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# Tutorial 1 ENT 346 Vibration Mechanics

1. The static equilibrium position of a massless rigid bar, hinged at point O and connected with springs k1 and k2, is shown in Fig. 1. Assuming that the displacement (x) resulting from the application of a force F at point A is small, find the equivalent spring constant of the system, ke, that relates the applied force F to the displacement x as F = kex.

## Figure 1: Rigid bar connected by springs

2. Fig.2 shows a uniform rigid bar of mass m that is pivoted at point O and connected by springs of stiffness k1 and k2. Considering a small angular displacement of the rigid bar about the point O, determine the equivalent spring constant associated with the restoring moment.

## Figure 3: Springs connected in series-parallel

4. A simplified model of a petroleum pump is shown in Fig. 4, where the rotary motion of the crank is converted to the reciprocating motion of the piston. Find the equivalent mass, meq, of the system at location A.

## 5. Find the equivalent mass of the system shown in Fig. 5.

Figure 5 6. Find a single equivalent damping constant for the following cases: i) When three dampers are parallel. ii) When three dampers are in series. iii) When three dampers are connected to a rigid bar (Figure 6) and the equivalent damper is at site c1.

## Figure 6: Dampers connected to a rigid bar

7. A massless bar of length 1 m is pivoted at one end and subjected to a force F at the other end. Two translational dampers, with damping constant c1 = 10 N-s/m and c2 = 15 N-s/m are connected to the bar as shown in Fig. 7. Determine the equivalent damping constant, ceq, of the system so that the force F at point A can be expressed as F = ceqv, where v is the liner velocity of point A.

## Figure 7: Rigid bar connected by dampers

8. A machine is subjected to the motion x(t) = A cos (50t + ) mm. The initial conditions are & (0) = 1.0 m/s. given by x(0) = 3 mm and x i) Find the constant A and . ii) Express the motion in the form x(t) = A1 cos t + A2 sin t, and identify the constants A1 and A2.

9. A machine is found to vibrate with simple harmonic motion at a frequency of 20 Hz and an amplitude of acceleration of 0.5g. Determine the displacement and velocity of the machine. Use the value of g as 9.81 m/s2.

10. The vibration table shown in Fig. 8 is used to test certain electronic components for vibration. It consists of two identical mating gears G1 and G2 that rotate about the axes O1 and O2 attached to the frame F. Two equal masses, m each, are placed symmetrically about the middle vertical axis as shown in Fig. 8. During rotation, an unbalanced vertical force of magnitude P = 2m2r cos , where = t and = angular velocity of gears, will be developed, causing the table to vibrate. Design a vibration table that can develop a force in the range 0-100 N over a frequency range 25-50 Hz.