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COINCIDENCE THEOREMS FOR FAMILIES

OF MULTIMAPS AND THEIR APPLICATIONS


TO EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS
LAI-JIU LIN AND HSIN I CHEN
Received 30 October 2001
We apply some continuous selection theorems to establish coincidence theorems
for a family of multimaps under various conditions. Then we apply these coin-
cidence theorems to study the equilibrium problem with m families of players
and 2m families of constraints on strategy sets. We establish the existence theo-
rems of equilibria of this problem and existence theorem of equilibria of abstract
economics with two families of players.
1. Introduction
For multimaps F : X Y and S : Y X, a point (x, y) X Y is called a coin-
cidence point of F and S if y F(x) and x S(y). In 1937, Neumann [19] and in
1966 Fan [8] established the well-known coincidence theorems. In 1984, Brow-
der [4] combined Kakutani-Fan xed-point theorem and Fan-Browder xed-
point theorem to obtain a coincidence theorem. So many authors gave some
coincidence theorems and applied them in various elds as equilibrium prob-
lem, minimax theorem, quasi-variational inequalities, game theory, mathemat-
ical economics, and so on, see [1, 5, 6, 9, 11, 18] and references therein. In 1991,
Horvath [10, Theorem 3.2] obtained a continuous selection theorem. In [21,
Theorem 1], Wu and Shen established another continuous selection theorem.
Let I and J be any index sets. For each i I and j J, let X
i
and Y
j
be
nonempty sets and H
j
: X =

iI
X
i
Y
j
; T
i
: Y =

jJ
Y
j
X
i
be multimaps.
A point ( x, y) X Y, where x =( x
i
)
iI
and y =( y
j
)
jJ
is called a coincidence
point of two families of multimaps, if y
j
H
j
( x) and x
i
T
i
( y) for each i I
and j J. In this paper, we apply the continuous selection theorem of Horvath
[10] and the xed-point theorem of Park [17] to derive the coincidence theo-
rems for two families of multimaps. Our coincidence theorems for two families
of multimaps include Fan-Browder xed-point theorem [3] and Browder coin-
cidence theorem [4] as special cases.
Copyright 2003 Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Abstract and Applied Analysis 2003:5 (2003) 295309
2000 Mathematics Subject Classication: 54H25, 46N10, 91A13, 91B50
URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/S1085337503210034
296 Coincidence theorems with applications
We will employ our results on coincidence theorems for two families of mul-
timaps to consider the equilibrium problem with m families of players and 2m
families of constraints on the strategy sets introduced by Lin et al. [14]. We con-
sider the following problem: let I be any index set and for each k I, let J
k
be
a nite index set, X
k
j
denote the strategy set of jth player in kth family, Y
k
=

jJ
k
X
k
j
, Y =

kI
Y
k
, Y
k
=

lI,l=k
Y
l
, and Y =Y
k
Y
k
. Let F
k
j
: X
k
j
Y
k

R
l
k
j
be the payo of the jth player in the kth family, let A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
be the con-
straint which restricts the strategy of the jth player in the kth family to the subset
A
k
j
(Y
k
) of X
k
j
when all players in other families have chosen their strategies x
i j
,
i I, i =k, and j J
i
, and let B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be the constraint which restricts the
strategies of all the families except kth family to the subset B
k
(Y
k
) of Y
k
when
all the players in the k family have chosen their strategies y
k
= (x
k
j
)
jJ
k
, k I.
Our problem is to nd a strategies combination y = ( y
k
)
kI

kI
Y
k
= Y,
u = ( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
= ( x
k
j
)
jJ
k
, y
k
A
k
( y
k
), u
k
B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
)
such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (1.1)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j
A
k
j
( y
k
), and for all k I and j J
k
. In the Nash
equilibrium problem, the strategy of each player is subject to no constraint. In
the Debreu equilibrium problem, the strategy of each player is subject to a con-
straint which is a function of the strategies of the other players. For the special
case of our problem, if each of the families contain one player, we nd that the
strategy of each player is subject a constraint which is a function of strategies
of the other players, and for each k I, where I is the index set of players, the
strategies combination of the players other than the kth player is a function of
strategy of kth player. Therefore, our problem is dierent from the Nash equilib-
rium problem and their generalizations. As we note from Remark 4.8, for each
k I, if J
k
={k} be a singleton set, then the above problem reduces to the prob-
lem which is dierent from the Debreu social equilibrium problem [6] and the
Nash equilibrium problem [19]. Lin et al. [14] demonstrate the following ex-
ample of this kind of equilibrium problem in our real life. Let I = {1, 2, . . . , m}
denote the index set of the companies. For each k I, let J
k
= {1, 2, . . . , n
k
} de-
note the index set of factories in the kth company, F
k
j
denote the payo function
of the jth factory in the kth company. We assume that the products between the
factories in the same company are dierent, and the nancial systems and man-
agement systems are independent between the factories in the same company,
while some collections of products are the same and some collections of prod-
ucts are dierent between dierent factories in dierent companies. Therefore,
the strategy of the jth factory in the kth company depends on the strategies of
all factories in dierent companies. The payo function F
k
j
of the jth factory in
the kth company depends on its strategy and the strategies of factories in other
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 297
companies. We also assume that for each k I, the strategies of the k company
inuence the strategies of all other companies. With this strategies combination,
each factory can choose a collection of products, and from these collection of
products, there exists a product that minimizes the loss of each factory. In this
type of abstract economic problem with two families of players, the strategy and
the preference correspondence of each player in family A depend on the strate-
gies combination of all players in family B, but does not depend on the strategies
combination of the players in family A. The same situation occurs to each player
of family B. The abstract economic problemstudied in the literature, the strategy
and preference correspondence of each player depend on the strategies combi-
nation of all the players. Therefore, the abstract economic problem, we studied
in this paper, is dierent from the abstract economic studied in the literature.
In some economic model with two companies (say A and B), the strategy of
each factory of company A depend on the strategies combination of factories in
company B. The same case occurs in company B. We can use this example to
explain the abstract economic problem we study in this paper. We also apply the
coincidence theorems for a family of multimaps to consider the abstract eco-
nomic problem with two families of players. In this paper, we want to establish
the existence theorems of equilibria of constrained equilibrium problems with
m families of players and 2m families of constraints and existence theorem of
equilibria of abstract economic with two families of players.
2. Preliminaries
In order to establish our main results, we rst give some concepts and notations.
Throughout this paper, all topological spaces are assumed to be Hausdor.
Let A be a nonempty subset of topological vector space (t.v.s.) X, we denote by
int A the interior of A, by

A the closure of A in X, by coA the convex hull of
A, and by coA the closed convex hull of A. Let X, Y, and Z be nonempty sets.
A multimap (or map) T : X Y is a function from X into the power set of Y
and T

: Y X is dened by x T

(y) if and only if y T(x). Let B Y, we


dene T

(B) = {x X : T(x) B = }. Given two multimaps F : X Y and


G : Y Z, the composite GF : X Z is dened by GF(x) = G(F(x)) for all
x X.
Let X and Y be two topological spaces, a multimap T : X Y is said to be
compact if there exists a compact subset K Y such that T(X) K; to be closed
if its graph Gr(T) = {(x, y) | x X, y T(x)} is closed in X Y; to have lo-
cal intersection property if, for each x X with T(x) =, there exists an open
neighborhood N(x) of x such that
_
zN(x)
T(z) = ; to be upper semicontin-
uous (u.s.c.) if T

(A) is closed in X for each closed subset A of Y; to be lower


semicontinuous (l.s.c.) if T

(G) is open in X for each open subset G of Y, and


to be continuous if it is both u.s.c. and l.s.c.
A topological space is said to be acyclic if all of its reduced

Cech homology
groups vanish. In particular, any convex set is acyclic.
298 Coincidence theorems with applications
Denition 2.1 (see [15]). Let X be a nonempty convex subset of a t.v.s. E. A
multimap G: X R is said to be R
+
-quasiconvex if, for any R, the set
_
x X : there is a y G(x) such that y 0
_
(2.1)
is convex.
Denition 2.2 (see [15]). Let Z be a real t.v.s. with a convex solid cone C and A
be a nonempty subset of Z. A point y A is called a weak vector minimal point
of A if, for any y A, y y int C. Moreover, the set of weak vector minimal
points of A is denoted by wMin
C
A.
Lemma 2.3. Let I be any index set and {E
i
}
iI
be a family of locally convex t.v.s.
For each i I, let X
i
be a nonempty convex subset of E
i
, F
i
, H
i
such that X :=

iI
X
i
X
i
be multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) for each x X, coF
i
(x) H
i
(x);
(ii) X =
_
{int F

i
(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
};
(iii) H
i
is compact.
Then there exists a point x =( x
i
)
iI
X such that x H( x) :=

iI
H
i
( x); that is,
x
i
H
i
( x) for each i I.
Proof. Lemma 2.3 follows immediately from [12, Proposition 1] and [21, Theo-
rem 2].
3. Coincidence theorems for families of multivalued maps
Theorem3.1. Let I and J be any index sets, and let {U
i
}
iI
and {V
j
}
jJ
be families
of locally convex t.v.s. For each i I and j J, let X
i
and Y
j
be nonempty convex
subsets, each in U
i
and V
j
, respectively. Let F
j
, H
j
: X :=

iI
X
i
Y
j
; S
i
, T
i
:
Y :=

jJ
Y
j
X
i
be multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) for each x X, coF
j
(x) H
j
(x);
(ii) X =
_
{int F
j

(y
j
) : y
j
Y
j
};
(iii) for each y Y, coS
i
(y) T
i
(y);
(iv) Y =
_
{int S
i

(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
};
(v) T
i
is compact.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that y
j
H
j
( x) and
x
i
T
i
( y) for each i I and j J.
Proof. Since for each i I, T
i
is compact, there exists a compact subset D
i
X
i
such that T
i
(Y) D
i
for each i I. Let D =

iI
D
i
and K = coD, it follows
from [7, Lemma 1] that K is a nonempty paracompact convex subset in X. For
each i I, let K
i
be the ith projection of K. By assumption (iii), S
i
, T
i
: Y K
i
and coS
i
(y) T
i
(y) for each y Y. By (i), for each x K, coF
j
|
K
(x) H
j
|
K
(x). By (ii), K =
_
{int
K
F
j

(y
j
) : y
j
Y
j
}.
By [12, Proposition 1] and [21, Theorem 1], H
j
|
K
(x) has a continuous selec-
tion, that is, for each j J, there exists a continuous function f
j
: K Y
j
such
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 299
that f
j
(x) H
j
(x) for all x K. Let f : K Y be dened by f (x) =

jJ
f
j
(x)
and P
i
, W
i
: K K
i
be dened by W
i
(x) = S
i
( f (x)) and P
i
(x) = T
i
( f (x)) for
all x K. It is easy to see that W
i

(x
i
) = f
1
(S
i

(x
i
)) for all x
i
K
i
and for all
i I. By assumption (iii), for all i I and for all x X, coW
i
(x) =coS
i
( f (x))
T
i
( f (x)) =P
i
(x). Since S
i
(Y) T
i
(Y) K
i
, it follows from assumption (iv) and
the continuity of f that
K = f
1
(Y) = f
1
_
_
_
int S
i

_
x
i
_
: x
i
X
i
_
_
= f
1
_
_
_
int S
i

_
x
i
_
: x
i
K
i
_
_

_
_
int f
1
_
S
i

_
x
i
__
: x
i
K
i
_
=
_
_
int W
i

_
x
i
_
: x
i
K
i
_
K.
(3.1)
Hence,
K =
_
_
int W
i

_
x
i
_
: x
i
K
i
_
. (3.2)
Then by Lemma 2.3, there exists a point x = ( x
i
)
iI
K X such that x
i

P
i
( x) = T
i
( f ( x)) for each i I. Let y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that y = f ( x), then,
for each i I and j J, y
j
= f
j
( x) H
j
( x) and x
i
T
i
( y). The proof is com-
plete.
Corollary 3.2 [22, Theorem 8]. In Theorem 3.1, if the condition (v) is replaced
by (v

), then the conclusion is still true, where (v

) X
i
is compact.
Proof. Since X
i
is compact, T
i
is compact and the conclusion of Corollary 3.2
follows from Theorem 3.1.
Remark 3.3. Theorem 3.1 improves [15, Theorem 8].
Theorem 3.4. Let I and J be any index sets, let {U
i
}
iI
and {V
j
}
jJ
be families
of locally convex t.v.s. For each i I and j J, let X
i
and Y
j
be nonempty convex
subsets of U
i
and V
j
, respectively, and let D
j
be a nonempty compact metrizable
subset of Y
j
. For each i I and j J, let S
j
, T
j
: X :=

iI
X
i
D
j
; F
i
, H
i
: Y :=

jJ
Y
j
X
i
be multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) for each x X, coS
j
(x) T
j
(x) and S
j
(x) =;
(ii) S
j
is l.s.c.;
(iii) for each y Y, coF
i
(y) H
i
(y);
(iv) Y =
_
{int F
i

(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
};
(v) H
i
is compact.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
D :=

jJ
D
j
such that y
j

T
j
( x) and x
i
H
i
( y) for each i I and j J.
Proof. Since for each i I, H
i
is compact, there exists a compact subset C
i
X
i
such that H
i
(Y) C
i
for each i I. Let C =

iI
C
i
and D :=

jJ
D
j
, then
coC and K =coD are nonempty paracompact convex subsets each in X and Y,
300 Coincidence theorems with applications
respectively by [7, Lemma 1]. By assumptions (i), (ii), and following the same
argument as in the proof of [20, Theorem 1], there exists an u.s.c. multimap P
j
:
coC D
j
with nonempty compact convex values such that P
j
(x) T
j
(x) for
all x coC. Dene P : coC D by P(x) =

jJ
P
j
(x) for all x coC. Then it
follows from [8, Lemma 3] that P is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty compact
convex values.
By [12, Proposition 1] and [21, Theorem 1], for each i I, H
i
|
K
(y) has a
continuous selection f
i
: K C
i
such that f
i
(y) H
i
(y) for all y K. Let f :
K C be dened by f (y) =

iI
f
i
(y) for all y K, and let W : K D be
dened by W(y) =P |
C
( f (y)) for all y K. It is easy to see that W is an u.s.c.
multimap with nonempty closed convex values. Then, by [17, Theorem 7], there
exists y D such that y W( y) =P |
C
( f ( y)). Let x C such that x = f ( y) and
y P |
C
( x), then for each i I and j J, y
j
P
j
( x) T
j
( x) and x
i
= f
i
( y)
H
i
( y).
Theorem 3.5. Let I and J be any index sets. For each i I and j J, let X
i
and
Y
j
be nonempty convex subsets in locally convex t.v.s. U
i
and V
j
, respectively, let D
j
be a nonempty compact metrizable subset of Y
j
, and let C
i
be a nonempty compact
metrizable subset of X
i
. For each i I and j J, let S
j
, T
j
: X :=

iI
X
i
D
j
; F
i
,
H
i
: Y :=

jJ
Y
j
C
i
be multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) for each x X, coS
j
(x) T
j
(x) and S
j
(x) =;
(ii) S
j
is l.s.c.;
(iii) for each y Y, coF
i
(y) H
i
(y) and F
i
(y) =;
(iv) F
i
is l.s.c.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
coC := co

iI
C
i
and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
coD :=
co

jJ
D
j
such that y
j
T
j
( x) and x
i
H
i
( y) for each i I and j J.
Proof. Following the same argument as in the proof of [20, Theorem 1], for
each i I and j J, there are two u.s.c. multimaps P
j
: coC D
j
and Q
i
:
coD C
i
with nonempty closed convex values such that P
j
(x) T
j
(x) for all
x coC, and Q
i
(y) H
i
(y) for all y coD. Dene P : coC D, Q : coD C
by P(x) =

jJ
P
j
(x) for all x coC, and Q(y) =

iI
Q
i
(y) for all y coD. By
[8, Lemma 3], P and Q both are u.s.c. multimaps with nonempty closed con-
vex values. Let W : coC coD C D be dened by W(x, y) = (Q(y), P(x))
for (x, y) (coC) (coD). It is easy to see that W is an u.s.c. multimap with
nonempty closed convex values. Therefore, by [17, Theorem 7], there exist x =
( x
i
)
iI
coC and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
coD such that ( x, y) W( x, y). Then for each
i I and j J, y
j
P
j
( x) T
j
( x) and x
i
Q
i
( y) H
i
( y).
Remark 3.6. In Theorem 3.1, we do not assume that {X
i
} and {Y
j
} are metriz-
able for each i I and j J.
Theorem 3.7. Let I and J be nite index sets, let {U
i
}
iI
be a family of t.v.s., and
let {V
j
}
jJ
be a family of locally convex t.v.s. For each i I and j J, let X
i
be a
nonempty convex subset of U
i
, let Y
j
be a nonempty compact convex subset of V
j
,
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 301
and let F
j
: X :=

iI
X
i
Y
j
and let G
i
: Y :=

jJ
Y
j
X
i
be two multimaps
satisfying the following conditions:
(i) F
j
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed acyclic values;
(ii) Y =
_
{int G
i

(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
} and G
i
(y) is convex for all y Y.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that y
j
F
j
( x) and
x
i
G
i
( y) for each i I and j J.
Proof. By [12, Proposition 1] and [21, Theorem1], G
i
has a continuous selection
g
i
: Y X
i
such that g
i
(y) G
i
(y) for all y Y. Let g : Y X be dened by
g(y) =

iI
g
i
(y) for all y Y, then g is also continuous. Dene P
j
: Y Y
j
and
P : Y Y by P
j
(y) = F
j
(g(y)), and P(y) =

jJ
P
j
(y) for all y Y, then P
j
:
Y Y
j
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed acyclic values. By Kunneth
formula (see [16] and [8, Lemma 3]), P : Y Y is also an u.s.c. multimap with
nonempty closed acyclic values. Therefore, by [17, Theorem 7], there exists y
Y such that y P( y) =

jJ
P
j
( y) =

jJ
F
j
(g( y)). Let x =g( y) such that y
i

F
i
( x), then x
i
=g
i
( y) G
i
( y) and y
j
F
j
( x) for all i I and j J.
Remark 3.8. (i) In particular, if I = J is a singleton, X = Y, E = V, and F = I
X
,
the identity mapping on X in the above theorem, then we can obtain well-known
Browder xed-point theorem [3].
(ii) If I =J is a singleton, F is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed con-
vex values, G(y) is nonempty for all y Y, and G

(x) is open for all x X, then


Theorem 3.7 reduces to Browder coincidence theorem [4].
Theorem 3.9. Let I and J be nite index sets, {U
i
}
iI
and {V
j
}
jJ
be families of
locally convex t.v.s. For each i I and j J, let X
i
be a nonempty convex metrizable
compact subsets of U
i
and let Y
j
be a nonempty compact convex subsets of V
j
. For
each i I and j J, let F
j
: X :=

iI
X
i
Y
j
and G
i
: Y :=

jJ
Y
j
X
i
be two
multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) F
j
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed acyclic values;
(ii) G
i
is a l.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed convex values.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that y
j
F
j
( x) and
x
i
G
i
( y) for each i I and j J.
Proof. Since Y
j
is compact for each j J, Y =

jJ
Y
j
is compact. By assump-
tion (ii) and following the same argument as in the proof of [20, Theorem 1],
for each i I, there exists an u.s.c. multimap
i
: Y X
i
with nonempty closed
convex values such that
i
(y) G
i
(y) for all y Y. Let : Y X dened by
(y) =

iI

i
(y) for all y Y, then is u.s.c. with nonempty convex compact
values. Dene a multimap F : X Y by F(x) =

jJ
F
j
(x) for all x X, then
F : X Y is also an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed acyclic values.
Dene a multimap W : X Y X Y by W(x, y) =((y), F(x)) for all x
X and for all y Y. It is easy to see that W is a compact u.s.c. multimap with
nonempty closed acyclic values. It follows from [17, Theorem 7] that there exists
302 Coincidence theorems with applications
( x, y) X Y such that x ( y) and y F( x). Therefore, x
i
G
i
( y) and y
j

F
j
( x) for each i I and j J.
Remark 3.10. In Theorem 3.5, if F
j
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed
convex values for each j J, then J may be any index set.
Let I be any index set and, for each i I, let {U
i
}
iI
be a family of locally
convex t.v.s. For each i I, let X
i
be a nonempty convex subset in t.v.s. E
i
for
each i I. Let X =

iI
X
i
, X
i
=

jI, j=i
X
j
and we write X =X
i
X
i
. For each
x X, x
i
X
i
denotes the ith coordinate and x
i
X
i
the projection of x onto X
i
,
and we also write x =(x
i
, x
i
).
Theorem 3.11. Let I be a nite index set and let {U
i
}
iI
be a family of locally
convex t.v.s. For each i I, let X
i
be a nonempty compact convex subset of U
i
and
let F
i
: X
i
X
i
and G
i
: X
i
X
i
be multimaps satisfying the following conditions:
(i) F
i
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty closed acyclic values;
(ii) X
i
=
_
{int
X
i
G

i
(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
} and G
i
(x
i
) is convex for all x
i
X
i
.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and u = ( u
i
)
iI
X such that x
i
F
i
( u
i
) and
u
i
G
i
( x
i
) for all i I.
Proof. Since X
i
=
_
{int
X
i
G

i
(x
i
) : x
i
X
i
}, by [12, Proposition 1] and [21, The-
orem 1], G
i
has a continuous selection g
i
: X
i
X
i
.
Dene multimaps P
i
: X X
i
and P : X X by P
i
(x) =F
i
(g
i
(x
i
)) and P(x) =

iI
P
i
(x) for all x = (x
i
)
iI
X, then P
i
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty
closed acyclic values for all i I. Therefore, P : X X is also an u.s.c. multimap
with nonempty closed acyclic values. Since X is a nonempty compact convex
subset in a locally convex t.v.s. E =

iI
E
i
, it follows from [17, Theorem 7] that
there exists x = ( x
i
)
iI
X such that x P( x) =

iI
P
i
( x) =

iI
F
i
(g
i
( x
i
)),
that is, for all i I, x
i
F
i
(g
i
( x
i
)). For all i I, let u
i
= g
i
( x
i
), then u
i
X
i
.
Hence, u
i
=g
i
( x
i
) G
i
( x
i
) and x
i
F
i
( u
i
) for all i I.
Remarks 3.12. (i) In Theorem 3.11, if F
i
is an u.s.c. multimap with nonempty
closed convex values for each i I, then I may be any index set.
(ii) The proofs and conditions between Theorem 3.7 and Theorem 3.11 are
somewhat dierent.
4. Applications of coincidence theoremfor families of multimaps
to equilibriumproblems
In this section, we establish the existence theorem of equilibrium problem with
m families of players and 2m families of constraints on strategy sets which has
been introduced by Lin et al. [14].
Let I be a nite index set and for each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
, Y
k
, Y
k
, Y,
F
k
j
, and A
k
j
be the same as in introduction. For each k I and j J
k
, let W
k
j

R
l
k
j
+
\{0} and W
k
=

jJ
k
W
k
j
. For each k I, let A
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be dened by
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 303
A
k
(y
k
) =

jJ
k
A
k
j
(y
k
) where y
k
= (x
k
j
)
jJ
k
Y
k
and y
k
= (y
l
)
lI,l=k
Y
k
. Let
S
W
k
: Y
k
Y
k
R be dened by
S
W
k
_
y
k
, y
k
_
=
_
jJ
k
W
k
j
F
k
j
_
x
k
j
, y
k
_
=
_
u : u =
_
jJ
k
W
k
j
z
k
j
, for z
k
j
F
k
j
_
x
k
j
, y
k
_
_
.
(4.1)
For each k I, let M
W
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be dened by
M
W
k
_
y
k
_
=
_
y
k
A
k
_
y
k
_
: inf S
W
k
_
y
k
, y
k
_
=inf S
W
k
_
A
k
_
y
k
_
, y
k
__
,
M(y) =

kI
M
W
k
_
y
k
_
.
(4.2)
Throughout the paper, we will use the above mentioned notations, unless
otherwise specied.
Theorem 4.1. For each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
be a nonempty compact convex
subset of a locally convex t.v.s. E
k
j
satisfying the following conditions:
(i) the multimap S
W
k
is continuous with compact values;
(ii) A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty closed convex val-
ues;
(iii) for all y
k
Y
k
, M
W
k
(y
k
) is an acyclic set; and
(iv) for each k I, let B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be a multimap with convex values and
Y
k
=
_
{int
Y
k
B
1
k
(y
k
) : y
k
Y
k
}.
Then there exist y = ( y
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
= ( x
k
j
)
jJ
k
, u = ( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
A
k
( u
k
),
u
k
B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.3)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j
A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Proof. By assumptions (i), (ii), (iii), and following the same argument as in the
proof of [13, Theorem 3.2], we show that M
W
k
: Y
k
Y
k
is an u.s.c. multimap
with nonempty compact acyclic values. Since B
k
(y
k
) is convex for each k I,
y
k
Y
k
, and Y
k
=
_
{int
Y
k
B
1
k
(y
k
) : y
k
Y
k
}, it follows from Theorem 3.11
that there exist ( u
k
)
kI
Y and ( y
k
)
kI
Y such that y
k
M
W
k
( u
k
) and u
k

B
k
( y
k
) for all k I. Therefore, for each k I, y
k
A
k
( u
k
), and minS
W
k
( y
k
, u
k
) =
minS
W
k
(A
k
( u
k
), u
k
) minS
W
k
(p
k
, u
k
) for all p
k
A
k
( u
k
). Let y
k
= ( x
k
j
)
jJ
k

A
k
( u
k
). Following the same argument as in the proof of [13, Theorem 3.1], then
we show Theorem 4.1.
Remark 4.2. It is easy to see that the conclusion of Theorem 4.1 remains true if
condition (iii) is replaced by
304 Coincidence theorems with applications
(iii

) for each k I and for each xed y


k
Y
k
, the multimap u
k
S
W
k
(u
k
, y
k
)
is R
+
-quasiconvex.
As a simple consequence of Theorem 4.1, we give a simple proof of the fol-
lowing corollaries.
Corollary 4.3 ([14]). For each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
be a nonempty compact
convex subset of a locally convex t.v.s. E
k
j
, let A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
be a multimap with
nonempty convex values such that for each x
k
j
X
k
j
, A
1
k
j
(x
k
j
) is open in Y
k
and

A
k
j
is an u.s.c. multimap. For each k I, let B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be a multimap with
convex values satisfying the following conditions:
(i) Y
k
=
_
{int
Y
k
B
1
k
(y
k
) : y
k
Y
k
};
(ii) S
W
k
: Y
k
Y
k
R is a continuous multimap with compact values;
(iii) for any y
k
Y
k
, u
k
S
W
k
(u
k
, y
k
) is R
+
-quasiconvex.
Then there exist y = ( y
k
)
kI
Y, u = ( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k


A
k
( u
k
), y
k
= ( x
k
j
)
jJ
k
,
u
k
B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.4)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j


A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Proof. Since A
1
k
j
(x
k
j
) is open in Y
k
for each x
k
j
X
k
j
, A
k
j
is a l.s.c. multimap. It
is easy to see that

A
k
j
is also a l.s.c. multimap. By assumption,

A
k
j
is an u.s.c. mul-
timap. Therefore,

A
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty convex closed
values. Let

A
k
=

jJ
k

A
k
j
. Applying assumption (iii) and following the same ar-
gument as in [13, Theorem 3.3], it is easy to see that H
W
k
(y
k
) is an convex set
for all y
k
Y
k
, where
H
W
k
_
y
k
_
=
_
y
k


A
k
_
y
k
_
: inf S
W
k
_
y
k
, y
k
_
=inf S
W
k
_

A
k
_
y
k
_
, y
k
__
. (4.5)
By Theorem 4.1, there exist y =( y
k
)
kI
Y, u=( u
k
)
kI
Y with y
k
=( x
k
j
)
jJ
k


A
k
( u
k
), and u
k
B
k
( y
k
), z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
(4.6)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j


A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Corollary 4.4. For each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
be a nonempty compact convex
subset of a locally convex t.v.s. E
k
j
satisfying the following conditions:
(i) S
W
k
is a continuous multimap with compact values;
(ii) for each j J
k
, A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty
closed convex values;
(iii) for all y
k
Y
k
, M
W
k
(y
k
) is an acyclic set.
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 305
Then there exist y = ( y
k
)
kI
Y, u = ( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
= ( x
k
j
)
jJ
k
A
k
( u
k
), and
z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.7)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j


A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Proof. For each k I, let B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be dened by B
k
(y
k
) = Y
k
, then all the
conditions of Theorem 4.1 are satised. Therefore, there exist y = ( y
k
)
kI
Y,
u =( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
=( x
k
j
)
jJ
k


A
k
( u
k
), u
k
B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such
that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.8)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j


A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Theorem 4.5. For each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
be a nonempty compact convex
subset of a locally convex t.v.s. E
k
j
satisfying the following conditions:
(i) F
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty closed values;
(ii) A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty closed values;
(iii) for all y
k
Y
k
, {x
k
j
A
k
j
(y
k
) : F
k
j
(x
k
j
, y
k
) wMinF
k
j
(A
k
j
(y
k
), y
k
) =}
is an acyclic set;
(iv) for each k I, B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
is a multimap with convex values and Y
k
=
_
{int
Y
k
B
1
k
(y
k
) : y
k
Y
k
}.
Then there exist y =( y
k
)
kI
Y, u =( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
=( x
k
j
)
jJ
k


A
k
( u
k
), u
k

B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.9)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j
A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Proof. Dene a multimap M
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
by M
k
j
(y
k
) ={x
k
j
A
k
j
(y
k
) : F
k
j
(x
k
j
,
y
k
) wMinF
k
j
(A
k
j
(y
k
), y
k
) =} for all y
k
Y
k
and for each k I and j J
k
.
Since F
k
j
is a continuous multimap and X
k
j
is compact for each k I and j
J
k
, it follows from [2, Proposition 3, page 42] that F
k
j
is a compact continuous
multimap with closed values. By [2, Proposition 2, page 41], M
k
j
is a closed
compact u.s.c. multimap for each k I and j J
k
. Moreover, for each k I and
j J
k
, M
k
j
is an u.s.c. multimap with compact acyclic values. Dene a multimap
M
k
: Y
k
Y
k
by M
k
(y
k
) =

jJ
k
M
k
j
(y
k
) for all y
k
Y
k
and for each k I.
Then M
k
is also an u.s.c. multimap with compact acyclic values for each k I.
306 Coincidence theorems with applications
By Theorem 3.11, there exist ( u
k
)
kI
Y and ( y
k
)
kI
Y such that y
k

M
k
( u
k
) and u
k
B
k
( y
k
) for all k I. Let y
k
=( x
k
j
)
jJ
k
M
k
( u
k
)=

jJ
k
M
k
j
( u
k
),
then x
k
j
M
k
j
( u
k
) for each k I and j J
k
. This implies, there exists z
k
j

F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.10)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j
A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Applying Theorem 4.5 and following the same argument as in the proof of
Corollary 4.3, we have the following corollary.
Corollary 4.6. For each k I and j J
k
, let X
k
j
be a nonempty compact convex
subset of a locally convex t.v.s. E
k
j
satisfying the following conditions:
(i) F
k
j
is a continuous multimap with nonempty closed values;
(ii) A
k
j
: Y
k
X
k
j
is a multimap with nonempty convex values such that for
each x
k
j
X
k
j
, A
1
k
j
(x
k
j
) is open in Y
k
and

A
k
j
is an u.s.c. multimap;
(iii) for all y
k
Y
k
, {x
k
j
A
k
j
(y
k
) : F
k
j
(x
k
j
, y
k
) wMinF
k
j
(A
k
j
(y
k
), y
k
) =}
is an acyclic set; and
(iv) for each k I, let B
k
: Y
k
Y
k
be a multimap with convex values and
Y
k
=
_
{int
Y
k
B
1
k
(y
k
) : y
k
Y
k
}.
Then there exist y =( y
k
)
kI
Y, u =( u
k
)
kI
Y, y
k
=( x
k
j
)
jJ
k


A
k
( u
k
), u
k

B
k
( y
k
), and z
k
j
F
k
j
( x
k
j
, u
k
) such that
z
k
j
z
k
j
int R
l
k
j
+
, (4.11)
for all z
k
j
F
k
j
(x
k
j
, u
k
), x
k
j


A
k
j
( u
k
) and for all k I, j J
k
.
Corollary 4.7. Let I be a nite index set. For each k I, let X
k
be a nonempty
compact convex subset of a locally convex t.v.s. and let f
k
: X R be a continuous
function, and for each x
k
X
k
, the function x
k
f
k
(x
k
, x
k
) is quasiconvex. Then
there exist x =( x
k
)
kI
X and y =( y
k
)
kI
X,
f
k
_
x
k
, y
k
_
f
k
_
x
k
, y
k
_
, (4.12)
for all x
k
X
k
and for all k I.
Proof. For each k I, J
k
is a singleton. By assumption, {x
k
X
k
: f
k
(x
k
, y
k
) =
Min f
k
(X
k
, y
k
)} is a convex set. The conclusion of Corollary 4.7 follows from
Corollary 4.6 by taking A
k
(x
k
) =X
k
and B
k
(x
k
) =X
k
for all k I.
Remark 4.8. (i) The index I in Corollary 4.7 can be any index set.
(ii) The conclusion between Corollary 4.7 and Nash equilibrium theorem
[16] is somewhat dierent.
L.-J. Lin and H. I Chen 307
5. Abstract economics with two families of players
In this section, we consider the following abstract economics with two families
of players.
Let I and J be any index sets and let {U
i
}
iI
and {V
j
}
jJ
be families of lo-
cally convex t.v.s. For each i I and j J, let X
i
and Y
j
be nonempty con-
vex subsets each in U
i
and V
j
, respectively. Two families of abstract economy
= (X
i
, A
i
, B
i
, P
i
, Y
j
, C
j
, D
j
, Q
j
), where A
i
, B
i
: Y :=

jJ
Y
j
X
i
, and C
j
, D
j
:
X :=

iI
X
i
Y
j
are constraint correspondences, P
i
: Y X
i
and Q
j
: X Y
j
are preference correspondences. An equilibrium for is to nd x = ( x
i
)
iI
X
and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that for each i I and j J, x
i
B
i
( y), y
j
D
j
( x),
A
i
( y) P
i
( y) =, and C
j
( x) Q
j
( x) =.
With the above notation, we have the following theorem.
Theorem5.1. Let =(X
i
, A
i
, B
i
, P
i
, Y
j
, C
j
, D
j
, Q
j
)
iI, jJ
be two families of abstract
economics satisfying the following conditions:
(i) for each i I and y Y, co(A
i
(y)) B
i
(y) and A
i
(y) is nonempty;
(ii) for each j J and x X, co(C
j
(x)) D
j
(x) and C
j
(x) is nonempty;
(iii) for each i I, Y =
_
x
i
X
i
int
Y
[{(coP
i
)

(x
i
) (Y \ H
i
)} A

i
(x
i
)], where
H
i
={y Y : A
i
(y) P
i
(y) =};
(iv) for each j J, X=
_
y
j
Y
j
int
X
[{(coQ
j
)

(y
j
)(X \ M
j
)} C

j
(y
j
)], where
M
j
={x X : C
j
(x) Q
j
(x) =};
(v) for each i I, j J and each x =(x
i
)
iI
X, y =(y
j
)
jJ
Y, x
i
co(P
i
(y)),
and y
i
coQ
j
(x);
(vi) D
j
is compact.
Then there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that x
i
B
i
( y), y
j

D
j
( x), A
i
( y) P
i
( y) =, and C
j
( x) Q
j
( x) =for all i I and j J.
Proof. For each i I and j J, we dene multivalued maps S
i
, T
i
: Y X
i
by
S
i
(y) =
_
_
_
coP
i
(y) A
i
(y), for y H
i
,
A
i
(y), for y Y \ H
i
,
T
i
(y) =
_
_
_
coP
i
(y) B
i
(y), for y H
i
,
B
i
(y), for y Y \ H
i
,
(5.1)
and F
j
, G
j
: X Y
i
by
F
j
(x) =
_
_
_
coQ
j
(x) C
j
(x), for x M
j
,
C
j
(x), for x X \ M
j
,
G
j
(x) =
_
_
_
coQ
j
(x) D
j
(x), for x M
j
,
D
j
(x), for x X \ M
j
.
(5.2)
308 Coincidence theorems with applications
Then for each i I, j J, x X, y Y, coS
i
(y) T
i
(y), S
i
(y) is nonempty, and
coF
j
(x) G
j
(x), F
j
(x) is nonempty.
For each i I, j J, x X, and y Y, it is easy to see that
S

i
_
x
i
_
=
___
coP
i
_

_
x
i
_

_
Y \ H
i
___
A

i
_
x
i
_
(5.3)
and F

j
(y
j
) =[{(coQ
j
)

(y
j
) (X \ M
j
)}] C

j
(y
j
). From (iii),
Y =
_
x
i
X
i
int
Y
___
coP
i
_

_
x
i
_

_
Y \ H
i
__
A

i
_
x
i
__
=
_
x
i
X
i
int
Y
S

i
_
x
i
_
. (5.4)
From (iv),
X =
_
y
j
Y
j
int
X
___
coQ
j
_

_
y
j
_

_
X \ X
j
__
C

j
_
y
j
__
=
_
y
j
Y
j
int
X
F

j
_
y
j
_
.
(5.5)
Then all conditions of Theorem 3.1 are satised. It follows from Theorem 3.1,
there exist x = ( x
i
)
iI
X and y = ( y
j
)
jJ
Y such that x
i
T
i
( y) and y
j

G
j
( x) for all i I and j J. By (v), we have x
i
B
i
( y), y
j
D
j
( x), A
i
( y)
P
i
( y) =, and C
j
( x) Q
j
( x) =.
Acknowledgment
This research was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan.
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Lai-Jiu Lin: Department of Mathematics, National Changhua University of Education,
Changhua 50058, Taiwan
E-mail address: maljlin@math.ncue.edu.tw
Hsin I Chen: Department of Mathematics, National Changhua University of Education,
Changhua 50058, Taiwan
E-mail address: Jerry.amy0317@msa.hinet.net
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