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Nerve CN I Olfactory CN II Optic CN III Oculomotor CV IV Trochlear CN V Trigeminal CN VI Abducent Oprah Ought Order Tasty Treats And Oh Once

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Nerve Type
(Motor, Sensory, Both)

Exiting Foramina
Carl Only Swims South (V1) Silly (V1)
Cribriform plate Optic canal Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Superior Orbital Fissure Foramen Rotundum Foramen Ovale Superior Orbital Fissure Internal Acoustic Meatus Internal Acoustic Meatus Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Jugular Foramen Hypoglossal Canal

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Roger (V2) Only (V3) Swims In Infiniti Jacuzzis Jane Just Hitchhikes

CN VII Facial Finally CN VIII Value Vestibulocochlear CN IX Growing Glossopharyngeal CN X Vagus Voluptuous CN XI Spinal Accessory And CN XII - Hypoglossal Happy

1. CN I Olfactory: special sensory only a. Nerves pass through foramen in ethmoid bone (cribiform plate), through olfactory tract and synapse with neurons (mitral cells) in olfactory bulb 2. CN II Optic: special sensory only a. Optic nerve (tract covered by meninges), pass through Optic Canals within sphenoid lesser wing (along with Opthalmic a. & periarterial plexus of postganglionic sympathetic n.s), crosses at chiasm, back to occipital pole b. Retinal ganglion cells in back of the retina collectively form the optic nerve i. Glaucoma: death of retinal ganglion cells c. Light from each eye travels to both side of brain required for depth perception, permits bilateral pupillary light reflex (through accessory Oculomotor (Ediner-Westphal) nucleus) 3. CN III Oculomotor: all motor (somatic & visceral) a. Travels through superior orbital fissure (gap between lesser & greater wings of sphenoid) & tendonous ring (where muscles are attached), then divides into superior & inferior divisions b. Edinger-Westphal nucleus (accessory Oculomotor nucleus) Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers synapse in Ciliary ganglion (in orbit) Short ciliary post-ganglionic nerves: i. Constrictor pupillae m.: constricts iris (pupillary light reflex) 1. Loss/slowness of reflex may indicate brainstem damage and/or bleeding that compresses CN III against petrous ridge ii. Ciliaris m.: rounds up lens for near vision (accommodation)

Absence of adequate PS stimulation pupil dilation, difficulty focusing on objects in near field of view c. Innervates extraocular muscles: Superior, Medial, & Inferior rectus; Inferior oblique; Levator palpebrae superioris i. *Two are not innervated by CNIII (LR6SO4) 1. Lateral rectus: CN VI 2. Superior oblique: CN IV iii. 4. CV IV Trochlear: Superior oblique m. (medial side of eye) a. Travels through superior orbital fissure 5. CN V Trigeminal: sensory to face & head outside (& including) dura mater a. Trigeminal ganglion: sensory, pseudounipolar neurons; no synapses (analogous to DRG); sits near ICS & Vidian nerve (middle cranial fossa) b. Opthalmic division (V1): superior orbital fissure; all somatic sensory i. Frontal: cornea, skin of: upper eyelid, nose bridge, forehead 1. Supraorbital: supraorbital foramen onto forehead 2. Supratrochlear: medially; sensation to forehead between eyebrows ii. Nasociliary: sensory 1. Infratrochlear: sensation angle of eye, lateral to nose bridge 2. Long & Short ciliaries: sensation from cornea a. Long = sensory + sympathetic b. Short = sensory + sympathetic + parasympathetic c. Corneal (Blink) Reflex arc: eye is closed by orbicularis oculi m. (supplied by Facial n. CN VII) i. Afferent limb: CN V1 (long & short ciliary branches
= sensory information)

ii. Efferent limb: CN VII (blink) iii. Lacrimal: lacrimal gland, upper eyelid skin c. Maxillary division (V2): in pterygopalatine fossa; passes through foramen rotundum i. Zygomatic: lateral nose ii. Infraorbital: infraorbital foramen; upper lip, lower eyelid iii. Posterior superior alveolar: upper teeth & maxillary sinus iv. Pterygopalatine ganglion: PSN ganglion hanging off maxillary n. stimulates lacrimation (tears & nasal cavity muscosa) d. Mandibular division (V3): foramen ovale; contains motor & sensory i. Sensory: 1. Long Buccal: cheek 2. Lingual: sensory anterior 2/3 tongue, mouth floor a. Submandidibular ganglion: PNS ganglion suspended from Lingual n; receives fibers from Chorda Tympani n 3. Auriculotemporal: sensation from TMJ ii. Motor: Mandibular: muscles (& accessory m.) of mastication 1. Tensor veli palatine: elevates and tenses soft palate a. Paralysis (V3 damage) uvula deviation to opposite side iii. Motor & Sensory: 1. Inferior alveolar: mandibular foramen; right mandible, lower teeth

a. N. to Mylohoid: mylohyoid & anterior belly digastric i. Pushes tongue to mouth roof ii. Raises oral cavity floor b. Mental: mental foramen (mandible) i. Sensory: chin, lower lip 6. CN VI Abducent: Lateral rectus m. (abducts {laterally moves} pupil) a. ICA Aneurysm can also affect CN VI, affecting lateral eye movement eye medial deviation 7. CN VII Facial: motor (somatic & visceral) and sensory (special & general) i. Internal acoustic meatus: entrance to facial canal b. Motor: i. Cervical branch exits via Stylomastoid foramen muscles of facial expression + stylohyoid, posterior belly digastric, stapedius 1. Depresses mandible, draws down lower lip & angle of mouth 2. Raises oral cavity ii. Buccal branch: muscles of facial expression c. Sensory: Geniculate ganglion (petrous part temporal b.) i. Skin around EA.meatus ii. Proprioceptive to skeletal muscles d. Superior salivatory nucleus: preganglionic parasymp. fibers of Greater Pet.n e. Parasympathetic & Sensory branches: i. Chorda tympani: travels through tympanic cavity (middle ear) 1. Secretomotor: PS submandibular & sublingual glands 2. Preganglionic synapse in Submandibular ganglion 3. Sensory: taste anterior 2/3 tongue
a. Travels along Lingual n.; exits through petrotympanic fissure

Greater petrosal: parasympathetic to lacrimal & mucosal glands {nasal cavity, soft palate} 1. Preganglionic synapse in pterygopalatine ganglion iii. GPN at Geniculate ganglion meets up with sympathetic fibers from the Deep Petrosal n. to form the Vidian n. travels to pterygopalatine fossa where parasymp. fibers synapse fibers travels along V1 & V2 to reach Lacrimal gland 1. Vidian: mixed pregang. Parasymp.; postgang. Sympathetic f. N. to stapedius: origin in tympanic canal 8. CN VIII Vestibulocochlear: special sensory; enter internal acoustic meatus along with CN VII a. Vestibular system balance b. Cochlea hearing 9. CN IX Glossopharyngeal: motor (somatic & visceral) & sensory (general & special) i. Exits cranial cavity at jugular foramen (beginning of IJV) b. Motor: stylopharyngeus m. only c. Sensory (general): pharynx, carotid body, carotid sinus (n. to Carotid sinus)

ii.

d. Sensory (general & special): posterior 1/3 tongue (taste & sensory Gag reflex) e. Parasympathetic: to parotid glands for secretion i. Preganglionic fibers in Inferior salivatory nucleus travel with CN XI ii. Tympanic n. of Jacobson: joins with sympathetic (from superior cervical ganglion) to form iii. Lesser petrosal n. (IX & VII) emerges from middle ear iv. Synapse at otic ganglion (infratemporal fossa) v. Postganglionic fibers follow Auriculotemporal (V3) to parotid 10. CN X Vagus: motor (somatic & visceral) & sensory (general & special) a. Motor: pharyngeal constrictors, laryngeal & palatal muscles i. Superior laryngeal n.: motor (crichothyroid) & sensory (vocal cords) 1. Important for cough reflex b. Motor + Sensory: Recurrent laryngeal nerve: between trachea & esophagus; motor to esophagus, larynx muscles; sensory to trachea i. Damaged during Thyroid Removal (proximity to a.) hoarse voice c. Parasympathetic: GI tract, heart, lungs {thorax} 11. CN XI Spinal Accessory: somatic motor i. Trunks enter foramen magnum and then out through jugular foramen b. Spinal Part i. Motor: SCM (extend head, flex column, rotate face to opposite side) & trapezius (rotate shoulder superiorly) c. Cranial Part joins Vagus n. i. Motor: larynx & pharynx muscles 1. Salpingopharyngeal m.: elevates pharynx d. Torticollis (Wry Neck): shortening of SCM head tilts towards affected side & turns towards unaffected side 12. CN XII - Hypoglossal: somatic motor only to tongue a. Innervates muscles: genioglossus, hyoglossus, styloglossus 1. Mandible fracture: damage to left CN XII affects genioglossus tongue deviates to left when protruded (pushes tongue to affected side due to action of m. on unaffected side) 2. Still have sensation in cheek (V3 Long Buccal n.) & lower teeth b. Seen between the olives & pyramids; exits through hypoglossal canal c. C1 fibers join hypoglossal and then become part of ansa cervicalis superior root