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Abstract of IS: 3043 CODE OF PRACTICE FOR EARTHING All medium voltage equipment shall be earthed by two separate

te and distinct connections with earth In the case of high. And extra high voltage the neutral points shall be earthed by not Less than two separate and distinct connections with earth, each having its own electrode at the generating station or substation and may be earthed at any other point provided no interference is caused by such earthing. If necessary, the neutral may be earthed through suitable impedance. In cases where direct earthing may prove harmful rather than provide safety (for example, high frequency and main. frequency coreless induction furnaces . !elaxation may be obtained from the competent authority. As far as possible, all earth connections shall be visible for inspection. "o cut#out, lin$ or switch other than a lin$ed switch arranged to operate simultaneously on the %arthed or earthed neutral conductor and the live conductors shall be inserted on any supply &ystem. 'his however does not include the case of a switch for use in controlling a generator or a transformer or a lin$ for test purposes. (rounding is not li$ely to reduce the total magnitude of over#voltage produced by lighting or switching surges. It can, however, distribute the voltage between phases and reduce the possibility of excessive voltage stress on the phase#to#ground insulation of a particular phase. )late electrodes shall be of the si*e at least +, c m - +, cm, )lates are generally of cut iron not less than ./ mm thic$ and preferably ribbed. 'he earth connection should be 0oined to the plate at not less than two separate points. )late electrodes, when made of (I or steel, shall be not less than +1 mm in thic$ness. )late electrodes of 2u shall be not less than 1..3 mm in thic$ness. )late electrodes shall be buried ouch that ii. 'op edge is at a depth not less than .3m from the surface of the ground. 4owever, the depth at which plates are set should be such as to ensure that the surrounding soil is always damp. )ipes may be of cast iron of not less than .,,mm diameter, /.3 to 1 m long and .1 mm thic$. &uch pipes cannot be driven satisfactorily and may, therefore, be more expensive to install than plates for the same effective Area. 5ater pipes shall not be use as consumer earth electrodes. 6nder fault conditions, the earth electrode is raised to a potential with respect to the general mass of the earth that can be calculated from the prospective fault current and the earth resistance of the electrode. 'he results in the existence of voltage. In the soil around the electrode, that may be in0urious to telephone and pilot cables, whose cores are substantially at earth potentional, owing to the voltage to which the sheaths of such cables are raised. 'he voltage gradient at the surface of the ground may also constitute a danger to life, especially where cattle are concerned. 'he former ris$ arises mainly in connection with large elect rode systems as at power stations and substation. %arth electrodes, other than the. 6sed for the earthing of the fence itself, should not be installed In proximity to a metal fence to avoid the possibility of the fence becoming live and thus. 7angerous at points remote from the substation.

'he materials used for ma$ing connections have to be compatible with the earth rod and the copper earthing conductor so that galvanic corrosion is minimi*ed. In all cases, the connections have to be mechanically strong. 'he cross#sectional area of every protective conductor which does not form part of the supply cable or cable enclosure shall be in any case, not less than (a 2.5 mm2 if mechanical protection is provided and (b 4 mm2 if mechanical protection ii not provided. 8oints of protective conductors shall be accessible for inspection and testing except m compound#filled or encapsulated 0oints. "o switching device .hall is inserted in the protective conductor, but 0oints which can be disconnected for test purposes by use of a tool may be provided. An auxiliary earth electrode shall be provided electrically9 independent of all other earthed metal, for example, constructional metalwor$, pipers, or metal# sheathed cables. 'his requirement i. considered to be fulfilled if the auxiliary earth electrode is installed at a specified distance from all other earthed metal (value of distance under consideration . 'he earthing conductor leading to the auxiliary earth electrode shall be isolated to avoid contact with the protective conductor or any of the parts connected thereto or extraneous conductive parts which are, or may be, in contact with them. In '" systems, for cables in fixed installations having a cross sectional area not less than ., mm/ for copper and .+ mm/ for aluminum, a single conductor may serve both as protective conductor and neutral conductor, provided that the part of the installation concerned is not protected by a residual current#operated device. 4owever, the minimum cross sectional area of a )%" conductor may be : mm/, provided that the cable is of a concentric type conforming to Indian &tandards and that duplicate continuity connections exist at all 0oints and terminations in the run of the concentric conductors. 5hen the source of energy is privately owned, there should be no metallic connection with the (eneral public supply unless there has been consultation with the electricity authority concerned. It should be emphasi*ed that an installation together with its source of energy may not consist entirely of one particular type of system. In such cases, each part of that installation may be required to be treated separately without detriment to other parts of the same installation. !279s 4aving ;inimum <perating 2urrents (reater 'han 1, mA = 'hese devices are intended to give indirect shoc$ ris$ protection. 'he neutral points of each separate electricity system which has to be earthed at the power station or substation. (I>2opper )late &i*e? 3,,mm-3,,mm-.,mm. 5ood coal powder and salt are in same quantity. &i*e of (I &trip? 1,,mm-.,mm &i*e of (I )ipe? /.3@ 7iameter. !"#"m$m %& R's"sta#c' s(o$)* b' a+a")ab)' at a *"sta#c' of %5mt. I! value of %arth resistance is less than .,A. %arthing resistance of earthing rod is changed from ,.1A to ,BCAbetween summer to winter. D"sta#c' b't,''# t,o 'art("#- ."t "s 2 / 0'#-t( of 'art("#- ')'ctro*'.

If ground resistance is less than plate earthing (if hard roc$ than )ipe earthing shall be used. !esistance between two earthing pit is negligible. %arthing of lighting protection should not mix with power system earthing. Lighting protection earhing should be ., time stronger than normal earthing (use copper bus strip instend of wire 8ointing of earthing strip shall be overlap of min 3,mm and for earthing wire overlapping shall be min :,mm

P)at' 1 P".' Eart("#-: P)at' Eart("#- E)'ctro*' Dor copper shall be +,,-+,, and Dor 4ot dip (I shall be +,,-+,,-+1mm.

P".' Eart("#- E)'ctro*'. %arthing electrode shall consist of a (I pipe (class E of approved ma$e , not less than :, mm dia. and 1 meters long. 2L pipe electrode shall be cut tapered at the bottom and provided with holes of ./ mm dia. drilled at F3 mm interval up to /.3 meters length from bottom. 'he electrode shall be buried vertically in the ground as far as practicable below permanent moisture level, but in any case not less than 1 meters below ground level. 'he electrode shall be in one piece and no 0oints shall be allowed in the electrode.

S"2' of E3ca+at"o#: &i*e of . meter diameter and 1 meter length shall be excavated after depth of 1 meter the si*e of excavation shall be G,,-1,,-G,,mm depth. )late > )ipe %lectrode shall be in vertical position. (I>)H2 pipe for 5atering shall be used of :,mm 7iameter, length of 1 meter ( contain hole of ./mm 7iameter in Iig*ag manner starting from .3cm away from bottom to / meter height . At bottom .3,mm layer of &alt and charcoal power shall be installed than )late shall be installed. ;in ./,$g of charcoal power and ./,$g of salt shall be used for each earthing pit. 'he plate J pipe electrode, as far as practicable, shall be buried below permanent moisture level but in no case not less than /.3 ; below finished ground level.