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State Newtons Laws of Motion and
Gravitational attraction and to be able to define
mass and weight

Analyze accelerated motion of a particle using
the equation of motion

1. Newtons Second Law of Motion
2. The Equation of Motion
3. Equation of Motion for a System of Particles
4. Equations of Motion: Rectangular Coordinates
5. Equations of Motion: Normal and Tangential
Coordinates
6. Equations of Motion: Cylindrical Coordinates

Second Law:
A particle acted upon by an unbalanced force F
experiences an acceleration a that has the same
direction as the force and a magnitude that is
directly proportional to the force.
Newtons Law of Gravitational Attraction
A law governing the mutual attractive
gravitational force acting between them
2
2 1
r
m m
G F =
Newtons Law of Gravitational Attraction
Mass is a property of matter

Mass of the body is specified in kilograms
Weight is calculated using the equation of
motion, F = ma
mg W =
W = mg (N)
(g = 9.81 m/s
2
)
Equation of motion is written as
Consider P of mass m subjected to the
action of two forces, F
1
and F
2
From free body diagram, the
resultant of these forces
produces the vector ma
Represented graphically
on the kinetic diagram
F
R
= F = 0, acceleration is zero
Such a condition is called static equilibrium,
Newtons First Law of Motion
ma F =
Inertial Reference Frame
Acceleration of the particle is measured with
respect to a reference frame that is either
fixed or translates with a constant velocity
Such a frame of reference is known as a
Newtonian or inertial reference frame,


The free body diagram for the its particle
are shown. Applying equation of motion
yields
F = ma; F
i
+ f
i
= m
i
a
i
If equation of motion is applied to each of
the other particles, these equations can be
added together vectorially,

F
i
+ f
i
= m
i
a
i
The summation of internal forces will be
equal to zero where
F
i
= m
i
a
i

If r
G
is a position vector which locates the
center of mass G of the particles, we have
mr
G
= m
i
r
i


Differentiating twice w.r.t time yields
ma
G
= m
i
a
i
Therefore, F = ma
G

The sum of the external forces acting on the
system of particles is equal to the total mass
of the particles times the acceleration of its
center of mass G


When a particle is moving relative to an
inertial x, y, z frame of reference,
F = ma
Fx
i
+ Fy
j
+ Fz
k
= m(ax
i
+ ay
j
+ az
k
)

The three scalar equations:

=
=
=
z z
y y
x x
ma F
ma F
ma F
Procedure for Analysis
Free-Body Diagram
Select inertial coordinate system
Draw particles free body diagram (FBD) and
provides a graphical representation that
accounts for all forces (F)
Direction and sense of the particles
acceleration a is also be established
Acceleration is represented as ma vector on
the kinetic diagram
Identify the unknowns in the problem

Procedure for Analysis
Equation of Motion
Apply equations of motion on FBD in their
scalar component form
Cartesian vector analysis can be used for the
solution
Kinematics
Apply kinematics equations once the
particles acceleration is determined from F
= ma
If acceleration is a function of time, use a =
dv/dt and v = ds/dt
Procedure for Analysis
Kinematics
When acceleration is a function of
displacement, integrate a ds = v dv to find
velocity as a function of position
If acceleration is constant, use
t a v v
c
+ =
0
2
0 0
2
1
t a t v s s
c
+ + =
( )
0
2
0
2
2 s s a v v
c
+ =
The 50-kg crate rests on a horizontal plane for
which the coefficient of kinetic friction is
k
=
0.3. If the crate is subjected to a 400-N towing
force, determine the velocity of the crate in 3 s
starting from rest.
Solution
Free-Body Diagram
Weight of the crate is W = mg = 50 (9.81) = 490.5
N.
The frictional force is F =
k
N
C
and acts to the left,
There are 2 unknowns, N
C
and a.
Equations of Motion



Solving we get
0 30 sin 400 5 . 490 ;
50 3 . 0 30 cos 400 ;
= + = | +
= =

C y y
C x x
N ma F
a N ma F
2
/ 19 . 5 , 5 . 290 s m a N N
C
= =
Solution
Kinematics
Acceleration is constant.
Velocity of the crate in 3s is
=
+ =
+ =
s m
t a v v
c
/ 6 . 15
) 3 ( 19 . 5 0
0
A 10 kg projectile is fired vertically upward from the
ground, with an initial velocity of 50 m/s. Determine the
maximum height to which it will travel if (a) atmospheric
resistance is neglected, and (b) atmospheric resistance is
measured as F = 0.01v
2
N, where v is the speed of the
projectile at any instant measured in m/s.


The weight W = mg = 10(9.81) = 98.1 N
Equation of Motion


Kinematics
Initially z
o
= 0, v
o
= 50 m/s
At max height, z = h, v = 0
a is constant


2 2
0 0
2
( ) 2 ( )
0 50 2( 9.81)( 0)
127
v v a z z
h
h m
+ | = +
= +
=
2
; -98.1 10 9.81 m/s
z z
F ma a a | = = =

Equation of motion


Kinematics
a is not constant since FD
depends on velocity. Since
a = f(v) we can relate a to
position using


Initially, z
o
=0, v
0
=50 m/s
Finally, z=h, v=0

2 2
; -0.01 -98.1 10 (0.001 9.81)
z z
F ma v a a v | = = = +

2
( ) - (0.001 9.81) adz vdv v dz vdv + | = + =
2
( ) - (0.001 9.81) adz vdv v dz vdv + | = + =
0
0
2
2
0 50
50
500ln( 9810)
0.001 9.81
114
h
vdv
dz v
v
h m
= = +
+
=
} }
The baggage truck A has a weight of 3600 N and tows a
2200 N cart B and a 1300 N cart C. For a short time the
driving frictional force developed at the wheels is F
A
=
(160t) N where t is in seconds. If the truck starts from
rest, determine its speed in 2 seconds. What is the
horizontal force acting on the coupling between the truck
and cart B at this instant?
Solution
Free-Body Diagram
We have to consider all 3 vehicles.
Equations of Motion
Only horizontal motion is considered.
t a
a t
ma F
x x
221 . 0
81 . 9
1300 2200 3600
160
;
=
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
=
=

+
Solution
Kinematics
The velocity of the truck is obtained using a =
dv/dt with the initial condition that v0 = 0 at t
= 0,

Free-Body Diagram
Equations of Motion
When t = 2 s, then
s m t v dt t dv
v
/ 442 . 0 1105 . 0 ; ) 221 . 0 (
2
0
2
2
0 0
= = =
} }
| | N T T
ma F
x x
8 . 157 ) 2 ( 221 . 0
81 . 9
3600
) 2 ( 160
;
=
|
.
|

\
|
=
=

+
The 100-kg block A is released from rest. If the
masses of the pulleys and the cord are neglected,
determine the speed of the 20-kg block B in 2 s.
Solution
Free-Body Diagrams
Since mass of the pulleys is neglected, then for
pulley C, ma = 0.
It can be seen that T = 490.5 N for A to be
static and T = 196.2 N for B to be static.
Assume both blocks accelerate downward,
in the direction of +s
A
and +s
B
Solution
Equations of Motion
Block A:
Block B:
Kinematics
It is seen that

Differentiating this expression twice w.r.t time
yield

B y y
a T ma F 20 2 . 196 ; = = + +

A y y
a T ma F 100 2 981 ; = = + +

l s s
B A
= + 2
B A
a a = 2
where l is constant and represents the total vertical length of cord.
Solution
Kinematics
Solving the three equations yields

Since a
B
is constant, velocity in block B in 2 s is

The negative sign indicates that block B is
moving upward.

2 2
/ 54 . 6 , / 27 . 3 , 0 . 327 s m a s m a N T
B A
= = =
s m t a v v
B
/ 1 . 13
0
= + =
Equation of motion for the particle may be
written in the tangential, normal and
bi-normal directions
Since the particle is constrained to move
along the path, there is no motion in the
bi-normal direction

=
=
=
0
b
n n
t t
F
ma F
ma F
a
t
(=dv/dt) represents the time rate of
change in the magnitude of velocity
a
n
(=v
2
/) represents the time rate of
change in the velocitys direction

The 3 kg disk D is attached to the end of a cord as shown. The other end of the
cord is attached to a ball-and-socket joint located at the center of a platform.
If the platform is rotating rapidly, and the disk is placed on it, and released from
rest as shown, determine the time it takes for the disk to reach a speed great
enough to break the cord. The maximum tension the cord can sustain is 100 N,
and the coefficient of kinetic friction between the disk and the platform is
k
= 0.1.

|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
= =
= =
= =
= =
1
3 ;
3 1 . 0 ;
0 43 . 29 ; 0
43 . 29 ) 81 . 9 ( 3
1 . 0
2
v
T ma F
a N ma F
N F
N W
N N F
n n
t D t t
D b
D D k

Equations of motion
Setting T = 100 N and solve the equations, we get
N
D
= 29.43 N a
t
= 0.981 m/s
2
v
cr
= 5.77 m/s

v
cr
= critical velocity
Kinematics
Since a
t
is constant, the time needed to break the cord is
v
cr
= v
0
+ a
t
t
5.77 = 0 + 0.981t
t = 5.89 s
Determine the banking for the race track so
that the wheels of the racing cars will not have
to depend upon friction to prevent any car from
sliding up or down the track. Assume the cars
have negligible size a mass m, and travel
around the curve of radius with a speed v.
Solution
Free-Body Diagrams
No frictional force acting on the car.
N
C
represents the resultant of the ground on all
four wheels.
Unknown are N
C
and .
Solution
Equations of Motion
Using the n and b axes,



Solving the 2 equations, eliminating N
C
and m,


0 cos ; 0
sin ;
2
= = | +
= =

+
mg N F
v
m N ma F
C b
C n n
u

u
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =

u
g
v
g
v
2
1
2
tan tan