasional is One

one. overcome

is the

strong, dark,
his his

cloud, and

by

the fire and into of is the Eoarer

sword flinty subterranean


; he
names,

of

Sim-god

and

back

of his

is represented

blind, and

another

signifies the blind one,' Caeculus." (Eenouf.) Apepi


Two I. and II.

like the

Latin

Ubar, Cacus, or

(Apophis).

Hyksos kings. Should be placedprobably in Dynasty XV. It is thought by many Egyptologists that Joseph served under the latter. Apepi, Book
forms Amsu and "Book about
a

of the

of the third

Overthrowing of.
of the funeral

work

which

{q^v.).It treats recalling certain chapters of the Apepi {q-i'-), of the Dead," notably chapters 7, 31,
and 35
to

of Nesipapyrus of the dailybattle between Ea

33,
was

39, from
The

which title tells

the
us

author that in the


some

has

borrowed. evidently recited in the is every which

the book

temple
monotonous

of Amen-Ea

Apts
of

day.
there
treat

It contains
a

fifteen

chapters, in

They
of

of the
are

fiend,and

both

of phrases. repetition for destroying the methods various mythical and magical. The name in green also to be
on

Apepi
;

was

to be written

figureswere fiends, and, after being defiled, were most interesting part of the work
wax an

burnt

and papyrus made of several


a

to be burnt.

The

is that of how of shed

which
men

gives
and

account
were

of It

the

creation,

and
tears

wohien

formed of Ea." is of

by
"

the The

Khepera.
Evolutions That variant known.

is called

Book

by the god Knowing the


showm copy

the work It

some

is antiquity but other


no

by

the

readingswhich
differs

occur,

other

from
as

funeral

is yet papyri in

speakingof

the deceased of
as

P-iia

(^^^^

instead Pharaolij

the Osiris.

22

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF in

Apes.
some

tortoise-headed
for the

texts

deity (?),substituted serpent Apepi {q.r.).


name

Apes

or

Apet.

Another

for Ta-urt bull The

{q.v,).
which
was

of the sacred Apis. The name worshipped by the Egyptians from

the earliest times. cult


was

said duced intro-

to have

been

by Mena (1st Dynasty), the


most

ancient of

coveries dishis

worship being at Memphis, though another story says


that it
was

duced introphis Memlater

into

Apis.
lis in the Ilnd times that the Eenouf

from But became The it


was

Heliopountil

Dynasty. Apis bull


says
:
'*

not
so

of

much

triumph of the the over sensibly visible in the thought is most The development of the worship of the Apis bull." Apis symbolized the second life of Ptah," the god of to whom born of a cow, a deity Memphis. He was had descended in the form of lightningor a ray of he was black, moonlight. According to Herodotus with a square white spot on the forehead ; on his back the figure of an was eagle,in the tail double hairs, searched for The priests and on the tongue a beetle. found such animal an throughout Egypt, and when he was Egypt, brought first to Nicopolis, in Lower and then with and ceremony to Memphis. great pomp and put in an When embalmed he died, the body was enormous sarcophagus. The so-called Serapeum at numbers where Sakkfira is a great Apis mausoleum,
"

importance. symbol

of these covered
were a

sacred

bulls

w^ere

buried.

The

stelae that tomb

large part

of the

w^alls of this vast

of immense

as givingthe importance historically,

EGYPTIAN dates the It of birth


exact

ARCHAP:0L0GY burial
a

23
to say

and in disk

of the

bulls,that is
was

year
a

king'sreign. Apis
and
at
uraeus

with
was
"

between death
"

the
a

represented horns. human

supposed that,
he became
Greek
nome one

his

like

being

with for

Osiris. the capital Nnt-eiit-IIapi, Kom Egypt, the modern

Apis.
el Hism.

name

of the third

of Lower

Chief

Hathor. deity,

Greek for Tejj-ahet, name Aphroditopolis. The of Upper Egypt, capitalof the twenty-second nome Atfih. Chief deity, the modern Hathor.

Aphroditopolis. The Greek name of the tenth nome of Upper Egypt, Chief deity, Hathor.

for the

Tebt, capital
modern Itfu.

Tlie Greek for Tebt, name Magna. Apollinopolis the capital of the second of Upper Egypt, the nome modern Edfu. Chief deity, Hor-belmtet ((/.r.).

Apt.
bank of

That the

part of Thebes
Nile. It
was

which divided and


"

lay on
into
"

the

east

Northern

Apt," represented by Karnak,


the modern
Luxor.

Southern

Apt,"
He is
at

Ap-nat
one

"

literally the
"

of the

forms

of the opener of Anubis, and was


to
"

ways."
souls land."

worshipped

Asyut. His office was the departed into Anubis.)


Arar.

introduce hidden

the

of the

divine

(See

Name
was

of

the
worn

Uraeus,
on

the head fore-

serpent which
of emblem

the

an gods and kings. It was and royalty. [See of divinity

Uraeus.) Although the Egyptians were the arch they but acquainted with rarely used it. The earliest specimen
Arch.

//C^^

24 of
a

A true

CONCISE arch is found

DICTIONARY in
a

OF

IVth

Dynasty

mastaba

at Medum.

Architects.

Since

architecture

was

Egypt's principal

less accessory or art, all others being more or is i t natural of that all artists the architects subsidiary, should of many tombs. disdain which in the and
are

have

been
on

most

honoured.
in
museums

The
to have

names

recorded

stelae

and

in

The
to take

office sometimes sometimes the office of


even
"

appears
a

been
not

and hereditary, of
was

royal princedid
the holder

chief of all the constructions of

Lower Upper and Egypt," apparently highly honoured it was of combined with the first

At times
case

Bak-en-Khensu,

by the king. office, as priestly prophet of Amen,

Seti I. and under principalarchitect at Thebes Eamses II., whose sepulchralstatue is preservedat Munich.
come

The down

most to
us

famous is

architect

whose the

name

has of

Sen-mut,

favourite

Hatshepsut, and
a

builder

of Der-el-Bahri. This of

Ari-hes-nefer.
son

Ethiopian god
was one nome

is of of

of Ea chief

and

Bast, and
the
are on

the

deities

tenth the

Upper Egypt. of a temple to


of with and Philae. head
a

There is head

remains

his honour the

the Island
a or sisting con-

He and

represented with
double
a

lion's

crown,

human of the uraei. One

and

headdress

disk, ram's

horns, plumes

two

Arit.

of
a

the

gates

of

Hades,
creature

guarded
called Aau.
Ari-hes-nefer.

by

mummiform

Arms. Arrows.
two
to

(SeeWeapons.)
and reed
arrows

Wood

from

twentywith hard with

inches thirty-four metal have or wood, flint, hard wood and flint heads

long, tipped
been
were

found.

Those

probably only used

26

A such

CONCISE
as

DICTIONARY
in

OF

with these
none

accuracy

Egypt.

during an

incredible number of observations are recorded."


"

They have kept, where years, registers


But, unfortunately,
dow^n
to
us.

of these Thoth
w^as

registers the god who


An of

"

have

come

taught men
part of the

the science

of

priestly college The priests of Ea seem was to have been the first to recognize the importance of this study,and their keenness of sightis indicated in of the titles they bear, as some great of sight," the
the school
" "

the heavens.

important astronomy.

reader of The
"

who

knows

the

sightin

the mansion of the

face of the heavens, the great of the Prince of Hermonthis."


to

astronomers

attached

the

temples were
knew

called

w^atchers

night." They

at least five of

and some of the constellations have been planets, identified. Saturn, Mercury, Mars and Venus Jupiter, were not depicted under various forms, but were Orion Sirius actually worshipped. (Sahu) and (Sothis), were according to our interpretation, supposed to be the abodes of the souls of Horus and respectively Isis. in various placesas human They are represented beings standingin the little barks in w^hich they sailed
our

the
man

ocean

of the him.

sky, or,
to

as as

at
a

Dendera,
cow

Orion

as

beckoning
behind The
"

Sirius

recliningin
to

the

bark

constellations the

were

reckoned and of whom the

be

thirty-six
buted attriof Isis, Osiris."

in number,

decani thirty-six

to whom

were

mysteriouspowers,
was
"

the star Sothis


star star

Sothis transformed queen when Orion (Sahu) became

into the

of

(Maspero.)

"

The tomb

chief walls

of the sky preserved on temple and maps those at the Eamesseum, are Dendera, and of Setil. at Thebes. Star tables are found of Eamses IV. andEamses IX. at Thebes,
as

in the tomb in the tombs but

they are carelesslydone, only considered as part of the


The constellations their
were

probably they were


of the tomb.
stars
as

decoration

represented
Our Behind

outlining
came a

the bodies of animals.


was
*'

the constellation, the

"Plough,"

Haunch."

haunch

EGYPTIAN female A

ARCHAEOLOCJY and the


on

27

hippopotamus,
Hon faced

her

back with

crocodile.
a

couchant

haunch,

curious

composite animal
Atef.
Aten.

underneath.

Sec Crowns.

The

name

given
that
name

to

the
was

solar

disk, the
tried
to

ship wor-

of which it the

under

the chief cult under make


"

who Amen-hetep IV. (Khu-en-Aten),

religionof
had
"

Aten

country. Until this period the rarelystood alone, although the phrase Ea
the is not the
uncommon.

in his Aten

The disk

god

IS

always

represented as wdth rays extending each terminating in


and The
never

solar from
a

it,

hand,
form. the the

in

human hold

hands

usually

which "J",

they present
queen.
was

to

king
Tel his is
to

and el

The
at

centre

of his cult hills behind

the and

modern in tombs the of

Amarna,
are

the

worshippers. In one tomb preserved a very fine hymn Aten the (published by
in
au
"

Bouriant Mission

Memoires

de

la

Khu-en-Aten
Athribis.
Hct-ta the tenth the The

Caire"). (See and Hymns.)


Greek
name

for Lower el Heru-Khent-khati. of Ilat-udrt,


tioned citymen-

heraht, the
nome

capitalof
of
Aten.

Egypt,
A.sal.

modern

Benha
w^as

chief deitv The Greek

Avaris.

name

by Josephus {contraApion) as having been built their last stronghold in by the Hyksos, and eventually Egypt, it being the last place to give way before the

28

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

Egyptian dynasty,which drove out the invaders. Its site is doubtful, some identifyingit with Tanis ; Pelusium. the coast near it was on possibly
new

Ba.

In

Egyptian pneumatology
man.

the

Ba there the

was

the

the soul of anihici, flew to the for it


came

which

at the death

of the

gods.
back

But
at

it did not
to

remain comfort

body entirely,

intervals

mummy.

K
BT
The Ba.

H^ a
Ba visitinor
mummv.

It

was

in represented which the

the

form

of

bird with the dnkh it is

human

head, and hands


and

hold frequently

7iif (q.v.) Thus in one scene In shaft to the deceased. the tomb as flyingdown with out-spread another it is resting wings on the top

{q.v.) represented

EGYPTIAN of the mummy.


on a

AKC'HAE()L0C;Y In this form it is sometimes The


a

29

tured sculp"

sarcophagus hd. perhaps,wholly immaterial, for


of the Dead the deceased. Baal Bahr with See Bal. Ydsuf. Nile The
on
"

conception was

chapterin
of food
to

the

not, Book of

assures

abundance

the Ba

great
the
west

canal

which

runs

parallel

the

Nome Crocodilopolite joining the Nile at Arsinoite is rather is


a

in the side,commencing and nearly opposite Akhmim, the modern El Wasta than in miles.
one,

the It it

Nome,

distance

by

river of 350

continuous

series of canals

and

dation. onlynavigablethroughout its lengthduring the inunIt is evident from Strabo and Ptolemy that, in their time, the important canal known the Bahr as Y ilsuf did not flow as it does now. If,as is probablythe
"

case,

its bed

is

natural, and

not

the work

great part of it would have been silted up of the Greek waiters, and according to
tradition it was who led then
to

of man, a in the time


an

Arab thus Greek


cannot

reopened by the
it his
name

famous

Sultan We

Saladin,
are

gave the conclusion It is

of Yusuf."

writers,the Bahr
be very old. and modified

that, according to the Yusuf in its present course

probably a
of

work

man. by the hand of the Xllth Dynasty may have water regulationin connection with the works of Lake is always attributed After to them." Moeris, which Yusuf Derut the Bahr changes its name successively Eairm. Its ancient to Ibrahimiyeh, Sohagiyeh, and name

enlarged Possiblythe kings begun this system of

of nature

is unknown. See Bocchoris. of

Bak-en-ren-f. Bal.
A form from

Baal, worshipped in the


a

eastern

part of the
introduced XlXth

Delta, with
He is

temple
after form

at

Tanis. the
war wars

He of

was

Phoenicia
a

the

Dynasty.

of the

god.

80

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

Ball.

See Toys. the Greek

Bakh,

Bacis,

was

the

name

of the the

sacred Mentu

bull at HermontJiis
was

incarnate. Ba-neb-tattu. with


a

(Erment) in {SeeMentu.)
The

which

god

god
head,

of Mendes.
a

He

is represented

ram's
to

fact which

curious

error,

the statement the

rise,by gave of the classic authors


Mendes. His title

that the is
"

Egyptians called livingsoul of Ra."


Third

goat

Ba-n-neter.
to the

king
In his

forty-seven(?) years.
throne
was

Dynasty II., reigned reignthe female succession

of

secured.
The heavens

Barks, Sacred.
ocean,

the solar of the in these

gods were
The At his

being conceived of as an often spoken of as progressing


two in

in their barks. known entered


most sunset

sun's

barks the took then


" ^

are

the

best he his till the

birth

morning
him
to

Sektit

bark,"'' ^UnS_which
at
noon.

southern

point

He bark

travelled

the Mazit

or

Madet

j"^.

During

night he changed into different barks, until received again into the Sektit bark next morning. The pictures the boat is extremely Sometimes of these barks vary. simple and contains only the sun disk. At others it is large,with a cabin or shrine in the centre for the chief gods, who are accompanied by other gods before and
behind. Sometimes
there
are

rowers,
a

at others

it is
to

without either with or self-propelled and Khepera are guide it. Tum The Ea. most frequently accompany

helmsman

the

gods
of

who Nun

bark that of

of Ptah-

Seker-Osiris Neshmet.
in

was

called

Hennu had the

and

The in
some

temples
cases

models

these

boats,

which

kept.
the
*

These

barks stated

temple at
Erman

god was symbol carried in processionround were times. {SeeMoon.)


order,
and

of the

reverses

this the

calls

the

Mazit

the

bark

of

the

morniBg,

and

Sektit the

bark

of the

sunset.

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAKOLOGY rock It
was was

;]1

Basalt.
the

This

volcanic Nile It

highly valued

for

making
found
too

of statues. in the

being
was

difficult to obtain, not but in the desert. It valley,


to be used

preciousa

material is

for

mere

tectural archi-

work,
in

purposes. yet the finish from this stone

these

XXVIth

days. The Dynasty.


A

to extremely hard and statues on sarcophagisculptured is as perfect could be as produced finest specimens belong to the

also

Bast.

solar

goddess
and useful

who heat

the
sun,
as

gentle

sented repreof the

She
one

is

opposed to Sekhet, the fierce heat. representedcat-headed, holding in


a

hand
arm

sistrum, in the other,


"

over
"

the
a

of which The
seat

she
cat

carries

basket,
to
was
"

shield. chief
"

was

sacred

her.
at

The \vhere Her

of

her

worship
Tell
was

Bubastis
a

the

modern

Basta
to
a

great temple
w^as

built

her. form

husband

Her-hekennu,

of Horus. Bastinado.
was

This

form

of

punishment
and children. held
two

^
Bast.

used

Wall his

for men, women, paintings show the and

victim

by
men.

arms

legs to the

ground by

Beards.

gentleman
beard. fastened

of cleanliness the Egyptian purposes in everyday life, w"ent clean shaven but on For it
w^as

great occasions
This
w^as

customary

to

wear

an

artificial

made

by straps on than his subjects. The king wore a longer beard ears. Figures of the gods are usually represented w^ith a and on the coffins pointedbeard curled up at the end form the same is frequently of the mummies found, the deceased an Osirian, i.e. made one having become slaves with Osiris. and Only foreign shepherds were
"

of hair very tightly plaitedand behind to the head-dress the or

allowed
to shave.

to

wear

beards.

Prisoners

were

not

allowed

32

CONCISE
"

DICTION
"

ARY

OF

Beer. There in
were

The times the the

barleywine
sorts

of the ancient under the

four

in

use

Egyptians. old Empire ;


Minor,
It
was

later

that
most

from beer of

Qede, in Asia
was

esteemed

highly,and during
the
corn

the Ptolemaic
was

period
made but how
a

Zythos
the
"

favourite.

from

Upper Egypt,"
One
papyrus
to

i.e. barley; mentions 45 talents

beer

prepared is unknown. which tax at Memphis


in
one

amounted

3100

drachmae The

month. of
to

Bennu. the

name

sacred been

bird, an
to Osiris.

emblem It
seems

of of

and resurrection,

consecrated have the Greek


as

the

forerunner

Phoenix.
a

It is sented reprebird with heron-like

two

long
"

feathers that back." the


a

flowing
Its

from

the back

of its head. which The

name

signifies
or
"

revolves,"

turns

legend at
rose

was Heliopolis singing from came

that the bird flames beautiful listened. certain

which

out

of

tree, its
that In bird.

song
even

being
Ea

so

himself

Bennu

bird.

old texts the soul of the deceased


was

compared

to the Bennu

Bes.
from from "Book with
seem

A
remote

god

whose

worship
who He he is
was

dates of of

times, but
of Punt. Dead"
in

foreign origin,having
the land of the be somewhat

been

introduced
a

god
In

complex

character. this evil

the

is identified

Set, and
to

aspect
nature.

would He

of

an

also all

in figures in birth scenes invariably the mammisi of Egyptian temples, his of function could form he for he
not

where evil.
a

have

been
to be
Bes.

In another

appears

kind

Bacchus,

over presides

34

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

Ol^"

of the most primitive kind, consisting steering gear was of two one or enormous oars or merely paddles. The There onl}^sails represented are square. are many of boats the tomb and walls. on pictures temple (See Barks.)

Bocchoris.

The
a

Greek

name

given by

Manetho

to

Bak-en-ren-f,
who,

Saite
was

it appears,

king of the XXIVth Dynasty, scarcely independent of the

Ethiopian kings.
Book which
"

of the Dead.

may manifested

given to Pert em hru, be translated, "coming forth by day," or in the light." It has also been called the
name more

The

"

Funeral

Bitual," and

and ignorantly, fancifully

been It has found in many Egyptian Bible. papyri,and chapters from it are inscribed on the walls of tombs and pyramids,and on sarcophagi and mummy contains all the chapters No one wrappings. copy is the same case (about 200), and in no sequence observed all through. The chapters are as independent
"

the

of

one

another is in The

as

the

Hebrew

Psalms," and
The

like 165
are

them,
known

were

composed
a

at different times.

longest

copy

chapters.

which contains papyrus, difficulties of translatingthe work Turin

the text had in the earlytimes immense, for even become copying of it by the corrupt, and the constant uninitiated increased had rendered it most obscure. This is

by the fact that the work is mythological the knowledge of all current throughout, and assumes ideas set The lofty myths on the part of the reader. in great out forth in some to stand chapters seem with the apparentlygross conceptionsfound contrast
in others
may
"

; but

in the latter

case

some

esoteric is lost.

ing mean-

be

imagined,of

which

the

key

The
every

Beatification

of the Dead

is the main

chapter." The deceased recite the chapters in order that he of his new and enjoy the privileges
of
was

subject was supposed to might gain power


life. His desire death lost at

to

have

all the

powers

he

bad

E(iVPTTAX restored said. into


to

AIUIIAI^]()L()(;V Of

35

him. have

punishment
was

almost

nothing
with

is

The

bHss liighest
to

to be identified

the

gods, and

the power

of

transforminghimself
are

Ra, Seh, Nut, Osiris,Isis,Horus, Set, Nephthys, Ptah, Thoth, The Theban Khnemu, and Turn. gods are conspicuous

anything he pleased. x\mong the principalgods

mentioned

by

their absence. The oldest papyrus of the work copy earlier copies The is of the

not are so Dynasty. the copiously illustrated as later ones, vignettes of and more more gradually becoming importance. in many coloured. Most of are cases The}'' brilliantly the versions agree in saying that the oldest chapter is the sixty-fourth, the Turin papjTUs adding that it was discovered by a son of Khufu, of the IVth Dynasty ; another ascribes it to the 1st Dynasty. text It is called "The chapter of coming forth by day in the underworld." Other chaptersare called, of coming forth by day and living after death"; "of driving
"

XYIIIth

away

shame

from

the

heart of
"

of he

the

deceased";
land
to

"a

hymn of praise to Ba when life;" of bringing words


"

setteth in the
power not

of the

magical
the

deceased

in the underworld "of

; "of

dying a
"

second "of

time";

giving

air

in

underworld";
"

form he pleaseth ; "of changing into whatsoever ing making the soul to be united to its body ; "of know"of the souls of the west"; making a mango into heaven The those
to

the side of Ra." valuable

There
on

are

directions
lets. amu-

that certain

chaptersshall
most

be written

certain

English
in

translations

are

the Proceedings of by Sir P. le P. Renouf, the Society of Biblical Archaeology, vols, xiv., xv., xvi., "c., and by E. W. Budge.

Bow.
in
at

It

was

made A

of

round almost
or

5 to 5i ft. in

length,either

pieceof wood, from curved or straight,


notch fixed of
to

the

centre.

received

piece of

was or string, The bow-string was horn.

the

groove else it

at
a

each

end

projecting
or

hide, catgut,

30

CONCISE

DT(

TIOXARY the archers


are

OF

stiiiig.On the monuments drawing the bow in two


breast,or
bow the eye. Bricks.
in

represented

the
so

much

different ways, either to the effective w^ay, when the more the arrow-hne is level with

is held

high that {See Akrows.)

made simply Ordinary oblong bricks were and a little sand, with chopped straw of clay mixed materials easilyobtained, and suitable to the climate, the Tomb to sun. quickly drying ]:)yexposure l)rick-makers us kneading the paste paintings shew with the feet, pressing it into hard wooden moulds, to dry. After an exand layingthe l)locks out in rows posure stacked of about half a day, these blocks were to allow the air to circulate freely in such a manner as
,

about For few

them,

and

remained

thus

for

week

or

two.

was the poorer only for a dwellings the exposure commenced. In the building was hours before

size the
a

bricks

usually
also

measured

8-7

4-3

5*5; but
x

largersize was marked They were

used, measuring 15;0 x 7-1

5*5.

in various

royal brickfields being Pharaoh the reigning found of the period of


.

in the ways, those made of stamped with the cartouche A the few

glazed bricks
at

have

been

Eamses,
brick-moulds

Tell have

Defenneh also been

and

Nebesheh. The

Wooden labour of

imposed on not being the only subject captives,the Hebrews A of. use painting at Thebes, people thus made us executed period, shows long before the Mosaic Asiatic prisoners making bricks for a temple to Amen ; in a papyrus confirms and a passage (AnastasiIII., iii.) led to by Exodus v. 8, the supposition we are required daily that a certain quantity of bricks was
found.
was

brick-making

from

each

worker.

one

of Bridge. Up to the present time we only know bridge in Ancient Egypt and that appears to have
a

crossed
An

canal

at

Zaru,

frontier town
on

on

the

Delta. wall

be seen illustration of it may (northend) of the Hypostyle Hall

the

outside

at Karnak.

EGYl^TIAX Bronze. Even after The the


were

ARCHAEOLOGY metal
or

37 of the

favourite
invention used. the the The

Egyptians.
hronze,
the this flint copper metal

discovery of
in

implements
and vary tin used

proportionsof
making
it
\vas

by according to
mirrors

Egyptians
use

for

wliich contain

destined. 80
to

Vases,

and and

weapons
15
to

from

85
was

parts of copper
for largely used Init these figures, Dynasty. The fine work has

20

of

tin. and

Bronze

making
do
not
occur

statuettes

miniature

until

after tlie XVIIIth for mirrors


or

bronze
an

intended

and No
seen

often of the

representation
on

alloy working
and

of

gold
Tin.)

silver. is

of this

metal

tomb

walls.

(Sec Copper
Greek
nome name

Bubastis.
the Tell Basta.

The

for Fa-Bast

capital

of

eighteenth

of

Lower
a

Chief
a

deity, Bast,
cat's head.

Egypt, the modern goddess frequently

represented with
Bull. the bull Of

all the

sacred the

animals
most

in

Egypt perhaps
In
Amen

received cult he
"

attention. Khem.

the is

ithyphalhc
addressed took
name a

is

represented by

The Theban bull, fair of face." kings title "strong the Bakut, bidl," possibly from
as

under

which in Erment. courage.

the

bull The

sacred bull Apis


was

to

Mentu emblem

was

worshipped
strength
and

the and

of and

(Sec

Mnevis

Sehapeuai.)
Busiris. ninth The
nome

Greek of

name

for

Pa-Ziusar, capitalof
the modern

the

Lower
was

Egypt,

Abusir.

chief

deity
The
nome

Osiris

(q.i'-).
for F((- Uazt, the

Buto. nineteenth sheh.

Greek of

name

capitalof

the

Lower

Egypt
(^.r.).
North.

the

modern

Nebe-

Chief

deity Uazit
of the

Buto.

Goddess

See

Uazit.

38

CONCISK

DICTIONARY

OF

Calendar.

See Year.
See PpmsiAN

Cambyses.

Dynasty.

Canopic Jars.
the embalmed said to have been

The viscera

four

jars in

which

were

placed
name

of the

deceased.

The

is

adopted,because of the resemblance the jars bore to a form of Canopus worshipped in the of each jar was The cover in the place of that name. form of a head, the heads being those of the four genii Osiris according to either of Horus children or who different texts representedthe cardinal points, dedicated. The jarcovered and to whom the jars were
" "

The

four

"eiiii.

by

the man-head

of Mestha the

or

the Amset, representing and

south, contained
That head the

stomach

large

intestines.

the covered by the dog-head of Hapi representing intestines. The the small north, contained jackal of

Tuamautef, who

the east, covered represented the the until

jar containing the lungs and heart, while hawk-head of Qebhsennuf god of the w^st, covered
,

liver and

gallbladder.

These

jarsdo

not

appear

EGYPTIAN the XVIIIth

ARCHAEOLOGY

89

Dynasty Dynasty, and after theXXVIth In the earlier fell into disuse. period they gradually fine kind of stone made of alabaster or some ; they were blue of green and later on glazed faience, also of still later of teiTa-cotta. wood, and Occasionally An solid wooden jars are found. inscription incised and stone was ones on ones painted on wooden usually placed on each, and from these inscriptions of Isis, under the protection learn that Mestha w^as we w^as guarded Hapi under that of Nephthys, Tuamautef four and Selk. The Qebhsennuf by jars by Neith, were frequentlyplaced in a sepulchralchest. very mummied bodies of Jars of the same shape,containing
"

"

various

sacred

animals,

have
:

been

found

at

several

places. (BritishMuseum wall case.)


Cartouche. enclosure the with The
a name

2nd

Egyptian

Gallery ;

given
end,

to

the
was

elliptical
inscribed
an

line at the

in which
"

royal name. elongated seal.


name

be the It may The cartouche


"

of representation of
a

Pharaoh

is his
were

enclosed thus.

by
Each

this line.

Only royal names


at least two
or

written
one

king had

cartouches,
the other

containing his

prenomen

divine

name,

his

dynasticcognomen.
It
was

supposed, before the great advance in Egyptology that was cipherme brought about by the deof the hieroglyphs, that caste existed in ancient Egypt. But more discoveries have comrecent pletely
Caste. with this idea. away impassablebarriers between class and
one

done

There

were

no

class,or between

and profession Cat. This animal

another. sacred the head


to

was

to

Bast, who
a

is frequently
name

represented with
nuiu

of

cat.

Its

vN

tSn appears
holds

be

onomatopoetic. The
"Book of the which

cat

often where

in figuresin vignettes it sometimes


a

the

Dead,"
to slav
a

knife, with

40

CONCISE But the much

DICTIONARY

OF

serpent.
animal the
was

meaning
venerated

here is obscure.
is

That the been

the

shown

by

fact of

numberless

mummied

cats

that have

found,

especiallyat Bubastis, Sakkfrra, and Beni Hasan. It was perhaps a symbol of the Sun-god and day, of evil and darkness. slayingthe serpent, the emblem On tomb walls the cat we see accompanying his in his little skiff when he goes fowling in the master marshes, and it has been suggested that the animal was taught to retrieve. Many figares of cats of
different sizes have been

found,
and

in bronze

and

faience. A acted

Chief of the Chancellors


class the and of officials XVIIIth

Royal
the

Seal Bearer. and


"

existingafter Dynasty. They


matters
over

Xllth

before

for the documents thrown the

king in
and

to have appear with the connected

treasury

taxes,
on

bearingthe

royal king'sseal.
power

the

decrees
'

and

Light is
the

public perhaps
to be

the office and of and bearer

of these

officials in the

story of the elevation

Joseph, by
head

Pharaoh,

royal seal

of the civil administration.

Cippi
3 in.
X

of Horus

are x

small

stelae

or

tablets, from
on

2 in. to 20 in.

16 in. in

size,having

them

form of talisman a magical formulae, and constituting for mitiates. They are of late date,probablylater than the XXVIth Dynasty. Circumcision. That and this
was a

custom

is asserted

by Herodotus,
monuments.

given

to the

the by pictures on if any, significance was Very little, point of view. practicefrom a religious confirmed The
name

Cleopatra.
of different

of several wives The married


to have

and

daughters

Ptolemies.

first

Syrian Princess, who (V.). CleopatraII. seems


with six
or

a Cleopatra was Ptolemy Epiphanes enjoyed a co-regency

her
seven

brother-husband queens of the

Philometor.
name

Indeed
to

the had

all

seem

have

42

COiXCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

titles of the of the

deceased, also chaptersfrom the ''Book Dead." The scenes represent the deceased

varnished with adoring the gods. These coffins were thick yellow varnish. Coffins of XXIInd a to XXVIth of the weighing of the heart in Dynasties have scenes the judgment hall of Osiris,and pictures of the Ba the body. After this period the art degenerate {q.v.) visiting The lids
were

fastened these
were

on

with inserted

wooden

dowels, the

places
and

where

being

plastered up Coinage.
Colossi.

painted over.

See Money. These


were

placed in front of the temples. There the founder were two, four, or six representing of the temple. So much was thought of these figures that if a Pharaoh would not be at the pains to have his own he would the names erase portraitexecuted of his predecessor from some and substitute statues existing his own. But few of these left standing. are The most celebrated the statues of Amen-hetep were
III. at Memnon seated

Thebes,
"

one

of which

was

called colossal 52 ft.


at

the The

"Vocal colossus
was

{q.v.).They, like most figures. Their height is


II. at the A Eamesscum similar

statues, are
the

of Kamses

Thebes

largestknown, the ground. on


was was

being 57i
head the south

ft. high.
to

It lies shattered of this statue and

that

found

near

side of the Ramesseum,

It is now in the British to England. transported Museum. At Memphis lies another of Ramses statue II.,31| ft. high. The two seated colossi in front of the temple at Luxor 45 ft. high. All these figures are of Ramses of granite. The colossal are figures carved out of the gritstonehill at Abu Simbel, which form the fa9adeof the temple of Ramses II.,are about 66 ft. high without tomb the pedestal. In now a almost destroyed at El Bersheh there was a representation the wall of the transportation of a colossus. on The chief colossi belong to the period of the New pire, Emafter have died which
out.

time

the

taste

for

them

seems

to

EGYPTIAN Combs. what made animals very both


rare.

ARCHAEOLOGY
of comb known
"

48 dates from

The

earliest form the


"

is

called usually of ivory, with


on

the The

back.

and is period, rude but vigorous carvings of Specimens of this period are

Pre-historic

later kind
our

sides

exactlylike
are

wood, with teeth on tooth comb, except modern


is of wider
on

that the teeth


on

sometimes with

the

one

side than quently is fre-

the other.

The

flat surface

along the

centre

ornamented Commerce. Cones.

carvingor inlay.

See Trade. See Funerary Cones.

Copper. The copper used by the Egyptians in the from the Wady chiefly making of their bronze came Magharah, in the peninsularof Sinai. Many traces of the have been found among ancient mining operations rocks of this district. [SeeBronze.) Coptic. Roughly speaking Coptic is the modern survival of the ancient Egyptian language,and the glyphs. for the study of hieroknowledge of it is invaluable of the modifications The Copticcharacters are added six signs were from the Greek to which letters,
ii(3|)(oiiiiovcipc3
zu

nro^iiovii

thoak;

Demotic,
two

in order Greek

that the

those be
"

sounds

which

had

no were a

in equivalent dialects
"

could

expressed.
"

There

called

Boheiric," from
the

BohOra,

provincein
was

the

Delta, and
fuller.

Sahidic," which

last

the older and

Coptos. Greek name of Upper Egypt, nome


Amsu.
ancient from It
was one as

for the

Qeht, capitalof
Kuft.
most

the

fifth

the modern
to this

Chief that

deity,
of

of it
was

important
town

towns

Egypt,

the trade

Kosseir, on

the Eed

Sea,
to

came.

Cosmetics.
the

Perfumes much in

body

were

give an request,as

agreeablesmell

to

also different kinds

CONCISE

DICTIONARY for
on

OF

of oils and oil


on

unguents
and

rubbing into
their
new

the skin. head-dresses could

"

Sweet
"

their heads of ointment

was

requiredon
Cakes
at

great festivals by
were

all who

afford of

it.

placed on
with found
use

the heads the oil of Alabaster

feasts,and
an

to be

anointed been

considered and

especial honour.
have also hi
was

guests was Qeiiii taining pots conBlack

unguent
green

in the tombs. for the eyes.


to

paint were
This the anirnal whole it.
are

Cow. who
or even

sacred The Book the

Hathor, the goddess


a

is sometimes

representedwith
cow

cow's

ears,

head. In the

also times

represented
Isis is also
"

and Nut, the sky goddess {q-v.), connected with


names
"

at

of the Dead divine


cow,

seven

mystic
there

given

to

who

is

the wife

of the bull Osiris. In But old times there the

(SeeMehukt.)
were

\/'

Crocodile.
crocodiles
hunt

innumerable

in the

Nile, and

them.

tomb-walls The

of this animal

Egyptians went out to there are no representationson gious hunting,possibly because of relithe animal
w^as

scruples,as
{q.i\).

sacred him

to

Sebek neath be-

is often
some scenes

depictedin
show

the water seized

boats, and

by

hippopotamus.
the It was Ancientlycalled Shed. Crocodilopolis. as Ta-slie, capitalof a provinceof the Fayum known the land of the Lake," probably a reference to Lake
"

Moeris. Crown
,

^,

^.

j^f
seen on

Yf^

are

the The

crowns

most

frequently
formed
an

the monuments. and

head-dress of the

important

significant part
arc

king's royal

uniform, and

many

the varieties of

crown

pictured

ECn^PTTAN tomb
to

AHClIAK()L()(iV

45

upon
seems
a

and have the of

temple
been the red

walls.

The

festival

crown

the Pschcnt white


crown

combination and is warlike

(No. 4)
On the

(No. 7), which was of Upper Egypt crown of Lower Egypt (No. 6).
in times of peace,
"

occasions
seen

and

even

wearing the Khepersh (No. 3) or helmet. The war keeper of the king's diadem held a high position under the Old Empire ; at court done with during the New but the office was away Empire. The gods are always depicted as wearing and many of them most are complicated,as crowns, Nos. 15 and 16 ; No. 18 is one which is frequently seen the Atef cvown. on as kings as well as gods,it is known The queen's head-dress with his a vulture represented wings spread round her head in the act of protection. king
"

Cubit. 20-6

This

measure

inches.

It

varied

length was approximately at different however, slightly,


different architects.

of

periodsas employed by
Cusae. fourteenth Chief The
nome

Greek of

name

Upper

for Kcs, the capital of the Egypt, the modern Kusiyeh.

deity,Hathor.

Cynocephalus {Aroii).The
to

Thoth,

under

which

form

dog-headed the god is

ape, sacred sometimes

represented. Thoth being a moon god,the cynocephaliare frequently represented w^ith the lunar disk The Hermopolitan their heads. on sometimes eunead was represented that is,Thoth by nine cynocephali, and eightother deities ; but sometimes the eightapes attend Amen. watchers for They are called dawn." Nine the cynocephali Cynocephalus. the said in the to were gates open for the west setting sun, and each is then called Soul of the : Opener of the earth," by a name earth," ''Heart of the earth," etc. They are thus
" "

"

46

COXCTSP] in the

DI(

TTOXARY
to

OI^^
a

represented
inscribed and called of
on

illustrations of
sun

work

the walls of the The the


"

to the passage
"

royal during
scene

Theban the

frequently tombs, relating hours of night,


world." underin the
on

book Book

of that which of
a

is in the and

In

judgment

represented
on

papyri
walls
the

the el heart

the

Dead,"

at DOr

Medineh,
of the

cynocephalus is
of the beam is

seated

balance the Thoth

in the middle stands the

of the scales in

whicli while
to

deceased

being weighed,

by

with In

record

result.

and reed pen waiting palette this case the cynocephalus would

may
a

which represent equilibrium, the

naturallybe

qualityof

god

Thoth.

D
Dance.
amusement

Dancing
of the
a

as

old

favourite a spectacle was Egyptians, but it is improbable


a

the upper classes. pastime,at least among and the dance The usually women, performers were been to have would more a rhythmic movement seem than anything involving much Dancing energy. in representationsof feasts. are women usually seen They appear also in funeral processions,and in every are case accompanied by music and clapping of the that it
was

hands. dances apparently war which dances performed by men, A picture on tomb national dances. a dance. Hasan represents such a war There
were

and
were

harvest

probably
at

wall

Beni

Darius.

See Persian

Dynasty.

ECiYPTTAX Decree which the decree in council


were

ARCHAKOL()(;V A stela in the Cairo Museum

17
on

of Canopus.
in

is inscribed

to be

demotic, and Greek hieroglyphs, made at Canopus by the Egyptian priests, assembled, concerning the festivals which of Ptolemy Euergetes and held in honour
Mention ruler is also made had is added of the great conferred the upon

his queen Berenice. which benefits this

country, and

statement

tri-lingual copy every temple in


Delta.
between of Greek The

of this the

requiringthat the shall ])e set up in inscription

country.

flat alluvial land

the great arms of the This district from Memphis. letter A, received
in

Egypt lying north Nile, immediatel}'


its likeness of the Delta. of the word deemably irreto

in Lower

the

the

name

Demons

the

modern
"

sense

"

in Graeco-Egyptian largely spirits figure magical papyri in which the greater part of the spells Much addressed demons. to are importance was and their right of the demons attached to the names Khebu.) pronunciation. (Sec Maat evil

Demotic.
of the hieratic

The

name

given to
for the

cursive

modification

vulgardialect; it is not found introduced until the XXVth Dynasty. It was about B.C. 900 and was in use until the fourth century a.d. of signs as the hieratic, mixture Composed of the same it is extremely difficult to decipher,owing partly to
))O
o

used (q.v.)

^ 1 i

V
h

I ,1^4y
))
,^"

".

))

J") A\ )))

of signs which similarity and partlyto the equivalents, the thick reads and from careless. Like

have

separate
the

hieratic

fact that

writing is
hieratic it

its

parent the

rightto left. Professor H. Brugsch has publisheda but very little advancement is made

demotic
in the

grammar, studyof

IS

CONCISf]

DICTIONARY

OF

in it l^eingdone the characters, all the work by documents of demotic the Nor are men. subjects rule
very contracts texts

few
as a

and

interesting,since they consist of sale and magical legal matters ; some tale being the chief exceptions. curious a
Setna Eev.
in

chieflyof

(Papyrus of by Brugsh,
Griffith.)
Der IV. Colossi

the Cairo

Museum.

See and

trans,

Arch.,

Sept., 1867,

by

F. LI.

el Medineh. finished and Medinet

small

temple begun by Ptolemy


IX.

and

by Ptolemy
Habu.

It lies between

the

interesting specially of the as containing the only lapidary representation Psychostasia(q.r.).


and like the cubit Digit. An unit of measurement value of its The mean subject to slight variations. fessor Proat -727 inch. length may be roughly estimated Petrie has pointed out that the cubit and the relation one to the other." digit have no integral
"

It is

Diodorus work the

Siculus. in

Greek
was

fortybooks
of Julius

historian, whose derous ponis it written, supposed,


One section the
treats

after the death

Caesar.

of
to

mythic history of the Egyptians,but of Egyptology is lessened students by


evident
want

its value

author's

of discrimination.

for Pa Kheji-oi-Ament, Diospolis. The Greek name of Lower of the seventeenth nome Egypt, the capital Ea. Chief deity. Amen Ebshan. modern Parva. Diospolis of the seventh nome Hathor. Chief deity, The of Greek for Het, Egypt, the modern
name

capital
Hou

Upper

Dog.

This
was

animal

was

used

for of

desert, and

occasionally made
of the and
same

hunting in a pet of.

the The

hunting dog

was

nature

pointed uprightears now-a-days for the

curly tail.
purpose

greyhound, with used The Sluglii,


Sudan,
seem

in the

50

CONCISE have been

DICTIONARY

OF

certain date.

dreams

found, but they are

of

late

sometimes required explanation Prophetic dreams there was a by a professional expert, of whom recognized class, the Hersheshta, lasting until Greek in Egyptian lore times. Among instances of dreams : are (a)that recorded on the tablet in front of the IV. tells how the god Sphinx, in which Thothmes him (Harmakhis) appeared to him and made many promises on condition that he cleared away the sand from his image, i.e. the around Sphinx ; (b) the of Amen-em-hat Sallier Papyrus II. givesthe counsels
"

I. to dream

his
;

son,

which
was

were

revealed
a

to

that the and

son

in

(c) it
was

in

dream

that Khensu

Prince of

of the

Bekhten
to

visited his
statue

by

the
to

god
Thebes

ordered

return

(see story

possessed princess of Bekhten, on a stela in the Nationale); (d) an Ethiopian stela records Bibliotheque which had how the Pharaoh was a dream interpreted unite Egypt and Ethiopia that he would to him to mean of the Pharaoh under one sceptre; (e) the dream which was interpreted by Joseph in Genesis xli. Egyptians dyed linen, as well as wool, we they understood It is to this process of preparing of mordants. the use the dye that Pliny refers, to receive the materials exists in Egypt a wonderful he says, "There when in w^hite cloth is stained of dyeing. The method but with substances various places, not with dye stuffs, colours. which have the property of absorbing(fixing) the cloth ; but not visible upon These are applications ing when the pieces are dipped into a hot cauldron containout an instant after dyed. the dye, they are drawn circumstance The remarkable is, that though there be only one dye in the vat, yet different colours appear Dyeing.
Erom the fact that know that
on

the

the

cloth;
A several
on

nor

can

the would

colours

be

afterwards confuse

removed.
the colours it boils."

vat

which cloth

of itself

only

imparts
as

colours

previously dyed, in this way from a singledye stuff, painting

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAKOLOGY

.1

Manetho Dynasties. for the history of Egypt unknown some adopted, on thirty-one dynasties from
*'

of
use

Sebennytos,
of

who

wrote

x\lexandrine
a

Greeks,
division of

authority,
Menes
to

the
"

Macedonian

conquest,
on

and

account
one

has not, indeed prevailed system of its excellence, but because it is the only his which has
were come

complete
These into three

down

to

us."

Dynasties

Empire,
Dynasties XVIIL"

grouped together great divisions, usually called Middle I. the XI.; Dynasties
" "

by Lepsius
the Ancient

XII. XXXI.

"

XYII.

the

New

Empire,

Empire, Dynasties

Dynasties.

Name.

Duration.

I."

II. V.

Thinite
.

555

Years.
,,

^1 f

III." V^I. YII


IX.

Memphite Elephantine
I.

746
203
.,

(142
-YII ~XI.

Memphite
Heracleopolite
Theban
.

"

1
294

70

Days.
Years.

xir." XIV. XV."

XIII.

666
,,

Xoite

184
,,

XVII.

Hyksos
Theban Tanite Bubastite

(Delta)

511
,,

XVIIL"
XXI.

XX.

593
,,

130
"

XXII. XXIII. XXIV.


Oh

170
.

"

Tanite Sa'ite

89
,,

6
"

XXV.

Ethiopian
Saite Persian Saite Mendesian

50
,,

XXVI. XXVII.
SI

138
"

121
"

XXVIII. XXIX. XXX. XXXI.

7
"

21
"

Sebennyte
Persian

38
,,

8
.,

52

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

E
of the Eileithyias. The city of Lnciiia, Ciipital of Upper Egypt, the modern third nome El-Kab, and the oldest objects dating the site of a very ancient city,

Dynasty worshipped there.


to

back

VI.

The

goddess

Nekhebt

was

Electron. and

An

of amalgam consisting

two-fifths

gold

three-fifths silver. The Greek The of Ab, capital Egypt, an island opposite to chief deityworshipped there
name

Elephantine.
the first nome the modern
was

for the

of Aswan.

Upper

Khnemu.

Embalming.
elaborate and

According expensive
came

to

Herodotus
cost

the "250. the

most

process

body
"

thus

mummified

through

following

made in the incision :" First, an was processes side, the operator being ceremoniallychased away, the viscera removed and (see Canopic Jars).
"

The wine
was

cavity
and removed

thus

made

was

cleansed nostrils
sewn

with The
means

palm
brain of
a

filled with The it

myrrh, cassia, "c.


the

through
bath

by

bent end

instrument.
a

incision for

up, the and

body

was

placed in
innumerable

of natron
was

seventy days.

At the in

of this

period

washed,

swathed

placed gummed bandages. Amulets were the breast the bandages, and on and again under now^ shroud scarabaeus. was kept in a Finally,a canvas place by four or five broader bandages. Chapters from
the the "Book of the Dead
"

were

sometimes

written

on

wrappings. In a less expensive method, costing about "90, the cedar tree pitch,"which with abdomen was injected
"

Herodotus
on

states

"

had The

corrosive
contents

and
were

solvent

action

the

viscera."

afterwards

EGYPTIAN allowed every for it


to escape.

ARCHAKOLOC^Y The
natron

5:",

bath

was

common

to

method, the bodies of the poorest being prepared

by simply rinsingthe
; another
name

abdomen

with

"

smyrnaea." (q.r.).
one was

Enchorial

for Demotic

Ennead. cliief and


most

A the

cycle of
others

nine his the

of whom deities, assistants. This entire

and

cycle

represents

Egyptian Pantheon at others the gods of the particularlocality.The the Heliopolitan ennead. It important was
of Tum-Ra Seb and
as

sometimes

consisted children

chief, Shu
the
to
one

Nut, and

Tefnut, their their grandchildrenOsiris,


and

Isis,Set and
were

not

Nephthys ; but always thus related

gods

of the enneads

another.

added Epagomenal Days. The five days which were of twelve months of thirty to the old Egyptian year days, in order to bring it to the lengthof the true year. that Thoth had invented The legend was them for the of Nut. For that goddess having fallen convenience into the embraces of that her she
on

Seb,
no

was

cursed of any

by

her husband she of

Ra, who

swore

day
; but

bring
these

forth

children
was

by

year should the invention her

days {SeeYear.)
Esneh.
so

rescued

from

predicament.

The

Egyptian

S-net

the
were

Greek said

Latopolis,
to

called

because

its inhabitants

have the III.

of remains worshipped the latus fish. The temple are of the Roman period, though Thothmes built one here. originally Evil record Dendera
eye.

Eye.
existed of A
means a

There

is distinct evidence

the old among book stored in the treated she who of the
turns

that this stition superis a Egyptians. There

which

of the temple of library turningaw^ay of the evil


name was

favourite
"

w^oman's

Stau-ar-ban,

which

away

the evil

eye."

54

CONCISE Horus."

DICTIONARY
"An

OF

"Eye
God-sent

of

expression denoting

any

gift." (Erman.)
Eye,
the Sacred. The sacred
a

^^^
^^~^

eye,

or

the
"

eye

Ea, or poetic symbohsm sun, Leaven's used by poets throughout time, being a eye
of

heaven, is the

"

frequentShakesperianphrase.
who resides
two
a

Horus

says,
But

"

am

he
are

in the

middle

of the

eye."

there eyes

usually
Horus,
the

eyes left and

called and represented, a right. They sometimes the left the when earth "Call Sekhet
"

the but

of

represent,
;
some

rightthe sun, and be other meaning must


"

moon

inferred
eyes

it is said of is flooded
unto
me

Ra,
with

Thou of

openest the

two

and

rays
text

light."

When

Ra

says the

mine

eye,"

he refers to the of Kadesh The

goddess
as

{q.v.).Another
"

speaks
Utckat

of Tum."
or
"

Egyptian

w^ord

eye of Ra," and for this eye is

eye Uzat
or

which (q-v.), flourishing."

"the signifies

healthy"

Festival Songs of Isis and


not

older than of Nesi The

the

Nephthys. A XXVIth Dynasty


part of
the

work
; the

ably probauthor hieratic British of be the


to
on

is unknown. papyrus the two

It^forms
Amsu

funeral
in the

(No. (q.v.)
"

10158

Museum),

title is

The

Verses

of the Festival

Zerti," and

by two sung of the annual occasion


fourth month of the in the text that other

it was tells us the papyrus virgins in the temple of Osiris festival held
season.

for five There

days

in the

sowing

is evidence old

copiesexisted,and

that it was

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOfiV of variant of it

H^

enough
With

to
"

allow

readings having crept


of

in. the

the

Litanies

Seker," which
the
was

ing follows, consistThe


to he

of four

columns,

occupies twenty-one
papyrus. intended evidently whole

columns of thirty-three second composition,which

sung after the Festival Verses, consists of three parts : I. A Litany to the Sun-God Eecitation ; II. A hy Isis ; III. A have A

Litany to the Hathors. During the of it which it was were repetitions required, an accompaniment of tambourines.
a

teen sixto

hieratic papyrus of Berlin contains similar to the "Festival Songs." It has

work been

very
lated trans-

hy
"The

M.

de

Horrack, and
"

is entitled

"

Les

tations Lamenthe of

Nephthys iq.v.). of the verses subject throughout is destruction of Osiris hy Set, and the reconstruction his body by Isis and Nephthys."
Festivals.
Innumerable festivals
were

d'lsis et

held

during
festivals
vear

the year in honour of various gods. held in honour of the god Mix. were
was

Harvest Part of

of the

devoted of

to those
on was

held the held

in honour

end the

which,

30th
at

of the Busiris of

Osiris, at the month Khoiak, a


to
commemorate

strange festival

settingup
then

of the carried

backbone
on

the

god.

mock

was fight

priestsof different sanctuaries, possiblysymbolizing the fight between Set and Osiris. acknowledged Perhaps the most universally
of all the Nile have taken of
an

between

festivals and
a

were

those Those

in honour of

of

Hapi
seem

the
to

god,

Osmis.

Hathor
form. in her
were

somewhat At Sais

bacchanalian festival" the festivals

tell Inscriptions honour held


at

"Intoxication
to Neith.

Dendera.

dedicated principally Ptah-Seker-Osieis it fell on December of the with

At

Memphis
with

that of

was

celebrated in late of the solstice.

22nd

great pomp ; times, and was nected con-

the winter 9th

hymn

to

Amen-Ea and
act
a

speaks
of

festival

quarter month,
For every there was

of the 6th and

importance to

days of the month. the people in the vear

56

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

the cutting of the dyke, opening the specialfestival, and canals, reapingthe first sheaf carryingthe corn, On great festival occasions the image or symbol so on. carried in its specialbark of the god or goddess was round about the temple and the precincts. There
,

was,

as

priests sepulchral chambers, and the whole country lighted new lamps, and spent the night in feasting and visiting.One of the most important of the festivals was that which took the earlydays of August) place on the 1st of Thoth (i.e. which the day of the rising of Sothis on (Sirius), marked the ]:)eginning of a new year.
kindled fires in front of the
statues

Thoth,

well, the festival for the dead on when called also the fire festival,

the 17th the

of

in the

Fish.
on

The and have

fish been

are

among

the Hence with

best

drawn fish

animals

tomb

temple
of Dor

walls.

it is that modern Eed

able to

tlie identify

ichthyologists represented
Sea fish.

on

the walls the


many

el Bahri

in the Nile found specimens that were considered which several were good for food, among Wilkinson Gardiner Niloticus, jjcrca gives Lahrus nilotica, cj/prinus benni, silnnis shall,silurus schilbe Some niloticus,silurus bajad,silurus carmuth. were

Of

considered Such
were

sacred the

in

different

parts of the

country.

oxyrhinchus,the latus, the phagrus, and former to two the lepidotus. The gave their names well as as a places. That fishingwas great industry, be of the chief sports and amusements, one may of Nets gathered from the pictures on tomb walls.
various fish.

kinds, hooks, and


It is evident that

spears

were

used

for

catching

preserved and fed they were for the table in private ponds, and here the Egyptian himself by fishing with a line, or gentleman amused going out in a small l)oat to spear the fish with a bident. fished for his livelihood, The ordinary fisherman, who used a net ; a drag net is often worked by two boats. both fresh and salted. The fish thus caught were eaten bone, and opened out, exposingthe backThe latter were split Herodotus salted, and hung out in the sun.

58

CONCISE commanded sometimes Semneh

DICTIONARY sometimes

OF of the

which South."

was

Thebes, and
At

by the
and

"

by the nomarch superintendent of


in

just III. (Dynasty XIL), above the second cataract, Usertsen erected two great forts immediately opposite to each
the southern other, to bar the w^ater-way against Most of
"

Kummeh,

Nubia,

tribes.

the

cities of ruins

ancient

Egypt
On,
still

were

strongly
and Sais. the other

fortified

notably Thebes, Ombos,


of which
are

San

El-Kab, the
oldest walled fortresses
are

standing,is

cityin Egypt.
stillin existence.

The

ruins of many

Foundation
the of the
corners

Deposits. The chief followingplaces : Naukratis ;


"

finds have
at

been
corners

at

the four
ones

great temenos,
of the central of of fort.
"

and hall.
" "

two

smaller
;
on

at

the
a

Illahun

the site of
; at

ruined
corners corners

pyramid, five pits.


a

Tell Defenneh

the four andS.E.

Tell Nebesheh

; at the N.E.

;" also at destroyed limestone building three corners, (notN.E.) and centre, of a temple built Aahmes II. of the XXVIth Dynasty. Gemaiyemi ; l)y at three corners, (not N.E.) and centre of a building. Der-el-Bahri the temple of Hatshepsut.; beneath of area Kahun of temple built by centre ; in the Usertsen II.,a hole 31 ins. sq. by 4 feet deep, four A Ptolemaic find. sets of objects. Alexandria ; a tion recording the foundagold plate with an inscription
a
"
" "
" "

of the temenos Ptolemaic

at Kanobos

to

Osiris,is also of the

period. The pits in which usuallyclosed by one


two
were:

the

deposits were

placed

were

slabs with

sand

slab of stone, or, as at Illahun, by The objectsdeposited between.

plaques of gold, silver,lead, copper, carnelian, felspar, lapis lazuli,jaspar, terra-cotta, and green enamelled various kinds, some ware ; pottery of ceremonial imitations of largerones evidently ; ; mortars
corn-rubbers
;

bones

of

sacrificial animals

libation

mud cups; specimens of various ores; At Tukh-el-Karmus carnelian beads.

of bricks; strings blue thirtj^-two

porcelain saucers

formed

part of

the

deposit.

In

the

ECiYPTTAX four

ARCHAKOT.OCV
were
no

.",0

of Naukratis at the temenos deposits there are eight objects. In later deposits beads
; but the

sixtycarnehan
are

model memoirs

tools and of

corn-rubbers

still

present. {See Fund.) Frog.

the

Egypt

Exploration

See Amulets. Cones.

Funerary
inches

Kough

terra

cotta

cones

about

ten

high and three inches across, with horizontal the base, which lines of inscription were on usually of the coloured. The gives the name inscription been proposed as to Various theories have deceased. but it is most of these objects, the probable use likely that cakes of loaves or models that they w^ere were placed in the tomb, and neither seals, architectural sites. for sepulchral marks ornaments nor

G
Games. tomb and walls
even,

The have
mora,

games their and

that

have

been modern the

pictured
ones.

on

analogiesin draughts are


at
a

Odd

Shooting
a

with

arrows

frequent. mark, throw^ing javelinsat


most

block

of wood

and

form
men

of "la have

"

grace

also

occur.

and Many draught-boards is impossible to recover know from


many

been

found, but it

the

in w^hich it was the way the varietyof boards discovered Mora ways. also played is the
name

rules of the game to or played. It is evident that there in


were a

given now"

Italyto

by the old Eomans, which consists in of one suddenlyholding up a certain number person for an instant,the other player having to guess fingers Games the number. played with dice belong to late times. {SeeSports.)
game

()0

COXC A the

rSE

DTCTIOXARY of
to

OF

Gardens. luxuries of

garden

was

one

the most the several

wealthy, owing are perpetual irrigation. There plans,of gardens on tomb walls.
trees

expensive necessity for pictures,or


rows

and

shrubs,
and
a

one,

two,

or

more on

They show ponds with


trellises, and

of

water-

plants,fish

boat, vines

small

kiosques.
Glass.
to

The

manufacture

of

glass was

the

white
to

could Egyptians, but they never and absolutely transparent,from certain chemical The
a

earlyknown make it quite their inability


It
was

eliminate

substances. manufacture

has
an

always
exact

greenish tinge.
Strabo
an

not

science, their chemistry was


was

empirical,and
was

the that

I'esults uncertain.

told in iVlexandria which of middle

Egypt possessed
suitable
*'

"earth"
in the

for the
"

manufacture

peculiarly glass. Possiblythis


ages we Alexandria find the

earth

was

soda, for

Venetians

for the importing soda from of glass manufacture. On early tomb walls purpose are seen men working glasswith a blow-pipe. Glass was employed for vessels of many shapes, and also for enamelling. In rare cases inscriptions very largely filled in with cut in the wooden it. sarcophagiwere amulets and beads were made of it. Beakers, figurines,

hieroglyphs["m"^. It was in common in Egypt, vases, use rings cups, ingots,plaques and The rings may be being depictedon the monuments. in scales, seen being weighed, doubtless a substitute for ledge. coinage, of which the ancient Egyptians had no knowobtained so-called The from the gold was
"

Gold.

In the

Arabian and

Nile the

the desert," that is, the country between the Eed the veins of quartz in Sea, where contain

mountains

gold, and

from
"

Nubia.

The

as inscriptionsspeak of different qualities,such mountain gold," gold of twice," gold of thrice," "c. or largely Gilding, "overlaying with gold" was objects in stone, wood, and other materials practised, well as the heads of mummies as being thus decorated.
"

"

EGYPTIAN Even scarabs of

ARCHAEOLOCiY

(51

lapislazuli
chambers
or

were

sometimes

gilded.
ing standoven-

{SeeJewellery.)
Granaries.
in
a row

Large
of had
no

built of brick and

ten

twelve.

They
wuth

were

shaped
The
corn

and
was

communication

each

other.

poured in through an opening'atthe top and removed through a small door at the bottom. The were guarded,and w^ere under granaries kept carefully of the the care Superintendentof the Granaries."
"

from Syene, i.e. Aswan, whence Syenite, it was most extensively quarried,is found in great in Egypt. There are pink and red syenites, variety porphyritic granite, yellowy grey, black, and white

Granite,

or

kinds
are

; to

and be

others found Granite

veined
a

with small

white
area

or

with the

black first

within
was

round of

cataract.

in the

of building The

used in largely temples,the making

all its varieties


phagi, royal sarco-

obelisks,tabernacles, ofiicial stelae and colossi,


statues.

finer

grained

kinds

w^ere

even

used

objects such as amulets. pyramids were originally partlycased


for small

The

principal

in this material.

H
Hair remedies Restorer. Medical There
are

several which
are

in prescriptions said
to

the Ebers

Papyrus

be

sure

for restoring hair to the for baldness, and colour after it had turned white. Queen Shesh, original of King Teta, of the Vlth Dynasty, found the mother
an

excellent

the

remedy for the fallingout followingpomade, made of the hoof


and found
some

of her hair of
a

in

donkey, a

dog's pad
all boiled
was

together in

date kernels, wdiich were to be oil. Another sovereignremedy


use

to

be

in the

of the

plantDcgcni.

To

62

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF
restore

prevent the hair from becoming white or to to its youthfulcolour,a remedy could be made
blood
"

it the

of in

"

of made

black of the
an

calf that horn of


a

had

been also black

boiled
"

oil." the also

The

blood

black
was
a

bull

boiled in oil for


was
"

and
same

into

ointment
"

useful It

purpose.

The

fat of

snake
was

thought to produce excellent results. the hair of a "hated possible to cause


out, for which
and it was purpose in oil the flower sepet and necessary
a

equally
to

rival"
to boil

fall

together
worm,

kind particular rival. in the

of

get

it

put

on

the head
was
an

of the antidote
a

Against this,
fat of the had

however,

there

hippopotamus, with which been pounded up, but then


"

boiled

tortoiseshell
must

the head

be anointed

very, very

often." Hamhit. of A

goddess spoken
as
"

of

on

the

stela of Mendes
one

Hamhit

the

Mendes,
of the

the wife of the

powerful god in the

temple

ram,

lady
She

of

heaven,

the eye of the sun, the of all the gods." queen


a

is

representedwith
Name of the

fish

on

her head. bull


at

Hap. Memphis. Hapi.


under female.
Hamhit.

sacred

(SeeApis.)
The form his
seen

Nile of
a

deified human

the In

figure, partlymale
sometimes and is
a
a

and hands

partly
are

table

of
are

offerings upon
lotus
on

which
vases,

Howers

libation

while

his head

bunch

of lotus flowers.

Hapi. One of the four sons of Horns, the funerary genii who also represent the four cardinal points,and were tectors proof the four canopic jars(q-r.). He is represented with the head of a cynocephalus. (SeeAmset.)

Hapi.

EGYPTIAN Harem. of the word Pharaohs of the The did had Harem
not

AKCIIAEOLOGV in the modern times. hut it Turkish Some


seems
"

(";j

sense

exist in old wives


;

of the

several the
"

quite

incompatihlewith
house

is

the tress mislanguage in which spoken of, that the practiceof have been
common. we

polygamy
A few with
two

and

concubinage should
occur

instances wives.

in which

find records

of

men

Harmakhis. Hor
"
-

The
or

Egyptian
Horniakhu,
horizons."

em

Kliuti of the

Horus is
more

two

the rising especially and as such was represented sun, the by the great Sphinx on is also pyramid plateau. He called Ea-Harmakhis as god of picted Heliopolis. He is always dewith
a

He

hawk's

head

and

usuallywith (Sec HOKUs.)


Haroeris. for
a

the disk and

uraeus.

The of

Greek

name

called Horus, Egyptian "the elder," and form of


one

in
son was

Harmakhis.

form

of Hathor.

He

and the double worshipped at Letopolis(g.v.), temple dedicated Oml)o Kom at and was partly to him he was said to be a In later timss partlyto Sebek. of Ea. son (See Horus.)

Harp.
the tomb

This

instrument Sometimes other

was

in it

the earliest sometimes


an

times, many
walls. with

varieties

Egypt from being depicted on was played alone,


use

in

instruments,

and

sometimes

as

number of accompaniment to the voice. The four to twenty-two. Some varied from were strings of great size, the musician More standing to play. the ground. The his heels on often he sat on strument inthe ground or either rested on was sup

64

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

ported by
was

kind

often

It of prop. ornamented with


in
of

elaborate

designs
Lay

colours.

(See Harper,

the.)
A chant before

Harper; Lay
or

of the. is written

song

"

that

the
on

harper,"which
the walls and of two

is inscribed tombs
at

Thebes Harris

transcribed

in the

Harper.

Papyrus. It is not a religious chant, but rather a in the strain moralizing poem of the ScripturalEcclesiastes.
One version
his

ends

thus

"

For Yea

no no

one one

carries
returns

away

goods
has

witli
gone

him,
thither."

again in

who

translation

may

be found

'"

Eecords

of the Past,"

vol. iv.

Harpocrates.
Horus,
his his sented
son

The He

Greek the is and

name

for of

of

Isis, and

avenger

father

Osiris.

always

repi'e-

in human

form,

usuallywith

to finger

his mouth. Sec Hatshepsut. One of the

Hatasu. Hathor.

most

important
Pantlieon. House
a

goddesses
Her
name

of

Egyptian signifies"the
in
one

the

of

Horus,"

and

aspect she is
sun

sky
and form and

goddess, settingin
is
as

Horus her. such

the Her of she the

rising
known in later with

best

the As

goddess

beauty, love,
was

joy.

times their

Harpocrates.

by Aphrodite. Many festivals were and the great temple at Dendera


Greeks

identified

lield in her
was

honour,
to her

devoted

66

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

and which

besides
w^re

brought to

Punt, and At Karnak she skins, incense, and wild animals. erected two obelisks,the greater one being to celebrate in the sixteenth year of her reign. It the Sed festival,
is
was

of the precioustrees, returningwith some planted in the garden of Amen, they the allegiance their queen of the people of of electron,ebony, ivory, rich gifts leopard

in

nearly100 ft. high, and is cut out of red granite; it and set up quarriedat Aswrm, inscribed,polished, its place in the incredibly short period of seven
Hawk.
This of bird
was

months. sacred If any it may


to

Horus, and

was

frequentlymummified.
with the head
Avas one a

hawk

that he Heh

of the solar The head with


a

deity is represented be safely concluded gods. eternity. He is represented A feminine form, frog.
heads, sometimes
cat.
a a

or

Hehu. the

god
of

of
a

with

Heht, is shown
uraeus,

different

sometimes A form

sheep, or

Heken. of
a

of Ta-urt and

with represented of
a

the

body

hippopotamus

the head The

vulture.

Heqt.
mother is rather
was

of

frog-headed goddess, the sometimes Haroeris and {q-v.),


the wife of Khncnm. but with her into upon it is evident the Her role that she
rection, resur-

spoken of

as

vague,

associated and

the idea of the

symbol,
Christian
terra-cotta

carried

on

often found

frog, was times, being lamps.


for

Heliopolis. The
Anint
Heqt. from which Lower The

Greek

name

^ [R

of capitalof the thirteenth nome the modern Egypt, near Matariyeh. chief deity was Ra, the sun god,
name comes.

fact the Greek whence

It

was

the

ScripturalOn, Annu.)

Joseph

took

his

wife.

[See

EGYPTIAN Hennu. the The sacred dawn.


"

ARCITAROLOCiY boat which drawn

67

was

through

temples at
theism.

(See Barks.)

phase of rehgious thought, in which not conceived the individual are gods invoked limited by the power of others." as (Eenouf.) Each god is to the mind of the suppliantas good all other gods. He is felt at the time as a real as and absolute in spite of the as divinity, supreme of mind limitations w^hich to our a plurality necessary entail on gods must every single god. All the rest is to and he only who disappearfrom the vision fulfil their desires stands before the eyes in full light of the worshippers." (Max Miiller.)
Heno A
"
. . .

Hermes the author remain. Greeks Clemens had

Trismegistos.
of Much under several

''

Hermes

thrice his

great"
name.

was

works, of which
attaches
to

only fragments
The into their Thoth

mystery
the
name

adopted the Egyptian god


of Hermes.
wrote

pantheon

Alexandrinus, Thoth

According to forty-twobooks,

probably dates from the XXVIth Dynasty. But only very small parts of these works of that remain in the writings of Stobaeus and others These time. been claimed by some again have authorities as post-Christian, of their similarity because of Neo-platonic waiters. to the works
the latest of w^hich Greek for Seten henen, name Magna. Heracleopolis the capitalof the tw^entieth nome of Upper Egypt, the modern Ahnasieh. Chief deity, Hershefi.

Heptanomis.
of
seven nomes

district of Middle and the


oases,

Egypt, consisting the lying between

Tiiebaid

and

the Delta.

Her-hor.

Dynasty

XXI.,
The chief

circa

B.C.

1100.

]
the

priestof
who

Amen

at

end

of

the

XXth

Dynasty,

wrested

the

08

CONCISE the of

DICTIONARY

OF

throne himself

from
"

effete Eamessides, and


and Lower limited

Upper king speaking,was strictly power, and Ethiopia.


Hermonthis.
**

proclaimed Egypt." His

to the Thebaid

The

Greek Karnak.

name

for Jnnu
nome

qemdt, the
of

Southern the

of the foijrth On," capital modern Chief

Egypt, war god.

Upper Mentu, the deity,

Hermopolis.
of the El fifteenth

The
nome

Greek

name

for

Pa-Tehuti, capital
the modern

of Lower Thoth deity, Greek


nome

Egypt,

Bakaliyeh.

Chief

{tekuti).
for

Hermopolis. capital of the


modern Eshmunen.

The

name

Khemenmi,

the the

fifteenth

of

Upper

Egypt,

Chief second

Thoth. deity, book


a

Herodotus. called he is has

The in w^hich

of Herodotus'

"Euterpe," gives
appear recorded
cases

history of

history, Egypt, many


Much that

statements

extravagant.

from where

but in the

hearsay is doubtless incorrect, he speaks as an eye-witness he

found generally

to be accurate.

Hersheli, Arsaphes. A

form

of

Osiris

generally

representedwith

ram's

head. for the divisions of

Hesepti. The Egyptian the country. [SeeNomes.)

name

Hesepti.
years. Berlin. Dead Het.
"

Eifth

king
and

of

Dynasty
in

He

is mentioned 64 said to date

the of

I. ; reigned twenty Medical Papyrus in the


"

Books
are

130 back

Book

of

the

to his

reign.
of

name nome

of the chief of The

town

Parva, Diospolis

the seventh

Upper Egypt.
sacred
name

Het-sekhem.

of the

of metropolis

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY Hathor

60
were

Diospolis Parva. worshipped.


Hieratic.
The and

and

Nephthys

here

cursive form

of

language,

used

chieflyon

writingthe Egyptian papyri and wooden

coffins.
to
so

is

usuallywritten from right and very rarelyin columns as left, hieroglyphsare into use often engraved. How earlyhieratic came but fragments of papyri inscribed with unknown,
The

characters

are

these

characters

have
town

been
at

found

in the ruins

of the

oldest Elephantine. The is the Prisse Papyrus (Bibliotheque hieratic document Nationale, Paris), datingfrom about the Xlth Dynasty. until the fourth century a.d. in use This script was

Vlth

Dynasty

Hieraconpolis. The capital of the twelfth


modern Kau el Kebir.

Greek
nome

name

for

Niit-enf-bak,
the

Chief

Upper Egypt, Horus. deity,

of

character employed Hieroglyphs. The hieroglyphic form it a pictorial, originally by the Egyptians was

70 retained

CONCISE
or a

DICTIONARY
case

OF of stone-cut of

more

less in the The

until

late date.

invention

inscriptions this script

The
a
/

Alphabet.
m

sh

ni

kh

cl

was

attributed

to

the

all

knowledge
out, and
Stone

of the it
was

god Thoth. meaning of


not

By
the

about

300

a.d.

characters

had the

died

until

the

discovery of

Rosetta

in 1799 that any real (q.v.) was progress made in their decipherment. We know that the now sounds and signs are of two kinds, those representing those called 2^^onetic and ideorepresentingideas Of the former, the phonetic characters, there grajjJiic. two and the syllabic. The are kinds, the alj^hahetic of the objects ideographic signsare pictorial representations spoken of,which are placed after the phonetically written word to "determine it,and hence they are
"

"

determinatives.

genericand
a

class

"

as

Determinatives of two are kinds, the former sioecific, being determinative of for instance the pictureof the hide of an

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY animal read


are

71 the latter of
a

animal, indicating merely

an

"

object. particular
from or left, there side towards
are

The

texts

either from

rightto

left to

or right,

arranged
commences

being no

rule. which

The the

text

in columns, the from animal

bird

and

other

facing. There are about 500 characters in frequent use. Many of the syllabicsigns are polyphonous. The cursive form of the hieroglyphic this In later times script is called hieratic (q.v.). cursive form degeneratedinto a much simplercharacter called demotic. {SeeSeten-hetep-ta.)
characters

Hipponus.

The

Greek

name

for

Ilet-bennu, the
the

capitalof
modern Hiser. El

the

of Upper Egypt, eighteenthnome Anubis. Hibeh. Chief deity,


name special

of the

Temple

of Thoth

at

Hermopolis.
Hit. A form of Bes found {q.v).,
at Dendera.

Hittites.

{SeeKheta.)

in Honey. The Egyptians evidently succeeded of flowers, for keeping bees, in spite of the scarcity recipes. honey enters frequently into their medical There for is
some

evidence dead.

that in late times

it

was

used

preservingthe

Hophra.

{See Uah-ab-Ea.
attributes the

//Hor-Amen. A complex deity, having the


of Horus
as

added

to those

of Amen.

He

is

represented
mouth,

Horus, with the


wears

side lock and

fingerto

and

the disk and The


on

plumes
of

of Amen. fourth

HorapoUo.
work It is
in Greek

author

century,
is known
an

a.d.,

hieroglyphs. Nothing
is called
a
"

of

the author

except that he
he
was

that probai)le

Copt,and

that

Egyptian." the original

72 of his

CONCISE written

DICTIONARY

OF

work

was

in
one

the Coptic, about


was

Greek
we

form know

being a translation nothing except that


HorlDehutet.
with which
are

by
his

whom

name

Phihp.
He is also the sented repre-

The

winged

disk.
on

two

m-aei, one

either side of the

disk,

sometimes Lower North

Upper

and

of crowns depictedwearing Egypt ; they represent the desses godand

of the

South, Uazit

and

Nekhebt.

deity who traversed Egypt with the sun god Ea, warding off evil from him and His symbol was placed over conquering his enemies. doors of the temples to protect the gates and chamber Edfu destruction. from the place where them was honoured the nome he was as god.
Horbehutet
was a

solar

Hor-em-heb,

XVIIIth Bd-ser-Jihejyeru,

Dynasty,

cir.

V^

A^/SAAA

AAAAAA

-/-L\-"

^^-Y^^

\^^

\^J

^J\ bably pro-

1332-1323 the

B.C.,

married of the

Nezem-mut,
IVth's

who

was

sister of

Amen-hetep

little is known
seems

abuses

reignof this king been to have occupied in checking chiefly the militaryclass. that prevailed among
Eyes (*S'ee A Edfu. form He
of

Very queen. his time ; and


the

Hor-merti.

Horus.) worshipped at humanas represented


Horus

Hor-sam-taui.
Dendera headed. and

of is

of followers The ShemsU'heru or Kor-shesu, Horus who, according to the Turin Papyrus, are sup.

74 who became Greek

CONCISE

DICTIONARY his

OF father's

waged

war

against Set,
with
was

murderer,
sun,

identified

Horus

the

rising

the

forms worshipped in many and under names throughout Egypt. As a many child he was with the side lock of hair, represented and As a frequentlywith his fingerto his mouth. solar deityhe figures with either as a hawk or man a the As of crowns. a hawk's head, wearing a variety in his full strength," he is sometimes sun merged in Ea. Eyes op Haepoceates, (See Haemakhis, HOEUS.)

Apollo.

He

"

Hyksos.

word

probably
tribes
"

derived

from

haq,

prince, and
"

inhabitingthe eastern Of the Hyksos desert. erroneously called Shepherd that is absolutely certain. Kings very littleis knowm been barbaric to have a They appear people from the east, who, taking advantage of a period of weakness, into Egypt, established their own poured down Ha-uart and, after restoring government, (Tanis), from After 511 years they were Memphis. governed I. and forced expelledfrom Lower Egypt by Aahmes I. finally into the Delta. Thothmes expelled them, and they retreated into the country from whence they came. originally Up to the present time there have only been found and of the three remains Hyksos kings, Khian it is thought Apepi I. and II.,under the last of whom of The that Joseph served. genuineness of many in museums found the so-called Hyksos monuments has been doubted by eminent Egyptologists. hymns that have been in praiseof Ea, the are preserved the greater number sun-god. But there are also hymns to Ptah, Osiris, and Hathor. the Nile, Amen, According to Eenouf side of Egypthese hymns represent the henotheistic tian often ideas The in them are expressed religion. and the conceptionof the Deity is in such very lofty, But language as would be employed in these times.
Hymns.
the Of number of

Shasii,the

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

75

there is mixed invariably up with these fine passages chief a teaching. The great deal of polytheistic hymns that have been studied are, Hymn to the Nile, in the Sallier Papyrus, translated by Maspero ; Hymn XXth lated in a Cairo papyrus, to Amen, Dynasty, transstela in to Osiris, on a by Grebaut ; Hymn Paris, translated by Chabas ; a pantheistic hymn from the temple of El Khargeh, translated by Brugsch, at to the Aten, in a tomb Birch, and Eenouf ; Hymn Tel el Amarna, translated by Bouriant Breasted and ; of of "Book in 15th the the to Ea, Hymn chapter the Dead (TurinPapyrus),translated by Weidemann and others. {SeeHenotheism.)
"

Hypocephalus.
found It is under the

A disk of heads

paintedlinen

or

of

bronze,

of Graeco-Eoman

mummies.

reallya form of amulet, and is inscribed with of gods the Hathor cow magical formulae and figures them and is designed to being invariablyamong for the obtain warmth runs body. An inscription of the the border round the disk, other representations the field. A scene across being drawn frequently o f is depicted one consisting cynocephalus apes adoring Part of the border inscripthe solar disk in his bark. tion follows : Chief of the gods, come thou runs as of the hypoceto the Osiris Hor [name of the owner phalus]
"

"

"

madtlihent. his who who and


ever.

Grant
one

that there be warmth of


runs

under the

head, for he
Another himself shineth in the is

was

thy
whose

followers."
:
"

prayer

thus in his

May
is

(Weidemann.) god,

hidden,

and

face
forms

concealed,

upon

the world

underworld, grant that my May the great god in his disk give his rays
of and
an

of existence, soul may live for in


me

the
an

underworld
entrance
or

Heliopolis. Grant
exit in the

thou

unto

underworld

withoiit

let

hindrance."

(Budge.)
any hall the such the as roof

Hypostyle. The name given to of which is supported by columns,

great

76

CONCISE
at

DICTIONARY which
was

OF

hypostylehall
over.

Karnak

roofed originally

Hypselis.
of the Shodb. Human Chief

The

Greek
nome

name

for

eleventh

of

Upper

Shas-hetep, capital Egypt, the modern

Khnemu. deity, It remains


scenes

Sacrifice. whether about Nor


scenes

point
Pharaoh battle. certain
were

the

pylon

disputed representing the


a

still

to kill his

bound

enemies the

indicates

the
a

the captivesto practice of sacrificing


can

god
that

after

it be death 1ms

positively proved
we are a

that order him


were

from
that and
so

in tombs

to

learn
man

victims

killed at the
or spirits

of other

rich world. the

in follow

their the

{seeKa) might
survive

minister Theban

to him

in the
not

If this

custom

did

civilization
*'

of

the

Empire. M. Maspero has occasional persistenceof human


simulated,
even

On the written, sacrifice,real or second Theban

into

the times

of the

Empire."

I
lamblichus.
A

Syrian Neo-platonistof
has been ascribed
**

the

fourth

century
book
"

a.d., to whom

Egyptian Mysteries,"or the master Ab-Amen to Porphyry's letter to Anebo, and therein of the doubts solutions expressed," a work of Egyptian religion. to the student interesting
On
the

the celebrated of Answer

Ibis.

The

bird

sacred

to

Thoth,
the

that of
an

god being
ibis. It

frequentlyrepresented with

head

EGYPTIAN the Ibis

ARCHAEOLOGY
north of of

was

Wady
the
name

Haifa.

is not found which AetJiiopica, forms The bird as a hieroglyph

part

of Thoth.
Spc

Ideograms.
Im-hetep.
r..c.,

Hieroglyphs. of

Eighth king
years.

Dynasty IV.,

cir. 3730

reignednine
A He

Imhetep.
Greeks
to

god

called
likened

Imuthcs, and
Nut

by the by them
of Powers buted attribuilt to and the

Asklepios.
exorcism
to him.

is the first-born

Ptah, and
of him

is his mother. and A the Greek

between and

healing were temple was Serapcum


His times.

of village in Saite and


m^n
an

Abusir.

cult increased Statuettes


as

represent him wearing a close cap and


reliefs open roll of papyrus The Greek What
on

young often with his knee. of

Imhetep.

Imuthes.
Incubator. deserves the with
rearers

form

Imhetep [q^v.).
our

"

most

excites the

wonder,
not

and

the

is greatestpraise, of fowls and of natural


an

shown industry

by

geese,

who,

contented in other bv
an

the

course

procreationknow^n
number hand of the

countries, hatch

infinite their

birds

artificial process. the hens, they with

Dispensing with
own

incubation

of

maturity;
not means."

and

the young

chickens

inferior in any

respect to those

bring the eggs to thus produced are hatched by natural

(Diodorus i. 74.)
See Pigments.
to

Ink. Iron.

Egypt analogous to that


metal
are rare

seems

have

had

no

''iron

age"

of many countries. until about 800 B.C.

Examples of the The of difficulty

78

CONCISE will
account

DICTIONARY for
was

OF to accoixling abhorrence by

obtaining it
some

this, but
held
to

authorities

the metal
was

in

the much

Egyptians and
may iron have tools

dedicated
few

Set, which
found.

w^ould

also account

for the

examples

Moreover,

Many

disappeared simply from oxidation. of the Graeco-Egyptianperiod were


excavations Isis.
or

obtained

during the

at Naukratis.

The is the

goddess
and She
a

Hest of and and


seat
or

Aset

daughter
wife is the is
name.

Seb

and

Nut,
as

sister of Osiris.

always

represented
wears on

woman,

her head

throne

"

which her

also

the But

hieroglyphfor
at times

she

wears

other

dresses, headvulture is the such

the particularly cap, the disk and the double crown. mother
seems

horns, and
She
as

of

Horus, and

to be

merged
She
was

in Hathor the
true

Isis.

at

times. motherhood. his

type
Osiris she find

of

wifehood
been

and

Her

husband

having spared no by her


because

killed and in her in her aided

body

hidden
to

by Set,

pains
was

search tions lamenta-

him, and

sister

Nephthys.
dead

It is therefore,

of every
so

become the

an are

Osirian, that
and feet of tomb

person having these two desses godthe in


on

frequently represented
mummy walls, and

at

head

the

pictures on sarcophagi. With


forms her.
a
"

Osiris and

Horus,
triads. dedicated

Isis The
to

one

of the best known


at

great temple
In the

Philae

was

legend of

Ea

she

figuresas
also the
Isis.

magician ; and she great enchantress."

is called

EGYPTIAN Israel 10ft. 3in. Stela. in the


A

ARCTIxYKOLOGY block of of black


across,
a

71)

measurinf^ syenite,
13in. thick, found of Mer-en-Ptah at

high, 5ft. 4in.


ruins

and

temple used in the first placeby Amen-hetep It was Thebes. of his rehgious inscribed it a record on III., who His son, Khubenefactions to the temple of Amen. the erased en-Aten a great part of it, particularly restored by of Amen was names ; but the inscription by
Petrie Seti I. his
on

Mer-en-Ptah
blank side he

took

the

stone

and

built it into Then of his

temple with
the

the inscribed carved

face
a

to

the wall.
account

long

Libyan invaders, followed by a record of of various a Syrian campaign, with an enumeration which tribes and peoples. Among them occurs a name is thought by many to refer to the Israelites of the follows: The Bible. runs as "Vanquished passage Kheta the Tahennu are are quieted; (Hittites) ; the with all violence ; taken is ravaged is Pa-Kanana of the Askadni (Askelon?); seized is Kazmel ; Yenu as though it had not existed ; the Syrians is made it hath no seed ; Syria has people of Ysiraal is spoiled, widows of the land of Egypt ; all lands become as together are in peace." The stela is in the Cairo
defeat of the
"

museum.

The

name

I-s-r-a-e-1-u has of is in the Cairo

been

found

on

another

stela of the time

Mer-en-Ptah, and identified


Museum.

by Spiegelberg. It Ithyphallic god. Ivory. Though


been

See

x4.msu.
of

ivory objects wellfound, we elephantwas from the earliest times, since the animal known figures of Elephantineas far back in the name as a hieroglyph the Yth as Dynasty. The perishablenature of the for the small number of the material probablyaccounts and for small used for inlaying finds. It was furniture, such as combs, dice, and objects, spoons, ornaments, also been found. castanets ; boomerangs of ivoryhave it was dyed red or green, and sometimes Occasionally it was engraved with the pointand filled in with black.
no

great number
that the

has

know

80

CONCISE of

DICTIONARY

OF found

Hands breasts of his

and of

arms

ivory
In at

have 1898

been

laid

on

the

mummies.

excavations several

Nekhen,
other

found

figurines and

Quibell, in the course opposite to El Kab, objects in ivory.

Jewellery.
been

A the

considerable

amount

of

jewellery

has

of greater part of it in the form of carnelian, turquoise, lazuli, amethyst, etc., beads The and faience, which were arranged in necklaces. has the of burying ornaments custom on mummy of the fine examples jeweller's preserved to us many

found,

work,
Museum.
as

the

best The

of work

which

may of the New

be

seen

in
was

the very

Cairo

Empire

fine,

of the bracelets, gold and inlaid work collars, and pectoral of Queen Aah-hetep show, but is of the almost surpassed by that of the ornaments of cloisons The Dahshur. Xllth at Dynasty found filled with carnelian, turquoise, lapis lazuli gold are of paste, though and other precious stones, instead More used. that also was recently, wonderful chased of cast bracelets and gold, and amethyst and w^hich found been lazuli at Abydos, beads have are of Zer, of the thought to have belonged to the queen 1st Dynasty. {See Eings.) the beautiful

Judgment.

See

Psychostasia.

82 and

CONCISE These
one or

DICTIONARY
were more use

OF

mummified.

exact
were

likenesses in
a

of the serdab

deceased, and

placed
Ka.
a

in the tomb (q.v.) had a special Ka cartouche


on a

for the
name

of the in
was

Each

king

enclosed It

kind

banner.

not

of square only human

beings who had Kas but everything,gods, localities, and in order that the Ka might be well furnishings, were served, objects he might be supposed to want and broken free their in the tomb. The to Kas, placed idea is almost equivalent to Paracelsus' theory of astral bodies. (See Seten-hetep-ta.)
Kabasos. eleventh The chief
nome

Greek

name

for

of the Ilebcs-ka,capital the modern Horbeit.

of Lower Isis.

Egypt,

deitywas
A

Kadesh. of all her." She with She

goddess,
eye
one

"

Lady
there
a

of

Heaven,
no

gods, the
was

of of

Ea,

exists

governess second to

introduced
was

Egypt probablya Phoenician

into

of group of at the time

foreigndivinities Dynasty XVIII. and synonymous deity,

Astarte.

Ka-ka-u, second
nine

king of Dynasty II.,reignedthirty-

established the He is said to have (?) years. worship of the Apis bulls at Memphis, the Mnevis and the sacred at bulls at Annu rams (Heliopolis), Mendes. {SeeApis.) Kamit. the
"

The

ancient

name

of

Egypt,

which

means

black

land." The dead corruptible, of


a

Khat. the

ideogram

necessary that it so and sdhu

to embalm

body, symbolized by This dead fish. body it was in order to preserve it from decay,
the future become
a

might

in

sdJm

or

and glorified in the

mcorruptiblebody, possessed of khat probably stands The power.


same

ledge knowto

the
to

relation that the aw/xa

a-apKo^

does

the (Ttu/xa TTt'eu/xartKos.

{SeeSahu.)

EGYPTIAN

ARCIIAKOLOGY

83

Khaf-Ra

J
those well of known Khufu httle
to

the

Khephren
His

of the

Greeks, third king of the IVth


stands Gizeh. his of between

Dynasty.
and of
us

pyramid
at

Men-kau-Ra

Inscriptionssay
are

this from

Pharaoh,

but

features

diorite statue
a

discovered
near

by

M.

Mariette

the fine green at the bottom The very

pit in a temple workmanship of this


state
same

the

Sphinx.
a

splendid
advanced in the
were

statue
were

indicates

of art.

There

several

other

statues

place, but all, having been thrown broken. tell us Fragments of inscriptions
name

in,
that

the

of

Khaf-Ea's The red

wife

Pyramids.) erroneously,called the probably built by this monarch.


Khaib,
left the the. its The shadow It is

(See granite temple usually, but Temple of the Sphinx was


was

Meri-s-anch.

of

man

or

woman,
a

which

body

at death

to continue

elsewhere

separate
of

entityof
a

own.

representedunder

the form

sunshade.

Khem.
Khensu

{SecAmsu.)
or

Khonsu. He

The is

third
son

god

in the Theban andMut.


as

triad,the
a

of Amen and deity,

lunar

such
as

is confused, and

sometimes,
with assumed is then Thoth.
a

at

Edfu, identified

He solar

occasionally
character, and
a

with represented
was

hawkof the

head, and

emblematic He from
was

rising
as we

sun.

also

an

exorcisor XXth of

of find

in spirits
a

later times, tale of the


we

Dynasty, his image being


to
cure a

where

read
to
Khensu.

sent

Bekhten

possessed

84

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

He is represented as swathed, princessthere. tightly side lock of the His youth. wearing proper symbol,
worn on

the

head, is the
a

sun

disk
are

in the

the

crescent,
of

and life

he

carries

staff and

on

which

emblems

-V-stability u
or

dominion

/\
.

Kheper
The actual

of the principalgods. Khepera. One w^ord Kheper signifies becoming or turning,


in

the

sense

of
a a

transformation, and
of the
as or a a

the He He head

god
is

is

type of the resurrection.


form

is also for

risingsun.
man

represented
a

with
a

beetle beetle became and may

head,
his

with

man's The

surmounted

by

beetle.

being
a

emblem, probably symbol of the resurrection,


account

thus of that On
in

for the in been


stones

tudes multiand
in
seen

beetles have tomb boat the his

faience

found he is
sun.

Egypt.
seated later Kheper,

walls of scribes

the

the in the

In

times

frequently
various

played upon meanings of


The

name

the word. helmet of the Pharaohs.

Khepersh.

royal battle

(SecCrown.)
Kheta. A

Syria, whose
Carchemish
Pharaohs

powerful people on the on capitalsof Kadesh looked and Megiddo were


XVIIIth

north the upon

east

of

Orontes,

of the and keen

and

XlXth attack.
sar,

by the Dynasties as
Kamses alliance

important
after
a

favourite offensive ratified

pointsof
Khetaand the

II.,
Kheta with

with struggle
an was

the then

king, made
him, which
with

defensive

marriageof the Pharaoh the daughter of the Kheta king. Some Egyptologists of with the Hittites these wish to identify people by
Testament.

the Old

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY From

s:

Khian,

Se-itser-en-Rd.

the

form

of

the

n
scarabs and

El

he may be X., cir. 3100 Khnemu

cyHnders placed with


B.C.

found

bearing

tolerable

king'sname, in Dynasty certainty

this

or

Khnem.

deity wor-

/"

he at Philae, where shipped chiefly is represented as making mankind of clay upon out a potter's wheel. His the moulder." name signifies He is represented as ram-headed a god, and is often found in conjunction with Khnem Amen being ; Amen identified by the Greeks with their in Zeus-Ammon, or JupiterAmmon Latin sculptures.
"

Khu.
"

The Eenouf is
"

-luminous,"

the that

^h^emu.

clear."

points

out

perhaps the true meaning of it. It is one of the immortal and probably represents parts of man, the spirit ; it is symbolized by a flame of fire.
''

glory

Khufu.

r^0 ^
cir. 3969 builder
one

''"=^

^ J
known,

^^''''^^

^i"g

of

Dynasty IV.,
name

b.c.

Eeigned

of is

daughter
tablet

is

years. Henut-sen.

63

The This

king was
There

the
a

of the Great
at

Pp-amid

of Gizeh.

rock

Wady

Maghfirah containing
IV. The built
name

his cartouche. Khu-en-aten. See


Amen-hetep
el

Khut-Aten

(Tel
to

Amarna).
took the
name

that Khu-enmade

Amen-hetep
aten,
gave

IV., who
the
new

of

city that

he

and

80

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

his his

capital.
successors

On

account

of

the

hatred

with

which

form of rehgion he regarded the new had started, they completely destroyed the town, The few^ remains that have palace. temple, and been in recovered show
an enormous

advance in the
course

in

art,
of

design

and

adaptation.
some

Petrie

excavations with These


are

uncovered
most

beautiful

painted
of the

ments pave-

charming
of

decorative
the floor

treatment.

evidently parts {See Amen-hetep IV.)


Kohl. Uaz and Meszemt. the look the
a

palace.

Green

and

black

cosmetic

used
to

for

painting
the eyes
to is

make

also Museum the

ascribed there

eyelids and eyebrows in order large. Healing properties w^ere of it ; for in the use Leyden
box with four

toilet

divisions, and
are

for expelling opening the sight," for expelling the flower," "daily eye-paint." tears," carbonate of Sulphide of lead, sulphate of lead, green entered to have tion largely into the composiappear copper of kohl, which points distinctly to commercial with from the earliest the intercourse east period of Egyptian history. {See Stibium.)
"

purposes described ;
'*

of for

the

different

preparations
"

thus

Kummeh. eminence miles Usertsen


on

A the

crude
east

brick bank

fort of

standing
the It
was

on

natural

Nile, about
the

above III.

the
as a

first

cataract.

thirty built by
Nubians.

protection

against

{See Semneh.) Kynonpolis.


of the El Kes. seventeenth The chief The Greek
nome name

for Ka-sa

the

capital
modern

of

Upper

Egypt,
there

the
was

deity worshipped

Anubis.

RGYPrrVX

ARCHAEOLOrTY

87

Labyrinth,LajJe-ro-Jutn-t. Temple at the opening of the canal (Brugsch). Herodotus, ii.148, says that the citynamed it lay a little ahove Lake Moeris, near
"
"

after that first about been

the it

crocodiles. the

Strabo, who

visited that
'

it, states
from the

lay between sailing into


100

thirtyand
on.

fortystadia
It must and

canal, and
Arsinoe

Arsinoe

lay
have

stadia further between


not
some on

therefore

situated

Fayilm, and
Kuriin,
as

the

further

the entrance to the side of the Birket elHawara is identified

have

thought.

by Petrie as the site of the Labyrinth. According to Herodotus, "the pyramids may of the magnificent be compared to many individually
structures

of

Greece, but
It is
;

even

these

are

inferior to the

Labyrinth.
which each wall and the the from
are

composed
their

of twelve
are

courts, all of

covered

entrances

oppositeto
south
are

other, six
encloses
are

to the

north, and six


; the

to the

one

the whole 1500

apartments
surface

of two

kinds, there
as

above and of

the

of the The them

ground
upper

many I

beneath, in all 3000

apartments
almost

myself saw,

I pronounce

greatest efforts of human


infinite number
courts

industryand winding
my passages
warmest

among The art.

through

different and

admiration, spacious halls I passed through smaller apartments,


from them

excited

again
end.
each

to

courts, almost
all of and sculpture, w^hitest and the

without around

The

large and magnificent and walls are ceilings


wdth Strabo which
one

adorned marble, the latter richly


court
are

the finest the the the the

pillarsof
led
"

most

polished marble."

speaks of
to

long and intricate passages courts, all backing on to peristyle hall of twenty-seven columns,
courts,
the number of them

wall

and

of the
to

connected

with

being equal

88
nomes

A of

CONCISE

DICTIONARY
to

OF

Egypt.
a

Pliny,who
courts

appears

have

strung
there

together
were

number
nome

of traditional with mentions and


in

reports, says
crocodile for his

sixteen them.

fortystatues
the

of Nemesis

in

He

also

burying guides,
that the ft.

places.
Petrie, taking Herodotus
no

Strabo

carefully surveyedthe ground


other site than Hawfira

1889, and decided


was

possible for
area
"

Labyrinth. Here he found an by 800 ft. well defined w^ith


"

enormous
a

1000

bed

of limestone

chips,
**

and

traces

beneath
some

it

of

foundation, evidently

prepared to receive figureswill


extent not

enormous

building.
the
we

Mere

signifyreadily to
; but

mind

the vast

it with compare the greatest of other be Egyptian temples it may somew^hat On could be erected realized. that space when and all the successive temples great hall of Karnak it,and the great court and pylons of it ; also adjoining the temple of Mut and that of Khensu, and that of Amen-hetep III. at Karnak ; also the two great be room for temples of Luxor, and still there would the the the
area a

of construction

whole

of

the

Eamesseum. and

In
one

short of the

all of

the

temples on
west

the east of Thebes of Hawara.

on largest one

bank, might be placed together in the


Here
we

of the ruins site

have certainly

which the Labyrinth worthy of the renown careful observations made the on acquired." From of the arrangethis much spot,Petrie has recovered ment On the eastern side may of the Labyrinth : yet has be seen pavement, which part of the limestone of the French survived the needs engineers who laid the Faytim railway and used it as their stone quarry. have been This to double, and pavement appears with fine white consisted of blocks of yellow limestone slabs superimposed. A few of the blocks limestone of the architraves stilllie about, bearing the cartouches Sebekneferu III. (Dynasty XII.) and of Amen-em-hat (Dynasty XIII.),as do also the fragments of a clustered of three red granitecolumns. column, and the remains From the levels it is clear that the building was square,
"

90 statue

CO]vrCISE Osiris.

DICTIONARY The first

OF of the

of
some

part

papyrus

glyphs. chapters of the funeral ritual in hieroThe second of part consists of five pages fine hieratic writing of the lower epoch, probably of the time of the Ptolemies. The rection subject is the resurand renewed the birth of ''Book

contains

Osiris,and
of

it has

great

analogy
"

with

Festival

Songs

of Isis and
see

Kespirations." {See lation Nephthys." For trans'*

2nd

by M. de Horrack, vol. XL). edition,

Records

of the

Past,"

Language. The perhaps the oldest


to
no

language
in the world.

of

other with has and the

the other

exceptionof
Semitic
as

hieroglyphs is It is closely related its descendant, Coptic


with with East

the

(q-v.).It
Hebrew African and with

affinities, however,

many; languages, with of North

languages,such
Berber

Bishari, Galla, and

Somali,
Africa.

languages

of years in use it that it was During the thousands naturallycame through different phases.v^For practical students have divided the period into purposes three sections,called Old Egyptian, Middle Egyptian, and Late Egyptian, corresponding to the historical divisions of Old, Middle, and New Empires. In the ancient times it was most written with purelyphonetic little inflected. No treatise or signs,and was very of any kind, or of any period has been found. grammar Lasso. Tomb of The show the pictures at Beni Hasan wild bulls and of the gazelles by means been to have a Egyptian lasso appears
a

capture
lasso.

long rope

with

ball

at

the

end

of

it, which

would

giveweight and enable the rope to catch more the legs, round body or horns of the animal. Latopolis.
Latus. Lead. doors and See This See Esneh. Fish. metal has
"

certainly

been Also

found small

used

as

inlayon
were

furniture.

statuettes

EGYPTIAN made occasionally Osiris and Aniibis." A in

ARCHAEOLOGY this those metal, especially

91 of

Leg",the.

constellation

identified

by

Eenouf

with

Cassiopeia. Letopolis. The


of the second Chief
nome

Greek

name

for

the capital Seklieni,

of Lower

Egypt, the

modern

Usim.

Horus. deity,

no Library, xllthough great collection of books, such the treasmre of claytablets in Assyria, has ever been as found in Egypt, there is sufficient evidence to show formed. that collections of papyri were A chamber in the temple at Edfu, off the Kheiit Hall, was a library, the catalogue of books being inscribed on its walls.

The
us,

name

of at least of Eamses

one

librarian

has

come

down

to

that

Amen-em-hant,
11.

director

of

the

Theban

Library under

the country lying north-west Libyans. Libya was of Egypt, inhabited the Pharaohs by tribes with whom The kept up an intermittent warfare. Libyans of classical geographies the Labu, Lauhu, Lebic of the mentioned for the first time are Egyptian monuments in the XlXth Dynasty. They are represented in with fair hair falling rather fine men, in a as paintings side lock, having fair complexions, with blue eyes. Whenever there was the petty a conspiracyamong kings againstEgypt, the Libyan king was, if not actual of the chief ringleaders. When leader, at least one Eamses conquered them they made splendid troops for him, and formed an important part of his auxiliary
" "

army.

Linen.
most

The

manufacture

of linen

w^as

one

of the

It was used for clothing, important industries. than woollen being considered garments, and purer immense used in the mummifying of were quantities
men

and

animals.

In

tomb

at

Medum

there

is

list

02

CONCISE

DICTIONARY Three

OF
are

of different kinds of each four which


an were

of linen.
are

mentioned, and
mentions from there in resembles that than districts

kind

there

three them

quahties. Phny
after the

quahties,naming The they came.


muslin.

finest

quahty almost
shows in

Indian

Examination threads and there in of

the

more always many (See Weaving warp.

the woof

Dyeing.)
must

Lion. lions records Some that and and in

In the of

ancient desert

times and

have

been

many
are

Ethiopia,for
bags as Amen-hetep
or

there

lion-hunts,with immense
scarabs he The The
tame

the result. III. record


a

historical lions. walls.

during his reign


two

caught

killed
seen

hundred

animal

is often

upon the It
on

temple
same

tomb
a

king is frequently accompanied


lion into

by

favourite

battle, and
at home.
as seen

his chair reposes under apparentlyused in the chase, The

animal

was

also

tomb in

walls.

Egyptian
than
two

artist

was

more

successful animal

this beast

papyri

in many lions seated

of his back
a

drawing portraits.In
the solar Over
one

to

back, with
the

disk between is written

them, is
Shu and

frequentvignette.
and
over are

"Yesterday,"
solar all at

other

"This
two

Morning."
lions. and head. Litanies
AND

Tefnut

also

depictedas

The
are

Bast

goddesses Sekhet, Tefnut, Pakht with the lionesstimes represented

of

Seker.

See

Festival

Songs

of

Isis

Nephthys. Literature. Numberless

papyri have

been

found

in

Egypt,
matters.

buried But
on

relate to religious gi^eaterpart of which This is natural, since these documents were then well preserved. with the dead, and were the
account

perishablematerial on which is left to us must literature finds its expression,what of ancient books of the be but a small proportion Egypt. There is plenty of evidence that the art of is it at a very earlytime, nor literature was practised
of the
**
"

EGYPTIAN that likely have

ARCHAEOLOGY
as

03

other arts, such


such

that of

should sculpture,

and the writer's art have perfection, remained undeveloped. Of the papyri that remain the subjects There are moral precepts are very varied. mathematical (scePTAH-HETEP), hymns and love-songs, and medical treatises,judicialinquiries, religious works, one epic (see Pentaur), letters, literary criticism and fiction. The drama alone is unrepresented.

reached

[SeePapyri.)
AOriA IH20Y

(LofjiaIcsoii).A
found the
at

fragment
of the

of

papyrus
"

book

the

site

ancient

Oxyrhynchus, Sayings of our


to A.D.

modern Discovered

Behnesa,

containing
in all

Lord," and

dating back
and edited

bility proba-

300. Hunt.
true

by

Messrs.

Grenfell Lotus.

and

The white

Egyptian
It is

lotus the

Lotus,
called

flower, of which lotus, which

Nymphoea Coerula JSymplioea


from held of the the
so-

is the

is the blue
rose

variety.
and
not

quite different is really the


It
a was

Nelumbium

Speciosum,
because
the

lotus.
saw

sacred,

Egyptians
As

in it Horus

symbol
on

rising
of

again of the sun. the god Nefer Turn


from had from

such, it is found
is the

the head

; and

its cup. It w^as Egyptian decorative


a

representedissuing originalmotive of much has w^ork, and by this means


on

influence far-reaching the bud and full-blown

ancient

art.

Both

forms

tects Egj^ptian archi-

for columns in ornaments, : and designedcapitals largeand small, it is found in great variety. Ladies are representedwith it in their hands, and it figures altars of offerings.As an amulet it signified the on divine gift of eternal youth. The realistic repremost sentations of the plant are conventional form in so that it is difficult to distinguish betw-een it and of the papyrus pictures plant.

Lycopolis.
of the

The

Greek
nome

name

for

Sand, the capital


the modern

thirteenth

of

Upper Egypt,

94

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF
"

the city deity,Ap-uat. This name, of wolves," came from the jackal-headedform of the god worshipped there.

Asyut.

Chief

important goddesses of the She is truth and justice perEgyptian Pantheon. sonified for the word but madt more also, signifies ; Gods moral and and order and law, physical. kings all confessed to *'ankh en maat," i.e. "living or existing by or upon rule," as if they recognized the She is unerring order which governs the universe."
Maat. One

of the most

"

associated

with

Thoth, and
two

in

the

conception
we

of these

divinities

find is and is
"

that the Maat of Ea. Ptah She

probably the Egyptians had spoken of as


She
seems

loftiest ideas of the the

deity. daughter
assisted creation.

to have

Khnemu mistress of

at the

heaven, ruler of

earth, and
world." which
scenes

presidentof the nether Her symbol is the feather, in the we see judgment weighed in the balances
the heart of the deceased. with with their the with identified her
as a woman

Maat.

against
The She is

Greeks her

Themis. feather
a

represented
on

of

truth
over

head, and

sometimes

bandage
Maat

her eyes.

Kheru
after the

U.
name

,'
"

A of

formula the

in

inscriptions
The that
exact

added

deceased. been
a

translation

of it has

for

long
Renouf

subject of
"

cussion disone

among

scholars.

considers

EGYPTIAN whose word is law"

ARCHAEOLOCiY

95

approximates most closelyto the original Maspero would translate it "true ; while of intonation," in allusion to the true voice required by the departed for the recitation of those magic incantations which would render them all-powerful
in the underworld.

Mammisi.
in
a

"

House

of

temple in which the given birth to the third person


Maiietho. A historian

givingbirth." That chamber goddess is supposed to have


of the triad.

of the

Alexandrian

school,

Ptolemy Philadelphus(thirdcentury B.C.) wrote a history of Egypt with a list of its thirty he professed to have draw^n from dynasties,which genuine archives in the keeping of the priests. He himself was at Sebennytus, an Egyptian priest, living in Low^er Egypt. His book is now only known by lists and some fragments preserved by Josephus in his treatise in his x\gainstApion," by Eusebius Chronica," and by Syncellus. Of these, Syncellus does not quote from the original.Though Egyptian
"
"

who, under

monuments

have

afforded

confirmation

of

many

of

his statements, it is not w4se to rely entirely his on and retranassertions, since through transcriptions

probably suffered from alterations. His method was apparentlynot strictly of years for each dynasty the number chronological, of the kings' reigns, of the sum being made up for the overlapping without allowance of being made of these some is, however, dynasties. The work invaluable to the student for comparativeuse. Several
other works Mashuasha.
have been The ascribed of
to Manetho.

the scriptions

originalhas

name

tribe of

occurringon the monuments, the Pharaohs waged war. They allied themselves tribes against Mer-en-Ptah, with and other were defeated. But trouble under again they caused Ramses settled in the to have III.,when they seem

quently Libyans, freagainst whom

96

CONCISE

DICTIONARY them become

OP

Delta.

Eamses,

however, drove
seem

out, and

sequently subin

they
that Pharaoh's Mason.
a

to

have

auxiliaries

army. "builder is

{SeeLibyans.)
of walls
"

The which and

trade

hardest

least The

represented as profitable.
Arabic word

(Sallier Pap. IL), of the being one

Mastaba.
a]'e

for the

benches

that

Usuallyplaced at the entrance of Arab doorways, of the Ancient and applied by the Arabs to the tombs "c. The at Sakkara, Medum, name Empire found and is recognized among was adopted by Mariette, consists of a rangular quadarchaeologists.The mastaba with inclined massive walls, having building is It low, and fiat on the no opening but the door. of a truncated pyramid. top, having the appearance
It
was

built the

of stone

or

of

crude with

brick.

When

of

stone

fagade was

decorated

sculptures. Like
ancient
ones

{see Tombs) these every Egyptian tomb consist of three parts the chapel,the
"

in vertical

passage this case the chamber.

sisting (conof The takes


some a cophagus sar-

shaft),and
of
a

^7^^

chapel
various
cases

mastaba In
more
a

forms.
it is
no

than

fagade,
and
names
a

with and

false of

door the the

stela

settingforth
titles

deceased, the mastaba


a

being
The
east

solid is

mass

of rubble. the mastaba

door
T^ock

usually on
orientated

side, the

being
to

roughly
four p?-^ other
Wa"^'-

the In the
at
sists con-

cardinal of of

points. in examples, as
Thi the
a

tombs

and

Mera

Sakkara,
Mastaba.

chapel
succession

of

98

A Medicine.

CONCISE There medicine is

DICTIONARY sufficient the

OF

evidence ancient

of

the

Egyptians. It seems that forbidden from religious fore thereand surgical operationswere scruples prohibited, the knowledge that physicians had of the organs of the body and their functions limited. was necessarily
practice of
among dissection was The Ebers papyrus

twenty-two
into it and heart because
was

vessels,
send called them
"

says which

that draw

the the

head

contains

thence lead

the

(oflife) spirits through the body. The beginningof all the members,
to

its vessels
some

all the the

members,"
of

and is that

perhaps
indicated wherever

idea the

of the fact that


"

circulation

the

blood

by

student
"

is told

everywhere does he meet with the heart (pulse). The medical papyri consist chiefly of prescriptions mixed up with magical formulae. of these Against some recipes the practitioner has written their to comments as efficacy. but The drugs were chieflycomposed of vegetables, and also used. insects were {See parts of animals Medical Papyri.)
hand,
Medinet

the doctor

laid his

el-Fayum.
or

town

in the

the

Fayum,
to

called

anciently Shed, probably


"saved,"
district. from the Ptolemaic ruins of
"cut
on

in

reference

its

being
lake

out," from
it it
was

surrounding
as

Later the times

known the called

being

centre
was

of

crocodile

Crocodilopolis, worship. In
in

Arsinoe,

honour There

of
are

sister-wife
a

of

Ptolemy Philadelphus.

temple.
A

Mehit.
wind.

goddess
"

the

of personification

the north

Mehurt.
heifer of whom

The the

name sun was

given

to

the

great celestial
a

born, and hence


in which

cation personifisun

of that and with takes Nut his and


as

part of the sky

the

rises

daily course. again with


a

She Hathor. is

is at times Besides
a

identified

being
woman.

presented re-

cow,

she

portrayed as

EGYPTIAN sometimes in the


"

ARCHAEOLOGY cow's head. The


was

99

with Book the


"

of the abode

Dead,"

judgment scene supposed to take

placein

of Mehurt."

Memnon. who colossal said These


was

An

Ethopian, son of Tithonus slain by Achilles at Troy.


_

and The

rora, Autwo
were

statues

of

Amen-hetepIII.

at

Thebes

by

the Greeks
were

to be

of representations

monoliths originally a pebbly conglomerate exceedinglydifficult to work. The northernmost it having been severely damaged is supposed by the earthquake in ]^.c. 27 presenteda curious phenomenon, emitting sounds at sunrise,which caused it to be called Vocal Memnon and brought it from far to hear Many travellers came great fame.
statues
" "

this person. of red breccia,

the their

musical

sounds, and

some

have

left records

of

inscribed on the legsand pedestalof experiences the statue. The clumsy restoration, of five by means of sandstone, which effected by Septimius courses was Severus, put a stop to the sounds. Among those who left inscriptions Balbilla a court were Asklepiodotos, of Egypt. The poetess, and several governors menon phenois discussed Strabo who could not believe by that the sound actually proceeded from the stone by Pausanias and Juvenal. {Sec Colossi.)
" "

Memiionium.

Name

given by
III. which
at

the

Greeks

to

the
rounding sur-

temple
two

of

4men-hetep of dwellings,
Also

Thebes, with
little remains

its but

the

colossi.

called

the

Amenophium.

{See

Memnon.) Memphis.
the first
nome

Greek of

name

for

Lower

Mennefert,the capitalof Mit Egypt, tlie modern

Eahineh.

Chief

deitv,Ptah.

Mena.

or

I cir.

b.c.

4777, of

Tini

[Gr.

This

or

Thinis],whose

name

100

A
"

CONCISE the

DICTIONARY
was

OF

signilies
1st of in
a

Steadfast,"
All that of These

the known doubtful

first of

kmg
him

of the consists found united

Dynasty.
few^ the under he the classic

is

statements

credit
no

writers, there
one

being
tell
us was

monuments

left of

period.
founded

that

he

Egypt
to
secure

sceptre and
site

giver its first law-

; that
a

suitable

Memphis, and that, in order for his capital, he diverted the

course

of the Nile The found

dike. have his

Cocheiche.
seven

by the construction of an enormous French M. Linant, professes to engineer, in the this construction great dike of followed Tradition by says that he was
in succession. The Greek
nome name

sons

Mendes. El-x\mdid. Menhit.

for of Lower

Fa-ha-neh-tettet, capital

of the sixteenth Chief A

Egypt,

the modern

Ba-neb-Tettet. deity,

goddess akin to Hathor and form or some degree of the heat of Bast, representing She was the sun. worshipped at Heliopolis.
lion-headed

Men-ka-Ra,

Nlt-aqerti. Probably

the

Queen

Nitoeris of Manetho
ruler of the Vlth

and

Herodotus. cir. 3347


"^

She
B.C.

was

the last

Dynasty,

Men-kau-Hor.
of

(
the

S^^
Vth

U U ) uuu~]
M

The

seventli
There is

king
a

rock

tablet of

b.c. Dynasty, cir. 3589 this king at Wady Maghfirah.

Men-kau-Ra.
of the IVth

/^q
The

t!^=

U
cir.

U
B.C.

U
the

1
third

^^^^^"^^^

king

Dynasty,

3845.

Eeigned
of the

sixty-three years.

builder

of

EGYPTTAX

ARCHAEOLOrJY

101

iL^reiit pyramids at
coffin

Gizeh.

The
name,

lid

of

the
a

wooden

bearing the king's supposed to be his are in the


Mentu. lie
at
was one

and

skeleton

British

Museum.

The of
; his

Egyptian war the solar gods


cult there that
was was

god.
adored
at
one

Thebes
as

time It is

important as probable that he


the
Amen centre

of the

Amen.

original
and form. Herthat
was case

god
The

of

district between

Kus later

Gebelen,
chief monthis

being
of
it

a was

at at

(Erment).
was

His The

wife in

place
sacred called

Ea-t-taui.

bull this
to

to

him,
an

being
Ea.

BakJi,
of
a as

equivalent
Mentu
man

the

Mnevis-bull

is represented

hawktwo

headed

wearing
II.
Mentu,

solar disk and

plumes. Eamses

in the wrath
to his
"

of battle compares father Mentu."

himself

Mentu-hetep
Neh-hctep.
Second

I.,

king

of

Dynasty XI.,
Fifth

cir. 2965

b.c-

Mentu-hetep
" 1 1 m 1 1 11

II.

Neh-taui-Bd.

king

of

Dy-

1^1
b.c,

O
and

mi
of
are

nasty XI., cir. 2922

son

Queen
found

Am.

bearing this king'sname Inscriptions A tablet quarriesof Hammamat. that he conquered thirteen tribes. Mentu-hetep III.,
Neb-JcJier-Bd
.

in the
states

at

Konosso

Eighth king

of

"^r^i
3
"=

102

CONCISE

DICTIOXARY
b.c.

OP

Dynasty XI., cir. 2832 Tumem (?)and Aah.


Mer-en-

Two

queens

are

known,

-Ptah,
1300.

j\ JJjI (^g
^

Dynasty XIX.,
II. be It is

cir. with and the

B.C.

The

I4th of the of and

son

of Eamses

believed generally
the is

that tomb

this

king
Exodus.

may

identified

Pharaoh
in the in into the

His
An
at

body

was

discovered
now

Amen-hetep
Museum. their defeat

II. in

1899

Cairo

Libyans

Egypt

the chief event

of this otherwise

uneventful

of irruption Prosopis is reign. of

Mer-eu-Ka, Mehti-em-sa-f.

Fourth

king

Dynasty

AAA.

VI., cir. 3447


tomb of

b.c.

The
at

in important inscription

the

Her-khuf

Aswan Men of who

dates

from

this

king's

reign.

His

pyramid,
A
"

dnkh,
the

is at Sakkara. Hathor. She Her is

Mer-sker.
name
"

form she

goddess
loves

signifies

silence."

She is represented with the regent of the west." disk and horns of Hathor, and is sometimes pictured in the
"

mountain The the also

of the west."

Meskhent.

goddess of
birth
scene

birth
on

seen

on

her
at

throne Der el

presidingover
Bahri. She

the

walls of the of

figuresin the scene Hall of the heart in the Judgment symbol on her head is a straightstem and either side, like on curling over head of A nit {q.v.).
Meszemt. See A
name

weighing
The end the

Osiris.

at the split the sign on

Stibium

and

Kohl. the for

Mestha.
Metelis.

given to
Greek
name

god

Amset

{q.v.).

The

the capital Senf-nefert,

EGYPTIAN of the Hii. Min. Mizraim. the hterally Mnevis.


at

ARCHAEOLOGY of Lower

103

seventh

nome

Egypt.

Chief

deity,

See Amsu. The


two

Hebrew
mazors or

name

of

E^ypt.

It

means

towers. sacred black Ijull venerated

Name

of the

Hehopohs.
Moeris.

[SeeAns.)
Moeris.
of coin the ancient of but

See Lake
In

Money.
had
was no

the the

sense

money.

The

during
was

first appearance Persian occupation ; until the

Egyptians a coinage
no

real

currency Gold for

established

Ptolemaic

times.

the weighed. Under purchase-money was in the form of rings, but made New Empire it was to have then was rings seem even weighed. The diameter varied in thickness, though having a uniform Such of about 5 ins. a weighing out is frequently Poole's "Mr. depictedon the tomb and temple walls. of into the very researches complicated numismatics the Ptolemaic Dynasty show that the first Ptolemy established drachma both
as a

silver the and

coinage
copper

on

the

basis unit."

of the There Uten

Attic
was

ordinary

silver

silver

coinage.

[See

and

Trade.) Monogamy.
Moon.
moon was

See Harem. The sacred

under Khensu
most

different

forms, A ah, Thoth,

being the frequent.


especially
as

But Thoth

is

it connected

with "the
Lunar
bark.

104

COXCTSE the
moon

DICTIONARY

OF

measurer,"
Thotli times it is form and
moon

being

the

measurer

of As

time,
In
a

and

being god

of all the exact the heads and

sciences.
moon.

later

Osiris is identified with

symbol
Khensu,
ocean

represented as
it may others.
was own

crescent
on

holding a disk,
of Thoth, all the

in which

be

seen

the
sini

Like conceived

the of

planets, the

as

sailingthe

celestial

in his

bark. particular Animals. Certain sacred animals


were

Mummied either emblems mummified

that oftenest

were

of, or
the

to, gods
Those

carefully

met Egyptians. with the bull, antelope, jackal,hippopotamus, are cat, monkey or ape, crocodile,ichneumon, hedgehog, shrewmouse, ibis, hawk, frog, toad, scorpion, beetle, snake ; and the latus,oxyrhynchus, and silurus fishes. Of these, the Apis bulls (q.v.) buried in sarcowere phagi,

by

many

of

which animals
cases,

have
were

been

discovered

at

Sakktira. bronze took


or

Other wooden

each

placed in rectangular surmounted by a little


;
or

of figure the coffins mummied where and Ibises fish

the animal

it contained

in of

cases

which
cat-

shape
were

of the animals

themselves. eyes
at

Thus numbers

cat-

shaped, with
paste.
been

obsidian, rock
of

crystal, or

coloured have

Large

cats

found
was

Bubastis, the city

the cat-headed
were were

placedin earthenware
often

worshipped. while snakes jars, merely bandaged and laid in pits


goddess

prepared Mummy
an

for the purpose.

probably derived Arab word mumia bitumen, meaning, a bitumen-preservedbody. (human).


"

term
"

from

"

fore, there-

In while
qes,

hieroglyphsthe
the
"

word

is into

^^ "T '^'^^"^
is
c

verb
to

to

make in

mummy

lit.,

wTap

up

Mummifying
earliest ages, and

the
was

bandages." dead the w^as practised from in general use until the fourth

100

CONCISE walls. with

DICTIONARY It resembles

OF

the of

tomb

fmmel-shaped vase
over

pottery

parchment
were were

strained similar
to

the

wide
ones,

mouth.

The and

Cymbals

modern
or a

only
of

smaller.

They
silver.

made

of brass
were

mixtm^e

of brass

The

Castanets
or

in the form

curved sticks of wood slightly long, terminatingin a human Tambourines metal But hold from it up
was on

ivory about a foot head. The of pictures


do with
not

the
we

tomb

walls the

indicate

the

ringswhich
the way
we

associate

the

instrument.

in which conclude

may

to performer is seen that the Egyptian tambourine

provided with them. Of Wind Instru7nents have been ones only wooden the monuments show preserved; but pictures on with Trumpets. The troops accompanied by men instrument about represented is a simple one 1^ ft. of long, made apparently of brass. The Flute was kinds. various Sometimes it was of extraordinary 4 and 5 ft. The length between specimens found made of vary from 7 to 15 ins. in length. They were reeds chiefly, and had three, four, and sometimes five holes. Flutes also made of wood, of ivory,of were The Double Pipe is more horn, and bone. frequently the than monuments the depicted on flute, oftenest and sometimes while the performer played by women,
"

dances. flute. The there which various had from

It

was

made

of the

same

materials the Harp

as

the

Strmged
are were we

Instruments kinds.

represented on
Besides
or

ments monu-

of several do
not

the The

(q.v.)
of is of

lyres, guitars
know the

lutes, and
names.

others

lyre

forms, and
or

many five to eighteenstrings, which were with


a

is decorated

in

It ways. sounded the the

by

the hand
were

plectrum

; and

sometimes while

chords hand

touched
a

with

the left hand

right

plectrum. The instrument was held in various The the arm. occasionallyunder ways, quently fremost Guitar, or lute,is perhaps the instrument with. It was met played chiefly by women. The oval body is of wood, or of wood covered with

played with

EGYPTTAX leather neck with perforated have fastened

ARCHAEOLOGY

10'

several

holes.
4
a

With ft. with

its The the

long
three neck

it must

measured
to tlie

about

were strings

body by
bar.

triangular piece

of w^ood

or

bone, and
end

kept from
a

contact

at the other

by
There

small
must

cross

Musicians.

have

been

two

kinds

of

exponents belonged to very different grades in society. The higher kind, which was bably pro-

nuisic,and
very

their

taught and performed by the priests, and was less religious, w^hile the more or popular music which the people loved to have at their feasts was provided by paid entertainers who were usually accompanied by dancers, if indeed they did dance themselves. That not the Pharaoh enjoyed and musical entertainments evident from is singing the fact that there was a functionarywho bore the title Superintendent of song and of the recreation of the king"; but the king never done to have seems honour to any particular performers, nor do w^e hear of any musician of high rank. There both men were and and ^Iusical women performers. (See Music Instruments.)
was stereotyped,
"

Mut.

goddess,the
of Amen-Ea Her

second she the the and

of the Theban is the w4fe mother vulture


meanmg

triad,where

of Khensu. which
"

name

signifies"the

mother,"
stands She
the

for it also
is

mother." of
eye

called

"mistress of in

gods,
Ea."

lady
to her

heaven, Asher,

of
a

III. Amen-hetep of her south

built

temple
a

the chief centre is little She is represented

worship, w^hich
of Karnak.
as a woman

w^earing
the double she is
Mut.

the vulture
crown.

cap Sometimes
a

and

with figured

lioness' head.

108

CONCISE

DICTTOXARY her

OF sister

Mut-em-ua.

Co-heiress, with
of Thothines is in the III. She her
son

Khut, of
mother of the

Amen-hetep II.,wife
Amen-hetep
left of the
on

IV. and
at

represented standingto
Colossi Luxor.

king

Thebes, and

the walls of the

temple of

Mythology.

See Religion.

N Natron, i.e. neutral


from
west

carbonate
are

of in
a

sodium, obtained
in valley

the natron of the

lakes which in

the desert

Delta, not

substance, used
entombment

This very far from the river. the preparation of the body for
was

(seeEmbalminc?) by evaporation of the water


efflorescence from

probably
the earth lakes
on

obtained
;
or

of the

by
it

washing the appeared.


Nahar,
"

which

or

Nahal. Nile." A
town

Semitic it is

word be

river

"

; and
"

by Brugsch

thought to

signifying the origin

of the word

Naukratis.
in the

in the north-west

of the far from Kom

fifth

nome

of Lower due north founded

Egypt, by
be
an

not

Delta, Sais,
fifth it.

about Strabo

6| miles
says
B.C.,

of the modern

el Hism.
in the in the

it was

Milesians
error,

century
sixth

but this must


B.C.

because
to the

century

Amasis the
to

to granted privileges

Herodotus, speaking of Amfisis' favour


says that he gave arrived in Egypt

Greeks,
as

city of
dwell of in. Greek

Naukratis

for such his

During
trade .and

reign

it

enjoyed

monopoly

flourished.

EGYI?TIAN Its

ARCHAEOLOCJY under the Persian

101)

invasion, but revived under Alexander. It suffered, however, rival,Alexandria, and was by the growth of its new

prosperitydeclined

cityabout the beginning of the third century. During its period of prosperity it had attained well as commercial a as positionof literary probably extinct
as a

eminence. The site has remains been excavated Herodotus lord ruler of the archaic covered by Petrie, who distemples of Apollo and and Athenaios speak.
two

Aphrodite,of

which
"

Neb-taui, i.e.

of
of

the

lands,'' usually
Lower the
two

thought
It is

to

mean

Upper
and
west

and

Egypt.
lands

more

likely,however,
east

that

represent the country


Nectaiiebo

of the Nile.

II., Khejjer-ka-Bd, b.c.

361-340, XXXth
O

U
who

1
was

Dynasty.
defeated
Instead himself He of up

The

last native his and

king

of

Egypt,

by

Darius

Ochus, the

Persian, at Pelusium.
Nectanebo himself
to

defending
in

kingdom,
devoted

shut

Memphis
to

magic.

fled eventually Needle. Needles. about

Napata,

in Nubia.

See Obelisk. Bronze 8-10 for needles work. Ninth have But been found
are ing measur-

centimetres.
coarse

they

and large,

only suitable

Nefer-ka-Ra, Heni
Heni

king

of IlIrd

Dynasty.

Eeigned twenty-six(?)years.

may

thought that the the predein the Prisse Papyi'us as mentioned cessor of Sneferu, the first king of the Vth Dynasty, be identified with this king.
It is
or

Nefert-ari,
was

Aahmes-Nefert-ari,
wife of Auhmes
I. of the

the

sister and

XVIIIth

110

CONCISE and
was was

DICTIONARY

OF of that

Dynasty,
and Her
as

reallythe
adored

foundress

line,

such

she

until

the XXIst

Dynasty.

beautiful

10 ft. 4 ins. long, is in the Cairo coffin,

Museum. Nefer triad of

Turn,

or

Nefer-atmu.

The

third

god

in the

Memphis, the others being Ptah and Sekhet, taken by Imthough his place is frequently the son of Sekhet, or Pakht, hetep. He was Bast. iVs a nature or god he representsthe
heat Dead" but He he is of the his is

risingsun.
function of life in
not

In the
seems

"

Book be
to to

of the

to

grant
come,

continuance

the

world with

very
as

frequently mentioned.
a
man

represented
his

lotus

springingfrom of this god in


common.

head.

Miniature
are

figures
paratively com-

various

substances

Ifehesi.
A

1/

among
name

those

king, probably to be placed of the Xlllth Dynasty. His


may

suggests that he

have

been

Nefer

Turn,

negro. The

Nehesiu.

Egyptian
or

name

for the negroes.

Neit,
whose

or

Neith,
is

Nit.
in her

k the

goddess
oldest does much of it the
was

name

found have the and There and


a

inscriptions, although
not
seem

cult

to

gained
time then she Horus.

prominence until XXVIth Dynasty,


confined
a

to

Sais. Osiris of and Lower

formed She

triad

with

is the

represented as
crown

woman

wearing
and her sometimes
two

Egypt,
are

emblems distinguishing the shuttle


arrows.

sometimes

crossed ])0W this


Neit.

She
arrows

and

carries a fi'equently in in her hands, and

EGYPTIAN form Athene has been

ARCHAEOLO(iY

111

identified She her

by
may

the

Greeks been

with of Her At

their

(Minerva).
we see

have

Libyan
used
name

for origin,
as a

decorative
"

symbol, the design by that


"

shuttle,much
nation. shooter."

the signifies
as a cow. or

weaver

or

the she

"

times

she is identified with the At other Hathor. of

and sky goddess,


assumes

is represented the attributes


"

times She

Mut,

is said to and
"

be the in
a

mother

of
text

the
"

of Ea, gods," particularly

pyramid

of Sebek.

Nekan

II., Non-ab-Rd,

XXVIth

Dynasty, b.c.
o

612-

u
596. The

1:1
Pharaoh Necho

o
the Old brave He
on

1
Testament and Eed
getic ener-

of xlvi.

(2 Kings
a

xxiii. 29, Jeremiah the mouths He


to

ruler, but wanting in


fleet at with and

2),a prudence.
and

maintained

of the Nile

the

Sea,
from

the aid of Phoenician also the

sailors, circumnavigated
to re-cut

Africa. Bubastis

attempted
head

the canal

of the Gulf

of Suez.

Nekhebt
The South. form of

(Sivan).
of in the
Nekhebt.

goddess
She is

usually
the She
was

represented
a

vulture.

worshipped
Sister

at

Eileithyias.

sz::7

Nephthys.
and her him. wife search of

goddess to Isis, Set. She helped Isis in for the body of the slain
in her

Osiris, and

lamentations
is

over

Nephthys.

always asso-| ciated with Isis in funerary scenes. I The two stand facingeach other with wings outspread on either side of the or they are carved at each mummy, of end sarcophagi, or painted on

Therefore

she

112

CONCISE mummies.

DICTIONARY

OF

coffins and

Nephthys,

or

Nebt-het, is the

daughter of Seb and Nut, and as a nature goddess She is depicted as probably,the sunset. represents, her only distinguishing feature being her a woman, head-dress. According to Plutarch's legend,she was
the mother of Anubis. in 1860 ; of, found at Thebes papyrus Bhind and sold to the trustees of the

Nesi-Amsu,

purchased by
British careless Museum

by
the

David

Bremner.

Owing

to

the

it has been concluded colophon, that the papyrus for Nesinot written was specially but was of a number Amsu, one prepared by some whose business it was to supply funeral person papyri to relatives of the dead, for placing in the tombs. It consists of three separate works the : first, Festival Songs of Isis and Nephthys (q.v.) ; secondly, the Litanies of Seker (q.v.) the Book of ; and thirdly, the Overthrowing of Apepi(q-V-)- The whole papyrus, which is of very fine texture, and measures 19 ft. by and 940 has lines), 9| ins. (containing33 columns been transliterated and translated by Budge in Archaeovol. 52, part ii. logia,

writing of

Neter-khertet.

name

for

the

"

divine "Book

underof the

w^orld,"which
Dead
"

and

in
"

in occurs frequently tomb inscriptions. The Divine Sea


on

the

Neter-ta. the north Nif. breath. the mummy.

land

"

probably
from Suez

the
on

country along the Eed


to the

extending

mountains

the south. the

)^ )
The

The ba

little sail be

was

symbol

for
to

(q.v.) may

seen

bringingit back
of the
to

Nile,
of these

NetAos, Nilus, Nil, the


It is almost
are none

name

river
that

Egypt.
names

unnecessary ancient of them


"

remark

derivation

of the word

Nile

"

is

Egyptian. The given by Brugsch as

114

CONCISE of the
or

DICTIONARY Nile
are

OF and

Statues

very

rare,

are

usually
of the

green river before or The Victoria rises after


as even source a

painted

red

to

represent
has it is of the 5" the the been

the

colour time

after the inundation. of the


;

Nile but Lake and

from

morial imme-

mystery
further

modern south

travellers

Nyanza Lake,

place it in the quite possible that it


equator.
where The

river,

passing through
north
as

Albert

far

Gondokoro,
called flows

by
to

the Bahr-el-Gazelle Khartum here The it is

Nile);
it.

the Bahr-el-Azrek then


on

stream

Nyanza, proceeds it is joined N., Sobat ; from this point Bahr-el-Abyad (White (Blue Nile)unites with to the sea, receiving on

Its the Atbara. its way only one tributary, about 3300 miles. Every year the Nile overflows its banks. the time of the
summer

length is
About

to beginsgradually rise, and continues so to do until the end of September, subsides, leaving behind it a deposit it gradually when The prosperityof the country of rich, black mud. depends upon the height to which the flood Nile rises.

solstice it

Should

there houses

be
are

an

excessive

overflow and
a

the dikes sometimes

break whole land

down,

swept

damaged. villages

away, If there is

the deficiency,

EGYPTIAX which remain As is left unmoisteiied barren.


as so

ARCHAEOLOGY is not fertihzed and

11')

must

long ago (Dynasty XII.) of the the rising


from
news some

the much that

Nile the

III. days of Amen-em-hat attached to importance was were despatched messengers

Semneh,

above rocks

the second
towns
at

cataract, to carry

the
are

through
inscribed of the and

and

villages.

There

Semneh

height
while the

inundation

monarch,
the

it surpasses highest rise recorded known

recordingthe average during the reign of this that of our days by 11 J ft.,
is 27 ft. 3 ins. above
in
our

greatestinundation

times.

Nitocris.

See Men-ka-Ea.

Nomarch.

See Nomes.

Nomes. the

mil

Ilesei).The

great divisions of

Egypt, and_ dating back to.the IVth mentioned are some, by name Dynasty, where wath their chief 'towns. There in all forty-two were nomes, twenty-two in Upper Egypt, and twenty in Lower was placed under the protectionof one ; each each had two oneparticular divinity capitals, ; and the other religious, the former civil, being the seat of was g^overnment. The office of governor hereditary, from father the eldest the to passing grandson on the mother's side (Brugsch). There four divisions were
kingdom
of the
nome :
"

of ancient

(a) Nut, (b) The (c) The (d) The


The modern sites
:
"

the chief town. cultivated marsh land.

land, w^hich, under

certain

ditions, con-

could

be cultivated.

canals, sluices,"c.
is
a

following
towns
or

list with
most

the

names

of

the their

that villages

nearly mark

116

CONCISE NoMES
OF

DICTIONARY Upper Egypt,

OF

EGYPTIAN NoMEs XV.


OF

ARCHAEOLOGY
Lower
.

117

Egypt
.

Tehuti
.

{Continued). El-Bakallyeh.
El-Amdid. Ebshan. Tell Basta. Nebesheh. Saft el-Heneh.

The The

number

of

iiomes nome

was w^as

not

always

the

same. a

of a governor nomarch. On the


as

called the

by
nomes

the

Greeks
are

temple
the

walls Nile be
seen

figures of

god
at

represented bringing various

offerings.Such

lists may

Philae, Karnak,

Dendera, Edfu, Abydos, "c.


Nu. The celestial traversed of the Dead
ocean,

the

father since

the
him
' '

water

by

the

solar bark Pictures


a

Egyptian idea
the
source

macrocosm,

gods, ; perhaps the they considered


of him in the

of

the

of all that
' '

is.

Book disk

of the and
to be

show

seated

figurewearing
is
sidered con-

the

plumes

/1\. The

goddess Nut
of Nu. for the

the female The

manifestation used

Nu,

The.

instrument

mystical

opening

of the mouth The


were

of the mummy.

Numeration.

system.

Units

Egyptians employed figured thus, | ;


Therefore
.

decimal tens,

f| ;
nil

hundreds,

(^ ^

thousands, T

T inn

1335. signifies '?3' Nut. touches studded The with with Shu female her stars, stands She is repreof Nu. principle sented the earth, which she body over and toes fingers. Her body is since she representsthe sky. Frequently underneath
on

arching her

to

support
There

her, and
She
are

Seb, the earth god, lies


is also

the of
a

ground
cow.

beneath.

depictedin

the form

two

118

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

variations
as

of

the

story
that her

of Nut

Nut. from

One her

speaks
husband
was

of

Shu Seb.
to

violently separating
other the tells earth where
men

The leave

father, Ra,
rebelled

anxious his

against

rule,

Nut.

and

that from

Nut the

of

her

own

will the

left

Seb,
of
a

and
cow,

raised while

self her-

earth

in

form her the

Shu,
Still the

her
as a

son,
cow was

dutifully supported
she safe

in this

position.
which

represents
from his

sky,

in

Ea,

sun,

troublesome

mortals.

Nut. of Dead with


seen
"

A Nu. with

goddess
She
a

distinct is

from

Nut,
in

the

female of
a

ciple printhe
or

depicted
head In tombs

the

"Book

snake's head. from of she


a

surmounted and
on

by
and
to

disk,
she

cat's

stelae

is the

emerging
and this
water

bread In

tree, sycomore the underworld


is sometimes

offering
the

deceased. with

Hathor

capacity (q.v.).

confused

KGYPTIAX

AHCHAKOLOGY

119

o
the Owing probably to their inaccessibility, in early times oases were regarded with a certain been The Oasis had of superstition. Great amount in considered kind of paradisew'here the dead went a from which search of happiness, fact,in all probability, Oases.
came

its name, It was other and islands. Siwa

"

Isles of the colonized but than

Blessed," found
in

in Herodotus.
as were

early times,
are more

several Eoman desert


"

oases,

there

Ptolemaic,
in these

Coptic
It
"

Egyptian

remains Great

was

to the oasis of

JupiterAmmon
went to

modern

that

Alexander

the

consult

the famous A

oracle.

shaft,with slightly long square tapering faces, and pyramidion at the top. Obelisks convex made of varying sizes and in different materials. were The in granite from the Aswfin finest are quarries. of those still standingis The largest and best worked that erected by Queen Hatshepsut at Karnak. It is tells hcw^ it was 109 feet high, and an inscription in carved, and set up in position transported, quarried, obelisk at Heliopolis, months. The which is seven the oldest,is 68 feet high, those at Karnak measure 77 feet and 75J feet. Usually they were capped with bronze or placed in front of They were giltcopper.
the colossi that
entrance
to
a were

Obelisk.

put

on

either

side

of

the main

were temple. There always two of them, though in point of height they might not be a pair. Although many have thought that the obelisk emblem of God, or a finger religious represents some it is more probable that the idea in ray of the sim
"

"

the minds the IVth

of those who

raised them
or

was

similar to that Under in the tombs

of the raisers of menhirs

standingstones.
obelisks

Dynasty

we

find small

placed on either side of the stela. At Begig, in the form, having Fayum, there is an obelisk of rectangular

120 rounded

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OP

top
was

with

a object, possibly
an

to receive some groove intended emblem. The hawk pyramidion of


a

obelisk

decorated

with

scenes

of

offerings.The

ing perpendicularlines of hieroglyphscontainand titles, and his praises. The the king'snames decorated stood was the obelisk pedestalon which of cynocephali(q-v.). with inscriptions or figures sides bore

cycle of eight gods and goddesses,a number not frequentlymet w^ith. The example is which found in the eight gods at Hermopolis, from "the the town city of the got its Egyptian name, eight." They were four gods and their wives, and the subordinate been to Thoth, and to have eight seem figuredas eight cynocephali his sacred animal. Ogdoad.
A
"

On.

See Heliopolis.
A term
came

Osirian. Osiris
to
was

applied to
to

the

blessed
so

dead.

As

died

and

life

again,
the

live

again ; and in that applied by the Egyptians

faith

they hoped epithetOsirian


"The is the
or

to their dead.

Osirian" formula

M.

N.

used in invariably funerary inscriptions.

Osiris. Ausar.
of the
who

"Highest
and of

all the divine

Powers,"

king

Egypt,

civilized them them them the and He Set

mankind,

taught
gave He and

agriculture,
laws, and
in
son

structed inSeb the of his

religion.
of and

was

of Nut, the offspring earth and


was

heaven husband Isis. brother


Osiris.

brother

ously treacher-

]nurdered
"

by
"

the

darkness

and

of power and evil

122

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

form part of royaltribute. eggs sometimes walls at Thebes. is representedon tomb

The

ostrich

for Pa-mazet, the Oxyrhynchus. The Greek name of Upper Egypt, the nome capital of the nineteenth Chief Behneseh. modern deity,Set. In the fifth a stronghold of Christianity. Many centmy it was papyri have been fomid on the site.

Pakht
lioness of the
-

or

Pasht.
nature
some

headed
same

goddess
as sidered con-

Sekhet, and by
She and is
a

identical with solar

her.

goddess,
tion variaHer
* '

represents some
of the
sun

heat.

rend to signifies in pieces." She figures the in Speos Arlargely


name

temidos the

at

Beni of there.

Hasan,
her cult

centre

having been
Palette.

figured
tomb which

in

walls have

palette pictures on responds exactly corwith those been

The

Fakht.

found.

EGYPTIAN These and small consist 10 about of ins.


an a

ARCHAEOLOGY

12:3

varying from

of wood rectangular block by 2 ins. to 16 ins. by 2| ins. inch thick.


to

of

At hold

one

end

are

hollows, usuallyonly two,

the different

is cut a groove ending in the centre pigments. Down kind of pocket for holdingthe reed pens or brushes. a Several palettesin other materials have been found, and sometimes such as limestone, basalt,ivory, they decorated. inlaid or otherwise These, how^are finely probably funeraryobjectsnot intended for ever, were Sometimes use. they have been found buried with is frequently of the owner scribes, and the name ing dedicatengraved on them, followed by an inscription The 94th the paletteto Thoth. chapter of the
"

Book

of the

Dead" ink

contains

prayer

to

Thoth

for

paletteand Panopolis.

pot.
name

Greek

for

Apu,

capital of
Akhmim.

the

ninth Chief

nome

of

Upper Egypt,

the

modern

Amsu. deity,

Papyri.
papyrus form a

roll consists A papyrus from 6 ins. to 17 ins. wdde

of several

piecesof joined togetherto

long sheet, w^hich, being written on, was rolled from left to right. The longest known is the up usually Harris Papyrus in the British Museum, which measures tied wdth a 135 ft. in length. Being rolled up, it was and sealed with a lump of clay. piece of papyrus string One of the most familiar hieroglyphic signs is roll. The representing the papyrus writing reads from right to left in most though occasionally cases, in columns. the signs are The latter applies placed in linear hieroglyphs, the to papyri written such as of Ani in the British Museum. The great papyrus of papyri found in museums numbers all over Europe and in private collections cover a long period of and show of style a Egyptian history, great diversity both in language and caligraphy. The earlier ones in linear hieroglyphsand hierS^tic (q-v.), the later are in demotic and Greek. The of Book papyri of the
"^ '

"

"

124 the Dead known in


some

A
"

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

which form of the a (q-v.), large number papyri, are frequentlyelaborately illustrated, with coloured cases are pictures. These with the

found

buried the

mummies,
the

sometimes

under
on

the

bandages, at
or

others
arms

between
or

hands,

legs. They were in wooden statues of gods hollowed out for the purpose. When found and they are extremely dry and brittle, in handling. The scribes wrote care requireimmense with a reed pen, using an ink which to this day retains its splendid black. composed of Pliny says it was smoke black, or the calcined dregs of wine added to
gum. There
was
a

under

the chest, also placed

can

be little doubt of

that the
no

making
was some

of

papyri
of

kind Book

trade,and
a

since

burial have
some

considered

complete
the
one. were
"

without of the

copy shows

of at least that

chapters
a

Dead," it must

been

lucrative

Examination
not

of these

papyri

with prepared for the deceased specially whom has been filled in buried, as the name they were last. The following is a list of some of the best known of which called by the names of are papyri, many their finders Abbott
a

: possessors Papyrus in the British


"

or

Museum.

Subject,

inquiry at Thebes. judicial


Amheest Papyei and Papyri

of

Hackney. by
Mr.

of Lord Amherst possession Subjects,judicialinquiry at Thebes, in the

tale of Sekhti Anastasi and

Hemti, tale of Sanehat.


and F. LI. Griffith. Museum. officer in the British
an

tions Transla-

Newberry

journey of (of longest),


Palestine. Chabas. Papyri.
2

Egyptian
1400
B.C.

to

Subject Syria

Date No. and

about

Translation

by

Berlin Middle and

1. Tale

Empire. Maspero. Nos.


Hemti. Papyrus. Ebers Papyrus Ebers

Translations
4

Date, by Chabas, Goodwin,


the Tale of Sekhti

of

Sanehat.

contain

Medical and

by George
Harris

Ludwig

papyrus. Stern. Museum.

Translations

in the British

Subjects,

EGYPTIAN list judicialinquiries, Kamses Hareis III.


to

ARCHAEOLOGY of
a offerings,

12r,

discourse 1225

of
B.C.

his

chiefs.

Date

about Museum.

Translations

by Piehl, Chabas,
Papykus

Eisenlohr.

in the British

Subject,

Magic.
Lee Medical

Translation Papyrus. Papyrus


Papyrus

l)yChabas.
Subject,Harem
of Berlin. and

conspiracy. Date, XlXth Dynasty.


Subject,

Translations d'Orbiney The Eomance

by Brugsch
of the in

Chabas. Brothers.

in the British Museum. T\yo

Dynasty.
Prisse

Translations Papyrus

Date, XlXth by Maspero, Groff,and Eenouf.


the

Bibliotheque Nationale. ^loY?il treatise. -Da^e, Middle Empire. Translations Subject, The by Chabas, Heath, and Virey. Called
"

oldest book
Ehind

in the world." in the Griffith. in the British Museum. No. British Museum.

Papyrus and Papyri

Subject,
Translation
*

Mathematics.

Date, Eamesside

period.

by

Eisenlohr Sallier
"

1. Subject,

of the Egyptians against Historyof the uprising i.e. the Hyksos. the yoke of the foreigners," Date, Translations XlXth Dynasty. by Goodwin, Chabas, Instructions of Ebers, and Maspero. No. 2. Subject, Usertsen I. and a Hymn Amen-em-hat I. to his son Translations to the Nile. by Maspero, Schack, and Amelineau. No. 3. Subject, Epic poem of Pentaur (q.v.). Translations by de Eouge, Goodwin, and Brugsch.

Setna,
Cairo

Papyrus

of.

demotic of

Museum.

Subject,Tale

papyrus search a

in

the
a

for

magical book. Date, Ptolemaic. Brugsch, Eevillout,Maspero, and


Shipwrecked the Xllth Turin list of

Translations
Hess.
a.

by
in

Sailor, Tale
collection
at

of

papyrus

Hermitage
or

Xlllth Papyri.

scheff and

Dynasty. Maspero.
The
so

Petersburg. Date, Translations by Golenifamous


of these is the

St.

most

important to chronologers. has old published several Contes PopuEgyptian tales under the title of the same for English laires,"and Petrie has done
"

kings, which is Professor Maspero

126

A in

COXCISE his

DICTIONARY

OF

readers series.

''Egyptian Tales,"

first and

second

Papyrus.
now

It
in

was

the

found

Egypt,
made.

cijperus j^f^py^'us, a plant not from which the papyrus for

writingon

It grew in marshy places,and the cultivation of it seems to have been a government other varieties of this monopoly. That there were
was

useful hieratic

plant

seems

evident

from

the from

references the

to

it

in the classic authors.

Strabo

calls the first kind


common

the
sort.

it hyhlus,to distinguish

in the Sebennytic cultivated chiefly Pliny says it was Nome. According to him, the triangularstalk of the 15 ft. high, and it was crowned with a as plant was used. The thyrsus." Every part of the plant was root, which was large and thick, provided fuel and material for making certain utensils, and out of the
''

stem

were

made

small

boats.

bedding, and clothes were famous Herodotus tells us writingmaterial. shoots were gathered,"topped," and young for food, being considered a delicacy. The is said to be identical now growing in Sicily Egyptian papyrus.
The books papyrus
was

Sails, mats, rope, of it,besides the all made


that the cooked papyrus with the their

upon

which

the

scribes

wrote

prepared by removing the outer rind and into very thin layers. Several then slicingthe stem laid side by side,other layers put widths of this were
on across

these

with

thin solution

of

some

unknown

adhesive

substance dried. been The had


in

pressed and
papyrus
to
us

the whole between, then was The a good plant of result,when a used, was very fair surface for

writing upon.
vary
cream

specimens
from
are a

that

have dark

come

down
to
a

colour

rather

brown

dark A used tomb Lower

colour, and

of different textures. of the

[See

Papyri.)
conventionalized
for decorative and form purposes, walls. It

temple Egypt.

plantwas frequently and figureslargely on also a symbol of was

KCiYPTT.AX

7\RCHAEOLOOY
man

127
"

Paraschistes.
the stone," made order to withdraw

Tho sht

who, with
side before

an

Ethiopian
in

in the

of the

deceased

the intestines

embalming

the

body. king of the XXIst Dynasty, of Amen, and son brother of Men-kheper-Ea, high priest I. He was of Painezem king of Tanis while Shashanq He the throne is chiefly known at Bubastis. sat on the wall which he built round Tanis (q.v.), the from bricks of which are stamped with his cartouche.
Pasebkhanu
A Pasht. Pens. Pentaur. the writer
was

I.

See Pakht. See Eeed. A scribe who has become of

celebrated

as

of the

epic gi'eat

poem

probablynot the author, as was of the but only the transcriber Poe:m of Pentaur.) Pepi,
Meri-Bd. Third

Egypt. But he for long supposed, [See papyrus copy.

king

of

Dynasty Vlth,

cir.

CaogJ
3467
B.C.

CliiQ
number of

From

the immense

and monuments bearing his name, graffiti, have been a vigorous monarch. that Pepi must From which of Unas is the earhest histhe inscription torical (q.v.), of any length, we document learn that in this reign the Eg^^tians began to make expeditionsfor Pepi'spyramid, Men-nefer, is at conquest and travel. Sakkara.

inscriptions, we gather

Ast,was either the balanites Aegyptiaca (Eaffenan-Delile) the Arab lehaJch or the mwuisops Schimeperi(Schweinfurth). of the principalsacred of ancient It w^as trees one
Persea tree. This

tree, called in Egyptian

128

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

Egypt.
Thoth,

It
or

in scenes occurs frequently the goddess Safekh, is

in which
seen

the

god

the inscribing

Persea

Tree.

name

thus

king,who stands near, life. securingto him everlasting


some

of

on

its

leaves,

Persian defeated

Dynasty. Cambyses
Psammetichus III. caused of is said to have
monuments

at the battle of Pelusium

and

took

possessionof
of many himself

Egypt.

He

the destruction

of the wonderful

odious to the particularly shows that he new Apis bull. But another account restored the temple of Neith at Sai's and performed the succeeded rites as other Egyptian kings. He was by Darius Hystaspes, who tried to improve the condition of the people and country. He established a coinage, canal, and completed the Red Sea to Mediterranean Towards the end of improved the system of taxation. but was itself independent, his reign Egypt again made ArtaHis successor, I. again subdued by Xerxes I.,had great trouble there,but finally xerxes conquered

Egypt,and made Egyptians by killingtheir

130

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

first surgeon. seemed, however, to have Bone-setting been under the protection of Sekhet, fractures being cured

by intercession with her. The tion. royal physicians enjoyed considerable distincA certain king Sahura presented his chief for his tomb, the physician with a costly false door making of which he personally superintended.
" "

Ethiopian king who hved at Napata during the eighth century B.C., and conquered Egypt. The celebrated Stela of Piankhi," a granite block covered with an inscription of his victories in telling set up at Gebel Barkel in Nubia. His Egypt, was
''

Piankhi.

The

Ameniritis is well known queen alabaster statue now in the Cairo


Picture been Hawara but

from Museum.

her

beautiful

frame.
one

present time there has discovered specimen only found, and that was
when

Until

the

excavatingin the cemetery of 1889. It is made of painted wood and contains a corners portrait are ; the joined with mortises and tenons. There is a sht running down both the top sides, for the purpose ing of allowevidently to pass ; and as a sheet of clear glass a sliding cover
in

by

Petrie

has with

been

discovered
the

among This

the ruins of may have

Tanis, it is
been is
now

not

impossible that
the British

picture

covered in

that material. Museum.

unique specimen

the figures but rarely on and monuments, for food. was probably not used Herodotus speaks of seeing a herd of pigs "treading in the seed." {SeeAgeicultuee.) From the "Book of the Dead" learn that Set,the enemy of Osiris, we (q.v.) took the form of a pig. once

Pig.

This

animal

Pigments.
colours white
were

As in

far back
use

as

the

Vth

Dynasty

seven

and

green

; and

yellow, red, blue, brown, black, in the X Vlllth Dynasty, three

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

131

"

yellows,three browns, tw^o blues, two reds, and two sixteen different fourteen or greens ; making about The tints. as composition of the chief colours was follows : White sulphateof lime, or gypsum ; Yellow^ ochre, or sulphateof arsenic,our modern orpiment ;
"

Eed with

"

ochre,
a

or

cinnabar admixture

Dark of sand

Red
;

"

oxide
"

of

iron

pulverized lazuli,or a cheaper kind from glasscoloured by lapis and silicate of copper sulphate of powdered ; Pink lime coloured by some organic substance, probably
small
"

Blue

madder

; Black

"

from
so

calcined well

animal

bones.

prepared,that to this day of the work of Egyptian artists retains almost much all its original brilliancy.The pigments w-ere mixed as required with w^ater and a little gum tragacanth.
The
colours
w^ere

Varnish

w^as

not used

until about This

the time from cracked

of theXIXth the and gum darkened the close of


w^as

Dynasty.
some

It of

was

probably

made

kind

acacia.

method,

however,
about

found the of

to l)e unsuitable,as it both

discontinued and so was paintings, the same Dynasty. {SecCobalt.) of Ruins


at

Pithom

Exodus of

i.

11., the Fa
have Tel has el

Tiini of ancient been been identified found in

Egypt.
Edouard
statue

this town modern The


name

excavations and

the

Maskhutah,
on

by
a

Naville.
on

great tablet of Ptolemy Philadelphus is also written Ha discovered at this spot. The name known Turn, or Ha-neter Tarn, and was through the
lists of Lower In
no nomes

the

to be the

of capital Timsah.
was

the

eighth nome
ten

of of

Egypt.
end all

It is situated of Lake

about

miles

w^est

the southern
monuments

Pithom probability
more

built There of

by

Ramses is

II.,

ancient

than

those which
no

bear his

mark

having
on
"

been

unearthed. Remains I. and I. also

royal
been the

stamp
found. time of of

the

bricks.

the II.
"

XXIInd have In

Dynasty

Shashanq
Nectanebo

Osorkon built at

Pithom. the Sea.

Ptolemy Philadelphusit was commercial expeditions to the

starting-point
Various

Red

132

COXCISE Pitliom
\

DICTIONARY with
"
""

OF

papyri
or

associate
g
-s

region called TJiukii,


;

(3

Thuket

;
^

(^
has

(Pap. Anastasi
with
was

vi. 4,

line in
town

13)

which the the

heen

identified

the the
in

Hebrew district the

Succoth which Under

(Exodus
w^as

20.) Succoth Israelites encamped,


built. Greek

xiii.

and

which

Pithom

name a Heroopolis, The portions of

Dynasty, abridgedinto Ero


and
a

Pithom

became that have

by

the Eomans.

the walls of

chambers

been

excavated
a

are

good epoch.
no

dicating character, invery substantial of these Such is the construction


:
"

chambers, that M. Naville says


been
or

I believe them

to have

than that of storehouses, other purpose the Pharaohs into which gathered the progranaries, visions built for necessary for caravans for armies and about
to
cross

or

even

travellers which

the desert, the w^ere on

road used which

to

Syria.
as

them took

that the Ptolemies It is also very likely warehouses in the trade with Africa,

place through the Heroopolitan Gulf." Naville.) (" The Store-Cityof Pithom," by Edouard See statue of Ankh-renp-nefer in British Museum No. 1007. Southern Egyptian Gallery,
Planets.
Poem E. de it from the and See Asteonomy.

of Pentaur.

The

name

which

w^as

given by
He studied
a

Eouge
the

to the

great epic of Egypt.


copy hence which The
was

papyrus and called Pentaur


name

made
"

by

scribe
was

he concluded
"

that

this
on

of the author.

poem

is found the

the

w^alls of the Luxor.

temples
It
was

at

Karnak, Abydos, Abu


among

Simbel,
Sallier

first discovered

Its subject is Papyri (No. 3) of the British Museum. Kheta II. against the the campaign of Eamses if the story as (Hittites?).The styleis most graphic, dramatic told by an eye-witness. The most part were

describes
the
enemv,

the

hero

Ramses serried

left almost ranks of

whose

among each conchariots,

alone

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY
seem

188

taining three
Then these those Eamses Asiatics who know have
more

men,

calls upon
to

completely to enclose him. his father Amen, ^Yhat are


"

thy
the

heart ?

Amen
Have thee ?
. . .

will

humiliate

innumerable soldiers Amen hundred and The is

god. offeringsunto
not

I not
. . .

consecrated

My

forsaken
to
me

me.

But
a

many find that


a

than

million
Amen

soldiers,than
hears

thousand
son

charioteers." that he is with

tells his

him Then

and

the cry, w411 help him. invincible army describes

enemy hand of a
returns

retreat

god

in terror, against them. and


"

recognizingthe
and

the coward

to the
"

king,he reproachesthem,
how his favourite Nuret

his

gallantaction
and

horses, "Victory

in Thebes him.

see (For translation, vol. ii.) (See Poetry.) series,


"

left to Satisfied,"only were Eecords of the Past," first

Egyptian no a rhythm is poetry. found of the hymns and eulogies, in some and much poeticfeeling. Their similes show imagination and of nature, and observation not above the they were
sense

Poetry.

In

the

of

rhyming

lines

literature

has

But

distinct

use

of alliteration.
to

The

love-sick maiden is to comfort


me as

is sweet

the alone

mouth
can

thy

breath has

my

says, "What the gall of birds ; heart." One love of poem which
a

song flower.

commencing with the name every verse The greatEgyptian epic is the so-called

of Pentaur
we are

{q.v.).It has

in

part

"

form

with

parallelism of the phrases ; two short sentences following each other, and corresponding in arrangement, and also as a rule in purport." Many poems written were to be accompanied by the harp, as so we frequently
see

familiar in Hebrew

poetry,the

so-called

in the tombs. those We little

It is from

tomb

walls which

also that
are

we

have

people.
"

lyricsor ballads give one example :


"

of the

Your

shepherd
talks

is in the the ! your

He From

with
west

sheath

the

with the fish, fish,he salutes the pike shepherd is a shepherd from
water

the

west."

134

COXCISE The dates busts The and

DICTIONARY introduction of 130

OF

Portraits. into heads Hawara Petrie This


at

painted portraits
succeeded which that the

Egypt
and

from

about

a.d., and at

to the moulded

stucco

cartonnages with
were

of the mummies

covered.
in'

in

the

portraitscome Fayiim, which


show for
a

from
was

the Greek

period cemetery of

excavated

by

Mr.

1889, and

strong

influence.
was

is to be

accounted

by

the fact that there

period a large Greek colony in the Fayum. The portraits executed in colours, which are have been then rubbed ground to a very fine powder, and were
up
to
a

this

with

heated

wax. or

This

panel

of cedar

from The and

J^ to J inch, and

appliedwith the brush fine wood, varying in thickness about 9 by 17 inches in size.
was

laid over the face of the mummy, portraitwas the conkept in place by the bandages. From ventional of these it is style portraits thought that
were

they

executed There
are

after the

death, and
National

finished
these and

from the

memory. British

good specimens of

Graeco-

Egyptian pictures in
Museum. For

Gallery

Praefects.
see

the best
''

list of under

Praefects Eoman

of

Egypt

Professor

Milne's A

Egypt

Eule."

appliedby some Egyptologists to all objects which they believe to be anterior to the 1st Dynasty. The for considering them to reasons be of this remote periodare hardly sufficiently cogent at present to permit of this definition being accepted in all cases. It must be remembered that the dynastic not aboriginal, and that traces of what Egyptians were in all probability the native races survived until were of the Pharaonic long after the commencement period. It is therefore than probable that many of the more so-called pre-historic objectsbelong not to the antePharaonic, but to the aboriginalinhabitants of the
term

Pre-Mstoric.

country.
Priests.

The

Egyptian priesthood seems

to

have

EGYPTIAN been

ARCHAKOLOGV

18.1

Kings and goverlargeand elastic order. nors, and a ll held offices, princesses, priestly queens those of high rank there were numberless and below with the various grades of officials in connection temples and services of the different gods. The ritual and services of the temples were elaborate, and there entailed a were recurring festivals which perpetually
a

very

great
find

amount

of labour.

From

the earliest times

we

"

of importance, but the priesthoodwas faction gradually of the priestly increased during power the Middle Empire, and under the New Empire it of the most forms one important elements of the kingdom. There chief whose were priestesses, many have function been to recite. to sing and seems titles the following the best known are : Among priestly the The chief priest at Memphis. JSani priest was The
a

that

the

Hcrsheshta

was

the diviner. The


"

The

Khcr-heh

was

master

of ceremonies.

Setevi, the "prophet,"

the

and the divine "purifier," above the ordinarypriest.

fatlier,"all ranked

Prisse

Papyrus.
I.

See Ptah-hetep

trecepts

of.

Psammetichus

Uah-kh-Bu.

The

founder

of

the

He married Dynasty at Sais, b.c. 666-612. heiress of the Ethiothe daughter and pian Shep-en-apt, his queen and x\meniritis, and king Piankhi as a brought Patoris to her husband wedding gift. Psammetichus made successful a military expedition his reign is chiefiy remarkable for into Nubia ; but fiourished under his fostering the revival of art, which Saite art shows a influence, care. strong Hellenic those which as though the ideas are the same vailed preThis king employed under the ancient Empire. and permitted Greeks Greek mercenaries in his army, XXYIth
to

establish themselves

in the Delta.

136

CONCISE III
.

DICTIONARY

OF

Psammetichus

-i?a XXVIth ,J^"^/i-/{;"-e?2


,

Dynasty

J
resisted II.,who gallantly of his country by Cambyses. After a the invasion phis, stern resistance, lirst at Pelusium, and then at Memtaken he was prisoner,and put to death within
B.C.

525.

Son

of Aahmes

six months

of his accession.

Psychostasia. It

was

an

accepted
one

belief from be

the

very earliest ages that every of Double the Hall Truth, Osiris for their The before the
course

must

and

of conduct Assessors

soul, after first making the

brought into there be judged by during life. negative confession


Dead, is
ducted con-

Forty-Two
the

of the

The of Osiris. heart or presence conscience, in the form of a small vase, is placedin the the beam scale opposite to the feather of Truth ; upon the sits the little cynocephalus (q.v.), of the balance into attendant
to examine

of Thoth.
or

Anpu

is usually standingclose Above the is


seen a

by

test the indicator.

the soul

of the Near Meskhent

deceased
at hand

resting upon
Shai, or
the and

top of

pylon (?).
him
sided pre-

stands birth
"

and the

Eenenet,

Destiny,and behind two goddesses who


of children.

over

education

yond Be-

the scribe of the gods,"reed-pen and Thoth, palette in hand, ready to inscribe the result of the is

weighing of
head and

the heart.

Behind with the

him

is

hideous
a

posite com-

animal, Amam,

body

of

lioness,the
the the quarters hind"

of a crocodile,and forequarters of a hippopotamus; she is called Wicked." and beneath of behind The soul is then
to
;

De-

vourer

of the hand
on

taken him
an

by
is
are

the the

by Horus,
a

conducted
a

Osiris,who
before

seated
**

throne

canopy
are

four children

Horus," standing upon


him Isis and

ing openis

lotus flower ; and Judgment is then either

Nephthys.
deceased in the

permitted

to

pronounced, and the join the cycleof the gods

188

CONCISE The in

DICTIONARY moral the

OF

understood. easily kind


as

teachingis
Book

of the

same

that

fomid

of Proverbs.

The

pious son

is extolled,and duty to parents and superiors inculcated. The path of the virtuous is shown to be

advantageous, and by

contrast

the evil of

disobedience,
vices is of the

pride, laziness, intemperance, and For pointed out. translation,see


Past."

other ''Eecords

Ptah-Seker-Osiris.
which he

form

of the

god

Ptah

under

symbolized the inert form of Osiris, the with its possibilities and of resurrection. certainty mummy of Ptah-Seker-Osiris Large numbers figures been have found. made of wood, and They are mounted little pedestal, which a on projects some distance in front. This pedestal and the statuette itself are scribed frequentlyhollow, and contain papyri inwith certain chaptersfrom the Book of the Dead." The figures and pedestalsare gailypainted, and are usually inscribed with the ordinary prayer for sepulchral formula meals.
"

Ptolemies. 323
B.C.

At the death

of x\lexander

the Great

in

his generals, divided empire was among Egypt fallingto the lot of his favourite and famihar had risen from who an companion, Ptolemy, a man obscure in the founded He a dynasty position army. which lasted nearly three hundred years, ending with the death of Cleopatra in 30 B.C. The historyof the fourteen Ptolemies and the seven Cleopatras is a record of small campaigns, murders, and immorality. At the same time there was and scientific great literary during the early part of the period. Many activity of built,the well-preservedremains temples were form some of the finest examples of architecture which of art had, however, altered considerably extant ; the style from that of Pharaonic times.
are

his

At

Philae, Kom

Ombo,

Edfu, and Dendera

there

Ptolemaic

temples.

{See Cleopatra.)

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

180

Punt, called
This

also

Ta-neter, the

"land

of

God."

region is identified by Maspero, Mariette, and tends Brugsch, as that part of the African coast which exfrom the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb to Cape It was in balsam and incense-be Gardafui. a country rich trees, in precious woods, lapislazuli, this blessed To land Queen ivory and amber. and building equipping Hatshepsut sent an expedition, for the purpose. On their a fleet of five largevessels received in the most arrival they were friendly by way wife of and their his Prince Ati, Punt, Parihu, daughter After an interchangeof gifts, the fleet and two sons. with odoriferous returned to Egypt, laden sycomore with identified by Mariette the trees myrrh tree" of Pliny ivory,skins, logs of ebony, apes, gold dust, and heaps of the precious gum. gold and metal rings, The whole depicted story of this expeditionis vividly of Dcr the walls of the great temple el Bahri. upon
"
"

"

"

"

Pylon. The colossal gateway forming the fa9adeof a temple. It consisted of a large,ordinary entrance,
with
enormous

masses

of and massive

masonry
an

on

either

side,
small

having sloping faces


Sometimes of each these
two

overhanging
towers

cornice. the face held of

contained On

chambers, sometimes
were

only

staircase.

four vertical grooves,

in which

were

great wooden
covered
statues

masts,

bearing floatingstreamers

different colours.

and sculptured Inscriptions pictures the (see Pentaur), and sloping fronts The obelisks were or placed before them. there
were

statues, of which
of
enormous

four

or

six,were

times some-

dimensions.
of the There Abu

They representedthe

royalfounder Pyramids.
more or

temple.
are

remains
on

of at the north

least

seventy
in

less ruined These

pyramids
Eoash

long plateau,
to Medum

extending from
the south. Abu and the

in the

groups, viz., Lisht, Roash, Gizeh, iVbusir, Sakkiira, Dahshur,


divide themselves into

Faydm

group,

that of MedCim

standingalone.

140

CONCISE less than

DICTIONARY

OF have been identified have been

But
as

of all these tombs

twenty

of different
as

kings. Many
excavation

theories method

advanced

fco their age, purpose,

of construction,

etc., and

much

and

built between they were 1st and Xllth for the Dynasties,solely as tombs The method of construction preservationof royal mummies. has been a puzzle to the engineeringmind

proved

that

measuring have the period of the

since record neither

classic what

times.
had been be the

Herodotus told
to

and them It
on

Diodorus the been

both

point,but

theory
labour
a

is conclusive. command

has of the

recently
to

proved
manual

that itwould
at

with possible quite

the unlimited Pharaohs

pyramid without any complex or elaborate The finer examples are built of nummumachinery.''' litic limestone from the quarries of Turah and Masarah
construct
on

the

other
were

side

of the

river. of

Dahshur,
and
cases

built of mud inside

at Others, as some brick, only the passages

chambers

being

limestone. such

In

some

only the
led to the

accidental

discoveryof

chambers

of detritus knowledge that the mound above was once a pyramid. The great pyramid at Gizeh in its original surfaces to state presented four smooth the beholder, as it was faced with graniteand entirely limestone blocks the most joined. But beautifully whole of this outer the place casing has disappeared, The passages having for centuries served as a quarry. inside were arranged with an intricacy designed to foil the efforts of plunderers. In spiteof the great care thus taken the mummy, the pyramid was to conceal opened many times, by Persians, Eomans, and Arabs, and when in more modern times nothing investigated in the chambers remained but a lidless sarcophagus without above of the chambers inscription.In some the of Khufu name was discovered, conclusively the tomb of the second proving that this was king of the IVth Dynasty. Of the two other pyramids that

has

See

"

Mechanical

Triumphs

of

the

Ancient

Egyptians."

Commander

Barber, U.S.N.

EGYPTIAN form the Gizeli

ARCHAEOLOGY

111

Khephren, The pyramids


Ea-en-user
are

the larger is that of Khafra or groups, the other, that of Men-kau-Ea or Mycerinus.
at

Abusir Vth

are

the

tombs

of

Sahu-Ea,

and tombs

other of

the

Dynasty kings. At Sakkfira Unas, Teta, Pepi I., Mer-en-Ea,


that I. ; at Medilm of Usertsen II. and There
are

11. ; at Lisht, that of Usertsen of Sneferu Fayum, those ; in the

Pepi

x\men-em-hat also

III. of the

Xllth el

pyramids at Thebes, Ethiopia, and at Meroe Pyramid


Texts. This

Dynasty. Qullah, near

Napata

in

inscriptions of Unas, in the pyramid tombs Teta, Pepi I., These long, exquisitelyPepi II., and Seker-em-sa-f. various carved contain chapters from the inscriptions of the Dead." Book They have been published by lation. Maspero in the Becucil de Travaux, with a French transThe form of the language differs greatlyfrom phrase
refers
to
"

the

that

found

in

later

times, and

is

more

difficult to

translate.

Q
Qebhsennuf Quarries.
or

Kebhsenuf.
chief

See

Canoptc

Jaiis

at are quarries for limestone Masfirah, nearly opposite to the site of Tiirah, and Sandstone was chieflyquarried at Silsilis Memphis. and Hammamat Gebel Abu Fedeh and ; granite at alabaster and at Aswan at Hammamat, ; porphyry

The

Hat

Nub.

142

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

R
Ra. the the The
was

The he

world.
was

and gods, men, According to some tions inscripcreator


more

of

ancient The
sun,

even

than of

firmament. chief

emblem

and life,light,
seat

is his symbol. fertility, of the worship of Ea Hebrew On


or

Annu,

the

BethHe is

shemesh, the Greek

Heliopolis.
a

usually depicted as human being crowned


disk and
uraeus,

hawk-headed with the sun's


user

and

grasping the

sceptre

in his hand. The of of


name

Ramesseum.
Ea.

given

to

the
on

great temple
the

Eamses

XL, built

plain

bank his the Greeks

of the tomb

Nile. in the

the western Thebes, on It served as a mortuary chapel to

valley behind
Memnonium,

called

it the

The {sec Tomb). by a corruption of

Egytian word viennii, which word they observed in the inscriptions, turningthe simple word frequently into a proper "memorial" or meaning "monument" name. They also called it the tomb of Osymandias, User-maat-Ea, that is who, accordingto Diodorus, was covered with inscriptions II. Eamses The walls are of which relate the story of and illustrations, many the king'swars againstthe Kheta.
Eamses

I., Men-i^ehtetBd,

Dynasty

XIX.,

cir.

B.C.
came

1400

(B).

With

the

also the revival of

incoming of this new dynasty the ancient worship of Amen,

EGYPTIAN and The of his Thebes became


once

ARCHAKOLOGY the seat of

U3

more

government.
a source

rise of the

danger

to

powerfulKheta people became The the Egyptian kingdom.


in the Eamses fact that his
son,

fame the

of

Eamses

I. rests of the

Seti of

I.,and
most

grandson,

II., were

two

celebrated Ramses

long line

of Pharaohs.

II., User-maut-Bu,

Sctep-en-Ba,Dynasty

XIX.,
and

cir.

B.C.

1333 of the

(P.).

The

Sesothis
one

of Manetho of the
most

Sesostris

Greeks, and

Egyptian kings. The first care of this monarch to finish on ascending the throne was the beautiful temple of Abydos begun by his father, also to the temples of Karnak and Seti I. He added Luxor, restored that of Ptah at Memphis, and built as of his fame the rock-cut temple of memorial a lasting
x\bu Nubia
not to
names

celebrated

of all the

Simbel, and
are

the

Eamesseum,
statues

before that
are

which known.

he In

placed the largestcolossal


also many

buildings. This king did the work of his predecessors hesitate to appropriate himself, and both on temples and statues their
may be the
seen

of his

chiselled out, and

his

own

cut

over

them.

II.,the powerful Kheta, reignof Eamses under their king,Kheta-sar, waged war againstEgypt, Kadesh being the rallying-point ; and, although in the of Pentaur and prowess Poem the king's {q.v.) courage of the war but a very out are loudlysung, he comes doubtful conqueror. Peace was ratified by the marriage of the Kheta In king's daughter with the Pharaoh. more ful, successSyria,however, the Egyptian army was and there are long lists of the conquered peoples

During

to be

seen an

From the

II. 's monuments at Thebes. it is clear that the working at Kuban inscription upon

Eamses

of the Nubian

goldmines,which
I,,was
continued

was

begun during
his
successor.

reignof

Seti

under

144 The
"

CONCISE cities
"

DICTIONARY of Pithom and

OF

treasure

Ramses,

built

by the forced labour of the Israelites,date from this became of the one reign ; and Zaan or Pa-Ramessu, of the kingdom. capitals Ramses 11. is by most Egyptologistsconsidered to be the Pharaoh of the oppression; he reigned sixtysucceeded seven by his fourteenth son, years, and was
Mer-en-Ptah. Cairo Museum. The mummy of this Pharaoh is in the

Ramses

III., Uscr-maut-Ra,

the

Rhampsinitus

of

the for

The reign of Greeks, Dynasty XX., cir. b.c. 1200. this king marks of great commercial era an prosperity celebrated for his buildings and Egypt ; he is more his rich gifts to the alreadyexisting temples of Abydos, for any Thebes, than Heliopolis (On), and great The his victories. of turbed dismilitary reign was peace Harem by the famous conspiracydescribed in the Turin, the Lee, Rollin, and Amherst papyri.

Ramessides, the.
numerous

The

name
"

usuallygiven

to

the

XIII. XXth

"

from Ramses III. to kings of that name who occupied the throne of Egypt during the Of them there is Dynasty, cir. B.C. 1200"1100. the the

little to say but that in their hands the country steadilydeclined, and of high priests Ra-t. A Amen
at Thebes

greatness of
power of the

rose. steadily

goddess
feminine idea

not

representsthe
an

abstract is

of the
a

She frequently met with. of Ra, and was rather principle prieststhan a distinct deity. with also
as

She

representedas
on

woman

the sun's disk and


a

cow-horns
same

her head, and

uraeus

with

the

head-dress. Bronze somewhat

Razors.

razors,

resembling

140

CONCISE the sunrise

DICTIONARY and

OF
return

recurrence

"

sunset, the

of

day

and

night,the

battle between

lightand

darkness.

Egyptians considered the name to be a most important part of a hum^an being in fact it as a separate entity. looked they practically upon A man's was name thought to exist after him, and to
Ren, lit.Name.
The
"

be known

in heaven. Renenet the "Book Ranen. the Shai Dead" and


a

or

The

good fortune,
connected
L

harvest

of the with for

goddess of goddess. In she is usually


She with with other

Meskhent.

/(?

1\

is the
a

representedwith
uraeus

human

body
and

head, and
of
tw^o

sometimes

head-dress

plumes

divine

insignia.
or

Renpit
the

Repit. A goddess representing the personified year, rejijntbeing She longed befor year. Egyptian word to the Memphite cycle of gods.
Ta-urt her. She and Hathor
are

Sometimes
Eenenet,

identi-

fied with

is picturedin human head

form, the
notched carries hand.

palm branch. a long notched

symbol on her Frequently she


branch in her

being

goddess Ta-urt merely for the Egyptian hippopotamus. She the is spoken of as dwelling in of Suckling." House
Rert.

late

form

of

the

{q.v.).The

word

rert is

"

god imported from Asia in later times, probably the same as Eesef. Phoenician He the war god, called is great god, lord of heaven, lord of might in the ruler of eternity, Reshpu.
A
"

Renpit.

EC^YPTIAX midst
a

ARCHAEOLOGY circle." natural He is

It'

of

the face

divine and

represented^vitll
of the

Semitic

beard, and instead

Eert.

Reshpn.
head of
a

m^aeus

wears

the miniature

gazelleon

his

forehead.

Rhampsinitus.
Herodotus,

The
in

Greek
one

name

for Eamses
numerous

III.

however,
before

of his

mistakes,

placeshim

Khufu have
or

(Cheops).
been found in

Rings. Many designs are


wire with
a

gold, silver,
Some of
a

bronze, iron,enamel,

frit and

stone.

of the

very charming. Some scarab set so that it can A form of Sebek

consist
turn

single

round. the

Rohes. Roman
A.D.

worshipped in
the years of the Eoman

Fayum.
30 and

Emperors.

Between

b.c.

Empire. Egypt formed part The emperors governed the country through apraefect. The emuneventful perors It was an period on the whole. translated into Egyptian, and had their names of their cartouches maybe seen on the walls which many occurring they built or restored, those most frequently {SeePeaefects.) being Tiberius and Claudius.
640

148

CONCISE Stone. A

DICTIONARY slab of black

OF

Rosetta

basalt, bearing

which trilingualinscription,

proved the key to the decipherment of the hieroglyphs; for it is inscribed then in first in hierogl3^phs, with decree written a the found It was near demotic, and thirdlyin Greek. officer of the Nile by a French Rosetta mouth artillery named Boussard, in 1798, and at the capitulationof Alexandria into the came possession of the British in 1802 who Government, placed it in the British Museum (Southern Egyptian Gallery). Part of the off,also a portion of the righttop has been broken
has hand lower
corner,
so

that

it

now

measures

3 ft. 9 ins.

lines of 14 are by 2 ft. 4| ins. by 11 ins. There 32 lines of demotic, and 54 lines of Greek. hieroglyphs, The ferring subject is a decree of the priests of Memphis condivine honours on Ptolemy V., Epiphanes (b.c. Rosettana," by Inscriptio 195). For translations see LTnscription hieroglyphique Brugsch, Berlin, 1851 ; For de Rosette," by Chabas, Paris, 1867. tion, reproducsee Lepsius, Auswahl, Bl. 18.
" "

Bouge.
an

Rouge
for the

was

in

use

among

the

Egyptians

as

article for the

toilettes of ladies
statues

of fashion, for

the

in gods. A papyrus contains Museum the Turin an amusing caricature of in hand, rougeing her lips. So long ago a lady,mirror mentioned the Old are Empire two sorts of rouge as for the dead ; and according to in the lists of offerings an Abydos ritual the priestof the day on first entering of the god and the statue to incense the temple was its toilette by removing the then proceed to commence

dead, and

of the

old rouge Rutennu

from

the

face. the old

of the An

East,
Ruten

was

Syria.

Upper
from

distinction

the Lower

people figure largelyin

Dynasty,

Thothmes

III.

for Egyptian name Rutennu is spoken of in or Rutennu. The country and of the XVIIIth inscriptions having warred against them.

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

119

goddess of learning, or properlyof writing. perhaps more She is usually representedstanding by the sacred tree of HeUopoUs, on she is writnig the leaves of which of the king,thus endowing the name
him
scene

Safekh.

The

r^

with Thoth She the

eternal

life.

In

such behind

usually stands
venerated
at

her. from of She branch

the earliest times.

inverted

Memphis symbol pahxi-leaf circled by the horns is peculiar to her.


was

The

carries
or a

either reed

notched

palm
Safekli

y
"

and

palette. {See

Seshta.)
Sahu. The

body, spiritual
In

which
"

shall

not

see
"

a corruption." beautiful it is figured a as khat or corruptible body.

in the vignette

Book

of the Dead from

lily springing up (SeeKhat.)


The second

the

Sahu-Ra

king

of

Dynasty V., cir. 3693


Sais. of Lower Nit. Saites. The Nit. A modern Greek
name

b.c,

reignedthirteen

years.

for

of the fifth nome Salt, capital Sa el

Egypt, the

modern

Hagar.

Chief

deity

fifth nome

of Lower

Egypt,

The

local

deitywas
Sakkara. of the

ancient

village standingon the site of Memphis. The principal necropolis

Arab

150 monuments
or
"

CONCISE
at

DICTIONARY the
" "

OF

Sakkara the tombs

are

Pyramid
and

of

Degrees

"

Stepped Pyramid,"
and

the

Mastabat-el-Farun," the

Serapemn,

of Thi

Ptah-hetep.
great
the historic
tions excava-

Sakkara, the
interest
at

Tablet

of. M.

stela of

discovered

by
of
a

Mariette

during

Sakkfira, and

now

in the Cairo Museum.

It

was

found

named Tunari, and reprepriest sents of Eamses in the him name paying homage of whom II. to a series of forty-seven kings, many belong to the first six dynasties. It agrees closely the Tablet of Abydos. with the list of kings given on Mer-ba-pen, the sixth king of Dynasty I., is the first in the tomb

mentioned

on

the Tablet

of Sakkfira. U niter of the

Sam-ta,
a name

or

Sam-taui. Thothmes

"

two

worlds,"

given to

III. after his accession.

Sandals.
or one

Formed

of generally
were

leather. It

They
was

fastened

papyrus, with on other

palm bast,
two

straps,
the the in

passing over
of
a

the instep and


not

the

between

toes.

presence

them etiquetteto wear superior. The use of sandals was


to
men.

almost

confined entirely

Sarcophagi. casing in which


or more seen

The the

sarcophagus
mummy, with

was

the its
one,

outer

stone

two, three,
may have still been

wooden in situ

was coffins,

placed.

Several many

be

in the

tombs, and
The

brought to museums. of the fashioning days. They were

workmanship displayedin in these is unsurpassableeven them of the finest and usually made kind of stone hardest procurable. Various kinds of used, also limestone, basalt,and breccia were granite, of Seti I., a beautiful semi-transparent and in the case The design varied with the dynasties. At alabaster. lid. vaulted flat or with a first it was rectangular, to XVIIth the Vllth From Dynasty time the custom in abeyance. been to have of using sarcophagi seems

EGYPTIAN In the of XYIIIth


a

ARCHAEOLOGY

151 them in made the in the XXVIth

Dynasty
Some
a

we

find in
;

form
were

mummy. shaped hke

succeeding dynasties
then

cartouche

From into favour. rectangularshape again comes the numerous times this period up to Ptolemaic and decorated. worked massive, finely examples were The short, recording on were inscriptions early ones the and td the names and titles of deceased Seten-hetep formula however, the sides were {q.i'.). Occasionally, sculptured to represent a building with doors and became decorations various the openings. Later and more elaborate,usually incised or in relief more in relief. Scenes but sometimes en crciix, entirely form and long extracts from the "Book of the Dead the main subjectof the decorations.
"

Sati.
was

One

of the

Elephantine triad
who is with who

of

gods.
wife

She

wife of of

Khnemu,
She the swift

his other shoots

Anukit

formed

the triad.
as

picturesquely cataract)
Little the island found
to

spoken
forth

archeress

the

current
as

the (i.e.
an arrow. on

straightand
is known of Sehel remains
texts
as a

about there of the the of


a

her, but
have

been

the
two
some

temple
of

the in

goddesses.
as

She of

is mentioned is

daughter
Isis, and
vulture

Ea, and

also

form

represented
with the
Sati.

wearing
the cow's
crown

head-dress, and

Upper Egypt

horns.

Scarab.

This
as

is

an

amulet
'*

made
sacer.

in the
"

form

of the of

beetle known
the

Scarabeus

It is the

symbol

god Khepera, i.e. he who turns or "rolls," for the conception was that Khepera caused the sun to the sky as the beetle causes move across its ball to roll. A scarab inscribed with the 30th (b)chapter of the Book of the Dead" took the place of the heart
"

152

CONCISE of the

DICTIONARY deceased.
was

OF

in the such for number

body

heart-scarabs
attachment. and

form for prescribed with a silver ring gold plated, The have been fomid in

Scarabs

great

made in amethyst, variety. They were crystal, lapis lazuli, carnelian, granite,and many other The stones. composed of majority were

faience.

large beetle of black metallic for the It is remarkable in Egypt. colour common and shape of the hind legs, which are peculiar position end of the placed very far apart and at the extreme body. This is to enable the insect to roll the ball of refuse containingits eggs into some place of safety. soft and balls are first these At shapeless, but as they are pushed along by the scarab's hindlegs they
Scarabeus become firm and

Sacer.

round,
an

and

increase and
a

in

size

until

they are
This of

sometime^

inch

half in diameter.
as an

insect is looked

upon

by

the Arabs

emblem

fertility.

to one no was sceptre proper Sceptre. There royalty. Kings and gods are alike representedholding the usei' sceptrewith the greyhound (?) head, and though holding one frequently shown goddesses are more wdth a lotus flower at the top, they also often carry

the other.

Scorpion.
common

This ancient been emblem the

insect found for

must

have

been of

in have the

times, for numbers

formulae It
was

with represented

from protection of the goddess Selk, scorpionon her head.

fairly magical its sting.


who is

Scribes.
ambitious

To

be

scribe

was

the

great desire

of the

Egyptian youth, almost any rank could be of the profession. The attained by a clever member most phrase in the scholars' frequently-recurring exercises of the New Empire was, *'One has only to

154

CONCISE of

DICTIONARY husband of

OF

was

the

son

Shu, the

Nut, the sky, and father of Osms, Set, Isis, and Nephthys. His symbol is a
goose,

and with

he
"

is

in represented bird upon his

human head.

form He

that the

is called
some was

great cackler," and


have laid the and
"

by
egg

supposed to
w^hich
"

from

the

earth

all the for

thingssprang.
back of Seb the earth. Sebek.
a

In the later texts is a common name

either god represented


as

as

^^^

crocodile, or
a

human He
one r(51es,

with
seems

the head
to

of

crocodile.
various in and The

have
an

played

as especially antagonism to the as

evil

deity

other Ombo

deities,
with Set.
was

such

at times

confused
at Kom

double

temple

Sebek.

partly dedicated to his cult, and the also a great centre of his Fay dm was of the one worship. That he was oldest gods of the Egyptian Pantheon is evidenced by the fact that his name has been incorporated into many royal of the Xlllth names Dynasty. The sacred lake of the temple to Sebek in the Fayilm contained numbers of the sacred crocodiles,which, accordingto decorated with jewels and Strabo, were fed by the priests. Sukhos is the Greek of the god. name
I., Bd-scldiem-uaz-ldiau,

Sebek-em-saf

Probablya

Xlllth mamat,

Dynasty king.
and
a name.

His

name

is found have

at

Ham-

statue

and

statuette

been

found

his bearing

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

155 This

Sebek-em-sauf

II., Bd-selchem-s-shedi-taui,

mJt Qiii^m)
king
Amherst appears is

only known papyri. His


to

to

us

from

the

Abbot

and

have

had

was queen three children.

Nub-khfi-s, he

Sebek-hetepI., Rd-sekliou-lchu.

C^3D
Sebek-hetep II.,

(US)
Ra-sekhcm-suaz-taui.
Two

kings

U^fA
Dynasty XIIL, frequent occurrence,
of

QElj
cir. 2420 but
B.C., whose
names are

of
at

of whom

httle

is known

present.

Sebek-hetep

III.,

Ed-khd-nefcr.

king

of

D^
Dynasty XIIL of this king than
There of any
are more

(jm
monumental of this remains other

dynasty.

Sebek-neferu

(Queen).
last
was

f
of

^^s-s^

^^ i i A
XII,
circa III.

Eighth
2569 and
B.C.

and She

monarch the IV.

Dynasty

daughter

of Amen-em-hat

sister of Amen-em-hat Greek


nome

Sebennythos.
of the twelfth The

name

for

Thch-nctert, capital

of Lower

Egj-pt,the
An

modern

Samanhud,

chief

deitywas

her.

150

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

Seker.

See Ptah-Seker-Osiris. of
a

Eighth king to tradition this king was palms in height,or just over 8
Sekhem.
The
most

Seker-nefer-ka.

cording Dynasty II. Acbeing 5 cubits giant,

ft.

sacred in

place
which

in
was

an

the

Egyptian temple, placed the shrine containing emblem of the titular deity.
A

Sekhet.
of the
was

goddess, second triad at Memphis,


to

son perwho of and and


or

considered and mother She head Like But for


a as

be

the

wife

Ptah

of Nefer is the with the

Tum disk

Im-hetep.
a

represented with
Sekhet.

lioness'

uraeus.

other

lioness-

cat-headed
sun.

deities,she
Sekhet
text at must

of the represented the power have represented its great of Isis that she is says In the legend of the destruction who

heat,
"

Philae

terrible of

Sekhet." it
was

mankind,

Sekhet

helped to destroy

them.

Sekhtet.
Sacked

The

boat of the

sun

in the

morning.

[See

Barks.)
or

Selk

Serqet.

goddess

of

like
a

nature

with

"

protectress of the canopic jars. She is figuredwith a scorpion on the top of her head, or sometimes a as scorpion
with
was
a

Isis, also

human

head. of identified

She

daughter
and the
sun.

Ea, is
with

at

times

Safekh,
Selk.

bolized of the

perhaps symscorchingheat

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOCJY brick

ir,7

Semiieh.
west

crude

fort still

standing on
III. the from

the for raids

bank

of the

Nile, erected
his southern It stands
on an

by

Usertsen

the

of protection

frontier

of the Nubians.

artificial platform of

commanding height. (See Kummeh.)


Sen-mut.
See

Architects.

king of Dynasty II. Eeigned fortyThis king is mentioned in the Berlin one (?)years. IMedical Papyrus ; and on the tomb of Shery, a priest.
Senta.

Fifth

Se-qenen-Ra I.,Ta-da, Dynasty XVII.,

cir. 1660

b.c.

the queen
two sons,

of this
one

king

was

Aah-hetep,and
young, and
one

we

know his

of

of whom about

died this

daughter.
was

Nothing
one

is known

of

the

royal tombs

king except inspected under

that the

Rames-

sides.

Seqenen-Ra III., Ta-da-qen, Dynasty XVII.,

cir.

1610,

B.C.

Aah-hetep was^his queen,


; the

and he had Nefert-ari


"

several

children of them.
was

celebrated
coffin the
"

Princess

The among

found of his

containing the Royal find at


fallen
on

being one king's mummy


Der that el Bahri he
in

1881. died It Berberi.


was

Evidently he
wounds.

had

the battle-field and


was a

Petrie

suggests
that
a

for

Queen

Aah-hetep
her

the

magnificent
the
now

found buried with jewellery, sand at Dra-abu'1-Negga, was

few

feet under

made.

It is

in the

Cairo Museum,

158

CONCISE This
name

DICTIONARY is

OF
to

Serapeum.

Apis
was

mausoleum

at Sakkara.

incorrectly given The Serapeum


site of the

the

the

temple

built

over

the

proper excavated

tombs, of which

the very few remains covered with are sand. The ruins were discovered by Mariette in 1860. The word is a combination of the two Egyptian words

combination of which the Greeks a Osiris-Apis, made their god Serapis(q.v.). The huge vaults opened by Mariette consist of three parts,one which originally contained the bulls of the periodfrom Amen-hetep TIL to the XXth to Dynasty, another those of XXIInd XXVth Dynasties, and the third part those from the I. (XXVIth reign of Psammetichus Dynasty) to the
"

time
to 50

of the later Ptolemies, 1450 years,

Thus

the

burials about

cover b.c.

period of about
B.C.

i.e. from

1500

Only the third part is open to the public,the two first being covered with sand. This part consists of in the rock, and one some long gallery excavated shorter ones. On either side of the long gallery are the enormous deep pits in w^hich are sarcophagi. These monoliths of red or black granite, stone, limeare or the average measurements being length,13 ft., width, 8 ft., height, 11 ft. Mariette found the covers of most of the sarcophagi pushed aside and the contents Of the twenty -four that are there,only three gone. bore an}^ inscription.
"

a Serapeum or Serapeion a.t Alexandria was temple of Serapisfounded by Ptolemy Soter, which said to be only surpassed in splendour by the v/as It was Capitolat Rome. destroyedby order of Theo-

The

dosius

in

a.d.

389.

Ausar Hapi. This god i.e. Osiris-Apis, or Serapis, of the Apis with is a combination Osiris, and was introduced into He is Egypt by the Ptolemies.
accounted
to be the second
a son

of

Ptah, and

with

bull's head

surmounted

by

is sented repredisk and

EOrPTIAN His
was

ARCRAKOLOOY all
over

loO

uraeus.

and

very

worship extended popular under the


hidden word chamber for
a
"

the

kingdom,

Eoman

domination.

Serdab.
from
an

or

cell in
"

the

tomb In

Arabic
w^ere

hidden

chamber.

depositedKa statues {q.v.)of the deceased. completely sealed up, but Usually it was left communicating small sometimes a aperture was incense tomb with the or chapel, through which The walls of Serda])s perfume might reach the statues.
the Serdab
were

not

decorated.

Serpents.
serpents
numbers
enters

As

earlycivilizations the cult of into Egyptian religion.Large largely


with all appear
on

of them

tomb

walls, some

of

evil

portent, but

of good. They were perhaps as many of the sun-god,opposing his progress enemies during underworld the his through the journey through twelve hours of night,and as such Bes and Ta-urt are them. In the their foes,and are often seen strangling
tomb
are

of Seti of

I.,at Thebes, many


In
one a

depicted.

serpents the ithyphallic god, Nehebka, in


scenes arms

with

the form progress upon


a

serpent with

and

legs,opposes
is Horus of

the

of the solar bark

in which

standing

chief all the The evil winged snake. who seems to have serpents was Apepi or Apophis ((/.v.), evil. There of spiritual is a been a personification of the Overthrowing of called the Book work religious of fear and the idea of proApepi" {q.v.).A spirit pitiation which led the to to probably great popularity
"

this cult at Three


monuments,

one

time of

attained.

kinds

serpents
cobra

are

(a) The

cli
was

basilisk of the and

Greeks, which

representedon the capello{uraeus) the the symbol of divine


"

the forehead of and is seen on royal sovereignty, gods and kings. (6) The "sj; or cerastes, a poisonous of Scripture, (c) cockatrice viper, possibly the A great coluber of what speciesnot yet deterrnined. the Typhonian Apepi. It was this last that represented
"
"

160

COXCISE formulae

DICTTOXARY

OF have been

Many
found.

magical

against snakes
word in the in

Servants. has that Slaves been it

There

is
**

translated
means

slajve,"but it
more

which inscriptions is not impossible modern


were some sense.

servant

our

in the

real been of

sense

of the

w^ord from

having
merchant,
actual the soil
;
or

either

bought captured in war.


their

been

importations, foreign
were

They
serfs that

the
to

property

masters,

attached

but there

is

no

good
"

evidence

have been There treated. must cruelly in thirty III. find that in Egypt, for we years Eamses The presented113,433 of them to the temples alone. at all periods, Directors of the Eoyal Slaves occupied of Pharaohs." the the court at an important position man's a Then, as now, importance was partly of servants he kept. A high measured by the number I. of the Xllth Usertsen official under Dynasty had enumerated the officers and servants on sixty-three
'
'

they were great numbers

walls nine

of his tomb "food

at Beni

Hasan.

Of these there

were

messengers, and nine those tombs the who

maid housefive scribes,seven providers," of canals,four herdsmen, a superintendent the chief servants were priests.Among with had to do food-providing.In the el Amarna find among "Superintendent of
we

at Tel

other the

servants

following: of house, superintendent


of the

the

provision superintendent dwelling,

bearer of cool bakehouse, scribe of the libations, drinks, preparer of sweets."

Seshta.
but

goddess of learning ; her written Safekh (q.v.). incorrectly,


The

name

is often,

Sesostris.
The

{SeeEamses god
He the whom
was

II.)
the the
son

Set. their of Nut

Greeks of Nut

identified
and

with

Typhon.
on

Seb, born

third
to

of the

hence

brother

Osiris.

epagomenal days {q.v.), is Nephthys His wife

162

CONCISE

DICTIONARY
to drink

OF the the

of the north river." onwards

wind, and
the is

from

About

time

of

the

Xllth

this prayer the deceased.

for distinctly

depth of the Dynasty and ita (q.v.)of

U
Sefen
fa

n
Ijefep
Asdr veh

Zattu

neter

da

Osiris

lord

(of)

Tattu

God

great,

neb lord (of)

!Je
Ahtu

:r"
may

s
per kheru

"^ i"l
du oxen,
ner

"C.

Aby dos

td-f give

he

sepulchral meals

birds,

menTch clothes.

Seti I.

Maftt-men-Ba.

Dynasty XIX.,

cir. b.c.

13G6.

The

early years
the constant

of this incursions

king's reign

were

troubled the

neighbourhood of the Delta, and on the walls of the temple be seen of Karnak a vivid representationof the may of the successful campaign againstthe events principal Shasu. Having been victorious in the Delta, Seti I. Kadesh the Orontes to to on punish pushed on who broken had the Kheta the Mauthanar king, treaty by
made between himself and
war

of the tribes from

Ramses

I.

After

this

we

find the Pharaoh the Cushites

waging

in the south. the Great Hall

againstthe Libyans, and The temples of Abydos and


of Columns
is at Karnak
are

Gurnah,
among

and

the most his tomb and

lastingmemorials
el Molouk burial Ramses The

of this

and his

in the Biban rock-cut

king's fame; the largestof


mother
a

the celebrated
son

places.
II., was
mummy

The

of

successor,

Tiu,

daughter grand-

of Khu-en-aten. the Cairo Museum. Greek Lower De


name

of Seti I. is in

Sethroe.
nomes

of the

capitalof

one

of the been in the

of

identified.

has not Egypt, which Rouge thinks it must have

yet
been

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

168

ioiixteenth,Khent-abt. It

may

he ThcJcut.

The

chief

deity^vas
in the Thebes which

Atmu.

Setna, the papyrus


second with
was some or

of, in the Cairo Museum,


third

written found
at

other from

century B.C., was manuscripts, in a


of
a

wooden

box,

taken

the tomb

the probably constituted Tale of Two Brothers," itis written Though, unhke the of it is very similar to that of the in demotic, the style earlier papyrus, the being, Brugsch says, grammar The colophon, which does not give quitethe same.
"

Copticmonk, and Hbrary of this Egyptian.

the the and

author's and

name,

reads w^hich

thus: tells

"This the

is the end of his

of

manuscript
of of Merhu

story

Setna

Kharmes,

Ptahneferka, and of Ahura


"

wife,
. . .

day
of
son

his son, w^ritten in the year 35, the of the month Tybi ; that is the thirty-fifth year of the Ptolemies. search its of Setna that is twice is Eamses book of called II. of the

one

''the The

king User-maat,"
a

story tells of
(See
"

for the sacred

Thoth, and
the finders.

of the calamities Eecords

possessionbrought on

by into French Goodwin by Maspero ; also translations and Eevue into English by Griffith ; Brugsch, in Archeologique," Septembre, 1867; M. Soury, in Revue des Deux Mondes," February 15th, 1875.)
" "

Past," vi., p. 131, translated

2 Kings, xvii. 4. Shabaka, Sahaco, or So. Ethiopia,B.C. 700, Dynasty XXV. Shadoof. used in the ancient The

King

of

ordinary shadoof,
w^as

such

as

that

still in It
a or a

country,

the usual

means

employed

from the Nile. w^ater Egypt for lifting consists of a pole restingon an upright post, or on of brick horizontal beam supported on two columns end a weight which as mud, having at one serves to the bucket. counterpoise

Shai.

The He

god

of

associated destiny, He decreed Renenet what and

with should

Renenet,

goddess
to
men.

of fortune.

happen
in

with figures

Meskhent

164 the
scenes

CONCISE of the

DICTIONARY of the heart

OF in the

weighing
His

ment judgor

hall of Osiris.

portionout. Shashanq.
Shasu. A and

to signifies {SeePsychostasia.)
name

divide

See tribe

Shishak.

inhabitingthe
"

deserts

of

north

the kings of Egypt Syria, with whom in conflict Bedawin. Thus were perpetually literally, those of conquered peoples their name figuresamong of Thothmes on II.,Amentemple w^alls in inscriptions II. hetep II., Amen-hetep IV., Seti I., and Eamses in Syria it was inevitable In campaigns carried on that the marching Egyptian armies should come into collision with these people, since they were obliged to pass through their territory.

Arabia

Shenthit.
and Dendera

Funeral
were

form

of Isis.

At

Busiris, Abydos,
to her.

sanctuaries See Hyksos.

dedicated

Shepherd Kings.

Shepses-ka-f.
Dynasty
IV.,

(M. 0 P
3759
b.c.

Sixth

king

of

cir.

the tomb From years. learn that his eldest w^e

Eeigned twenty-two of Ptah-Shepses, at Sakkara, daughter w^as Maat-khfi.


XXII.
,

Shishak

I.

Dynasty

cir.

b.c.

966.

HilMil
^

zi

known the monarch to whose as chiefly fled (1 Kings xi. 26-40). In the fifth court Jeroboam Eehoboam's stigatio reign, and possibly at the inyear of marched of Jeroboam, Shishak againstJudah Jerusalem and pillaged (1 Kings xiv. 25-28 ; 2 Chron. of the conquered Syrian the names xii.). Among districts and towns engraved upon the walls of the This

king

is

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY is that of

165

Judah-melek, which some have considered of represents the king or Icinfjclovi Jiidali. Maspero, on tlie other hand, beHeves that it is more hkely to be Jehudah, a town of the tribe of Dan.

temple of

Karnak

Shi'ew-mice.

These have

httle creatures been form found


on

were

sometimes bronze It
was cases

mummified,
with
to
a

and

in small

of figure
was

the

mouse a

the

top.

sacred
to

Her-khent-an-ma,

of

Horns, supposed

be

blind, who
Shu.

worshipped in Letopolis.
son

The
says

of Ea Ra

and

Hathor, though
Tefnut

later

produced Shu and without of a goddess. the co-operation As a nature god he may be said to be a of the atmosphere which personification the sky (Nut) from the earth divides (Seb). He is frequentlyfigured with arms supporting the starry uplifted, legend
that

{q.v.)

Nut,

while

Seb
a

lies beneath.
man,

He

is The

representedas
the feather the the
on

with

his

symbol

the

top of his head.

little faience

figuresof Shu holding up sun-disk, represent the god placing in its right position between sun
and

sky
of

earth.
two

He
two

is the

twin-brother

Tefnut, the
as

being frequently
Shu.

associated Silver.

lions. old

it is clear that silver inscriptions the most looked upon as w^as precious metal, possibly found Under there was in Egypt. because not any the New more Empire, when gold and electron came From into
use,

it decreased
was

Silver

in value. very much imported into Egypt from Asia of standard


"

in

rings,
called

was weight. in the hieroglyphs white gold," from which it is know^n inferred that gold was to the Egyptians prior Fevv objectsmade in this metal to silver. remain, them chains are specimens of statuettes, some among and a few vases and rings, part of a temple treasure.
"

bricks,and

sheets

It

166

CONCISE sometimes

DICTIONARY used for

OF

Silver

was

making

the

eyes

of

statuettes.

Sistrum. of bronze
or

A four

musical metal

ribbon

of a loop instrument, formed fastened to a handle, crossed by bars

passing through holes in bars were each side of the loop. These quiteloose, from being merely bent at each end to keep them bore metal rings, slippingout, and they sometimes the added the sound when which to considerably
three instrument the form usual
as a was

shaken. of the the handles

Sometimes The

the bars
was one

were

in

of little serpents.

sistrum

of the

attributes

design for
The

goddess Hathor, and was used of columns the head of over capitals
of the instruments of that inlaid found. sixteen mentions
was were

Hathor.

almost silver.

always in the form of the head were usually of bronze, sometimes


Enamelled of the whole handles have from inches.
s.

goddess,and
with The
or

also been

length

varied

eight to
Plutarch

63) that
some

the sistrum
to

eighteen {deIside, supposed


of power the evil or

by

have

the

frightening Typhon, away used in the most spirit. Sistra were when solemn services, they religious of high often carried by women were
rank.
ware

Models
were

of sistra in enamelled

often
were

deposited
first broken

in in

the

tombs, but
of

sign
4th

(See Brit. Mus., Egyptian Eoom, table case A.)


mourning.
Sivan.
See Nekhebt. See Servants.

Sistrum.

Slaves.

Sneferu.

First

king

of

Dynast}^
years.

IV.

cir. queens

3998
are

B.C.,

reigned twenty-nine
Mertitefs
and

Two

known.

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

167

Meri-s-ankh,

and

one

pyramid
From
an

and

temple

at

The daughter, Nefert-kau. Medilm belong to this king. it is evident Bedawi. A that Sneferu
sent

the

Sinai

tablet

expedition againstthe
Sokaris,or Sokar,
or

{SeeMedum.)
god
of whom with emblem bark
was

Seker.
in

little others.
was

is known He
was a

except when

combination his sacred in the

sun-god at
at

one

time, and

carried hennu.

round The

festivals

called held
at

great festival of
with

Sokaris

Memphis,
him, it

in connection

the winter the

solstice. and

To fifth He

especially belonged the hours of the night, through which Ea, passed during his journey from sunset is represented as a mummy with a [See Ptah-Seker-Osikis.)
seems,

fourth
sun,

nightly
head.

to dawn.

hawk's

Sopt,

or

Sepd,

the

god
Bes

of the x\rabian
times some-

nome,

and,

accordingto Wiedemann,
identified He is described
at
"

with

{q-v.)ments monuas

the upon Saft el-Henneh

Sopt,

the and be

Spiritof
the
as

the

East,
of the with of the

the Turn him


sun.

Hawk,

Horus connected

East,"
to

{q.v.).
He

Naville herald

considers

the

probably represents zodiacal the light, the long pyramidal shaft of light seen
after is the
sun

has

set

or

before

he rises. The
a

firms

symbol high, narrow pyramid conthis supposition.


The Greek its form
in

fact that his

Sopt.

SotMs.

of the the

Egyptian
constellation

word

for

Sirius, the
from whence

brilliant star
name

Canis,

important star known importance also to the

dog-star, perhaps the most Its to Egyptian astronomers. modern chronologercan hardly

the

168

CONCISE

DICTIONARY the

OF

was Egyptian calendar The star arranged by the heliacal risingof Sothis. was personifiedas a goddess, and frequentlyrepresented, i n the Graeco-Eoman especially temples,as a She is queen of the thirty-six constellations cow.

be

over-estimated, for

recorded of Isis.
to

in old Part festivals

astronomical

tables,and
at

was was

the star devoted Sothis.

of the in

temple

Dendera the

the

honour

of

rising of

{SeeYeak.)
Soul. See Ba
A

and

Ka.
word used
to

Speos.
rock-cut

Greek
or

designate a

small

temple

shrine. The Greek

Speos Artemidos.
rock-cut

name

temple at Beni Hasan. III. Queen Hatshepsut and Thothmes Dynasty. It is dedicated to Bast, one headed the Greeks goddesses,whom
their Artemis
"

given to a small It was begun by


of the XVIIIth of the lionessidentified with

the Eoman oldest Gizeh

Diana.
known
monument

a platform mile S.E. of the great pyramid. Its date is unknown ; of Khufu but an inscription mentions it it,and possibly restored by this king ; though some was Egyptologists

Sphinx. standing on

The the

about

Egypt, quarter of a

in

consider the solid

that it is of much The

later date.
contour

It is hewn

out

of

in rock, the deficiency is about

being supplied

body greatest height about 30 ft. long, and the breadth of face have been spoiled by Mohammedan by
masonry. 50 ft., the made red
a

ft. long,the paws 70 ft., the head being


14

150

ft.

The

features that of

fanaticism of the cheek. British


once

target of the face.


still remains
uraeus are now

But
on

some

original
Parts Museum
ment monu-

colouring
and been

the in the than

the beard has

[N. Egyptian Gallery].


cleared has drifts round
to and

More

the

from

the sand

which

constantly

Government

buries it. Of late jxars the Egyptian made excavations here. extensive

170
to

A the

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

10 ft. 3 ins. high, syenite, called the Israel Stela {q-v.).They have been found in a variety of materials limestone, wood, and granite, pottery. The majorityare sepulchral, bearinginscriptions life of the his and the titles to deceased, relating relatives. These They contain also forms of prayers. stelae were placed in the tomb in various positions. The earliest examples are square at the top, the later rounded. The latter are ones frequently decorated at the top with the disk and wings. In the early dynastiesthey usuallybear picturesof the deceased, accompanied by his wife and family,and are often coloured, while in the time of the XYIIIth Dynasty the relatives gave place to representations of gods. The these stelae have of the been biographies on greatest importance to chronologers and historians, and in some the only authorities for certain are cases periods. inscribed with Stelae, other than are sepulchral, records of important events in certain reigns,decrees, Sometimes these are religious given in hymns, "c. renders three languages,which the tablet of two or Such Stone and the Rosetta are (q-v.), great value. found at Philae in hieroglyphs, Greek, and Latin. one
"

great slab of black

painting hieroglyphs of meszemt. Besides name being used for of adornment, it was for probably used purposes of its in cases of ophthalmia, on the eyes account that disease being frequent in healing properties,
the eyes. under the The best kind is known in the ancient times. The In the

Stibium.

cosmetic

in

frequent use

for

Strabo.

famous
the

Greek

geographer of
he visited and

the first

century
and with years
centre

B.C.

ascended the

year 24 B.C. Nile as far as

Egypt,
Philae

Syene

work.

He then prefectAelius Gallus. spent some in Alexandria,which then the great worldwas of learning,amassing materials for his great This geography is the most important work

EGYPTIAN
on

ARCHAEOLOGY has
come

171
to
us

the

that subject It is in the that he of

down

from

classic geography the

times. north

last

describes

(XVIIth) book of his Egypt, Ethiopia, and

coast

Libya.
Great.

Stream,
mean

of the

by the Milky Way; here, according to obtained. was Dead," purification


The
sun was

The

Understood

Kenouf
the
"

to

Book

Sun. Ea

under personified his

the

form

of

iq-V-)'Many
were

of

attributes, and

different

the night personified.Osiris was Horus at times the rising Tuni the settingsun, sun, The lioness- and cat-headed sun. goddesses represent The Egyptian varyingdegrees of the heat of the sun. of the sky beingthat it w^as avast ocean, they conception bark. the disk this in across sun a represented sailing

aspects

also

Sntekh.

name

givento

Set

(q.v.).
trees were sycoinoie trees of Egypt. It was

The and Sycomore. pcrsca the most important of the sacred sacred
to
to Nut

and

Hathor, whose

doubles of

were

supposed
"

South the was "Sycomore the livingbody of Hathor on earth," regarded as the Memphite Hathor being called Lady of the of Southern Sycomore." The peasants made offerings and water fruits and vegetables in jarsto such trees, as from picturesin the tombs. be seen Land The may of the Sycomore was a name given to the Memphite and Letopolite The tree is the wild fig. {Sec nomes. Trees, Sacked.)
" " "
"

inhabit

it.

The

for Aswan. It gives name Scriptural form of granite found there to a particular its name called syenite. The is derived from and hence name It owed its ancient the hieroglyphicswi. tance impormaterial for whence its to granite quarries, and statues was taken, and on account obelisks, temples, between of its being a frontier town Egypt proper and

Syeiie.

The

172

A In

CONCISE Ptolemaic

DICTIONARY times it
was

OF considered
to

Nubia.

lie

because it was noticed immediately under the tropic, that during the summer solstice the rays of the sun fell vertically to the bottom of a well in the town. This made well
use

has of

not

been fact in

discovered. his

Eratosthenes for the

this

calculations

measurement

of the earth.

Syenite.

Sec

Granite.

Taharqa, Tirliahah (2 Kings xix. 9),king of Ethiopia. He is best known to history Djmasty XXV., B.C. 693. for havmg rescued Hezekiah, king of Judah, out of the hands of Sennacherib, king of Assyria, whom he conquered. Later on Taharqa was in turn defeated by the son and grandson of the Assyrianking. Tahpanhes,
Defenneh. camp known The
as
"

the

Greek of The

Daphnae,
an

the

present Tell
fortress and

ruins

old

frontier

Palace

of the Jew's

Daughter."

of the Carian and Ionian Probably the original garrison mercenaries aid Psammetichus I. fought by whose his way of Egypt, and whose foundation to the throne discovered beneath the four corners of depositswere the fort (Herod, ii.30 and ii. 154). It was the home of Zedekiah's daughters after Jerusalem had been besieged and taken by Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, B.C. 588 (Jer.xliii. 6, 7 ; Josephus, Ant. ix. 7). In the (Aahmes II.) the whole Greek reign of Amasis and its place garrison was deported to Memphis

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY in their turn

178

taken

by

by Egyptians,who Persian garrison.


An also earth combined
more

were

succeeded

Tanen.
He Tanen At Abu He
two

god,

another

form the of than

of Seb

(q.v-).
Ptalialone.

is

witli

Ptah,
as

god
Tanen

being
Simbel is

often

spoken
man on

he is described
a

represented as
and disk

father to Kamses II. with the ram's horns, head.

feathers

his

Tanen,

besides

of the earth, is also identified being a personification with the night sun. He is the presidingdeity of the land borderingon Lake Moeris.

Tanis.
fourteenth and

The
nome

Greek of

name

for

Lower

of the Zaiit,the capital San, Egypt, the modern

Zoan. Scriptural An

Chief
embalm The

Horus, deity,
er

Taricheutes.

of the dead.

goddess represented as with woman's a hippopotamus, though occasionally


head, and
where birth she
to

Ta-urt, or Thoueris.
sometimes

as was

whole

woman.

She
at

was

the wife of Set, and


was

supposed by some worshipped as Apet, to


Her head-dress and is

Thebes,

have

given

Osiris.

usually the disk, horns


and the blood of the for she is shown which She

plumes,
the the

leaning on
is called

amulet of Isis.

represented
"

mistress

gods," also the "good nurse," she presided at the birth of

children.

Taxation. records
that

It is evident there
was

from
a

various

regular

system of taxation, and that in old the people only as now days even is no paid under protest. There
evidence of
a

polltax

even

as

late

as

Ta-urt.

174 the time intervals each until each induced there the
w^as

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

of the several

earlyPtolemies.
times be had
a a

But

when

at

regular
came,

year
scene

the tax-collector of distress his In and

would village debtor do


an so

uproar times

paid up
the and

due, probably only


Ptolemaic

to

by

stick.

tion, crushing system of taxathe injustice arisingprobably from the fact that farmed collection of the taxes was out. Ptolemy V.

elaborate

instituted

five per cent,

tax

on

all sales.

Tefnut, twin

sister to

Shu

and

As a daughter of Ra and Hathor. nature goddess she probablyrepresents the dew. Philae, Elephantine, Memphis, Dendera, "c., w'ere
centres

of

her

cult, but
functions

the

ceptions con-

of her She is

varied.
a

represented with
the the
to

lion's
uraeus

head, with
above. is from In

disk

and

pyramid

texts

she

supposed

carry the deceased.

aw^ay

thirst

Tel
Tefnut.

el Amarna.

The

name

of

the the

modern site of

which marks village Khut-Aten {q.v.). of the the made

Tel- el-Amarna Khut-Aten

Tablets. One of the

East
most
was

Royal palace of
**

was (q.v.)

discovered times hundred

House here in

of the logical archaeo-

Royal
in the

Rolls." finds

important

of modern of three

1887,

clay tablets inscribed in character. the cuneiform They proved to be despatches the neighbouring kings of Babylon, and letters from the Cappadocia, also from Assyria, Mitanni, and Egyptian rulers in Jerusalem, Canaan, the "field of Bashan," and Syria. They throw a great deal of light, not only on the historyof the reign of Khu-en-Aten, but on the state of Palestine, and the relations existing
shape

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY
at

I.)

Among the letter writers are Burnaburyas, king of Bab3'lonia, Dushratta, king of Mitanni, and Ebed-tob, the vassal king of Jerusalem. IV.) {SeeAmen-hetep
between
the powers that time.

Temple.
Christian

The

Egyptian temple was


or

not

built

as

are

for the mosques, of public worship and instruction ; its very purposes It precludessuch possibilities. arrangement at once churches Mohammedan shrine for as a generallyerected by a monarch then the tutelarydeity first,and the personal as raised l:)y him which monument to himself, on may of the he seen his deeds slaughter of his prowess, of gifts to the presiding enemies, his dedication deity,Sec. of wood or wattle, The earliest temples were evidently and were the symbols of merely the shrines enclosing the god ; under built of the Old Empire they w^ere stone, i.e. temples of the Second Pyramid at Gizeh, but were and of King Sneferu at Medfim, severely Empire the temple became simple; under the New from the fact that successive much more complicated, buildingsby adding kings enlargedtheir predecessors' halls of columns, chambers, "c. The essential plan of the same brick a crude practically every temple was the pylon or entrance surroundingw^all, gateway, with flanking towers, before w^hich generally stood two colossal statues of the king and two obelisks,and the containingthe innermost naos, sanctuary where was of time this simple kept the divine symbol. In course ture, plan became expanded into a most complicatedstrucreached sometimes by as many as three pylons, of sphinxes, and followed separatedby three avenues courts, a hypostyleor columnar hall,and by columned flanked by numerous ments, chambers, where the books, vestand treasures of the temple were kept ; all of which led up to the seWiem or holy place. The roof was of flat slabs of stone, while light always constructed admitted either by stone was gratingsor by small slabs. shafts in the roofing
w^as
"

170

COXCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

iiiiiiiiiii

iiiii^^*""'
c

lllllll

|'iimiiim"","'^",""^

I
i
20 w bV SO m 120

moo

Scale of feet.

Plan
a, the
c, screen

of very
;

simple form
Dromos

of

an

Pylons ; h, the

d, the Pro-naos
the

; e,

Egyptian Temple : flanked hy Sphinxes/; in which the Adytum


" "

this

example is within Adytum or sanctuary


Tenait.
One

Naos.

In

some

cases

the

fillsthe whole

of the Naos.

of the feasts commemorative of

of the death of the month. dera there


name are

Osiris,held
from of the

on

sentative reprethe seventh day

and

In

the

greattext

the

temple of
and

Denis

directions

for its celebration.

Tenait

also the

of the fifth hour

day

of certain

days

in the month. The Greek of for

Tentyris.
of the sixth dera.

name

Ta-en-tarert,capital
the modern Den-

nome

Upper Egypt,

Chief

Hathor. deity, The


"

^'Tesherit.
desert.

red

land," or region of the Arabian

Teta

I.

First

king

of

Dynasty VI.,

cir. 3503

B.C.

178

CONCISE

DICTIONARY and
to
wears

OF the lunar
are

deity
and sacred

crescent

disk.

Two

animals the Sometimes


an

especially
and the the is quently fre-

him,

ibis

cynocephalus. represented as
he with

god

ibis,but

most

in human form appears the head of that bird surmounted


crescent
a

by

the

and branch.

disk, and
pen, He is

either notched found he of


Thoth.

paletteand

or

carrying the

palm
in

always
where result of the of all had

judgment scenes, records his palette the on the weighing of the heart
He the
as was

the

deceased.
the exact He
wrote

the inventor books The and

and sciences,letters, learning sacred Isis.


as

the fine arts. him with

great knowledge of magic


Hermes.

Greeks

fied identi-

{Sec Hermes

Trismegistos.)
cir.

Thothmes

I., Aa-kJicj^er-ka-Bd, Dynasty XVIIL,

B.C.

1541

"

1516.

It

is from and

the

tombs

of the
at

two

Court that
"

Aahmes officials,
we

Pen-nekheb,

El-Kab,

the Nubians, the king subdued Anu of Khent," and the people of Upper Mesopotamia, far as the cityof Niy, situated near as Aleppo and on the Euphrates. and Thothmes I. married Aahmes Mut-nefert, and had He succeeded three children. was by his son, learn that this Thotlimes II. His mummy is in the Cairo Museum.

Thothmes

XL, Aah-Wicpcr-cn-Rd,Dynasty XVIII.,

(Ailfl
B.C.

(
his half

3
^

1
A

1516

"

1503.

Married

sister, Hatshepsut

EGYPTIAN and

ARCHAEOLOGY

179

three he had royal blood, by whom his children. His III., was only son, Thothmes successor. Perhaps it was owing to his delicate health left the government of that this king seems to have the country chiefly of Queen Hatshepsut. in the hands He maintained his predecessor's have to appears authorityin Gush, in "the land of the Fenkhu the shores of the Mediterranean. and round (Phoenicians),

Aset,

not

of

"

His

mummy

is in the Cairo

Museum.

Thothmes

III., Men-Jiheper-Ra,Dynasty XVIII.


=

8J
are

cir. who

B.C.

1503

"

1449.

His and

two

Hatshepset,his cousin, and


succeeded That and he
was

queens Nebtu. He for

Meryt-Ea
one

had

son,

him,
this
was a

several

actual

pedigreeof
not

king has
the
son

daughters. The long been a matter

of doubt. concubine

he the

whether
under

queen, of Thothmes son

Aset, who was a is absolutely certain,but


I.
or

of

II. has
not

been

grave discussion,and unanimous the point. upon of Thothmes Thothmes II.

are Egyptologists Probably he was

yet
son

the

IV., Men-lcliepem-Fid, Dynasty

XVIII.
,

cir.
had

B.C.

1423

"

1414.
one

He of asserted

Mut-em-ua, married^

and

two

sons,

whom,
the

Amen-hetep
the in sands

III.,

succeeded

him. himself of

He

Nubia
to

and

Syria,but

of Egypt in power ence is better knowm from the referstela between removed the paws
quence conse-

the

Sphinx.
a

the upon On this the

of the

king relates how,


of the

di'eam, he
was

of

desert which
Tin.

spoiUng the image


been

god.
in

Very

little tin has

discovered

Egypt,

180

A
no

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

hieroglyphs has yet been found. No traces have yet appeared of the sources whence the tin used obtained. in making bronze was Professor Petrie Objectsin pure tin are extremely rare. discovered tin ring set with glass at Gurob. a pure {See Bronze.)
Tomb.
care

and

word

for it in the

Egypt
on

is

land

of tombs.

Yet

with

all the

bestowed of the

the

tomb, but
in

houses

Egyptians.
is correct

of any This fact is easily accounted

littleremains The

for if Diodorus call their time houses

saying,

"

Egyptians
short

on hostelries,

account

of the

during which they inhabit them, but the tombs tion they call eternal dwelling-places. Hence the elaboraThe tombs of Egypt in every detail of the tomb. those excavated in the fall naturally into two classes
' '
"

rock there

and
are

those

which

were

built.

Of the

former

kind

examples covering the entire historic period. latter belong to the time of the earlydynasties. The (q.v.). They are of two kinds, pyramids and mastabas tombs those of the of rock-cut The great groups are Vlth and other dynasties at Aswan, those of the Xllth and Dynasty at Beni Hasan, those of the XVIIIth successive at Thebes ; those of dynastiesof Pharaohs But and his people at Tel-el-Amarna. Khu-en-aten
besides tombs in almost there are groups every available hillside throughout the country. The of all these tombs idea in the construction tially essenwas the same, though carried out in different ways. these main Each consisted of three

parts
"

forming a kind shaft, leading to (c) the tomb was prepared during
of chambers The
scenes

series or {a)a chamber of chapel, (b)a passage or The sepulchralchamber. the lifetime of the the
an man. were pations occu-

with

which

the walls the

of the chambers
cases

decorated find

in represented

majorityof
the

of its owner.
we

If,for instance,he

was

admiral,

pictures of ships and

There lands. are foreign other of the chase, and representations in In a secret chamber (Serdab,q.v.)

spoilbrought from fishingand fowling scenes,


amusements.

the

wall

were

ECiYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY small smoke

^^^

placed the Ka statues, a the being left by which penetrate to the statues.
In chamber known Hasan the
was case

aperture sometimes
of incense the

might

of reached in

rock- cut

tombs

by

deep
of

shaft Bakt

sepulchral (the deepest


at

is

that
over

the 105

tomb

III. the

Beni

; it is

which, ft.)

after

was deposited, being to secure

filled up with rubble, the the mummy from disturbance.


on

body was great object


in

The low

scenes

the chamber sometimes flint

walls

are

sometimes The

at others relief,

the accompanying only painted, incised.


a

hieroglyphsbeing
of the Theban When

fine limestone surface it for


was

hills afforded
a or

good

painting on.

fossil occurred
cement.

extracted, and the hole tilled up with

the sometimes scenes, Inscriptions accompany which have of much been containing biographies, of Egypt. importance in piecingtogetherthe history

Toys.
discovered many Some the

Several

children's excavations. and wooden


arms

playthings
There

have

been of

during
"

are

dolls

sorts

from

ivory ones
to

of the Xlth rag doll. others show One

Dynasty
holes

with

movable the the

the been

Eoman

have

still hair where

left

on

their had and

heads,

hair
arms a

inserted.
a a

figureis jointedat and, being worked A crushing corn.


also Some others been
are are

with

fixed on legs, string,simulates


a

stand,
man

crocodile

with

movable
come

found. of wood of leather

Many balls painted two


stuffed with

have

colours rushes.

in

jaw has to light. sections,

Foreign Egyptians by the


considerable
caravan.

Trade.

commerce

was

limited their

for
;

the
a

fewness of

of

ports
carried from

but
on

amount

trade

was

by

objectsimported were vases Cyprus and Crete, seats, wines from chariots,coffers, Syria,"c., birds and fish (driedfish from Tyre), eye-salve from Syria,fruit.
various countries from

Among

the

182

CONCISE
some

DICTIONARY animals.

OF

horses, and

domestic

The

rareness

of

is waters expedition beyond Mediterranean any trading evidenced by the extreme importance attached to the

expedition to
and
sent out

the

"Land

by Queen

(q.v.) organized and afterwards Hatshepsut,


on

of Punt"

recorded

with
at

objects desired and obtained incense were trees, incense, gold, ivory, woods (including ebony), eye-paint,dogprecious headed apes, long-tailedmonkeys, greyhounds, and obtained leopard skins. All these were iDybarter, the Egyptian ships having brought daggers, battle-axes, and gay ornaments ; though the record puts it more picturesquely, callingthe objectsobtained ''tribute," and the articles brought for exchange "an offering trade Of home put there for the goddess Hathor." well informed tomb walls. are we on by the pictures in daily Since everything made in the country, use was the class of craftsmen and tradesmen was very large. But trade seems to have developedbeyond the never ordinarybazaar marketing business such as one sees in any eastern town were no nowadays. There merchant did any mere tradesman win princes,nor his way to notice,though one of the professions or two
enabled
trade had
or a man

temple

iUustrations many Der el Bahri. The

the walls

of her

to

climb

the

ladder
mason,

of rank.
or a

Each maker, shoein the

its

chief,its

master

master

master

smith.

According to

waiter

hard a Papyrus the lot of all craftsmen was but the hardshipshe enumerates would to seem one, be merely the necessities of the conditions of their "as labour; for instance, the blacksmith's are fingers rugged as the crocodile,"the barber has to run from street to street is seeking custom,", the mason w^hile he builds, "c. The exposed to all the winds w^alls are represented on tomb principalcraftsmen boat-builders, sculptors,painters, carpenters,masons, sandalmetal-workers, glass-blowers, weavers, potters, in early times, There was makers, and confectioners. and later among the poorer classes, no recognized medium of exchange, so that business done was by Anastasi
" "
"

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY
at

18.'^,

as api)arently, took haggUng place.

barter, and

the

present day, much

important a part do certain trees have that some cult, play in the religions Egyptologists read of a very acceptedtree worship as a fact. We ancient sacred tree in the at Heliopolis, great hall
Trees, Sacred.
So
"
"

on names

the

leaves

of

which
to

Thoth
secure

and
to

Safekh him

write

the

immortality ; but here the tree is rather a symbol than an object of worship. The nearest approach to actual worship under the Ptolemies, when was every temple seems
to

of the monarch

have

had

its sacred

tree.

Ten

kinds

of trees

are

mentioned.

(See

Persea

Tree,

Sycomore

and

Flora).
from the fact cycle of three gods, arising of other deities being associated with the chief god of the place. It consisted frequently of the god, a The most important goddess his wife, and their son. triad was that of Thebes, which was worshipped in most his wife, and of its temples. They were Amen, Mut at Memphis their son Khensu. triad honoured The Ombo, Sebek, wasPtah, Sekhet, Im-hetep; that at Kom Triad. A Hathor and Khensu.

Tuamautef,
the four children lotus head of

or

Duamautef,
are

one

of four quently fre-

funerary genii, the


Horus, who
Tuamautef
so

represented standing
flower. of
a

a upon the has

jackal. They are the cardinal points,and preside over four Canopic jars(q.v.).
Turn. Also
was

four the

Atum,
Annu

called Tmu, Atmu and the chief of the gods of


an

He (Heliopolis).
as

aspect

be considered may of Ea, for he


sun.

represents

the

night

He

is

Turn.

18i

CONCISE of

DICTIONARY

OP of the
"

called
"

''creator

men;"
ancient

''maker

gods;"
took
"

city of Pithom from the fact of there being a temple name there. He is represented house) of Tum of Egypt. wearing the double crown

self-created."

The

its

pa
as a

(lit.
man

u
TJah-ab-Ra.

Hdd-db-Ed,

Dynasty

XXVI.,

cir.

B.C.

591"572. of the with

The Old

Apriesof

the

Greeks, the Pharaoh

Hophra

Babylon. against the Babylonian, and with its help Tyre held for thirteen years. out againstNebuchadnezzar Hophra l^uilt a beautiful temple at Sais,in the Delta. soldiers revolted His againsthim, shut him up in his Aahmes II.,a man and made of low origin, own capital, but who had married the daughter of Psammetichus II.,
his
successor.

Testament, who leagued unsuccessfully Zedekiah against Nebuchadnezzar, king of The Egyptian fleet, successful however, was

TJast. the

The

name

for Thebes of

and generally, Chief

of the capital Amen Ra. deity, TJa-ua-t. A

fourth

nome

Upper Egypt.

district of

east Ethiopia,

of Korosko.

180

CONCISE The for

DICTIONARY instrument used in the

OF the eyes funeral of the

TJr

heka.

ceremonies mummy. User. ahnost A

symboHcally opening

sceptre with
the

always in symbolicalof power.


TJser-ka-f.

greyhound (?) head of the hands gods.

found It is

(1u~^
cir. 3721
B.C.,

The

first

king

of

Dynasty V.,
Usertsen

reigned twenty-eight years. king of Dynasty

I.,Khejyer-ka-Rd. Second

XII., cir. 2758

B.C.,
on

reigned forty-four years, perhaps

longer.
At

Carried

Begig, in the this reign which


all other In the admirable obelisks tomb

works building throughout Egypt. lies red a Fayiim, graniteobelisk of is unique, as it differs in shape from as yet found.
at

of Ameni of this

Beni
one

Hasan,
of the

we

have

an

pictureof

the life of

ditary great here-

nobles

period.
Fourth

Usertsen

II.

Klul-khepcr-Rd.

king

of

1P"""^
Dynasty

OS

A queen, Nefert, and XII., cir. 2684 B.C. three daughters are known. to the Fay um, The pyramid of Illahun, at the entrance AvorkThe marks the burial place of this Pharaoh. men's town lay a mile to the east ; and was completely who publishedplans of both streets excavated by Petrie, and houses.

EGYPTIAN Usertseu

ARCHAEOLOGY
,

187

III., KJia-kdu-Ra,

fifth

king

of

Dy-

"^

^^1
cir. 2660 her
in
]'..c.

To
His It
was

nasty XII.,
known from

sandstone 1894 the

Henut-tani, is sarcophagus in the N.


queen,

pyramid Morgan
Princess This

at Dahshur.

in this beautiful

found

pyramid that jewelleryof

de the

III. Set-Hathor, probablya sister of Usertsen Pharaoh, accordingto a tablet at Sehel, first

channel to be made a cataract, ordered through the cataract, 34 ft. wide and 24 ft. deep,preparatory to the

conquest

of Nubia. south

At

Semneh

and

Kummeh,
two

about of his

miles thirty erected by southern

of the cataract, are Usertsen III., for the

fortifications

protection

frontier The

againstthe
name

Nubians.

TJshabtiu.
of
was a

in given to figurines the dead. of the the Their deceased


"

the form business


in the of the thus
:
"

mummy
to
"

with deposited
as

act

the

servants

underworld. Dead
"

The

6th

chapter of
on

Book
runs

is

usuallyinscribed

them, and

O do

if the Osiris (deceased) is commanded UsJiabtiic,

whatsoever in the neter kJiert let all any work from before him." obstructions be cast down
to
"

Here ye fill the

am

I, ready whensoever
to

"Be
to

ready always
canals with

ye call." plough and sow


to carry

the sand

fields,
from

water, and

the east to the west."


**

Again, here
c=:!.

am

I when

ye call." of

Uten.

measure

value,

or

standard

of

translated tahmi. It consisted recently wire, weighing from 91 to 92 (?) copper So uniform its weight that it was also was grammes. used in the scales as a weight. The uten was only a itself the did not standard, piece change necessarily hands in transactions. [SeeMoney.)

exchange,more of a pieceof

TJzat.

See

Eye, The

Sacred.

188

COXCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

V
various been fomid

Veterinary
their
were

Art.

From has

inscriptions,it
in

tomb-paintings, with that the Egyptians


One he the

the

habit

of
a a

painting represents
has throat
a

doctoring their animals. forcing a bolus, which man


vase

taken of
an

out
ox,

of the ox."

in

front

of

him, reads,

down
"

inscription
Careful

above

ing doctorthe left

humerus
in
a

young of

examination

of and learned

mummied

ibis, fractured
convinced the

reunited

that

particular way, it had undergone

Cuvier

surgical treatment.
the

Vine. from the

Throughout
Delta
to

country
We
are

vines told

were

grown

(Harris papyrus) that Eamses III. planted numerous vineyards in the southern well and northern others, having as as oases Another speaks of ponds with lotus flowers. papyrus celebrated mountain vineyard which belonged to the a Thebes. The of Amen at vine, as pictured Temple
on

Nubia.

tomb

walls,

was

trained

over

trellises, which
more

were

supported by wooden
Vulture. and divine
as

either forks.

by

wooden

pillars or,

simply,

[See Wine.)
bird sacred Thebes.
was

This such is of

the
to

symbol
the vulture

of

maternity,
in the the graphic ideoof of is

Mut,
The

second is the
a

triad

mut.

hieroglyph, for Many goddesses


form of
a

her
wear

name

has head-dress

value kind

for The form

cap in the sometimes

vulture.
in

goddess
of
a

Nekhebt

represented

the

vulture.

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

189

belonging to the early recovered. been They are of a lightthe Egyptians and arrows, bows flint. Besides brown of spears, javelins, different kinds used slings,short clubs. and swords, daggers and knives, battle-axes from five to six made of a shaft of wood Spears were feet in length. The heads, fitted at the end into a of various of bronze, and metal shapes. band, were Weapons. period have
Stone weapons Javelins also had wooden shafts. Swords handles
were

short,

sharp-pointed. The sometimes took the shape of hawk and Arrow^s.) {SeeBow
and straight,

of
or

daggers
are

heads,

laid. in-

industry,which w^as carried on by Linen as was brought to great perfection. women, and the Egyptians fine as silk muslin was woven, The were very proud of their skill in its manufacture. garments for their goddesses Isis and Nephthys wove Weaving.
This husband and brother

Osiris, and
her head.
;

Neith Two

bears kinds

for her of looms

symbol a shuttle on are depicted on tomb


form
at

walls

the
one

earlier and
at

Beni

Hasan, the later

Thebes.

simpler (See

Linen.)

Wigs.
women were

Artificial

head-dresses
in
use.

for

both

men

and shaved

always
are

Apparently men
put
on

their Two
one

heads, and
kinds and

for full-dress occasions

wig.

short

the the monuments, on distinguished curly hair,and the other long. imitating

The

details and

periodsand kinds always prevailed. The ladies' wigs were long, though invariably fashion of the coiffure changed continually.

arrangements of them vary at different accordingto current fashions, but the two
the

190

CONCISE

DICTIONARY made of human hair

OF mixed with

They were sheep's wool.


Wine.
Four
sorts

usually

favourite
were

drink
use

in

among under the northern

the Old wine.


w^as

Egyptians. Empire, e.g.


This last considered kinds
were

red,
the

w^hite, black,
to

and

answered best.

the

Mareotic the New

wine, w^hich

Under

Empire

several

made the wdne was together. When sealed stored in carefully stoppered jars and by the of wine be of the making Pictures treasurer." may walls. The tomb are men seen depicted treading on wine from the which at the the wine-press, out runs the and other bottom; men put it in amphorae of mixing A them. curious seals treasurer scene shows three wines siphons in separate jars being to one large one. (See Vine.) brought down often mixed
"

Winged
Wool hence in the
was case was

Disk, The.
to
never a

See

Hon

Behutet.

certain used

extent

for burial w^orkmen's this


;
reason

impure, and wrappings ; exceptions,


bodies, have
the been
not

considered

of

some

found
wear

at Tourah.

For skin

priests did

it next woollen the

their

and

outer

garment
one

before much
use

their always removed entering the temple. of woollen the chief

Only
But,
commerce

made poor wool that was is certain


were

garments.
articles of

of the

sheep
to

reared
mutton

Strabo,
that
two

yielded two
rule the

fleeces
was

wool
w^omen

large flocks of in the Thebaid, where, according food. Each unlawful was sheep An in the year. exception to the of regarded as impure is the case
from fact that
were
"

who

to

recite The

the

"Festival in of

of Isis and songs the papyrus are ram's w^ool.

Nephthys that they

{q.v.).
were

directions

to

wear

garlands

EGYPTIAN

ARCHAEOLOGY

lUl

X
Xerxes. Sec Persians.

Xois,
Sakha.

or

Chois.
the sixth

The
nome

Greek Ea.

name

for

the CJiasuiit, the niodern

capitalof

of Lower

Egypt,

Chief

Amen deity,

Year, twelve added


were

(a)

The

Civil each of

or

months,
five divided

Vague year thirtydays, to


at the close.
seasons

consisted which
were

of

intercalary days
into the three

These

months

of

Shet, inundation,
20th

Pert, growing,and Shat, sowing. The


was

July,which
looked

about
as

the

upon

New^

beginning Year's Day.


year of the

of the Nile

rise,was
This the

(6) The
calculated

Sothic

of 365

j days.
Sothis
on

period w^as
first day of with the and

by

rising of

the first month rise of the Nile.

Shat, when
which
was

it coincided

(c) The

solar
same were

year,
as

to

all intents

the purposes Documents

day, month, and Professor H. Brugsch year of the reigningmonarch. of opinionthat the w\as correspondedto great year a lunar days, year wath the addition of the intercalary little year to a lunar year, thus givingfive and the of reckoning the year. difterent methods
"
"

the Civil year. dated from the

"

"

192

CONCISE

DICTIONARY

OF

Zaan

(themodern
is
a

San

Greek, Tanis

; and

Hebrew,

Zoan)

kind

the branch is about

in the swamp of the Delta on of the river flowing into Lake Menzaleh, and miles north of Tel-el-Kebir.
are

of island

twenty

The Xllth

earliest local

remains

discovered

of

the

of bearing the name Dynasty ; the few inscriptions Pepi-Meri-Ea being on blocks probably brought from Dendera and which used here and
was

for the Usertsens

second have and

time. been

Statues
; the

of Amen-em-hats

found

temple,
Eamses of the

later the work

enlarged
of these

beautified

by

II.,was

monarchs.

Most

recovered which have been Hyksos antiquities from San. came They are all either of black or darkgrey granite. A great feature of the temple precincts was a statue between of Eamses was II., which eighty and a feet high, and hundred was probably a monolith. Shashanq, of the XXIInd Only fragments remain. of of the work Dynasty, probably destroyed much built of the fragments. Eamses, for his pylon is largely To this day, San has served as a quarry for the neighbourhood.

Dynasty, built an wall enclosing the temple. It was enormous eighty feet thick. Portions, twenty-fivefeet in height,still
Pasebkhanu,
of the XXIst remain.

Dynasty, when Sais became the capitalof the Delta, the temple fell into disrepair. built in the shelter of the great wall But houses Avere II., of Dynasty, and Nectanebo during the XXIXth the XXXth againstthe Dynasty, sought its protection Three Persians. sphinxes of this period liave been
Under the XXVIth discovered. Under the

Ptolemies

more

houses

were

built.

As

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Classic

Writers. Book Eook Bohn's xvii. Classical Book See i. ii. See vol. iii. of the

Herodotus. Strabo.
in

Geography of Straho,

Library.
See below, Fragments, etc.

Diodorus. Maneth.0.

below, Fra'jments, etc., and


C. F.

Chronologie

ties

ManeihOy by
Plutarch.
De of

Unger.

Isicle et Osiride.

Fragments

thenes, EratosDiodorus, Ptolemy, and that Chaemeron, Eusehius, Syncellus, have classic been preserved in the writings of other in Ancient will be found Fragments, etc.,by J. P. authors, Cory.

Maneth.0,

History.

Maspero
VOrient
Les

; Gaston,

a.

Histoire three des under The

Ancienne
vols. the I. Les

des

Classique,
in

in

Premieres Civilization.

Melees

Peuples.
names

III.
:

Pev.ples de Origines. II. Les Empires,


I, The Dawn III. des

translated

English
II. the

of
The

Passing of Peuples de VOrient.


Bunsen
vols. ; C. C.

Struggle of the h. Histoire Empires,


Place Universal

Nations.

Ancienne

J.

Egypt's
under

in

History.

Brugsch
Petrie
XYII.

; H.
; "W.

Egypt
F.
2 vols.

the Pharaohs. from

M.
In

History of Egypt, Egypt


under the

Dynasties
Dynasty,

I. to

Mahaffy;
series
as

J. P.

Ptolemaic

same

Petrie.

Milne

; J. Gr. Petrie.

Egypt

under

Roman

Rule,

same

series

as

196
Mariette

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Outlines of Ancient ; Aug. with notes by Mary Brodrick.
; C. A. Gli
lated Egyptian History,trans-

De

Cara

Hylcsos o
de

re

Pastori

de

JEgitto.

1889.

Abd-el-Latif.

Relation A.

L'Egypte,
The Tel-el- Amarna lets. Tab-

Budge

; E.

W.

and

Bezold.

Arch.eology section
are

and

Art.

The

first

works with

mentioned

in

this

chieflyfolio volumes
R. Denkmdler
aus

plates.
ttnd

Liepsius

; C. 1849-59.

Aegypten

Aetliiopien.

Mariette;
sur

Ah y do s ; description des emplacement de cette ville. 1869-80.

Aug.

fouilles execu,tees

Monuments Monuments

Divers.

of Upper Egypt.
I Monumenti

Rosellini.
1844.

delV

Egitto

della

Nuhia.

1832-

Duemichen.
XVIIth

Tlie

Fleet

of

an era.

Egyptian
1868.

Queen

from

the

Century before our


D'Avennes.

Prisse
Histoire

Monuments

Egyptiens,
monuments.

bas-reliefs,
1879.
de Der-el-

pictures, inscriptions, etc. 1847. de I'Art Egyptien d'apres les


; Baliari.

Maspero

G.

and

Brugscb.,

H.

La

Trouvaille

Maspero
Parrot

; G. Edwards.
and

Egyptian Archaeology,
The Art

translated

by

A.

B.

Chipiez.
Monitments

of Ancient Antique.

Egypt.

2 vols.

Rayet.
Soldi.
La

Les

de I'Art

Sculpture Egyptienne.
The Grammar

Goodyear.
Religion.

of the

Lotus.

Lanzone Wiedemann
The

; R.

W.
; A.

Dizionario

di

MitologiaEgizia.

3 vols.

Ancient

Religion of the Ancient Egyptians. Egyptian Doctrine of the Immortality of

the

Soul.

Renouf

; Sir

P.

le

Page.

The

Hibbert

Lectures

for 1879.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

197
Ideas

Budge;
the

E.

A.

W.

E"jyptian Religion; Egyptian


Erman'a

of
in

future Life. Life

See

chapters in Maspero's Histoire,and Ancient Egypt.


also Le

Maspero

Bulletin critique de la religion 4gypiienne. ; G. ^^ de VHisRevue Ritual dv. sacrifice funeraire, from

toire d.es

Religions.'"

Language

and

Letters. H.

Brugsch;
i.-iv.

Hierogh/phisch-demotischesWdrterhuch.
; vol.

Vols.

1867

v.-vii.

1880.

1872. HieroglyphisclieGrammaAik. 6 vols. Thesaurus inscriptionum aegyptiacarum Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit Lautivorth (from
.

the

Hieroglyphic Grammar).
Pierret
mots et

langue, lei historiques. 1875.

; PauL de la

Vocahulaire
noms

hieroglyphique,comprenant

les

g4ographiques, dAvins, royaux,

Levi

; Simeone. 1889. vols.

Vocahulario

copto-ehraico.7 geroglifico
in
v.

Birch;
Place

Samuel.

Dictionary of Hieroglyphics Vol. f,).Universal History, by Bunsen.


;

Egypjfs
1867vols.

de

Rouge

Emmaiiuel.
; J.

Chresiomathie Grammaire

egyptienne. 4
1836.

ChampoUion
Erman

F.

egyptienne.

; Adolf. Breasted. Sir ; E.

Egyptian

Gmmmar,

translated

by

J.

H.

1894."^
Le "W. P.
First

Renouf; Budge

P.

Egyptian Grammar. Steps


in

A.

Egyptian.
in

Egyptian

Language;

Easy

Lessons

Egyptian

glyphics. Hiero-

Egyptian ReaAing Book. TJie Papyrus of Ani. (Book

of the

Dead).

Maspero;
Pyramid Hymne au
Les Du Contes Genre ; W.

G.
texts

Etudes JEgyptiennes.
in Recueil 1868. de travaux,

(Late texts).
since 1882.

Kil.

populaires d.e VEgypte ancienne. epistolairechez les anciens Egyptiens.


M. the T.

Petrie Records

Egyptian

Tales.

Two ii.

series. The
even

of

contain

Past, Series i. and Egyptological subjects.

numbers

198

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Civilization

and

General.

Wilkinson;
the Ancient

Sir

Gardner.

The

Manners

and

Customs

of

Egyptians. Life
Dieiionnaire in Ancient

Erman

Adolf.

Egypt.
de Vancien

Brugscli
1880.

H.

ge'ographique

Egypte.

Budge
Chabas.

E.

A.

W.

Egyptian egyptologiques.
and die Biicher

Magic.

The

Mummy.

Melanges

Ebers.

Aegypten
G.

2Ioses.

Maspero Brown,
Moeris.

TJne

Enqnete

Judiciare

Thetes.

R.E.;

Major

Hanbury.

The

Fayum

and.

Lake

Petrie

W.

M.

F.

Ten

Years'

Diggings
The

in

Egypt. Triumphs

Barber,
of
the

U.S.N.
Ancient

Commander.

Mechanical

Egyptians.

Bibliotheque
egyptologues by
Publications

egyptologique
frangais
In

comprenant
dans
divers

les recueils.

oeuvres

des Edited

dispersees
progress.

Maspero.
of
of records

the
of

Egypt
excavations

Exploration
done
in

Fund, Egypt
for the

consist-

ing

Fnnd,

containing

many

plates.

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