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Adbhuta Sagara and the Period of Some Sages

I was going through the ancient text Adbhuta Sagara written by the Jain king Ballala sena of 13 century AD. Some quotes that mention the position of winter and summer solstice at various periods as quoted by many sages is present in the book and this unique info attracted my attention. The following write-up is based on the info provided by this book alone. BC 1500-1400 (Vedanga Jyotisha of Sage Lagatha) The Uttarayana starts from beginning of Dhanishta and the Dakshinayana from the middle of Aslesha. [Vedanga Jyotisha]. As per this winter solstice is at the beginning of Dhanishta and the summer solstice at the middle of Aslesha. This is a fact of BC 1500-1400 and thus the book Vedanga Jyotisha and the sage Lagatha dates back to BC 1500-1400 period. The mention of middle point of Dhanishta and the starting point of Aslesha clarifies that the sage is speaking about the fixed Nakshatra divisions and NOT about a particular star. (i.e. the fixed Nakshatra divisions and the Nakshatra chakra of 27 Nakshatras were in place at that time itself) Parasara I (BC 1500-1400) The Sishira Ritu is the period when Sun stays within the starting point of Dhanishta Nakshatra and the end point of Revati Nakshatra. During Vasanta Ritu sun stays within the end point of Revati Nakshatra and the end point of Rohini Nakshatra. Sun stays between - starting point of Mrigasira Nakshatra and the middle of Aslesha Nakshatra during Greeshma Ritu; middle point of Aslesha and end point of Hasta during Varsha Ritu. From the starting point of Chitra to the middle of Jyeshta it is Sarat Ritu and from the middle of Jyeshta to the end of Sravana it is Hemanta Ritu. [Parasara I] This quotes also tells us that the winter solstice is at the beginning of Dhanishta and the summer solstice at the middle of Aslesha. As told earlier, this is a fact of BC 1500-1400 and thus the period of Sage Parasara I dates back to BC 1500-1400 period. Garga I (Near BC 1100) If the Uttarayana starts and Sun returns after touching the Nakshatra near Dhanishta (i.e. after touching Sravana), and if Dakkshinayana starts before sun touches Aslesha Nakshatra then great fear could arise. [Garga I] This quote indicates that during the period of this Garga winter solstice was in Sravana Nakshatra and summer solstice was in Aslesha Nakshatra. If we assume that Summer solstice was at the beginning of Aslesha Nakshatra then this is a fact around BC 1100. Garga feels great fear and uncertainty due the fact that ancient sastras are violated. As per the ancient text he read, (could be texts like Vedanga Jyotisha) the Uttarayana should start when Sun is at the beginning of Dhanishta and Dakshinayana should start when sun is at the middle of Aslesha, but alas this was not happening during his period. He was worried because as evident from this quote, he was unaware about the phenomenon called precession of equinox and thus the fear. Garga was a Jain sage, and the Jain religion originated and was present even before this period. Parasara II (Near BC 1100) If Uttarayana starts before Sun touches the Sravana Nakshatra and if Dakshinayana starts before the sun touches Aslesha star then great fear could happen. [Parasara II] This quote indicates that during the period of this parasara winter solstice was in Sravana Nakshatra and summer solstice was in Aslesha Nakshatra. If we assume that Summer solstice was at the beginning of Aslesha Nakshatra then this is a fact around BC 1100. Garga feels uncertain, but Parasara feels certain about his observation and his quote is on affirmative. He is saying that one should fear not if Uttarayana starts in Dhanishta, but if it does not starts in Sravana; because (as per his observation and as a natural rule of that period) Uttarayana should start in Sravana and NOT in Dhanishta. Here we get the feeling that Parasara II was aware of the phenomenon of precession of equinox. Actually being the quotes provided by the sages of the same period, his quote seems to be answer to the quote provided by Garga I. Kasyapa (After BC 1400-1100; period uncertain)

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At some ancient period in the past Dakshinayana started at the middle of Aslesha and Dakshinayana at the beginning of Dhanishta. This was NOT due to any uncertainty involved, but happened as per rule (of planetary movements) [Kasyapa] From the words At some ancient period, it is certain that at the period of Kasyapa it was not the case. Thus it is clear that Kasyapa lived much after the ancient period BC 1400. It is evident that Kasyapa knew well about the phenomenon of precession of equinox and also well aware that this happens as per the rule of planetary movements. There is no need that we should fear, since it is NOT an Utpata, (a fear injecting omen indicating a dreadful future event) but only a natural phenomenon. Kasyapa was a sage who lived in Kashmir. Possibly this Kasyapa lived after the period of Parasara II of BC 1100. Parasara III (Around BC 626) Know that the Uttarayana starts at the end of Uttarashadha [Parasara III] From this it is evident that during his period winter solstice was at the end of Uttarashadha and summer solstice at the 3 pada of Pushya Nakshatra. This is a fact around BC 626. From the bold statement of guidance such as Know that it can be assumed that he too knew well about the phenomenon of precession of equinox. Important Observation From the above quoted literary historical evidence from BC 1500 to BC 600, the important point to note is that During that period a fixed stellar zodiac was in use, as a fixed reference frame work to note the movement of equinoxes, solstices, as well the movements of planets. The movement of solstices were always notated by referring to their position in relation to this fixed framework i.e. Nakshatra Chakra. In other words, till BC 600 India was using Nakshatra Chakra as the reference frame work and NOT the Rasi Chakra. The origin of Rasi chakra could be from sources outside India, or at least outside Vedic literature/culture. Around BC 300 Alexander attached India; a mix-up of western and eastern knowledge happened. As far as DATABLE texts are concerned, the sign names such as Mesha, Vrishabha etc gets popularity in Indian literature after this only. (I am NOT denying the antiquity of these words or their use in ancient Indian literature. But such ancient texts like Skanda hora, Kausika hora etc DOES NOT provide any info which can used to date such texts). The first datable quote that connects Signs with solstices In Pancha Siddhantika by Varaha Mihira we find the first quote that connects/correlates Rasis with the movement of solstices. Uttarayana and Sisira Ritu stats when Sun is at the beginning of Makara Rasi (Capricorn). Each Ritu is of 2 months. Dakshinayana starts when Sun is at beginning of Karkataka (Cancer) [Pancha Siddhantika AD 505] Around AD 505 period summer solstice is near the middle of Pushya. This is certainly NOT the beginning of Cancer sign. Still Mihira tells us that Dakshinayana starts from the beginning of Cancer! Certainly the Zodiac referred/used by Mihira both in Pancha Siddhantica and Brihat Samhita is NOT Nirayana Zodiac but Sayana Zodiac. i.e. The Zodiac (with moving signs) that stats counting signs from Vernal equinox, the system that was used by Greek scholars like Ptolemy, the western astronomical system of zodiac! The fact that Mihira in at least 2 of his books mentions and uses Sayana Zodiac and NOT the Nirayana concept of Zodiac is a well evident and certain fact. This is absurd! Certainly this is NOT the original system of Indian Astrology/Astronomy. Even later day texts like Brahma Siddhnta follows this wrong path Indian astrology had already lost its correct path! Two signs each from Capricorn indicates seasons like Sisira, Vasanta, Greeshma, Varsha , Sarat and Hemanta. [Brahma Siddhanta] Since the association with Nakshatra Chakra was already lost, since the above quote refers to the Sayana Zodiac, the above quote is NOT AT ALL useful for determining the period of the text or quote. As per Sayana System the above quote would be true always! We could clearly understand the reason for this path lost situation, since we know that the author of Brahma Siddhanta was the follower of Varaha Mihira. Back to the right track Nothing else is required to correct this mistake but only a look back at the concept of Aswinyadi and Meshadi presented in ancient Agama (ancient non-vedic Indian texts) texts such as Skanda hora. We just have to look back at this ancient stream of knowledge preserved and saved by the Saiva sages as well as the Jains. There Rasi Chakra is NOT Sayana, but
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Nirayana. There Aswinyadi and Meshadi are not different by the same, and refer to the same starting point and to the same fixed frame work! This is a going back to the ancient fixed Nakshatra chakra, to the Vedic and non-vedic past, to the clear and logical reference frame. The Jain king Ballala Sena who knows this ancient truth, concludes the discussion by providing us with the clear Nirayana position of the solstices at his period of time (i.e AD 1269). Starting at the end minute of 20 degree in Dhanu (Sagittarius), the Ritus such as Sisira stats (in my period of Saka 1190) [Adbhuta Jataka] Position of Winter solstice (at that period) = 20 degree in Sagittarius Position of Summer solstice (at that period) = 20 degree in Gemini The Jain king Bellala Sena started writing his excellent book Adbhuta Sagara during the saka year 1190 (AD 1269) as he himself clearly tells us in his book. On back calculation, we can get the Ayanamsa used by Ballala Sena is approx 22 degree for that period