Anda di halaman 1dari 7

Getting Done with OLGA Input

Getting Done with OLGA Input


This chapter describes a fast track to preparing OLGA PVT tables. It is intended to give new PVTsim users a fast route to generating OLGA PVT input. The OLGA input is accessed by clicking Interfaces in the Simulations Explorer and then on OLGA in the Flow section. If the fluid composition for which an OLGA fluid table is to be made is already stored in the PVTsim fluid database, it can be selected in the OLGA input menu by clicking <Select composition>. Otherwise start by entering the composition.

Input of Composition
Water free composition
Whenever possible it is to be recommended to take the composition from a PVT report. PVT labs standard report the compositions as Plus fraction compositions as for example the one below. The C10+ fraction contains C10 components and higher. PVTsim will split up the C10+ fraction into pseudo-components and will estimate all the components properties needed to afterwards make an OLGA fluid property table.

Example of plus fraction composition. Component N2 CO2 C1 C2 C3 iC4 nC4 iC5 nC5 C6 Mol% 0.546 2.826 55.565 8.594 5.745 1.009 2.435 0.895 1.24 1.581 Mol Wgt Density (g/cm3)

C7 C8 C9 C10+

2.552 2.747 1.699 12.564

91.5 101.2 119.1 254.9

0.738 0.765 0.781 0.870

The OLGA user may alternatively have the composition in an already characterized form, which type of composition may look like the one in the table below. A such composition is entered as described in the Getting Done with Characterized Compositions section.

If a composition has already been selected before opening the OLGA input window, this composition will be the default choice and there is no need to select a fluid composition locally unless a different composition or more compositions are wanted.

Example of already characterized composition. Mol Density Wgt (g(cm3) Tc (C) -146.95 31.05 -82.55 32.25 96.65 134.95 152.05 187.25 196.45 234.25 293.622 392.521 483.08 638.351 Pc (bara) 33.94 73.76 46.00 48.84 42.46 36.48 38.00 33.84 33.74 29.69 28.75 18.80 15.43 13.85

Component Mol%

N2 0.546 28.014 CO2 2.826 44.010 C1 55.566 16.043 C2 8.594 30.070 C3 5.745 44.097 IC4 1.009 58.124 NC4 2.435 58.124 IC5 0.895 72.151 NC5 1.24 72.151 C6 1.581 86.178 Pseudo_1 9.487 112.013 Pseudo_2 4.881 193.605 Pseudo_3 3.273 294.377 Pseudo_4 1.921 492.051

0.7723 0.8323 0.8772 0.9357

0.040 0.225 0.008 0.098 0.152 0.176 0.193 0.227 0.251 0.296 0.5232 0.7437 0.9794 1.2555

Water and Inhibitors


Water and hydrate inhibitors may entered in the composition menu by clicking <Add Comps> and selecting the appropriate components. These components may alternatively be entered locally in the OLGA input menu. This is often more convenient as it makes it easy to generate OLGA fluid tables for varying water cuts and/or varying amounts of fluid inhibitor.

If the fluid selected already contains water, the Water specification fields will be disabled. Otherwise the amount of water phase may be entered as either

%Water cut Water volume% of the total liquid at standard conditions. If the water contains salts, the entered salt concentrations are for the water phase at standard conditions.

Mol spec water/mol feed Feed refers to the selected fluid.

Mole% of feed+spec water Feed refers to the selected fluid.

Weight% of feed+spec water Feed refers to the selected fluid.

Hydrate inhibitors may optionally be specified. If the selected fluid contains inhibitors, the Inhibitor specification fields are disabled. The inhibitor amount may otherwise be specified as

mol inhib(itor)/mol spec water mole% of spec water+inh(ibitor) kg inhib(itor)/kg spec water weight% of spec water+inh(ibitor)

The spec water is input water, not equilibrium water phase.

The properties of a possible water phase may either be calculated using the selected equation of state ( EOS) or using a Water Package. The Water Package is the more accurate for pure water while it is inappropriate for mixtures containing a hydrate inhibitor as for example methanol or glycol. Water densities and viscosities will be corrected for a possible salt content no matter whether the EOS or the Water Package is selected. Checking the field Save fluid will save the total composition in the database. This can be practical in the case water and inhibitors have been added locally.

Pure Components
PVTsim should not be used to generate OLGA tables for fluids consisting of only a pure component. This is because the vapor phase fraction cannot be determined from pressure and temperature when crossing or following the vapor pressure curve. For running OLGA with pure component fluids please contact SPT Group.

P & T input
Equidistant
Enter the minimum and maximum pressures and temperatures to be covered in the table and the number of pressure and temperature tabulation points (2-50). The OLGA table will cover the entered pressure and temperature range and write out a property table equidistant in P and T and containing the number of P and T points entered.

Alternative P&T input


Leave the input fields for Pressure and Temperature blank or click <Clear> to blank the fields. Click <Alternative P&T>. Enter the pressure and temperature points to be covered in the OLGA table. The Table will cover all combinations of pressure and temperature. The number of pressure and temperature entries do not have to be the same. Between 2 and 49 P and T values must be entered.

Intelligent Grid
Checking the field IntelliGrid will fix the number of P and T points to 50. Enter a grid factor >1 to make a tighter net in the P&T region with two hydrocarbon phases (inside phase envelope) than in the P&T region with only one hydrocarbon phase. The higher the grid factor the tighter the grid inside the phase envelope. Legal entries for the grid factor are 1-10. Enter the minimum and maximum pressures and temperatures in the P&T fields.

Standard Conditions
It is ensured that standard temperature and standard pressure are always included in the table if not already present if standard conditions are within the PT-grid boundaries. The standard conditions used in the table are equal to those used in OLGA irrespective of the application wide standard conditions set in PVTsim. If standard temperature and standard pressure are inserted, the table is always returned as non-equidistant. Standard temperature and standard pressure will be inserted if they are not explicitly contained in the pressure-temperature specification entered by the user. If a 50x50 table is specified by the user and standard temperature or standard pressure need to be inserted, the table dimensions are reduced by 1 in the temperature direction, the pressure direction or both directions before calculating the location of the remaining temperature and pressure points.

Extrapolated properties
OLGA requires properties of all phases (gas, liquid and possibly water) for all tabulation points. At conditions where a phase is missing, artificial properties are written out.

By checking Bold artificial props in the lower right corner, artificial properties will be bolded in the output sheet. Determining a property for a non-existing phase does not make sense from a strict thermodynamic point of view, and problems with these properties occasionally occur. The bolding option helps to identify the non-existing phase properties in the table. If a problem occurs with a PVT property and it is for an artificial phase, it may often be sufficient to replace the erroneous value by something that looks reasonable based on the properties in a region where that phase actually exists. It is generally recommended to compare the PT grid to the phase envelope of the fluid in case problems with PVT properties occur, as illustrated in Figure 1.

600

500

400

300

200

100

0 -100 0 100 200 T (C) 300 400 500

Figure 1: Comparing PT grid to phase envelope

Derivatives
Properties of missing phases are found by extrapolation using the value of the property and the pressure derivative of the property at the phase boundary.

Compositional
Properties of missing phases are generated by enlarging the phase envelope until it accommodates the conditions at which the properties are requested. Equilibrium gas or liquid at the phase boundary is added to the feed composition. For pure components or fluids with a narrow phase envelope this is often not possible, and the properties of the actually existing phase are written. This gives discontinuous property values with P and T, which up-sets Olgas convergence.

In general it is recommended to use the Derivatives method, and the Compositional method is only to be used in cases where the Derivatives method fails to give a usable Olga table.

Output Table
Click <Output File> to specify the OLGA fluid table file name. It must have the extension *.TAB, which file extension is automatically added if not entered.

The OLGA interface option supports two OLGA fluid table formats.

Two phase
The two phases considered are gas and liquid. The liquid phase may consist of oil, water or oil + water. If both oil and water are present, the output liquid properties are average properties of oil and water.

If the mixture contains water, it is possible by checking Emulsion to have water-in-oil emulsion viscosities output for the liquid. The emulsion viscosity is by default calculated using a correlation of Rnningsen, which requires no further input. Alternatively a correlation of Pal and Rhodes may be used. It requires input of an experimental data point for the water volume fraction and the corresponding relative viscosity (emulsion viscosity/viscosity of water-free oil). Inv point stands for inversion point and this entry specifies the volume fraction of water for which the emulsion changes from a water-in-oil emulsion to an oil-inwater emulsion.

Three phase
This option will only be accessible if the fluid contains aqueous components. The output table gives properties of gas, oil and water (aqueous).

Table Format
Two table formats are supported

Key (keyword based format) Fixed (fixed format)


An identifying text must be entered in the Fluid Label field if Key format is selected

OLGA Network
Fluid files consisting of multiple compositions may be generated. The input specifications for the 1st fluid is entered in the Current Fluid sheet, the specifications for the 2nd fluid in the Fluid 2 sheet, and so on. The fluids from No. 2 and on must be selected locally by clicking the <Select Composition> button.

The Fluid Label field must be filled out with an identifying text for each fluid.

The output table supports the OLGA network format.