Anda di halaman 1dari 302

Sk'op Sotz'leb: The Tzotzil of Zinacantn

A Tzotzil Grammar
John Haviland Stuart Robinson Esteban Gutierrez Francisco Jos (PDF version)


Introduction Chapter 1: Notes on Phonology

Sounds and Pronunciation Roots Forms Stress and Intonation E am!les "or Pronunciation

Chapter 2: Basic Sentences

E istence S!eci"ic #ime or Place #em!oral Particles$ to% xa% `ox

Chapter 3: Location

De"inite &rticles% 'ocation 'ocative Sentences Em!hasis% Frontin(% and De"initeness )uestions o" 'ocation *ther Interro(ative +ords

Chapter 4: The Structure of Nouns Part 1

,ouns and Possession Possessive Pre"i es

Frontin( ,ouns &(entive ,ouns -ith the Pre"i j*ther Possessive .om!ounds Inalienable Possession

Chapter !: Stati"e Sentences

Stative Sentences 'ocative and E istential Sentences /sed as Stative Sentences Interro(ative and ,e(atives Forms o" Stative Sentences Stative Sentences -ith Sub0ects in the First and Second !erson

Chapter #: Intransiti"e $er%s

Intransitive 1erbs% Part 2 Stative Forms o" Intransitive 1erbs *ther Forms o" Intransitive 1erbs #he Per"ective (Preterite) Form Revie- o" Intransitive 1erb Forms Forms Derived "rom Intransitive 1erbs .om!le Sentences -ith Intransitive 1erbs Intransitive Sentences -ith Instrument or &(ent

Chapter &: The Structure of Nouns Part 2

*ther E !ressions -ith Possessive Pre"i es +ord *rder in Possessive Sentences *ther /ses o" -u`un-il *ther Possessed ,ouns ,umeral E !ressions #he Structure o" ,ouns and &d0ectives ,oun .lasses

Chapter ': Transiti"e $er%s


Im!eratives -ith #ransitive 1erbs #ransitive 1erbs -ith &u iliaries Direct *b0ects o" #ransitive 1erbs #he )uasi4Sub0unctive /se o" #ransitive 1erbs #ense and &s!ect -ith #ransitive 1erbs #ransitive 1erb Stems +ord *rder5 ,e(ative and Interro(ative Forms 6Ditransitive6 .onstructions Passive% 6&nti4Passive%6 7iddle41oice% and Pseudo4Passive #he 6Favorite6 #zotzil .onstruction Pseudo41erbs

Chapter (: Co)ple* +or)s

#he Plural Pluralization o" ,ouns Re"le ive and Reci!rocal 1erbs Im!erative and Sub0unctive .om!le Structures


! T"O#$CT!O

In the histor3 o" indi(enous studies o" .hia!as% it is ironic that des!ite the decades o" ethno4lin(uistic research conducted in that re(ion and the dozens o" investi(ators that have surrounded and invaded the indi(enous communities o" the hi(hlands% there is ver3 little use"ul and accessible material related to !roblems o" interest to the sub0ect o" those scienti"ic investi(ations8that is to sa3% the indi(enous !eo!le themselves9 #he lac: o" a !ractical (rammar "or #zotzil% mother ton(ue o" more than one4hundred thousand !eo!le in .hia!as% -ritten in S!anish% is at once a s3m!tom and a cause o" the scorn and i(norance -ith -hich this indi(enous lan(ua(e is vie-ed b3 man3 investi(ators and bureaucrats9 #he !eda(o(ical and lin(uistic materials currentl3 in e istence are almost all o" "orei(n ori(in (as are the "e- non4indi(enous individuals that have more than a merchant;s master3 o" #zotzil)9 &"ter ten 3ears o" stru((lin( to learn #zotzil% -ith <uestionable success% I "eel more than ever the lac: o" !ractical and s3stematic materials on #zotzil that can be used b3 non4 indi(enous students -ith (enuine interest% or b3 those indi(enous !eo!le -ho -ish to develo! their lin(uistic abilities% both anal3tical and communicative% stud3in( this variet3 o" batz;i :;o! (6the true lan(ua(e6)9 I have been ins!ired b3 John Smith;s 7anual de #zeltal (or El Tzeltal como Quien Dice)% a model that I have shamelessl3 emulated here9 I have also ta:en advanta(e o" R979 'au(hlin;s ma(ni"icent #zotzil dictionar3 (#he Great #zotzil Dictionar3 o" San 'orenzo =inacant>n% ?@AB)% -hich re!resents the richness o" #zotzil -ith im!ressive erudition9 Furthermore% it (ives me !leasure to e !ress m3 (ratitude to ,orman 7c)uo-n% Ce0amDn Preciado4SolDs% and es!eciall3 Galio Gurdi>n "or their editorial hel! -ith the S!anish te t9 Ho-ever% the -ells!rin( o" this -or:44"rom -hich the -ords% the conversations% and the "ollo-in( e !lanations "lo-44is the tal: I have shared -ith m3 =inacanteco com!adres% "riends% and nei(hbors9 I ho!e that this (rammar serves the readers not onl3 as an instrument "or learnin( the structure and basic vocabular3 o" the lan(ua(e% but also to (et a "eel "or the 6(enius6 o" #zotzil% thereb3

Chapter One: ote% on &honolo'(

1.0 Sounds and Pronunciation

#he #zotzil s!o:en in =inacantan (that is% =inacantec #zotzil) has more or less the same !honemic s3stem as other dialects o" #zotzil9 1o-els$ a i e o u (nearl3 the same as the vo-els in S!anish) Sto!s and &""ricates$ p t tz ch k E0ectives$ p' t' tz' ch' k' ` b (occlusive (lottalized voiced consonant) Fricatives$ vsxj ,asals$ mn &!!ro imants$ l (r) y #here are also t-o h3!othetical !roto4!honemes that re!resent di""erent sounds de!endin( u!on the conte t in -hich the3 occur$

(a root vo-el% -hich is !ronounced as a or o) ! (a consonant that in other dialects is a voiced !har3n(eal or velar% but is !ronounced as v% y or j in =inacantec #zoztil9) #he s3mbol (E) re!resents a (lottal sto! (-hich is -ritten as A or F in other ortho(ra!hies)9 #his s3mbol contrasts -ith (;)9 #he s3mbol (;) a"ter a consonant indicates the (lottalization o" that consonant% -hich results in a stron( e !losion o" air9 (In order to learn to !ronounce these sounds it is better to imitate the !ronunciation o" a native4s!ea:er o" #zotzil9) #he letters b and v contrast9 #he v is articulated -ith the li!s above the teeth% more or less li:e the v in En(lish (vine)% althou(h in other dialects (includin( certain -ords o" =inacantec #zotzil that occu!3 an intermediate !osition) the v a!!ears more li:e a bilabial "ricative or "9 #he =inacantec -ord vinik 6man6 is e<uivalent to the #zeltal -ord "inik9 #he b% in initial or !ost4consonant !osition% is e<uivalent to the En(lish b44it is a bilabial sto!% li(htl3 (lottalized% o"ten im!losive9 In intervocalic !osition% the b is stron(l3 !re4(lottalized9 &t the end o" a s3llable or a -ord% b is reduced to a sound that resembles m9 #hus% in the -ord tzeb 6(irl6 the b sounds li:e an m and% and the -ords is !ronounced tze`m% but in the !hrase li tzebe 6the (irl6 the b sound li:e the En(lish b% and the !hrase is !ronouncedli tze`be9 In some dialects o" #zotzil% p' becomes b9 #hus% the =inacantec -ord p'in 6-ater 0u(6 is e<uivalent to .hamulan -ord bin9 In realit3% all (lottalized consonants include three sounds% accordin( to their !osition% such that the consonant is$ ?9 Stron(l3 (lottalized -hen encountered in -ord4initial or !ost4consonant !osition$ k'in !art3 balch'uj to sli! 29 Stron(l3 !re4(lottalized -hen encountered in intervocalic !osition$ buch'u -ho Gbu`ch'uH #RI nak'al hidden Gna`k'alH J9 !re4(lottalized and li(htl3 articulated -hen encountered in -ord4"inal or !re4 consonant !osition$ j`elek' thie" Gj`ele#`kH muk'ta bi( Gmu#`ktaH

(It is necessar3 to test these -ords -ith someone -ho s!ea:s #zotzil9) In the third conte t (in -ord4"inal or !re4consonant !osition)% a (lottalized consonant !roduces an a!!arent !rolon(ation and tension in the !recedin( vo-el9 #he x re!resents a voiceless alveo4!alatal "ricative (li:e the sh in short)9 #he k is a velar sto! (li:e the c in can or cable)% and k' is its e0ective e<uivalent9 #he j is a velar "ricative% -hich is some-hat stron(l3 as!irated accordin( to the dialect% althou(h be"ore a (lottal sto!% the j sounds smoother9 vaxakib kok $un kevu k'ok' k'ib %obel joj j`ilol ei(ht m3 le( John shade "ire -ater 0u( San .ristobal crocurer

#he #zotzil r is never !ronounced as the s!anish trill rr9 #he latter occurs onl3 in S!anish loan -ords -ith rr$ karo car #he letter r occurs in ver3 "e- native -ords% but in loan -ords it is "re<uentl3 e<uivalent to &% r% and rr$ krem roxa ryox reva roston 'omin bo3 rose God lan(ua(e "i"t3 centavo !iece Domin(o (!ro!er noun)

In ne- or recentl3 derived -ords% the letters &% (% and ) are occasionall3 "ound% even -hen there also e ist trans"ormed% more 6#zotzilized6 "orms9 &yablo*yavlo devil (oko*joko "lashli(ht )as*kas (as

I also -rite a "e- -ords% all S!anish loan -ords% -ith " 4a letter that corres!onds to the initial u o" di!hthon(s in S!anish -ords9 b"eno 6bueno%6 (ood b"elta 6vuelta%6 -al:% stroll E ce!tions to this norm are$ +anvel 7anuel In other dialects o" #zotzil% the sound re!resented here b3 " is !ronounced more li:e v (li:e$ .hamulan bveno or veno 6bueno6)9 Some roots contain the h3!othetical letter % a vo-el -hich e hibit an alternation bet-een a and o9 #he most common situation is the "ollo-in($ a noun or ad0ective has o% but the derived "orms "rom the same root have a$ chob -chabaj pom -pamta corn"ield to cultivate corn (intransitive verb) incense to cense (transitive verb)

In these cases% -e can !ostulate the h3!othetical roots ch b and p m9 1erbal roots -ith sometimes !roduce derived numeral classi"iers (see section A9K) -ith o% but verbs -ith a9 -jov slice% cut% hal"(numeral classi"ier) -jav to s!lit (transitive verb) Here -e also !ostulate a root j v% -hich !roduces the "orms that no- occur throu(h re(ular !rocesses9 (In man3 cases% but not all% the corres!ondin( -ords in #zeltal have an a% -ithout a chan(e in the vo-el$ #zotzil k'ok' k'ak'k'ak'al #zeltal Gloss k'ahk' 6"ire6 (noun) k'ahk' 6burn6 (t9v9) k'ahk'al 6da36 (da3)

#he t-o lan(ua(es have develo!ed di""erent !atterns% based u!on common !ast "orms9)

*n the other hand% the sound re!resented b3 the letter ! no- e ists in other dialects o" #zotzil9 #his sound re!resents a develo!ment o" the !roto4consonant ,!% -hich in =inacantec #zotzil becomes v be"ore o and u5 j be"ore a5 and y be"ore i or e9 .om!are$ =inacantn vo'on vo' vo'ob yech ja' yi' vun Huistan (and !arts o" .hamula) Gloss Ho;on I Ho; -ater Ho;ob "ive Hech li:e that Ha; em!hatic !article Hi; sand Hun !a!er

#hese -ords come "rom !re4e istin( !roto4"orms -ith ,!9 =inacantec #zotzil retains re"le es o" this !honetic inheritance9 For e am!le% a !ossessed "orm o" vo'ob 6"ive6 -ould be% accordin( to re(ular !rocesses% svo'obal 6the "i"th96 #his "orm co4e ists -ith another% II3o;obal% -here the combination o" the !ossessive !re"i !lus the initial ! becomes y9 #he same !rocess can be seen in the -ord IIvo;% "rom the !roto "orm ! `9 & derived "orm% -ith the su""i II41l (vo-el L l) sho-s the vo-el chan(e% and the initial consonant is com!letel3 dro!!ed$ vo` -ater y-a`al his -ater #here is also an inchoative verb that is "ormed -ith the su""i -ub$ ja`ub to (et -et Some -ords in =inacantec #zotzil are e ce!tions% and the ! becomes y be"ore u5 these -ords also sho- traces o" the lost IIH9 For e am!le% there are t-o verbal roots in yu-% -hich are descendents o" !roto4"orms -ith ,!u9 yu`- be able (intransitive verbM ,!u`-) yul- to arive here (M ,!ul-) (.om!are #zeltal hu`- 6"inish6 and .hamulan vul- 6arrive here6)9 +ith the tense mar:er 6non4!ast6 in the third !erson% ch-% the initial y o" the t-o verbs is lost$ (i)yu` He -as able to9 chu` He is (oin( to be able9 (i)yul He arrived9 chul He is (oin( to arrive9

*n the other hand% the 6true6 y in other verbs is not lost$ (i)yal chyal (i)yuk'e chyuk'e He descended9 He is (oin( to descend9 He cleaned himsel"9 He is (oin( to clean himsel"9

*ne must ta:e into consideration these !honetic com!le ities -hen learnin( another dialect o" #zotzil% because this !honetic variation is concentrated !recisel3 in modern -ords that contain letters li:e !% p'% and " (the last one in loan -ords)9

1.1 Root Forms

#he most common "orm o" a #zotzil root is .1. (.Mconsonant% 1Mvo-el)9 &lmost all #zotzil -ords can be anal3zed as a root o" this "orm to(ether -ith certain a""i es9 #he "ollo-in( -ords consist o" sim!le roots$ pim t'ul si` puy sotz' vaj pop nat k'ok' `ep `ol `ich `us thic: rabbit "ire-ood snail bat tortilla mat lon(% dee! "ire man3% much heav3 chile mid(eNbu""alo (nat

*ne can see that there are no roots -ith an initial vo-el (althou(h the (lottal sto! (E) is lost in combination -ith certain !re"i es)9 #here are also monos3llabic roots% o" the "orm .19 &side "rom the !articles% these roots a!!ear to be derived "rom !roto4"orms -ith a -ord4"inal OH9 xa to xi te mi alread3 (tem!oral !article) still thus% so there (demonstrative and tem!oral !article) i"% -hether (interro(ative !article)

Ho-ever% certain "orms are e ce!tions to the rule9 For e am!le$ #zotzil ch'a `u ch'o na vo chi#zeltal Gloss ch'ah bitter `uh moon ch'oh mouse nah house hah "l3 chih- sa3

*n the other hand% com!are$ ch;a0 ch;a0 laz3 #he "inal H has le"t its stam! in derived "orms o" certain #zotzil -ords9 #hus% the -ord no 6thread6 has the h3!othetical "orm ,na!9 no najomajnajebal -navu -navul thread to thread (intransitive verb) (ourd dish into -hich the s!indle is !ut (literall3$ 6!lace "or s!innin(6) s!in (transitive verb) the thread o" PPP (!ossessed noun)

#here is also another h3!othetical root o" the "orm OsiH that can be seen in$ jsijom !erson that so"tens -ool -sivu so"ten (-ool% to !re!are it "or s!innin() Here% throu(h non4!roductive rules% the OH becomes v or 0% or it is dro!!ed com!letel3 in -ord4"inal !osition9 #here are also bis3llabic roots% mostl3 nouns and ad0ectives9 #he t3!ical "orm o" such a root is .1.1.9 +ith ad0ectival roots the "ormula is more restricted$ the same vo-el a!!ears in both s3llables9 bik'it chopol ko`ol poko` `atz'am bikil ch'ivit chamu` small bad same used% old salt intestines mar:et .hamula

k'evuj me`on `elan-`a`iy

son(% chant or!han to be (intransitive verb) "eel% hear (transitive verb)

& "e- bis3llabic roots do not con"orm to this !attern9 #here are roots o" the "orm .1(.)1.% in -hich the intermediar3 consonant disa!!ears in a "e- dialects5 also% certain a!!arentl3 non4com!ound roots sho- the "orm . ta(y)iv xu(v)it cha(v)uk ma(y)il `ajnil `ixtol bankil xibnel crushed ice% "rost(#zeltal$ tahiv) -orm thunder and li(htnin( !um!:in -i"e to3% rin( older brother (o" a man) older brother (o" a -oman)

Roots -ith consonants clusters do not e ist% e ce!t in the roots mentioned above% and in the "ollo-in($ `antz -oman krem (v9 kelem 6rooster6) bo3 `abt- (#zeltal$ `abat 6servant6) -or: Finall3% there are a "e- bis3llabic roots -ith "inal s3llables that end -ith vo-els% o" the "orm .1.1 or .1.4.1$ `ama batz'i (#zeltal$ bats'il) -mala vo`ne bak'ni (variation$ bak'in) "lute trul3 -ait lon( a(o earl3% -hen

#hese !honetic notes -ill hel! students loo: u! a root in the dictionar3 (or in the vocabular3 included in this (rammar)9 #he consonant clusters that be(in -ords almost al-a3s consist o" a !re"i to(ether -ith a root% and roots are al!habetized accordin( to their initial consonant9 #hus% sna 6his house6 can be anal3zed as the !re"i s- to(ether -ith the root na 6house96 &nd the -ord chtal 6he comes6 is anal3zable as the !re"i ch4 -ith the root tal- 6to come6 (intransitive verb)9 Similarl3% -ords -ith three s3llables or more% almost al-a3s consist o" a monos3llabic or bis3llabic root -ith a""i es9 #he -ord

`ixtalal% "or e am!le% is in the dictionar3 under the root `ixtol 6to3% rin(6 (there"ore as a "orm o" the h3!othetical root `ixt l)9 &"ter eliminatin( !re"i es and su""i es in the -ord 0vaba0om 6musician%6 and ta:in( into account the !ossibilit3 o" a chan(e in the vo-els bet-een a and o (en(endered b3 the h3!othetical vo-el )% the root vob emer(es (M v b) 6strin( instrument%6 "rom -hich the -ord jvabajom is derived9

1.2 Stress and Intonation

#he !rimar3 accent o" a -ord in #zotzil "alls on the "irst s3llable o" the root5 there is also an even stron(er accent that accom!anies the last s3llable o" a !hrase or sentence (it can consists o" a sin(le -ord% !ronounced in isolation% or o" -ords uttered in the same breath)9 For e am!le% see the "ollo-in( !hrases (-hich can be heard as a 9+&1 "ile)$ #zotzil jvabajom li jvabajome -htal li jvabajome. -htal xa li jvabajom `une. ` li jvabajome/ chtal xa. Gloss musician the musician #he musician is comin(9 +ell% the musician is comin( #he musician% he;s comin( alread39

Here the s3mbol N re!resent -ord% and the s3mbol NN re!resents !hrasal accent% -hich is even more em!hatic9 It is clear that !articles are not accented unless the3 are in "inal !osition9

1.3 Examples for Pronunciation

I -ill (ive a "e- re!resentative -ords in order to demonstrate the lan(ua(e;s contrastin( !honemes9

#hese -ords can be heard as a 9+&1 "ile9 vo te me li ti xi "l3 there desiderative !article the the (remote) said

chi hene<uen "iber (S!anish% 6a(ave6)

#hese -ords can be heard as a 9+& 1 "ile9 vo` te` me` li` ti` xi` chi` b bak jbix `abol sbel ) vakjvix `avol svel b `ub chab ich'ab ch'ub lub jtob m `um cham ich'am ch'um lum jtom mouth"ul He died9 He received it9 t3!e o" s<uash earth% (round one hand"ul sin(in( <uail -a he "inished church !atio He (ot tired9 t-ent3 si m3 older sister corn !lantin( cut% trimmed bone sta"" su""erin( its contents -ater tree mother here mouth% ed(e to be a"raid s-eet

* laj It "inished9 kajal mounted toj !ine +ario,% la` la kakal ka`al tok to .ome hereQ hearsa3 !article stuc:% cau(ht m3 -ater cloud still

tzib chi chib chich' chuch kok nopol sukob "ern hene<uen "iber ("r9 S!anish% 6a(ave6) t-o He receives it9 s<uirrel dea"% m3 le( nearb3 sto!!er

Ctz'ib ch'i ch'ib ch'ich' chuch' ch'uch' k'ok kok' k'ok' nop'ol )lo"in)/ (lashin) suk'ob p' -Zinacantec .ialect/ ip'aj jp'el p'in p'ol It "ell9 a -ord !ot to multi!l3 -ritin( he (ret3!e o" !alm blood drin: !lant (canna edulis) it bro:e m3 ton(ue "ire -ater "or rinsin(

b ibaj jbel binbol It -as loc:ed u!9 73 contents9 !ot4bellied brother4in4la-% idiot

C., /consonant plus glottal stop0

ch-`av ch-`il ch-`ok ch-`uch'e ch-`ul chak-`ulan kuch-`e lot-`ok j-`ilol kup-`ik'ij Its !lanted or seeded9 It loo:s9 He cries9 He drin:s9 It eva!orates9 !ur!le ("or e am!le% a "lo-er) -ith a "oot comin( out o" the mouth -eb4"in(ered curer to dro-n

C- /glottal consonant0
ch'av -ch'il ch'ok ch'uch'(e) ch'ul chak'ulan kuch'(e) lot'ol to scream an(ril3 to "r3 -art !lant s!ecies (.anna) sacred% hol3 to (ive continuall3 I dran:9 l3in(% sittin(% standin( to(ether

In these last e am!les% the h3!hen be"ore the (lottal sto! is -ritten to ma:e clear the correct !ronunciation 4the (lottal sto! "ollo-s the non4(lottalized consonant% either the result o" the use o" a !re"i % or in a com!ound -ord9 I" one does not con"use the (lottal sto! (E) -ith the a!ostro!he (;) that indicates (lottalization o" a consonant% it is unnecessar3 to -rite the dash9 In this case% -ords li:e chEul 6it eva!orates6 and ch;ul 6hol36 -ill not be con"used9 #hese are !roblems -ith ortho(ra!h3 -ith little anal3tical im!ortance9 & "e- students o" #zotzil !re"er to use onl3 one s3mbol (usuall3 (;)) "or both (lottal sto!s and consonant (lottalization% in -hich case it -ould be !re"erable to use the h3!hen to indicate the (lottal sto! that "ollo-s a consonant% althou(h "or those !eo!le that alread3 s!ea: the lan(ua(e% there is little !ossibilit3 o" con"usion9

,ot bein( standardized% the ortho(ra!h3 !roduces other similar !roblems% -hich ever3 student -ill resolve di""erentl39 For e am!le% the division o" a sentence into se!arate -ords is some-hat arbitrar35 some !articles ("or e am!le% -e% -hich ends !hrases% or -a`a 6indeed6) do not have an initial (lottal sto!% and al-a3s unite -ith the !revious -ords in the !hrase9 In m3 case% I -rite these -ords se!aratel3% but -ith the intial (lottal sto!9 *ther -ords% in =inacantec #zotzil% also be(in -ith a vo-el -ithout a (lottal sto!$ i (contraction o" li 6de"inite article6)% and -ords -ith the !re"i i(com!letive as!ect) and a- (second !erson)9 &ll other -ords are -ritten -ith an initial (lottal sto! or -ith another initial consonant9 Similarl3% -hen the !rocess o" addin( an a""i !roduces double "ricative consonants% these reduce to onl3 one consonant$ thus -hen I -rite xx% ss% or jj in order to ma:e clear the (rammatical structure o" the !hrase% these letters should be !ronounced as x% s% or j9 *ther double consonants are !ronounced t-ice% li:e chch or tztz% in verbal construction or in -ords -ith the same t-o consonants a!!earin( in con0oinin( s3llables9 I -ill (ive a "e- e am!les$ li tzebe ja` a`a ta ana nom ibat `oy `on ta xxi` ta ssut jjamtik chchan tztzak ixcha`-`al vak-koj the (irl li tzebe indeed ja`a`a in 3our house taana He -ent "ar a-a39 nomibat #here is avocado9 `oy `on He is scared9 ta xi` He is returnin(9 ta sut 'et;s o!en itQ jamtik He learns it9 ch-chan He (rabs it9 tz-tzak He returned to sa39 (t-o (lottal sto!s to(ether) si (rades (-ith t-o k;s to(ether% not ,vakoj)

.ontrast vuk-koj 6si (rades6 -ith svukoj sba 6It !u""ed u!96

Chapter 0: Ba%ic Sentence%

2.0 Existence
E*3 voE9 #here is -ater9 voE% 6-ater6 E*3 va09 #here are tortillas9 va0% 6tortillas6 E*3 vob9 #here is music9 vob% 6(strin() music6 E*3 :;in9 #here is a !art39 :;in% 6!art36 E*3 chamel9 #here is sic:ness5 someone is sic:9 chamel% 6sic:ness6 E*3 ch;ivit9 #here is a mar:et9 ch;ivit% 6mar:et6 #he -ord Eo3 e !resses the e istence o" somethin(9 It means 6there is6 or 6a thin( e ists96 & sim!le sentence in #zotzil has the basic order$ .ommentar3 #o!ic In other -ords% the to!ic% the thin( -e are tal:in( about% "ollo-s the commentar34-hat the sentence sa3s about the to!ic9 In sentences that indicate e istence% the commentar3 is Eo34a !redicate that indicates the e istence o" somethin(9 Sentences that indicate e istence in #zotzil can e !ress the e istence o" somethin( concrete or a !rocess% activit3% or condition% de!endin( u!on the noun that "unctions as to!ic9 E*3 vob9 #here is music9 7i Eo3 va0F &re there tortillasF 7i Eo3 voEF Is there -aterF )uestions in #zotzil are "ormed b3 insertin( the -ord mi be"ore an indicative (declarative) sentence9 ()uestions are also "ollo-ed b3 an interro(ative% or risin(% intonation9) 7i Eo3 voEF Is there -aterF 7i Eo3 va0F &re there tortillasF E*39 E*3 va09 Res% there are9 #here are tortillas9

#o ans-er in the a""irmative% it is necessar3 in #zotzil to re!eat% at the ver3 least% the o!erative -ords4the commentar3 or the !redicate4o" the a""irmative sentence9 ,ote that the -ord va0 can be translated as 6tortilla6 or as 6tortillas%6 accordin( to conte t9 .h;abal va09 #here are no tortillas9 ch;abal% 6there is none% there isn;t an36 7uE3u: va09 #here are no tortillas9 #he ne(ative "orm o" Eo3 is muE3u:9 #he -ord ch;abal is also used "re<uentl3 to e !ress the non4e istence o" somethin(% and it is e<uivalent to muE3u:9 7i Eo3 voEF E*39 7i Eo3 va09 .h;abal9 .h;abal va09 7i Eo3 chene:;F Is there -aterF Res% there is9 &re there tortillasF ,o% there aren;t9 #here are no tortillas9 &re there beansF chene:;% 6beans6 7uE3u:9 7uE3u: chene:;9 ,o% there are none9 #here are no beans9 7u:; chene:;9 #here are no beans9 7u:; bu Eo39 #here are no beans -hatsoever9 7u:; is another ne(ative "orm o" Eo3% more or less e<uivalent to muE3u:% but it cannot occur in isolation4rather it "unctions as commentar3 in a com!lete sentence9 7u:; bu Eo3 is an em!hatic ne(ative "orm o" Eo39 7i mu: va0F .h;abal9 7i Eo3 be:;etF &re there no tortillasF ,one9 Is there meatF be:;et% 6meat6 7uE3u:9 ,o9 7i Eo3 voE mi ch;abalF Is there or is there not -aterF 7i Eo3 chene:; mi Eo3 be:;etF &re there beans or is there meatF #he -ord mi is used to "orm <uestions% and% b3 e tension% is also e<uivalent to the -ord 6or%6 -hich mar:s e clusive dis0unction9 7i Eo3 :a0ve mi Eo3 EulF Is there co""ee or is there atoleF :a0ve% 6co""ee6 Eul% 6atole6 E*3 Eul9 #here;s atole (a drin: made "rom corn "lour)9 7i Eo3 be:;et mi Eo3 chitomF Is there meat (bee") or is there !or:F 7uE3u: be:;et muE3u: chitom9 #here is neither bee" nor !or:9

#-o !hrases or sentences can be con0oined in #zotzil -ithout the -ord 6and96 E*3 va0 Eo3 :;o o 9 #here are tortillas and tostadas9 :;o o % 6tostada6

2.1 Specific Time and Place

It is !ossible to s!eci"3 time and location in a sentence that indicates e istence9 E*3 voE ta :;ib9 #here is -ater in the 0u(9 :;ib% 6-ater 0u(6 E*3 chene:; ta !;in9 #here are beans in the !ot9 !;in% 6!ot6 E*3 vob ta :;in9 #here is music durin( the !art39 E*3 ch;ivit ta lune 9 #here is a mar:et on 7onda3s9 .h;abal va0 ch;abal voE ta Eolon9 #here are neither tortillas nor -ater in the lo-lands9 Eolon% 6lo-6 ;*3 !u:u0 ta Ea:;ubal9 #here are demons at ni(ht9 !u:u0% 6devil% demon6 Ea:;ubal% 6ni(ht6 #a is the onl3 !re!osition in #zotzil% and it has a ver3 (eneral meanin($ as much tem!oral as s!atial (-ith or -ithout movement)9 #em!oral and s!atial constituents -ith ta ta:e the "ollo-in( "orm$ ta L noun (either a time or a !lace) E am!les "ollo-$ 7i Eo3 chon ta beF Is there a sna:e on the roadF chon% 6animal% sna:e6 be% 6road6 .h;abal ta be9 E*3 ta teEeti:9 #here are none on the road% (but) there are in the "orest9 teEeti:% 6"orest6 7i Eo3 va0 ta ch;ivitF &re there tortillas at the mar:etF 7uE3u:9 ,o9 & !hrase -ith ta is al-a3s de"inite$ ta ch;ivit means 6in the mar:et65 ta be is e<uivalent to 6in the road96 E*3 voE ta sob9 .h;abal to Eol :;a:;al9 #here is -ater in the mornin(% but none at noon9 sob% 6earl3% mornin(6

E*3 :aro ta 0un Eora9

E*3 Ea0an ta Ea:osto9 E*3 ch;ivit ta Jobel9 .h;abal ta ,abenchau:9

:;a:;al% 6da3% sun6 Eol :;a:;al% 6noon6 #here is a car (that comes) at one9 :aro% 6truc:% car6 0un% 6one6 Eora% 6hour6 #here -ill be corn in &u(ust9 Ea0an% 6corn6 #here is a mar:et in San .ristSbal% but not in ,abenchau:9 Jobel% 6San .ristobal6

#hese locative and tem!oral !hrases can be "ronted in order to (ive s!ecial em!hasis to the time or !lace s!eci"ied9 #a Jobel Eo3 ch;ivit9 #a Ea:;ubal Eo3 !u:u09 #a Eol :;a:;al ch;abal9 &t ni(ht% there are demons9 &t noon% there are none9 In these e am!les% the !hrases -ith ta are in the commentar3 !osition4that is to sa3% the3 (o at the be(innin(9 )uestions about location can be "ormed this -a39 7i ta Jobel mi ta ,abenchau: Eo3 ch;ivitF 7i ta 0un Eora mi ta Eol :;a:;al Eo3 :aroF Is it in San .ristSbal or ,abenchau: that there is a mar:etF Is it at one or at noon that there;s a carF In San .ristSbal% there is a mar:et9

2.2 Temporal Particles

E*3 to voE ta :;ib9 #here is still no -ater in the 0u(9 E*3 to chene:;9 #here are still no beans9 +ith sentences that indicate e istence% the !article to is e<uivalent to 6still96 E*3 to means that somethin( e isted be"ore% and that it continues to e ist u! until the time s!eci"ied9 .h;abal to means that somethin( does not e ist and continues to not e ist u! until the time s!eci"ied9 .h;abal ta :aro9 #here is still no car (that is to sa3% it still hasn;t come)9 7uE3u: to va09 #here are still no tortillas (that is to sa3% the3 still haven;t been

!re!ared)9 #he sense o" to can be re!resented -ith the "ollo-in( dia(ram$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE Similarl3% the !article a is more or less e<uivalent to 6alread396 E*3 a voE9 E*3 a ch;ivit9 7uE3u: a va09 .h;abal a :aro9 7i Eo3 to chene:; mi ch;abal aF #here;s alread3 -ater (-hether there -as be"ore or not)9 #here is alread3 a mar:et5 the mar:et has alread3 o!ened9 #here are alread3 no tortillas (the3 ran out)9 #here;s alread3 no car9 &re there still tortillas% or are there alread3 noneF

+e can illustrate the sense o" the !article a as "ollo-s$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he last e am!le can be re!resented -ith a com!osite dia(ram$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he sentence 7i Eo3 chene:; mi ch;abal aF serves to "ormulate the <uestion o" -hether there are (still) beans at the !resent moment or i" there are (alread3) none9 #he !articles a and to "ollo- the "irst -ord o" a sentence;s commentar3% and can occur in initial !osition9 7i Eo3 :aroF 7uE3u: to9 7u to Eo3 u:9 7i Eo3 va0F .h;abal a9 7u a Eo3 u:9 7i Eo3 a ch;ivitF 7i to bu Eo3F 7i Eo3 to :;inF 7u a bu Eo39 Is there a carF ,o% there still is none9 &re there tortillasF #here are none no-9 Is there a mar:et alread3F #here still is none9 Is there still a !art3F #here is none no-9

&lternative ne(ative "orms% based on the ne(ative root mu% a!!ear here9 7u o"ten occurs -ith the enclitic u: (-hich one sees in mu a Eo3 u:)5 thus muE3u: should be anal3zed as a contraction (a shortened "orm) o" mu Eo3 u:9 In the "orms -ith bu4

!articles that have the literal sense 6-here64the enclitic u: does not a!!ear9 #hus% mu a bu Eo3 means 6there is no !lace -here96 #o and a can also modi"3 a !hrase !laced be"ore ta% as in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ #a ch;ivit Eo3 chene:;9 #a ch;ivit to (0aE) Eo3 chene:;9 #a ch;ivit a Eo3 chene:;9 In the mar:et there are beans9 &s "ar as the mar:et there are beans (and the3 can;t be "ound an3 closer)9 In the mar:et at least there are beans (and there ma3 be some closer% as -ell)9

Here% the !articles sho- a locative sense% obviousl3 related to the tem!oral sense illustrated above9 .onsider also$ 7i Eo3 :;inF .h;abal to9 #a lune to Eo39 7i Eo3 to Ea0an ta :;inF #a :;in ch;abal a9 (T;al) ta :;in a% ch;abal9 &t the "iesta there alread3 -eren;t an39 #he !article Eo is used% alone or in combination -ith to or a% to indicate a s!eci"ic moment in the !ast or in the "uture (but not in the !resent)9 7i Eo3 Eo man:o ta :;inF E*3 a Eo 9 E*3 to Eo 9 7i Eo3 a Eo be ta ,abenchau: 0unabiF .h;abal to Eo 9 +ill there be (or -ere there) man(os at the "iestaF man:o% 6man(o6 #here alread3 -ill be some9 *r$ there alread3 -ere some9 #here -ill be some9 *r$ #here still -ere9 +as there alread3 a road in ,abenchau: last 3ear9 0unabi% 6a 3ear a(o6 #here still -asn;t9 Is there a "iestaF ,ot 3et9 ,ot until 7onda39 +ill there still be corn4on4the4cob at the "iestaF

*"ten% Eo is accom!anied b3 an e !licit tem!oral e !ression$ 7i Eo3 to Eo :;in Eo:;obF 7uE3u: a Eo Eo:;obF 7i Eo3 to Eo Ei im vol0eF +ill there still be a "iesta tomorro-F #omorro-% there -on;t be9 Eo:;ob% 6tomorro-6 +as there still corn 3esterda3F

E*3 to Eo % !ero lavie ch;abal a9

Ei im% 6corn6 vol0e% 63esterda36 #here -as still some (3esterda3)% but toda3 there is

alread3 none9 lavie% 6no-% toda36 7i Eo3 to siEF Is there still "ire-oodF siE% 6"ire-ood6 E*3 Eo na 9 7u a Eo bu Eo3 Earlier toda3 there still -as% but in a little bit there -on;t tana9 be9 na % 6earlier toda36 tana% 6in a minute% in a little -hile6 &re there (nats in the lo-landsF Eus% 6(nat6 #here -eren;t an3 last ni(ht9 samel% 6last ni(ht6

7i Eo3 Eus ta EolonF .h;abal Eo samel9

E*3 has the shortened "orm Eo (and sometimes Eu)9 7i Eo voEF Is there -aterF

Chapter Three: Location

3.0 Definite Articles !ocation

Sentences that indicate e istence% li:e those dealt -ith in the !revious cha!ter% o"ten have inde"inite nouns$ #here is -ater4some -ater% -ater in (eneral9 #here is a !art3% etc9 *ne can also s!ea: o" thin(s that are de"inite$ the -ater or the tortillas or the !art3 (-hich -e have alread3 mentioned in discourse)9 & noun in #zotzil has the "ollo-in( "orm$ (&rticle) L ,oun (L Demonstrative) (L Enclitic)

(-here elements in !arentheses are o!tional)9 &n inde"inite noun consists o" the noun b3 itsel"% -ithout an article9 voE Ei im :;in -ater corn !art3

& de"inite nouns has an article and ends -ith an enclitic$ li voE e li Ei im e li :;in e the -ater the corn the !art3

'i is a de"inite article that si(nals the !ro imit3 o" a s!eci"ic thin($ li is e<uivalent to 6the96 ti voE e the -ater (remote) ti Ei im e the corn Furthermore% the article ti indicates that the noun% -hich is as de"inite and s!eci"ic as it -ould be i" it carried li% is remote and distant in time and s!ace9 li vini: e ti vini: e the man (alread3 re"erred to% and also nearb3) the man (alread3 re"erred to% distant% or remote) but dead% Personal names also co4occur -ith de"inite articles9? li Uun e John (literall3$ the John) li 7anvel e 7anuel ti Petule Peter ("or e am!le% a character in a m3th -ho is named Peter) li 'o a e Rose li 7aruch e 7ar3 E am!les o" each article;s use "ollo-$ li voE liE e this -ater (here) li Uune leE e John% -ho is over there li vitz ta0 e that mountain (alread3 mentioned) vitz% 6mountain6 #he elements liE 6here%6 leE 6there%6 and ta0 6this% that6 combine -ith a de"inite noun to indicate the relative !ro imit3 o" a re"erent9 #a0 ordinaril3 indicates that somethin( is distant and not visible9 #a0 can also "unction as an article9 (Ea) ta0 Uun e ta0 Ei im e that John (about -hom -e are s!ea:in() the alread3 mentioned corn

#he contrast bet-een these "orms can be seen -ith !ersonal names$

li Uun e li Uun liE e li Uun leE e li Uun ta0 e ta0 Uun e ti Uun e

John (some de"inite !erson) this John here that John there John% -ho is over there visible) (nearb3% but not the alread3 mentioned John John (-ho is "ar a-a3 and lived in the !ast)

3.1 !ocati"e Sentences

E*3 voE liE to e E*3 Ei im leE to e9 E*3 vitz ta0 to e9 #here is -ater here9 #here is corn there9 #here is a mountain over there9

E !ressions -ith liE% leE% and ta0 combine -ith to to "unction in sentences that indicate e istence% 0ust li:e locative !hrases -ith ta9 ,ote that locative !hrases -ith ta can also ta:e the enclitic 4e Gand demonstrate cali"icacionH9 E*3 voE ta :;ib9 E*3 voE liE ta :;ib e9 E*3 ch;ivit ta0 ta Jobel e9 E*3 si: leE ta Ea:;ol e9 si:% 6cold6 Ea:;ol% 6u!6 #here is -ater in the 0u(9 #here is -ater here in the 0u(9 #here is a mar:et over there in San .ristobal9 It is cold u! there9

#hese sentences e !ress the e istence o" thin(s that are de"inite% -hile at the same time indicatin( their location9 In these sentences% the -ord Eo3 means% 6#here isV6 Such sentences contrast -ith locative sentences% -hich s!eci"3 the !lace -here some de"inite thin( can be "ound9 'iE Eo3 li Ei im e9 'iE Eo3 Ei im9 #he corn is here9 #here is corn here9

#he second e am!le sentence indicates e istence (the e istence o" a certain <uantit3 o" corn) -ith the locative constituent liE !recedin( it9 #he "irst e am!le sentence4-hose to!ic is a de"inite noun (the corn)4indicates location9 In sentences o" the this t3!e (that is% locative sentences) the -ord Eo3 can be eliminated9

'iE li Ei ime9 7i liE li Ei imeF 7i liE a li Ei imeF 'iE a9 7i leE to Eo3 li naeF na% 6house6 'eE to Eo39

#he corn is here9 Is the corn hereF Is the corn alread3 hereF It is alread3 here9 Is the house over thereF Res% over there9

'i:e the main -ord o" the !redicate% liE 6here6 can "unction -ithout the !article to% but the !redicate leE to 6over there6 seems indivisible9 E*3 voE ta :;ib9 #e Eo3 ta :;ib li voE e9 #here is -ater in the 0u(9 #he -ater is there in the 0u(9

Similarl3% locative sentences can be based in !hrases -ith ta9 #he !lace% the location% is indicated -ith the !re!osition ta9 #he central -ord o" the !redicate is te 6in such a !lace6 to(ether -ith Eo3 and the -ord Eo3 can be dro!!ed9 7i te ta na li tz;iE eF tz;iE% 6do(6 #e ta na9 #e li tz;iEe9 Is the do( in the houseF He is (in the house)9 #he do( is there (in the !lace

mentioned)9 #e (Eo3)9 Res% he is there9 7i te to ta teEti: li tzeb eF Is the (irl still in the "orestF #e to9 She still is (there)9 #e to Eo ta Jobel na li Uun e9 John -as in San .ristWbal 7i te to lavi eF earlier toda39 Is he still thereF

#he ne(ative "orms o" these locative sentences sho- the !resence o" the -ord Eo3 in their basic tem!late9 7i te ta na li lu: e9 lu:% 6billhoo:6 .h;abal te9 .h;abal9 7i te to ta !;in li ;ul eF 7uE3u: a9 7i liE a li UuneF 7u to bu liEe9 .h;abal to liEe9 Is the billhoo: still in the houseF It isn;t there9 #here isn;t one9 Is the atole still in the !otF ,ot no-9 Is John here 3etF ,ot 3et9

'ocative assertions ne(ate easil3 -ith "orms o" Eo34ch;abal% muE3u:% mu:; bu9 +ith the !article to and a% the ne(ative "orms mu a bu 6not no-6 and mu to bu 6not 3et6 are used9 I -ill (ive a "e- more e am!les9 7i liE to Eo ta ,abenchau: li +as the old man here in mol eF mol% 6old man6 7u to Eo bu liE e9 .h;abal to Eo 9 7i te ta vitz li :rus eF ,abenchau: earlierF ,o% he -asn;t he earlier9 Is the cross there on the

mountainF 7u:; bu te9 7uE3u:9 ,o% it isn;t there9 7i liE ta na li tz;iEeF Is the do( here in the houseF 7u liE u: e9 He isn;t here9 7i te to ta mu:;ta be li :aro eF Is the car still on the hi(h-a3F mu:;ta% 6bi(6 7u a te u:9 ,ot no-9 #he ne(ative !article mu% and the enclitic 4u: that accom!anies it% can combine directl3 -ith locative -ords li:e te and liE9 In this -a3% the !redicate liE 6here6 or te 6in such a !lace6 is directl3 ne(ated4to su((est that the to!ic is neither here nor there but rather in another s!eci"ied !lace9

7u:; bu liEe9 .h;abal liEe9 7uE3u: liEe9 7u liE u:e9

,* Gloss9 ,* Gloss9 It isn;t here (neutral sense)9 It isn;t here (but is in another !lace)9

3.2 Emp#asis$ Frontin%$ and Definiteness

.ontrast the -ord order and meanin( o" the "ollo-in( sentences$ (#e) Eo3 Ei im ta moch9 moch% 6bas:et6 #e (Eo3) ta moch li Ei im e9 #here is corn in the bas:et9 #he corn is in the bas:et9

(#he -ords in !arentheses in each sentence can be omitted9 ,ote the di""erence9) #he most de"inite noun in each sentence occu!ies the "inal !osition9 In the sentence that indicates e istence% the noun Ei im 6corn6 is inde"inite4it means 6some corn% an

inde"inite amount o" corn65 Ei im does not carr3 an article% and it occu!ies an intermediar3 !osition9 *n the other hand% ta moch 6in the bas:et6 is more de"inite% althou(h it does not carr3 the de"inite article li9 In realit3% the ob0ects o" the !re!osition ta never carr3 articles% or% better said% the articles a!!ear to be dro!!ed a"ter ta% a !re!osition that contain a de"inite sense b3 itsel"9 #hus% the !hrase ta moch 6in the bas:et64bein( the most de"inite constituent o" the sentence4(oes to the end (2)9 In the sentence #e ta moch li Ei im e9 the sub0ect4the noun in "inal !osition4li Ei ime is ver3 much de"inite$ 6the corn6 ("or e am!le% the corn that -e are loo:in( "or)9 It is !ossible to move the sub0ect to the be(innin( o" the sentence% "or (reater em!hasis or to "ocus attention on the to!ic (in this case% the corn)9 E&li Ei ime% te ta moch9 &s "or the corn% it;s in the bas:et9 #he !article Ea4 combines -ith the article at the be(innin(% and a !ause se!arates the "ronted sub0ect "rom the rest o" the sentence9 +e have alread3 observed that a noun inside a locative !hrase -ith ta cannot carr3 an article% because the !re!osition ta has a sense o" de"initeness9 .onsider ho- one constructs a locative !hrase -ith ta based on a de"inite noun li:e one o" the "ollo-in($ li be liEe li na leEe ti vitze li nab ta0e the road here% this road the house there% that house the mountain (remote) the la:e in that direction

&ll the nouns are deictic$ the3 si(nal -hat -e see or remember% and the3 carr3 demonstrative articles% -hich indicate the !osition o" the named ob0ect relative to the s!ea:er9 *bserve ho- one incor!orates these nouns in !hrases -ith ta$ E*3 voE liE ta be e9 #here is -ater here on the

road9 E*3 :;o:; leE ta na e9 #here is "ire there in the house9 E*3 to Eo !u:u0 (te) ta vitz e9 #here -as a demon (there) on

E*3 cho3 ta0 ta nab e9

the mountain9 #here are "ish over there in the la:e9

Here one sees that the basic "orm o" a locative !hrase -ith ta is$ 'ocative Particle L ta L ,oun #he locative !article can be deictic (demonstrative li:e liE% leE% etc9) or neutral% li:e te9 &nd the neutral !article te can be dro!!ed com!letel39 ,ote that it is the locative !article that is ne(ated in ne(ative sentences -ith a locative !hrase -ith ta9 7i te to ta na li Uun eF 7u a te u:9 7u a bu te9 .h;abal a te9 Is John still in the houseF

,ot no- (he isn;t)9

In locative sentences (o" the "orm 6U is in R6)% the entire locative e !ression4-ith a locative !article% and ta !lus a noun4"unctions as !redicate9

3.3 &uestions of !ocation

Cu (Eo3) li Uun eF #e ta na9 Cu li mu:;ta be eF #e ta Ea:;ol9 +here is JohnF (He;s) in the house9 +here is the hi(h-a3F /! above9

#he -ord bu (-hich -e have alread3 seen in ne(ative e !ression li:e mu:; bu) means 6-here96 In <uestions o" location% bu "unctions as an interro(ative locative e !ression9 'iE ta :;ib li voEe9 Cu li voEeF Here in the 0u( there is -ater9 +here is the -aterF

Cu ordinaril3 occu!ies the initial !osition9 Cut it is !ossible to "ront sub0ects "or a di""erent "ocus9 E&li Uune% bu3F &nd JohnF +here is heF

(Cu and bu3 are alternative "orms% li:e te and te39) Sentences that indicate e istence can also become <uestions b3 means o" the -ord bu9

'iE ta :;ib Eo3 voE9 Cu Eo3 voEF

Here in the 0u( there is -ater9 +here is there -aterF

Here bu re!laces a locative !hrase in initial !osition9 Cu Eo3 va0F 7u:; bu Eo39 7u a bu Eo39 +here are there tortillasF #here aren;t an39 #here aren;t an3 no-9

In these e am!les one can see that ne(ative e !ressions -ith bu re!resent the direct a!!lication o" ne(ative !articles to the -ord bu$ mu:; bu Eo3 means% literall3$ 6there is no !lace -here there isNare96

3.' (t#er Interro%ati"e )ords

E*3 EUIS#E,.E voE #*PI. ta :;ib9 '*.&#I*,

+e have alread3 learned ho- to <uestion the e istence and location o" thin(s -hose e istence is asserted in sentences li:e the one above9 #hus$ 7i Eo3 voE ta :;ibF Cu Eo3 voEF *ne can also "orm another <uestion% <uestionin( the to!ic9 T;usi Eo3 ta :;ibF +hat is there in the -ater 0u(F

T;usi 6-hat6 alternates -ith the short "orm :;u% -hich a!!ears "re<uentl3 in ne(ative "orms9 T;usi te ta :;ibeF 7u:; :;u Eo39 7u:; :;usi9 +hat is there over there in the -ater 0u(F ,othin(9 #here;s nothin(9

(#he e !ression mu:; :;usi usuall3 contracts to mu:;usi9) In a similar manner% one can "orm <uestions -ith the -ord much;u (-hich in the s!eech o" man3 =inacantecos is buch;u) 6-ho(m)96 7uch;u liEeF 'iE li Uune9 +ho is hereF John is here9

7uch;u te ta 0obelF #e li Pa :uEe9 7uch;u Eo3 ta naF 7u:; buch;u Eo39 7uch;u te ta 0ol vitzF 7u:; buch;u te39 0ol% 6!ea:% to!5 head6

+ho is in San .ristobalF Pa :u is (here)9 +ho is (literall3$ -ho is there) in the houseF #here isn;t an3one9 +ho is on the !ea: o" the mountainF ,o one is there9

+e -ill treat com!ound e !ression li:e 0ol vitz (literall3$ 6the head o" the mountain%6 in other -ords% 6the mountainto!6) in the "ollo-in( section9 #hese interro(ative -ords are also used as relative !ronouns% li:e their En(lish e<uivalents9 In sentences that indicate e istence% it is !ossible to sa3% "or e am!le$ 6there is someone -ho is in the house64in other -ords% 6someone is in the house96 In such conte ts% the interro(ative !ronouns "unction as inde"inite !ronouns% li:e the En(lish -ords 6someone%6 6some-here%6 6somethin(%6 etc9 7i Eo3 buch;u te ta naF E*39 #e li 7anvele9 7i Eo3 :;usi liE ta :;ibeF 7u :;usi Eo39 .h;abal a li voEe9 7i Eo bu Eo3 chene:; lavieF E*3 leE ta ch;ivit9 Is there someone in the houseF #here is9 7anvel9 Is there somethin( in the -ater 0u(F #here isn;t an39 #here is no -ater no-9 Is there a !lace -here there are beans no-F #here are over there in the mar:et9 In <uestions% the interro(ative -ords al-a3s comes at the be(innin(% e ce!t -hen other constituents have been "ronted "or em!hasis9 T;usi liE ta :;ibeF 'iE ta :;ibe% :;usiF +hat is there in the -ater 0u(F Here in the -ater 0u(% -hat is thereF (,ote that the initial !article Ea4% -hich combines -ith the article li -hen a de"inite noun is "ronted% does not combine -ith liE9) *n the other hand% in its relative uses% such

-ords li:e :;usi% much;u% etc9% (o at the be(innin( o" the constituents to -hich the3 !ertain$ 7i Eo3 X e ists Is there somethin( here in the -ater 0u(F In this sentence% the entire e !ression :;usi liE ta :;ibe "unctions as a sin(le noun% the sub0ect o" the !redicate Eo3% -hich indicates e istence9 &nother inde"inite use o" the interro(ative -ords can be seen in the "ollo-in( e am!les9 Cu li 0Eilol eF 0Eilol% 6curer6 #e nan bu39 nan% 6!erha!s (indicates uncertaint3)6 T;usi ta0 ta ba tonti:F ba% 6on to!% "ace6 ton% 6roc:6 tonti:% 6roc:3 !lace6 #e nan :;usi9 7uch;u to Eo liE eF #e nan much;u9 +hat is there over there on to! o" the roc:sF +here is the curerF Some!lace (+ho :no-s -hereF) :;usi somethin( liE here ta :;ibeF in the -ater 0u(F

Somethin(9 (+ho :no-s -hatF) +ho -as hereF Someone9 (+ho :no-s -hoF)

&s the !revious e am!les have sho-n% the ne(ative "orms o" these -ords are also e<uivalent to 6no one%6 6nothin(%6 6never%6 and 6no-here96 7u:; buch;u te ta na9 7u:; :usi liE ta :;ib9 7u:; bu (Eo3) voE9 #here is no one in the house9 #here is nothin( in the -ater 0u(9 ,o-here is there -ater9

Chapter 1: The Str,ct,re of o,n%2 &art 3

'.0 *ouns and Possession

`0y krus ta jol vitz. `0y much'u te ta ba `osil. Te ta ti` na li tz'i`. Taj ta pat mok li tzebe. #here is a cross on to! o" the mountain9 #here is someone on to! o" the hill9 Eosil% 6land% earth6 #he do( is in the door-a39 ti`% 6mouth% ban:% o!enin(6 #he (irl is behind the "ence9 pat% 6bac:% behind6 mok% 6"ence6 &s "or that bo3% he is behind the door9

` taj krem e/ te ta pat mak na.

& lar(e class o" nouns% man3 o" -hich are bod3 !art terms% combines -ith other -ords to create com!ound "orms$ $ (part) o( 1 #hus% "or e am!le% "rom 0ol 6head6 and vitz 6mountain%6 one "orms the com!ound 0ol vitz 6on to! o" the mountain96 #he (rammatical relation o" !ossession% mar:ed b3 6U o" R6 or 6R;s U6 in En(lish% is indicated b3 -ord order in #zotzil$ the (rammatical !osssessor "ollo-s the main noun% the !ossessum9 #he roots 0ol 6head%6 ba 6"ace% to!%6 tiE 6mouth% ban:%6 and !at 6bac:6 are all bod3 !art terms9 Furthermore% the3 all "i(ure into numerous com!ound e !ressions -ith derived meanin(s9 For e am!le% jol na ba na ti` na pat na 6roo"% lo"t% attic6 6on to! o" the house% on the roo"6 6entrance to the house6 6!atio (behind the house)6

#hese e !ressions are true com!ounds9 .om!ound e !ressions o" this sort o"ten have a s!ecial meanin( that is not !redictable "rom the meanin( o" their constituent !arts9 For e am!le% tiE be means 6the side o" the road%6 and tiE :;o:; means 6the ed(e o" the "ire%6 but tiE na does not mean 6side o" the house6 but rather 6entrance to the house96 #he com!ound !at na has a shortened "orm% !ana% -hich means 6outside (o" the house)%6 and arises "rom derivational !rocesses li:e the Ginte(ral rootH9 (Similar com!ound e !ressions are common enou(h in En(lish$ e9(9% hillto!% rooto!% hillside% door-a3% etc9) #he e am!le ta !at ma: na sho-s a (reat level o" com!le it39 #he constituents !at 6bac:%6 ma: 6lid%6 and na 6house6 combine in order to "orm a structure o" the "orm$ pat mak na the bac: o" the cover o" the house #he com!ound ma: na 6door o" the house6 (literall3$ 6cover o" the house6) serves as the (rammatical !ossessor o" !at5 thus the total com!ound means 6behind the door o" the house6 (literall3$ 6the bac: o" the cover o" the house6)9 #he order o" elements determines their (rammatical relation9

'.1 Possessi"e Prefixes

&lthou(h 6<uasi4!ossessive6 com!ounds o" this sort are "airl3 common in #zotzil% the3 actuall3 re!resent s!ecial "orms o" constructions that result "rom (eneral !rocesses9 ` li tzebe/ te ta sna li $une. &s "or the (irl% she is in John;s house9 +i `oy si` ta ana e2 Is there "ire-ood in 3our houseF 3i` ta jna e/ ch'abal ch'o. Here in m3 house% there aren;t an3 rats9 In the e !ression ta sna li $un e the com!lement o" the !re!osition ta is a !ossessed noun9 #he !ossessor is li $un e 6John96 &s in the !revious e am!les% this noun% li:e other !osessors% "ollo-s the !ossessed ob0ect9 Sna can be bro:en do-n as a !ossessive !re"i s- 6hisNher%6 !lus the root na 6house96 #his is the resultin( structure$ s- na li $une his house o" John #he !ossessed nouns in the rest o" the e am!les are the result o" a similar !rocess9 #he !ossessive !re"i es are$

j- na m3 house a- na 3our house s- na hisNher house E am!les "ollo-$ 4u l ana e2 ` li jna e/ te ta ti` vo`. 4uch'u te ta ana e2 Te li jkrem e. +here is 3our houseF 73 house here% it is on the riverban:9 +ho is in 3our houseF #here is m3 son9

,ote that articles are used -ith !ossessed nouns9 ' ana e (-hich sounds li:e lanae) is com!osed o" l4 (a shortened "orm o" li -hich is al-a3s used be"ore the !ossessive !re"i a4)% the !ossessed noun a4na 63our house%6 and the enclitic 4e$ literall3 6the 3our house96 In =inacantec #zotzil% the !ossessive !re"i o" the second !erson% a4% does not carr3 a (lottal sto! and there"ore has a ver3 smooth sound9 #a ana 6in 3our house6 is !ronouned li:e taana% -ith a lon( a9 ` lanae/ ch'abal xa. &s "or 3our house% it no lon(er e ist9 E&lanae can be anal3zed as Ea4 6initial !article -ith de"inite nouns6 L l4 6de"inite article (shortened "orm)6 L a4na 63our house6 L 4e (enclitic)9 +i `oy akrem2 Do 3ou have a sonF -h'abal to/ pero `oy jtzeb. ,ot 3et% but I have a dau(hter9 :rem% 6bo3% son6 tzeb% 6(irl% dau(hter6 !ero% 6but6 Here -e see the "orm ta:en b3 sentences o" o-nershi! in #zotzil9 #hus% in order to sa3 6I have a dau(hter6% one sa3s% literall3$ 673 dau(hter e ists96 +i `oy ana2 Do 3ou have a houseF -h'abal jna li vo`on e. `0y sna li jtot e. I don;t have a house9 73 "ather has a house9 vo`on% 6I6 tot% 6"ather6 +e have seen that a !ossessed !hrase has the "orm$ 0bject 5ossesse& 6 5ossessor

#he !ossessor "ollo-s the !ossessum% -hose !ossessive !re"i cross4inde es its !ossessor9 +hen the !ossessor is another noun44another !erson% "or e am!le44the !re"i is s4 6hisNher96 s- na li $un e (his) house o" John +hen% accordin( to conte t% the !ossessor is :no-n "rom discourse44"or e am!le% i" -e have alread3 s!o:en o" John44it does not have to be e !licitl3 stated9 4u li $un e2 +here is JohnF Te ta sna. In his house9 Here the !re"i s4 indicates that the !ossessor is someone (or somethin() alread3 mentioned in discourse% and the noun that denotes this !erson (or thin() remains im!licit9 *n the other hand% -hen the !ossessor is in the "irst or second !erson44i" the !ossessor is the s!ea:er or addressee% res!ectivel344it is (enerall3 unnecessar3 to s!eci"3 the !ossessor9 ` li tzeb e/ te ta jna. &s "or the (irl% she is in m3 house9 `0y xa ana. Rou alread3 have a house9 For (reater em!hasis% it is !ossible to include an e !licit "irst or second !erson 6!ronoun96 #he sin(ular !ronouns are$ vo`on% 6I6 vo`ot% 63ou6 Pronouns con"orm to the same !attern$ the3 "ollo- !ossessed ob0ects and can also carr3 articles9 jna li vo`on e m3 house (o" mine) & !ronoun a!!ears as !ossessor in order to stress its contrast -ith another !ossessor9 3i` jna ta 7abenchauk. 73 house is here in ,abenchau:9 4u ana vo`ot2 +here is 3our houseF It is also !ossible to construct strati"ied !ossessive e !ressions -ith three or more levels o" !ossession (as in the !revious e am!le% ta !at ma: na)9 For e am!le% the sub0ect o" the sentence

`0y sna li jtot e. 73 "ather has a house9 ('iterall3$ the house o" m3 "ather e ists9) sho-s the structure$ GDI&GR&7 7ISSI,GH #he !ronoun voEon% 6I%6 does not a!!ear% but remains im!licit in the !re"i 04 6m396 1er3 com!le e !ressions can o"ten result "rom this strati"ication o" !ossession9 +i `oy stz'i` stzeb skrem l abankil Does the &au)hter o( your ol&er brother's son have a e2 &o)2 ban:il% 6older brother6

#he basic structure o" this com!le !ossessive !hrase is$ GDI&GR&7 7ISSI,GH ,ote that% althou(h the entire !ossessive !hrase is de"inite44it means 6the do( o" the dau(hter o" the son o" the older brother644onl3 the last constituent carries the de"inite article li9 Similarl3% the com!lement o" a locative !hrase -ith ta cannot carr3 the de"inite article% but a !osessor in this construction can$ `0y `ixim ta sna li jtot e. ` li tz'i` e/ te ta sna skrem li jbankile. #here is corn in m3 "ather;s house9 &s "or the do(% he is in m3 older brother;s son;s house9

Possessed nouns also occur -ithout an article% -ith an inde"inite% (eneric% or !artitive meanin(9 skaro jnachij the car o" someone -ho inhabits the re(ion o" ,achi0 (inde"inite meanin($

-e don;t :no- -hich inhabitant) 04nachi0% 6inhabitant o" ,achi06 sk'u` `antz -oman;s blouse ((eneric sense$ the t3!e o" blouse -oman (enerall3 -ear) :;u% 6blouse% clothin(6 Eantz% 6-oman6 *ne sees the !artitive meanin( o" an inde"inite noun in the contrast bet-een the "ollo-in( e am!les$ 3i` li jchenek e.

Here are m3 beans9

`0y jchenek'.

I have (a certain amount o") beans9 *r$ I have !lanted (a certain amount o") beans9

& !ossessed noun -hose !ossessor is de"inite can be either de"inite or inde"inite9 3i` xchenek' li jtote. Here are the beans belon(in( to m3 "ather9 `0y xchenek' li jtote. 73 "ather has beans9 #he "orm 4chene:; results -hen one adds the !re"i s4 6hisNher6 to chene:; 6beans96 #he s assimilates to the initial ch o" chene:; and becomes 9 (*ne sa3s that the s 6assimilates6 because it becomes a sound closer to ch9) #he letters the assimilation o" the !re"i s49 j-xan m3 !alm an% 6!alm (one uses it to se- hats)6 a-xan 3our !alm x-xan hisNher !alm (sounds li:e an) E am!les "ollo-$ +i `oy ach'akil2 ch;a:(il)% 6"lea6 -h'abal jch'akil vo`on. `0y xch'akil jtz'i`. +i `oy ana2 8o`on e/ ch'abal jna/ ch'abal kosil. Do 3ou have "leasF I don;t have "leas9 73 do( has "leas9 Do 3ou have a house9 &s "or me% I have neither a house nor land9 and ch; also cause

#he -ord :osil is com!osed o" a !ossessive !re"i :4 6m36 and the noun Eosil 6land96 ,ouns be(innin( -ith a (lottal sto! and a vo-el ta:e di""erent !ossessive !re"i es than those be(innin( -ith a consonant9 #he !re"i es are the "ollo-in($ k-osil m3 land av-osil 3our land y-osil hisNher land *ne can see that a root;s initial (lottal sto! disa!!ears be"ore the addition o" the !re"i 9 +i `oy xa avajnil2 Do 3ou alread3 have a -i"eF Ea0nil% 6-i"e6 -h'abal to. 8o`ote2 ,o% I don;t9 &nd 3ouF 8o`one/ `oy kajnil. &s "or me% I have a -i"e9 +i `oy xa `ox avajnil janabi e2 Did 3ou alread3 have a -i"e last 3earF -h'abal to `ox a`a. ,ot 3et then9

aEa% 6indeed (em!hatic !article)6

'.2 Frontin% *ouns

+i `oy xa smalal li $unka` e2 malal% 6husband6 Uun:aE% 6Jane6 ` li $unka` e/ ch'abal smalal. ` li 3oxa e/ `oy smalal. Does Jane alread3 have a -i"eF

&s "or Jane% she has no husband9 (*n the other hand%) Rose does have a husband9

+e have alread3 seen that the sub0ect o" a sentence can be "ronted4it moves to the "ront o" the sentence "or (reater em!hasis9 Te ta %obel li $unka` e. ` li $unka` e/ `oy smalal. `0y avixim. ` li vo`ote/ `oy avixim. Jane has a husband9 &s "or Jane% she has a husband9 Rou have corn9 Rou% 3ou have corn9

&nd the !ossessor -ithin a !hrase -ith ta can also move9 `0y `ixim ta sna li $un e. #here is corn in John;s house9 ` li $un e/ `oy `ixim ta sna. &s "or John% there is corn in his house9 Ta sna li $un e/ `oy `ixim. In John;s house% there is corn9 *ne must distin(uish sentences such as these% -hich e !ress the e istence o" somethin( (corn) in a certain !lace (John;s house) "rom locative sentences% -hich e !ress the location o" somethin( s!eci"ic9 Te ta sna $un li `ixim +hat interest us is the corn in

e. !articular9 Te `oy `ixim ta sna li #here is corn there in John;s +hat interests us is -here -e "ind $un e. house9 somethin(9

#he corn is in John;s house9

In the "irst sentence% the -ord Uun does not carr3 a de"inite article9 =inacantec #zotzil avoids se<uences o" nouns -ith de"inite articles9 In a se<uence o" de"inite nouns% onl3 the last noun carries an article9 +e can conlude that the "irst e am!les results "rom the underl3in( h3!othetical sentence that "ollo-s$ ,,,Te ta sna li $un e li `ixim e. Cut this h3!othetical sentence never occurs9 #he correct "orm results "rom the disa!!earance o" the article carried b3 Uun% an article that is deleted b3 the !resence o"

the de"inite noun li Ei im e9 I" the sub0ect% li Ei im e% moves "or-ard% the ommitted article re4a!!ears9 ` li `ixim e/ te ta sna li $un e. Sometimes even more com!licated sentence sho- u!$ #he son o" John;s older brother is here in m3 house9 &s "or John% his older brother;s son is here in

3i` ta jna vo`on skrem sbankil li $un e. ` li $un e/ li` ta jna skrem li sbankil e.

m3 house9 ` taj sbankil li $un e/ li` ta jna li skrem &s "or John;s older brother% his son is here in e. m3 house9 ` taj skrem sbankil li $un e/ li` ta jna li &s "or John;s older brother;s son% he is here in vo`one. m3 house9

It -ould a!!ear that the -ord ta0 sho-s u! in these "ormulations to avoid the occurence o" t-o nouns in a ro- introduced b3 li9 Furthermore% ta0 !rovides a vehicle "or the introductor3 !article Ea4 that (oes at the be(innin( o" sentences -ith "ronted de"inite nouns9 Inde"inite nouns also can be "ronted% but the3 do not re<uire the initial Ea4 !article9 `0y `ixim ta #here is corn in the

kuveta. buc:et9 Te ta kuveta/ `oy In the buc:et there is `ixim. `9xim e/ `oy ta kuveta. corn9 #here is corn in the buc:et9

+hat interests us is -hat is in the buc:et9)

+hat interests us is the location o" the corn% an3 amount o" corn9

#hese "ronted inde"inite nouns have a clearl3 !artitive meanin(9 `0sil e/ `oy ta `olon. &s "or land% there is some in the lo-lands9 Tzebetik e/ `oy ta 7abenchauk. &s "or (irls% there are some in ,abenchau:9 4olom e/ ch'abal xa li` e. &s "or ti(ers% there aren;t an3 around here an3more9 bolom% 6ti(er% 0a(uar6 (#he su""i 4eti: indicates !luralit3$ tzeb 6(irl%6 tzebeti: 6(irls65 similarl3% tz;iEeti: 6do(s%6 naeti: 6houses96)

#his !artitive construction is some-hat rare9 In (eneral% onl3 de"inite nouns at the end o" a sentence can be "ronted9 Te ta sna $un li jchamel e. #he sic: !erson is at John;s house9 0chamel% 6!erson -ho is sic:6 ` li jchamel e/ te ta sna li $un e. #he sic: !erson% he;s at John;s house9 .ontrast the "ollo-in( e am!le sentences$ `0y `ixim ta sna li $un e. ` li $un e/ `oy `ixim ta sna. Te ta sna $un li `ixim e. ` li `ixim e/ te ta sna li $une. #here is corn at John;s house9 &s "or John% there;s corn at his house9 &t John;s house there is corn9 &s "or the corn% it;s at John;s house9

In all o" these sentences% the most de"inite noun comes is sentence4"inal or (ets "ronted9 #he "ormulation o" <uestions is related to this !rocess o" "rontin(% because interro(ative -ords are al-a3s sentence4initial9 'oo: at the "ollo-in( !airs$ `0y $ ta sna li $un e. ** $ e/ `oy ta sna li $une. :'usi `oy ta sna li $un e2 `0y `ixim ta $. ** Ta $ e/ `oy `ixim. 4u `oy `ixim2 `0y `ixim ta sna li $ e. ** ` li $ e/ `oy `ixim ta sna. 4uch'u `oy `ixim ta sna2 Te ta sna $un li $ e. ** ` li $ e/ te ta sna li $un e. +uch'u te ta sna li $un e2

+hat is there in John;s houseF +here is there cornF In -hose house is there cornF +ho is in John;s houseF

*ne <uestions !recisel3 those constituents that can be "ronted% but it is obli(ator3 to move the <uestioned constituent to the be(innin( o" the sentence9 #he "rontin( does not im!ede the interro(ative sentence "rom bein( trans"ormed b3 the "rontin( o" other constituents9 (In indicative sentences% onl3 one constituent can be "ronted9) #hat is to sa3% the !resence o" one interro(ative -ord in a sentence alters the -ord order9 &s a conse<uence% another noun is liberated "or "rontin(9 +uch'u te ta sna li $un e2 +ho is in John;s houseF ` li $un e/ buch'u te ta sna2 &s "or John% -ho is in his houseF ,ote that various t3!es o" "ronted nouns !recede interro(ative -ords$ ` li jtz'i` e/ mi te ta ana2 Is m3 do( in 3our houseF

Te ta k'ib e/ k'usi `oy2 +hat is there in the -ater 0u(F ` li $un e/ much'u te ta sna2 &s "or John% -ho is in his houseF +e have seen that onl3 inde"inite nouns44in (eneral -ith a !artitive meanin(4 4can be "ronted "rom a non4"inal !osition9 In this sense% note that the -ord :;usi 6-hatF6 is the inde"inite interro(ative9 `0y si` ta te`tik2 Is there "ire-ood in the "orestF ;i` e/ `oy ta te`tik. &s "or "ire-ood% it is in the "orest9 :'usi `oy ta te`tik2 +hat is there in the "orestF #here is a structural relationshi! bet-een the "ollo-in( sentences$ ` li $un e/ `oy `ixim ta sna. +uch'u `oy `ixim ta sna2 +ho has corn in his houseF ('iterall3$ In -hose house is there cornF)

&lso note the !ossibilit3 o" these sentences$ Ta sna li $un e/ `oy `ixim. &t John;s house there is corn9 +uch'u ta sna `oy `ixim. &t -ho;s house is there cornF In the last e am!le% the !rocess o" <uestion "ormation seems to trans"orm onl3 the locative !hrase -ith ta9 & !hrase o" the "orm ta sna U becomes much;u ta sna9 #he resultin( sentence means$ 6+e :no- that there is corn in some house% but in -hose houseF6 or 6&t -hose house is there cornF6 Possessed nouns have s!ecial characteristics% -hich -e see in the "ollo-in( sentences$ `0y jna ta %obel. I have a house in San .ristobal9 Te ta %obel li jna e. 73 house is in San .ristobal9 Te jna ta %obel. I have m3 house in San .ristobal9 #he !hrase li 0na e means 6the house (in !articular) that e ists and is mine%6 -hereas 0na means 6a house that e ists and is mine96 Sa3in( 0na 6a house o" mine6 asserts the e istence o" a house that is mine (althou(h -e em!lo3 the -ord onl3 in order to ne(ate the e istence o" such an entit3$ -h'abal jna. I don;t have a house9 (73 house does not e ist)9

#he sentence #e 0na ta Jobel seems to violate the rule that the more de"inite noun should be at the end o" a sentence9 #hus% the sentences$ Te sna ta %obel li 'omin e. Domin(o;s house is in San .ristobal9 Romin% 6Domin(o6 (!ersonal name) and the most common "orm$ ` li 'omin e/ te sna ta %obel. a!!ears to violate the rule that the (rammatical !ossessor should directl3 "ollo- the !ossessed noun9 &nala(ous sentences -ith un!ossessed sub0ects are not !ermitted9 #hus$ (Te) `oy k'in ta %obel. `0y k'in (te) ta %obel. #here is a !art3 in San .ristobal9 Te ta %obel li k'in e. #he !art3 is in San .ristobal9 Cut one cannot sa3$ ,,, Te k'in ta %obel. #he !osssibilit3 o" sentences such as$ Te jna ta %obel. a!!ears to be related to the "act that the !ossessed noun includes in its meanin( an assertion o" the e istence o" the thin( named9 Cut I cannot "ind a satis"actor3 e !lanation o" either this !hrase nor o" the "orm -ith the !ossessor "ronted$ ` li vo`on e/ te jna ta %obel. Furthermore% it a!!ears that this construction is onl3 used -ith nouns that denote immovable ob0ects% thin(s that remain in the !lace indicated9 *ne does not sa3$ ,,, Te kajnil ta 7abenchauk. Cut it a!!ears correct to sa3$ Ta jchob ta 7abenchauk. I "arm in ,abenchau:9 chob% 6corn"ield6

#his sentences asserts not onl3 that I do have a corn"ield% and that this corn"ield is in ,abenchau:% but also that it is in ,abenchau: that I maintain m3 corn"ield9?

'.3 A%enti"e *ouns +it# t#e Prefix 1.

*ne should not con"use the !ossessive !re"i 04 6m36 -ith a homo!h3nous !re"i 04 that a!!ears in -ords li:e 0Eilol 6curer%6 0nachi0 6inhabitant o" ,achi0%6 and 0chamel 6sic: !erson96 #he a(entive !re"i 04 trans"orms roots o" various t3!es into -ords that denote !erson or livin( thin(s9 `il/ <to see< 7achij (place name) chamel/ 0Eilol% 6seer% curer6 0nachi0% 6inhabitant o" ,achi06 0chamel% 6a sic: 0Ei:;el% 6blac: Eabtel% 0Eabtel% 6-or:er6

<sickness< !erson6 `olon/ <belo"/ 0Eolon% 6inhabitant o" Ei:;al% lo"lan&< the lo-lands6 6blac:6

demon% s!oo:6 6-or:6

&n obvious di""erence bet-een the !ossessive !re"i 04 and the a(entive !re"i is that onl3 the latter combines -ith roots that be(in -ith a vo-el9 #hus% "or e am!le% `abtel 6-or:6 j`abtel 6-or:er6 (the 04 cannot be !ossessive) kabtel 6m3 -or:6 &(entive nouns -ith 04 can also carr3 !ossessive !re"i es$ the !ossessed "orms are based on the in"i 4a04 instead o" the !re"i 049 j`abtel kaj`abtel avaj`abtel yaj`abtel jchamel kajchamel avajchamel 6-or:er6 6m3 -or:er (-ho -or:s "or me)6 63our -or:er6 6his -or:er6 6(a) -or:er6 6the -or:er that I care "or6 63our -or:er6 etc9

#he root o" the !ossessed "orm o" a(entive nouns be(ins -ith 4a04% -ith a vo-el% and attracts the :4Nav4N34 !attern o" !ossessive !re"i es9

424 3ther Possessi"e Co)pounds

+e have seen com!ounds li:e tiE na 6entrance to the house6 and 0ol vitz 6mountainto!96 It is evident that these com!ounds are derived "rom !ossessive e !ressions that have "rozen% o"ten ac<uirin( an e tended or meta!horicall34chan(ed meanin(9 #iE na is related to a construction o" the "orm $ o( 1 -hich% in (eneral% occurs -ith a !ossessive !re"i % derived "rom the element R% to(ether -ith the element U9 #hat is to sa3% jol na 6roo"6 is a s!ecial e am!le o" the construction in$ s-jol li $un e 6John;s head6 #he construction -ith a !ossessive !re"i di""ers "rom the com!ound (-hich lac:s an e !licit !ossessive !re"i )% -hich "unctions as a unit39 For e am!le% the com!ound can carr3 a de"inite article$ li jol na e li mak na e li jol `itaj e `itaj 6the roo"6 6the door6 6the cabba(e6 6ve(etable6

*ne can see that the e !ression 0ol Eita0 6cabba(e6 means% literall3$ 6head o" ve(etable6)9 *n the other hand% one cannot sa3$ OOO li s0ol Uun e and -e alread3 :nothat s0ol li Uun e is de"inite (it means 6the head o" John6)% althou(h the article that accom!anies s0ol has disa!!eared as the result o" the !resence o" the article carried b3 Uun9 I" one adds an article to the second element o" a com!ound% it loses the "rozen relation o" the unit3% and the underl3in( !ossessive !re"i es cannot disa!!ear9 Te ta jol na li $un e. Te ta `ak'ol li jol na e. -h'abal to sjol li na e.

John is on the roo" (-e alread3 :no- -hich house9) #he roo" is u! there9 (#his sentence mi(ht be used% sa3% to e !lain -hat a roo" is9) #he house still has no roo"9 ('iterall3$ #he head o" the house still does not e ist9)

Here -e are tal:in( about a de"inite thin(44-e are tal:in( about his roo" in !articular44 and the !ossessive !re"i a!!ears e !licitl39 Similarl3% i" the second element o" a com!ound receives a !ossessive !re"i % it loses the ti(ht4:nit relation bet-een !ossessed and !ossessor% and the com!ound e !ression loses its inte(rit39 #he do( is in the entrance to the house9

Te ta sjol jna li $un e. ` li tz'i` e/ te ta sti` ana. +i `oy `itaj2 `0y jol `itaj. 8o`ote/ mi `oy sjol avitaj2

John is on the roo" o" the house9 #he do( is in the entrance to 3our house9 &re there ve(etablesF #here is cabba(e9 &nd 3ou% do 3ou have cabba(eF ('iterall3$ Does the head o" 3our ve(etable e istF)

E&li tz;iE e% te ta tiE na9

#here are similar constructions in En(lish$ 4uy li na ba e2 +here is the molehillF ba% 6mole6 67olehill6 is a com!ound -ord e<uivalent to na ba (literall3$ mole house)9

4uy sna li ba e2 +here is the mole;s hillF 67ole;s hill6 loses its inte(rit3 -hen the e !licit !ossessive su""i 4;s a!!ears9 Similarl3% -hen -e tal: in #zotzil about the hill o" some s!eci"ic mole% the "irst element o" na carries the e !licit !re"i s49 ,ot all !ossessive e !ression can "unction as a unit3 -ithout !ossessive !re"i es$ a student should be mind"ul o" the constructions (the e !ressions) that !ermit the dro!!in( o" the !re"i s49 7an3 roots that denote bod3 !arts be(in -ith vo-els9 #hese also "unction in com!ound e !ressions% but the3 never lose the !ossessive !e"i % -hich in this case is 349 `0y krus ta yok vitz. #here is a cross at the "oot o" the mountain9 Eo:% 6"oot6 `0y k'ok' ta yut na. #here is a "ire inside o" the house9 Eut% 6interior% inside6 +i `oy yav `ak'al2 Is there an incensor3F Eav% 6!lace6

Ea:;al% 6charcoal6 #he corres!ondin( e !ressions based on consonant4initial roots omit the !ossessive !re"i s4% as -e have seen9 +ith these vo-el4initial roots% i" the (rammatical !ossessor (the second element) carries an article or is !ossessed% there is no chan(e in the "irst element9 `0y krus ta yok li muk'ta vitz e. `0y k'ok' ta yut li jna e. +i `oy yav avak'al2

#here is a cross at the "oot o" the bi( mountain9 #here is "ire inside o" m3 house9 Do 3ou have an incensor3F ('iterall3$ Does the !lace o" 3our charcoal e istF)

,ote that in com!ound !ossessive e !ressions the 6true6 !ossessor is mar:ed b3 a !re"i to(ether -ith the second element9 sjol jbi bi% 6name6 3av :abtel yut amok sni` ak'ob niE% 6nose% !oint6 :;ob% 6hand6 m3 last name (literall3$ the head o" m3 name) m3 -or:!lace (literall3$ the !lace o" m3 -or:) 3our !atio (literall3$ the inside o" 3our "ence) 3our "in(er (literall3$ the nose o" 3our hand)

42! Inaliena%le Possession

7an3 -ords% es!eciall3 names o" bod3 !arts and :inshi! terms% al-a3s occur -ith a !ossessor9 In (eneral% -e do not s!ea: o" a hand -ithout it bein( someone;s hand$ a "ather is someone;s "ather% etc9 In #zotzil% the inalienable character o" certain nouns has a "ormal and (rammatical re"le 9 For e am!le% the root :;ob 6hand6 is never used in isolation9 It either carries a !ossessive !re"i ("or e am!le% 0:;ob 6m3 hand6) or it re<uires a nominal su"i % -hich !roduces an absolute "orm% indicatin( the inde"initeness o" the !ossessor ("or e am!le% :;ob4ol 6hand (o" some uns!eci"ied !erson)96 *ne never hears the root in isolation% e ce!t in "i ed com!ounds% in -hich the !ossessive !re"i s4 is thou(ht to have disa!!eared9 k'ob krus arm o" the cross

+ith the ma0orit3 o" these -ords% the absolute su""i (o" inde"inite !ossession) is 4il% but there are so man3 e ce!tions that it -ill be !re"erable to indicate (and "or the students it is necessa3 to memorize) the !articular su""i that accom!anies each inherentl3 !ossessed noun9 Here -e em!lo3 the notation introduced b3 Josh Smith (n9d9)$ a noun -ith a h3!hen loses the absolute su""i u!on bein( !ossessed$ "or e am!le% :;ob4ol 6hand96 *" the nouns -e alread3 :no-% the "ollo-in( are o" the same t3!e$

Bo.( &art%
`ok-ol% 6"oot6 pat-il% 6bac:6 ti`-il% 6mouth% entrance% side5 li!6 ba-il% 6"orehead% "ace6 jol-ol% head6 k'ob-ol% 6hand6

Other 4or.%
bi-il% 6name6 `av-il% 6!lace% container% "oot!rint6 `ut-il% 6inside6 k'u`-ul% 6clothin(% blouse% shirt6

5in%hip Term%
bankil-al% 6older brother (o" a man)6 `ajnil-al% 6-i"e6 malal-il% 6husband6 #o reca!itulate% the !ossessed "orms o" these -ords carr3 !ossessive !re"i es (e ce!t in "i ed com!ounds) -ithout the absolute su""i $ Y kok% 6m3 "oot6 Y jba% 6m3 "ace6 Y jbi% 6m3 name6 Y ak'u`% 63our clothes6 Y avajnil% 63our -i"e6 I" the3 are not used in a !ossessive construction% these roots should carr3 the indicated absolute su""i 9 Ho-ever% the use o" the so4called 6absolutes6 "orms is ver3 restricted9 It

does not corres!ond to the En(lish usa(e o" non4!ossessed e<uivalents9 In (eneral% the su""i si(ni"ies inde"inite !ossession9 3i` `oy k'u`ul. #here is clothin( here (o" someone un:no-n)9 #he "orms o" the su""i also have a (eneral meanin($ jayib `ok'ol2 Ho- man3 ste!sF jayib% 6ho- man3% ho- much6 ta `okol b3 "oot% -al:in( ta k'obol b3 hand In other cases% the "orm o" the su""i has a chan(ed or e tended meanin(9 For e am!le% ban:ilal can denote senior o""icials o" elders9 It also means a t3!e o" indi(enous tobacco that is considered to have su!ernatural !o-ers and !rotective virtue (!erha!s as a t3!e o" older brotherF)9 &lso% totil ("rom tot4il 6"ather6) can means either 6a "ather6 or 6an elder% a venerated !erson96 Jolol means not onl3 6head6 but also 6hair96 &nd the roots Y `e-al% 6mouth6 Y `o`on-il% 6heart6 Y ch'ut-il% 6stomach6 !roduce absolute -ords that denote in"irmities o" the bod3 !arts mentioned above$ mouth ulcers or an(ina% dizziness or nausea% and stomach aches and diarrhea% res!ectivel39 In realit3% the 6absolute6 "orms -ith a su""i are more s!ecialized than (eneralized% and the roots more "re<uentl3 occur -ith !ossessive !re"i es9 Grammatical 6!ossession6 in #zotzil is a -ell4develo!ed s3ntactic resource9 #zotzil uses !ossessed "orms to e !ress ideas that are communicated b3 means o" ver3 di""erent constructions in En(lish9 +e have alread3 seen a basic e am!le$ En(lish sentences o" o-nershi! em!lo3 the verb 6to have96 #heir #zotzil e<uivalents are sentences indicative o" e istence% -ith a !ossesed noun as the sub0ect9 `0y kixim. I have corn9 +e also :no- about the use o" relational nouns% -ith !ossessive !re"i es% -hich are used in !lace o" !re!osition9

ta jol na ta yut mok ta yolon jtem ta yak'ol ana

on to! o" the house inside o" the house% on the !atio beneath m3 bed above% on to! o" 3our house

&nother e am!le% -hich Josh Smith mentions in his descri!tion o" #zeltal% is the use o" bod3 !art terms9 For e am!le% !erson -ho s!ea:s #zotzil -ill o""er as the translation o" the -ord 6hand6 not the 6absolute6 "orm o" the su""i 4a "orm that% as -e have alread3 seen% has a restricted and s!ecial usa(e4but instead the !ossessed "orm 0:;obti:% -hich means 6our hands96 #his -ord su((ests that hands are thin(s inherentl3 !ossessed% -hich -e all have9 .ertain roots that -e -rite -ith a h3!hen sho- more com!le ities9 For e am!le% tiE4il (ives the e !ected "orms$ ti` na ti` be sti` l ana e jti` ti`il entrance to the house lar(e door% entrance to the road the entrance to 3our house m3 mouth% m3 li!s entrance% side% mouth (absolute "orm)

Cut additional "orms also e ist$ ti`il be the side o" the road sti`il jbe the side o" m3 road (-here I -al:) #his latter "orm contrasts -ith$ the entrance to m3 road (in other -ords% the turn -here the road leaves "or the house)

sti` jbe

#hus% there is a "orm o" the su""i % tiEil% obviousl3 related to the basic root% but this "orm -ith a su""i can also carr3 !ossessive !re"i es% -ith an e tended meanin(9 Provisionall3% -e can re!resent these -ords this -a3$ ti`-il% 6mouth% entrance6 ti`il% 6side6 (-ithout a h3!hen) *ther -ords sho- similar com!le ities9 #he -ord Eut4il 6inside6 (ives the e !ect "orms$ 3ut 6inside o" PPP%6 :ut 6m3 inside%6 Eutil 6inside (absolute "orm)96 Cut the "ollo-in( "orms also occur$

ta yutil yo`on Gheart"eltH (literall3$ in the center o" his heart) ta yutil in the center (o" a !o!ulation) #hat is to sa3% there is another stem ("rom the same root Eut4il) o" the "orm Eutil (-ithout the h3!hen) -ith the meanin( 6center96 Ho-ever% this stem has ver3 limited usa(es9 From the root Eav 6!lace6 there are the "orms Eav4il 6!lace6 and Eavil (-ithout a h3!hen) 6ori(in96 #hus -e have$ yav li $un e the seat (!lace) o" John yav li `ixim e the !lace o" corn ta yavil in its ori(inal or !ermanent !lace In the "ollo-in( !a(es -e -ill delve more dee!l3 into the com!le it3 o" #zotzil;s !ossessive s3stem9

Chapter 6: Stati)e Sentence%

,.0 Stati"e Sentences

E&ntz li 'o a e9 #zeb to li PetuE e9 7i :rem to li .he! e% mi vini: aF 7i Eo3 a 3a0nil9 Is Jose!h still a bo3% or is he a man alread3F 6Stative6 sentences are sentences that attribute a <ualit3% condition% or state to their sub0ects9 #hese sentences have the "ollo-in( "orm$ Does he have a -i"e 3etF Rose is a -oman9 GPetuAH is still 3oun( (a (irl)9

Predicate (noun or ad0ective)


#he !redicate% -hich can be a noun or an ad0ective% ordinaril3 !recedes the sub0ect9 EE! li Eabtel e9 Ee!% 6much% a lot6 7u:; li na e9 mu:;% 6bi(6 7i le: li Eita0 eF le:% 6(ood6 7i bi:;it to li tzeb eF bi:;it% 6small% little6 #he -or: is numerous (i9e9% there is a lot o" -or:)9 #he house is bi(9 &re the ve(etables (oodF Is the (irl still littleF

&s in locative sentence or sentences indicatin( e istence% the interro(ative !article mi !recedes the !redicate in <uestion "ormation% -hile a !article o" time li:e to and a "ollo- it9 #he sub0ect can also be "ronted9 E&li 0na e% Each; to9 Each;% 6ne-6 E& l amo: e% mi ton mi teEF teE% 6tree% -ood6 ,ote that (eneric sub0ects o" stative sentences are "ormed -ith the de"inite article li9 E&li ulem e% mut9 ulem% 6buzzard% vulture6 mut% 6bird6 #zotz li ton e9 tzotz% 6hard% stron(6 1ultures are birds9 73 house is still ne-9 Rour "ence% is it o" roc: or -oodF

Roc:s are hard9

In (eneral% sub0ect o" stative sentences are de"inite$ these sentences assert that somethin( s!eci"ic !ertains to some class% or sho-s a <ualit3% or is some condition or state9 #zotzil sentences do not re<uire a co!ular verb% li:e 6to be%6 in such constructions9 1ini: li Uun e9 John is a man9 (+e are tal:in( o" ,at li ch;en e9 someone #he cave is lon( s!eci"ic9)

(dee!)9 nat% 6lon(% dee!6 ch;en% 6cave% cavern% !reci!ice6 .hiE li :a0ve e9 chiE% 6s-eet6 :a0ve(l)% 6co""ee6 .o""ee is s-eet9

It is "airl3 common "or a !ossessed noun to serve as the sub0ect o" a stative sentence% o"ten -ithout an e !licit article (but no less de"inite as a result)9 7i Ei! to ava0nilF 7i Ei! to l ava0nil eF Ei!% 6sic:6 Sa: a a0ol9 Sa: a l a0ol e9 sa:% 6-hite6

Is 3our -i"e still sic:F

&re 3ou -hite4haired alread3F

& locative !hrase -ith ta can also delimit the !redicate or the sub0ect o" a stative sentence9 Sa: ta Eutil li 0:;uE e9 Sa: ta 3ut li 0:;uE e9 7u:; li 0na ta Ea:;ol e9 73 clothes are clean inside9 #he inside o" m3 clothes are clean9 73 house u! above is bi(9

In the "irst e am!le% ta Eutil "unctions as the adverb 6inside%6 modi"3in( the !redicate sa: 6-hite96 In the latter e am!le% ta Ea:;ol "unctions as a (restrictive) relative clause% modi"3in( the sub0ect$ m3 house8-hich is u! above8is bi(9 In the second e am!le% the !hrase li 0:;uE e 6m3 ro!e6 "unctions as the sub0ect o" the !redicate sa: and as the !ossessor o" Eut 6inside96 #he sentence means% literall3$ 673 clothin( is -hite in its interior96 I -ill (ive a "e- other e am!les o" this !rocess$ #zotz Ei! ta 0me: li Eunen e9 Eunen% 6child6 ta 0me:% 6ver36 ('iterall3$ 6one time% 7as le: li :;in ta Eenero9 mas% 6more6 #he child is seriousl3 ill9 once6) #he !art3 in Januar3 is better9

+ords li:e mas 6more%6 tzotz 6stron(%6 le: 6-ell%6 and 0utu: 6a little6 can modi"3 nouns and !redicative ad0ectives9 .om!arison is o"ten e !ressed throu(h a structure o" this t3!e$ 7as nat li Uun e% mas :om:om li 3itz;in e9 John is taller than his little brother9 ('iterall3$ Eitz;in4al% 63oun(er brother6 :om:om% 6short% scra-n36 John is taller% and his brother is shorter9)

,ote also that tem!oral !articles can "ollo- the !redicate or the modi"ier9 #zotz to Eo Ei! vol0e li Eunen e9 #zotz Ei! to Eo vol0e li Eunen e9 vol0e% 63esterda36 Jutu: a :;u li 00ol e9 :;u % 6!ain"ul6 'e: Eo mu:; ta 0un3o li 0chob e9

#he child -as still ver3 sic: 3esterda39 73 head hurts less alread39 73 corn"ield -ill alread3 be !rett3 bi( in June9

&nother -ord that can modi"3 a stative !redicate is batz;i 6true% trul3%6 althou(h this -ord has di""erent characteristics9 Catz;i cannot be a !redicate5 it "unctions onl3 in con0unction -ith a noun or an ad0ective9 Catz;i le: l avabtel e9 Catz;i 0Ea:;4chamel li mol e9 0Ea:;4chamel% 6-itch6 (literall3$ one Particles cannot se!arate batz;i "rom the !redicate it modi"ies9 Catz;i Ei! a li 0tot e9 73 "ather is alread3 ver3 sic:9 Rour -or: is reall3 (ood9 #he old man is a real -itch9 -ho (ives illness)

#he -ord batz;i can also directl3 modi"3 a noun that is not in !redicate !osition8that is% the sub0ect o" a sentence or the ob0ect o" the !re!osition ta9 'e: li batz;i vob e9 #he true musician is (ood9

.ha!al ta batz;i :;o! li 0:a lan e9 cha!al% 6read3% !re!ared% educated6 :;o!% 6-ord% lan(ua(e6 0:a lan% 6ladino% non4indi(enous6

#he ladino :no-s #zotzil9

#hus% one can see that batz;i :;o! 6the true lan(ua(e6 denotes #zotzil% -hich amon( #zotziles is also called 0:;o!ti: 6our lan(ua(e96 #he latter e am!le literall3 means% 6#he ladino is read3 "or the real lan(ua(e96 ,ote the a(entive !re"i 04 in the -ord 0:a lan% a !re"i that distin(uishes it "rom the -ord :a lan 6chic:en96 #he em!hatic "orm o" a stative sentence em!lo3s the -ord 0aE$ a !article -ith various s!ecial uses9 In !articular% 0aE can re!lace a stative !redicate8a nominal or ad0ectival !redicate8in res!onses9 7i vini: li Ua! eF JaE9 Is Sebastian a manF Res% he is9

#he meanin( o" 0aE can be seen in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ 7i te ta :avilto li !reserente eF #e9 !reserente% 6!resident6 7i 0aE te ta :avilto li !reserente eF JaE9 JaE te9 .h;abal a li 0tz;iE e9 Pero mi 0aEF Is the !resident in the to-n hallF Res% he is9 Is the !resident he one -ho is in the to-n hallF Res% it is him9 He is there9 73 do( is no lon(er9 Cut -as he the one (that died)F

JaE directs attention to the sub0ect o" a sentence% and it (ives em!hasis to the "act that the sub0ect is -hat the !redicate attributes to it9 JaE also can "unction as a !redicate o" a sentence -ith the meanin( 6it is him% it is this96 7uch;u te ta 3ut naF JaE li Pil e9 T;usi Eo3 (te) ta chobti:F 7i 0aE :aE mi 0aE tz;iEF :aE% 6horse6 +ho is inside o" the houseF She is GFeli!aH9 +hat is there in the corn"ieldF Is it a do( or a horseF

.om!arative data "rom #zeltal and other dialects o" #zotzil su((est that the so4called !ronouns o" the "irst and second !erson are in realit3 based on the root 0aE9 7uch;u liE eF 7i voEotF 1oEon9 +ho is hereF Is it 3ouF It is me9

Furthermore% other% more com!le stative sentence use the !article 0aE "or the sa:e o" em!hasis9 7i 0aE aban:il li Petul eF JaE9 JaE 0ban:il9 E&li 7ar3an e% cheEe9 JaE Eono 0ban:il no to:9 cheEe% 6-ell6 (it (oes at the end o" a Eono % 6an3-a3% al-a3s6 no to:% 6also% a(ain6 #hese !articles have di""erent characteristics9 E*no !ertains to the (rou! o" tem!oral !articles9 It "ollo-s the "irst -ord o" the !redicate% and also "ollo-s a and to i" these occur in the same sentence9 .heEe 6-ell6 al-a3s ends a sentence% sometimes re!lacin( the "inal enclitic 4e9 ,o to: can move liberall3 in the sentence% more or less li:e locative !hrases -ith ta9 #zotz li Uun e% !ero 0aE a Eono mas John is stron(% but his brother is even tzotzil li 3itz;in e9 7i le: li ta0imol eF ta0imol% 6(ame6 'e:% cheEe9 stron(er9 Is the (ame (oodF +ell% 3es9 Is it Peter that is 3our older brotherF Res% that;s him9 He is m3 older brother9 &nd 7arean% -ellF He is also m3 older brother9 sentence)

Ever3 nominal !redicate has% in its basic "orm% the em!hatic !article 0aE -hich can disa!!ear in a non4em!hatic sentence8a situation similar to that -ith te in locative !hrase or ta in tem!oral !hrases9 (For e am!le% te ta Jobel 6there in San .ristobal6)9

,.1 Sentences of Existence and !ocati"es -sed as Stati"e Sentences

Sentences that assert the e istence o" somethin( have the (eneral "orm$ E*3 (-here U re!resents the sub0ect9) Sentences that indicate the location o" a s!eci"ic thin( have the (eneral "orm$ #e ta R li U e9 (R re!resents the location% and U the sub0ect9) & combined "orm% that can be seen in sentence li:e #e (Eo3) sna ta Ea:;ol9 His house is house u! there9 U9

asserts the e istence% the o-nershi!% and location o" somethin(9 #he (eneral "orm is$ #e (Eo3) U ta R +e can see that sentence o" this "orm are% basicall3% stative sentences% made u! o" a !redicate P and a sub0ect S9 #hese sentences means 6S is P96 In sentences that indicate e istence% the !redicate is Eo38a noun -ith the meanin( 6somethin( e ists68and the sub0ect is an inde"inite noun$ E*3 voE9 E*3 0na9 +ater e ists9 #here is -ater9 73 house e ists9 I have a house9 'ocative sentences use the !redicate te% -hich is a noun -ith the a!!ro imate sense$ 6e istin( in such a !lace68in other -ords% te is the reduced "orm o" a locative !hrase -ith ta9 In e""ect% one can consider that there are locative !redicates o" the "orm$ te ta U

"rom -hich te can disa!!ear -hen it does not serve as !redicate o" the entire sentence (that is to sa3% -hen the construction -ith ta is onl3 the locative !hrase in the sentence and not the !redicate) (?)9 E*3 :;in (te) ta Jobel9 #e3 ta Jobel li :;in e9 #here is a !art3 in San .ristobal9 #he !art3 is in San .ristobal9

In (eneral% sub0ects o" locative sentences are de"inite% ta:in( the article li% and come at the end o" sentences9 Sentences -ith locative !redicates but inde"inite sub0ects have a meanin( that is as much e istential as it is locative9 &ccordin( to the normal !attern% the inde"inite sub0ect !recedes the locative !hrase -ith ta9 #e voE ta Eolon Eosil9 #here is -ater (i9e9% rain) in the lo-lands9 #his sentences a!!ears to be e<uivalent to the "ollo-in($ #e Eo3 voE ta Eolon Eosil9 E*3 voE (te) ta Eolon Eosil9 #he e istential meanin( a!!ears to be derived "rom the indeterminac3 o" the noun voE and "rom its !osition in the sentence9 #hus% it is not sur!risin( that other stative sentences are characterized b3 a !artiall3 e istential meanin(9 .onsider the "ollo-in( sentences$ 7i tzotz a li voE ta Eolon eF 7i tzotz a voE ta EolonF Is the rain in the lo-lands heav3F &re there heav3 rains in the lo-landsF In the "irst% -e alread3 :no- that it is rainin( in the lo-lands% and -e are as:in( -hether the rain is heav39 In the second% -e are as:in( -hether there is rain and -hether it is stron(9 & ne(ative res!onse to the "irst <uestion -ould be$

T;un to9

(,o)% it is still li(ht9

& ne(ative res!onse to the second <uestion -ould be$ .h;abal to9 #here is still none92

&lso note that the ne(ative "orms o" locative sentences or sentences indicatin( e istence are basicall3 stative9 .h;abal va09 #he !redicate o" this sentence is the ad0ective ch;abal% -hich means 6non4e istent% absent96 E*3 va09 7uE3u: (M mu Eo3 u:) va09 #e ta sna li Uun e9 7u te u: ta sna li Uun e9 #he basic ne(ative "orm o" a sentence -ith the !redicate Eo3 or te has the !article mu 6no6 and the ne(ativeNsub0unctive su""i 4u: in co0unction -ith the !redicate9 (+e have also seen other ne(ative "orms% "or e am!le% -ith ch;abal9) #he !osition o" Eo3 in stative sentences -ith locative !redicates or ad0ectives a!!ears to be variable% and there is a re"le o" this variabilit3 in the interro(ative and ne(ative "orms9 For e am!le% both o" the "ollo-in( sentences a!!ear to be e<uivalent9 #e ta sna li 0:um!are9 #e Eo3 ta sna li 0:um!are9 :um!a(re)4il% 6(od"ather6

73 (od"ather is in his house9

I" there is a di""erence bet-een these sentences% the di""erence can be characterized b3 the t-o translations9 ?9 73 (od"ather can be "ound in his house9 29 73 (od"ather is in his house9 ,ote that% in locative sentences% the "irst element o" the !redicate is te% "ollo-ed o!tionall3 b3 Eo39 #he inverted order si(nals e istence and not location9

#e (Eo3)9 E*3 (te)9

He is there9 #here is over there9

E*3 also a!!ears to(ether -ith certain ad0ectives9 'e: to li 0:umale9 'e: to Eo3 li 0:umale9

73 (od"ather is still -ell9

#he onl3 di""erence I can "ind bet-een these sentences is this$ the !redicate -ithout Eo3 em!hasizes the condition or <ualit3 o" the sub0ect (673 (od"ather is (ood96)% -hereas the !redicate -ith Eo3 underscores the non4!ermanent state o" the sub0ect (673 (od"ather is -ell96)9 (#he di""erence corres!onds to the di""erence in S!anish bet-een estar and ser% the t-o "orms o" the verb 6to be96) #hus% the "ollo-in( sentence is stran(e or abnormal$ FFF 7u:; Eo3 li vitz e9 because lar(eness is not a transitor3 condition "or a mountain% but rather a !ermanent state9 Similarl3% Eo3 does not a!!ear in sentences -ith nominal !redicates that mar: their sub0ects as members o" a s!eci"ic class9 #hus% "or e am!le% one can sa3$ JEilol li #oni: e9 #oni:% 6&ntoinette6 Cut one cannot sa3$ OOO JEilol Eo3 li #onii: e9J &ntoinette is a curer9

,.2 Interro%ati"e and *e%ati"e Forms of Stati"e Sentences

In a sentence li:e$ 1ini: li Petul e9 Peter is a man9

the ne(ative can be used in t-o -a3s$ ?) +e can ne(ate that Peter is a man% or 2) +e can ne(ate that it is Peter -ho is a man9 #hus% there are t-o ne(ative "orms o" this sentence$ 7u vini: u: li Petul e9 Peter is not a man ("or

e am!le% he mi(ht still be a 7aEu: vini: li Petul e9 bo3)9 It isn;t Peter -ho is a man (but rather Jose!h)9 In the "irst sentence% the ne(ative !article mu and the ne(ative su""i 4u: 0oin -ith the !redicate vini:9 In the second% the -ord maEu: 6it is not him% it is not this6 a!!ears9 #here are also ne(ative "orms -ith the !article bu% -hich absorbs the ne(ative su""i 9 7u:; bu vini: li Petul e9 7u to bu vini: li Petul e9 Peter is not a man9 Peter is still not a man9 ('iterall3$ #here is still not a timeN!lace in -hich Peter is a man9) #he contrast bet-een the ne(ative "orms can also be seen in !redicate nominative sentences% in -hich the !redicate notes a social !osition or o""ice9 7u a bu !reserente li Uun e9 John is not the !resident9 7aEu: a !reserente li Uun e9 It is not John -ho is !resident9 Similarl3% there are various ne(ative "orms o" the sentence 'e: li 0chob e9 73 corn"ield is (ood9

I -ill !resent a "e- more ne(ative "orms$ 7u le: u: li 0chob e9 7u:; bu le: li 0chob e9 7aEu: le: li 0chob e9

73 corn"ield isn;t (ood (i9e9% it is bad)9 73 corn"ield isn;t (ood (althou(h 3ours is)9

Sometimes the "ollo-in( "orm also occurs$ 7uEu: le: li 0chobe9 73 corn"ield isn;t (ood9 ('iterall3$ I don;t have a corn"ield that is (ood9) -hich a!!ears to be derived "rom a sentence indicative o" e istence li:e

'e: Eo3 li 0chob e9

#he corn"ield that I have is (ood9

#he "ollo-in( sentences ori(inate "rom the same source$ .h;abal N muE3u: bu le: li 0chob e9 ,o !art o" m3 corn"ield is (ood9

In (eneral% ne(ative sentences -ith maEu: di""er "rom sentences -ith mu L 4u: or muE3u: or mu:;9 7aEu: Eo3 voE ta Jobel% 0aE Eo3 It isn;t rainin( in San .ristobal5 its bot9 7aEu: Ei! li .he! e% 0aE Ei! li hailin(9 John isn;t sic:5 his sister is9

ch;amal e9 7aEu: Eo3 3i im li .he! e% 0aE It isn;t Jose!h -ho has corn% but rather Eo3 avi im9 7uE3u: voE ta Jobel9 7u:; bu Ei! li .he! e9 .h;abal 3i im li .he! e9 3ou9 It doesn;t rain (it isn;t rainin() in San .ristZbal9 Jose!h isn;t sic:9 Jose!h doesn;t have corn9

Demonstratives li:e liE 6here%6 leE 6there%6 and ta0 6that6 can serve as the sub0ects o" stative sentences9 E*l liE e9 Eol% 6heav36 #on ta0 e9 7u le: u: leEe9 #his is heav39 #hat is a stone9 #hat isn;t (ood9

#his sort o" demonstrative sub0ect does not carr3 the de"inite article li% althou(h it combines -ith the "inal enclitic 4e9 ,o- -e -ill consider <uestions based u!on stative sentences9 +e have alread3 seen interro(ative "orms -ith mi9 7i ta:in a li chene:; eF ta:in% 6dr36 7i 0aE Ei! l atot eF &re the beans dr3 3etF Is 3our "ather sic:F

Sometimes mi and 0aE combine to "orm maE% 6Is it himF6 or 6Is it thisF6

#he interro(ative roots much;u 6-ho6 and :;usi 6-hat6 are used as !redicates% as in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ 7uch;u ta0 eF T;usi liE eF +ho is thatF +hat is thisF

*ther <uestions% based on the same interro(ative roots% are distin(uished b3 the de"inite character o" another noun9 7uch;u li vini: eF Jnachi09 T;usi li mas mu:; eF JaE mas mu: liE e9 +ho is that manF He is an inhabitant o" ,achi09 +hich is bi((er9 It is this one9 ('iterall3$ #his one is bi((er9) T;usi li tulan eF E&li tulane% teE9 tulan% 6oa: tree6 +hat is a 6tulan6F & 6tulan6 is a tree9

(,ote in the last e am!le ho- one as:s about the meanin( o" an un:no-n -ord9) & construction li:e li mas mu:; e sho-s ho- an ad0ective -ith a de"inite article can "unction as a noun9 & similar !rocess occurs in En(lish$ 6bi(6 (ad0ective)% 6the bi((est6 (noun)9 &lso note that an isolated noun can be a com!lete sentence9 In #zotzil% there is no third !erson !ronoun9 &n isolated noun is inter!reted as a !redicate noun% -ith the im!licit sub0ect 6he% she% it96 #zeb9 JEa!as9 'e:9 She is a (irl9 He is an inhabitant o" E&!as9 It is (ood9

)uestions are also "ormed -ith ad0ectives or inde"inite nouns9 7uch;u !;i0F T;usi le:F 7uch;u 0EilolF Is there someone -ho is inteli(entF (&nd -ho is itF) +hat is (oodF Is there somethin( (oodF Is there someone -ho is a curerF

'i:es other sentences -ith inde"inite sub0ects% these e am!les <uestion the e istence o" somethin($ o" an intelli(ent !erson% o" somethin( (ood% or o" a curer9 7uch;u% to(ether -ith an animate GhumanFH noun% means 6-hich96 7uch;u te ta ana eF #e 0un vini:9 0un% 6one6 7uch;u (ti) vini: teF JaE li Pavlu e9 +ho is in 3our houseF & man9 +hich manF Pablo9

#here are similar interro(ative e !ressions9 #e Eo3 0E&!as ta Jobel9 7uch;u 0unu:alF #e Eo3 voE ta Ea:;ol9 Cu 0otu:alF #here is an inhabitant o" E&!as in San .ristZbal9 +hoF #here is -ater u! there9 *n -hich sideF +here% e actl3F Junu:al is related to 0un 6one6 (com!are -ith En(lish$ +hich oneF)% and 0otu:al is derived "rom 0ot 6side96 E*3 0:aE9 T;usi 0tosu:alF I have a horse9 +hat :indF

Jtosu:al is related to tos 6t3!e% class% s!ecies96

,.3 Stati"e Sentences +it# Su./ects in t#e First and Second Person
1ini: li Uun e9 1ini:on li voEon e9 #e ta sna li Ua! e9 #e3ot ta ana li voEot e9 7i liE li :aro eF 7i liEot eF 'iEon e9 7i mu:; a li Eunen eF 7i mu:;ot aF 7u:;on a9 John is a man9 I am a man9 Sebastian is in his house9 Rou are in 3our house9 Is the car hereF &re 3ou hereF I am here9 Is the child bi( alread3F &re 3ou bi( alread3F I;m alread3 bi(9

+e have alread3 seen that the basic "orm o" a stative sentence is$

Predicate L Sub0ect ,ot onl3 nouns% but also 6!ronouns6 o" the "irst and second !erson% can occu!3 the sub0ect !osition9 #he "irst !erson6 denotes the !erson -ho is s!ea:in(% 6I%6 and 6the second !erson6 denotes the !erson -ho is bein( s!o:en to% 63ou96 #he !redicate o" a stative sentence should carr3 a su""i that corres!onds to the sub0ect9 #he su""i es are the "ollo-in($ 1ini:4 on9 1ini:4 ot9 1ini:9 I am a man9 Rou are a man9 He is a man9

*ne can see that a noun sub0ect (the so4called 6third !erson6) en(enders a null su""i 9 &lso note that an e !licit sub0ect is not necessar3% because the su""i (althou(h it is null)% to(ether -ith the !redicate% indicates the im!licit sub0ect9 Ho-ever% an e !licit noun or a !ronoun such as voEon or voEot can be used "or em!hasis or (reater clarit39 7i :u ulot toF &re 3ou still soberF ('iterall3$ &re 3ou still aliveF) :u ul% 6alive% sober6 Tu ulon to li voEon aEa9 E&li voEot eF I am still sober9 &nd 3ouF E&li voEon e% :u ulon Eu:9 I am also sober9 Eu:% 6also6 ,ote that the !ronominal sub0ect can be "ronted9 #he -ord Eu: 6also% e<uall36 should be distin(uished "rom the ne(ative su""i 4u: (-ithout an intial (lottal sto!) that -e have alread3 encountered9 #he 6absolutive6 su""i es% 4on 6I6 and 4ot 63ou%6 combine -ith the "irst -ord o" the !redicate9 Here I -ill !resent e am!les o" various stative sentences that -e have alread3 seen% in order to indicate the correct !osition o" the su"" es9 E&ntz li 'o a e9 E&ntzot (li voEot e)9 7i :rem to li .he! eF 7i :remot to (li voEot e)F 7u:; li na e9 7u:;on9

Rou are a -oman9

&re 3ou still 3oun(F I am (ro-n4u! (literall3$ bi()9

& l ava0nil e% mi Ei! toF &li voEot e% mi Ei!ot toF &re 3ou still sic:F EI! li 00ol e9 E&li voEon e% Ei! li 00ol I have a head cold9 e9 ('iterall3$ &s "or me% m3

head is sic:9)

In the last e am!le% the (rammatical !ossessor has been "ronted% but the (rammatical sub0ect is a noun (li 00ol e 6m3 head6) that% as a result% en(enders a null su""i on the !redicate Ei! 6sic:96 #zotz a Ei! li Eunen e9 #zotz a Ei!on (li voEon e)9 1oEot e% mas natot9 1oEon e% mas :om:omon9 Rou are taller% and I am shorter9 Catz;i 0Ea:;4chamelot9 Catz;i tzotzon a9 #he child is still violentl3 ill9 I am alread3 violentl3 ill9

Rou are a true -itch9 I am alread3 reall3 stron(9

*ne can see ho- the 6!ronouns6 themselves% voEon 6I6 and voEot 63ou%6 carr3 the a!!ro!riate absolutive su""i es9 I alread3 mentioned that the root o" these -ords% voE4% is related to 0aE9 (Coth roots have the h3!othetical "orm$ H&E9) #he relationshi! can still be seen in sentences li:e the "ollo-in($ 7i 0aE ban:ilal li .he! eF JaE (li .he! e)9 7i voEot ban:ilalotF 1oEon9 Is Jose!h olderF Res% he is9 &re 3ou olderF Res% I am9

#hese sentences -ith 0aE are "ocused on the identit3 o" the !erson -ho is older% -hile sentences -ithout 0aE re"er to the <ualit3 o" bein( older9 7i ban:ilal li .he! eF Can:ilal9 7i ban:ilalotF Can:ilalon9 I -ill o""er another e am!le$ 7uch;u li 0vaba0om eF 7i 0aE li Is Jose!h olderF Res% older9 &re 3ou olderF I am9

.he! eF +ho is the musicianF Is it Jose!hF JaE9 7uch;u li 0Eilol eF 7i voEotF 1oEon9 +ho is the curerF Is it 3ouF It;s me9K Res% (it is him)9

+e have seen that the sub0ect o" a sentence can be "ronted "or em!hasis9 & de"inite noun% -ith an demonstrative article% attracts the initial !article Ea4 -hen "ronted9 JEilol li Uun e9 E&li Uun e% 0Eilol9 John is a curer9 &s "or John% he is a curer9

&s Josh Smith has su((ested% based on #zeltal% it seems li:el3 that the initial !article Ea4 is a reduced "orm o" 0aE% -hich serves to call attention to the "ronted sub0ect9 Here I -ill !resent some #zotzil sentences% -ith their #zeltal e<uivalents% to illustrate the ar(ument9 #zotzil Trem to li Ua! e9 E&li Ua! e% :rem to9 #zeltal Terem to te 0 a! e9 HaE te 0 a! e% :erem to9

#he relatioshi! bet-een 0aE and the e !licit !ronouns voEon and voEot can be seen -ith (reater clarit3 in the "irst and second !erson (-hen one s!ea:s o" me or 3ou)9 Tremon to9 1oEon :remon to9 I am still a bo39 &nd me% I;m still 3oun(9

,ote that it is not necessar3 to se!arate the constituent voEon "rom the !redicate -ith a !ause (indicated -ith a comma in the e am!les -ith "ronted nouns)9 #his !ause a!!ears to be en(endered b3 the !resence o" the enclitic 4e% -hich ordinaril3 comes at the end o" a (rou! o" -ords9B Sentences -ith Eo3 that use locative !redicates also occur -ith "irst and second !erson sub0ects9 #e ta :avilto li Ua! e9 #eon ta :avilto9 #e Eo3 ta sna li Uun e9 #e Eo3ot ta ana9

+hen the !redicate o" a sentence is an ad0ective that can accom!an3 Eot% the !osition o" the absolutive su""i es de!ends on the !resence or absence o" Eo39 'e: li Uun e9 'e: Eo3 li Uun e9 'e:on9 'e: Eo3on9 John is (ood (!ermanent state)9 John is -ell (transitive state)9 I am (ood (!ermanent state)9 I am -ell (transitive state)9

,ot all ad0ectives can accom!a3 the !redicate Eo3 (-hich a!!ears to contribute a sense o" transience to the !redicate)9 +ithout the -ord Eo3 the su""i es directl3 combine -ith the ad0ectives9 .ha!al ta :asti3a li Romin e9 :asti3a% 6S!anish6 .ha!alon ta :asti3a9 Domin(o s!ea:s S!anish9 I s!ea: S!anish9 ('iterall3$ I am read3 "or #o ne(ate a sentence -ith a "irst or second !erson sub0ect% it is ver3 eas3 to em!lo3 the ne(ative "orms -ith mu:; bu% mu to bu% mu a bu% etc9% -ithout an e !licit ne(ative su""i 9 7i cha!alot aF &re 3ou read3 3etF 7u to bu cha!alon9 I am still read39 7uE3u: to9 ,ot 3et9 Tremon to9 I am still a bo39 EIEi9 7u a bu :remot9 7olot a9 ,o% 3ou aren;t a bo39 Rou;re old alread39 EiEi% 6noQ6 #he -ord mol can be a noun% 6an old man%6 0ust as easil3 as an ad0ective 6old% bi(96 7ol li teE e9 Tu ul to li mol e9 7i mu:; bu 0vaba0omotF Jvaba0omon aEa9 #he tree is bi(9 #he old man is still alive9 &ren;t 3ou a musicianF Res% I am9 S!anish9)

+hen directl3 ne(atin( a !redicate -ith absolutive su""i es% one must use an additional ne(ative su""i that combines -ith the absolutive su""i 9 +e have alread3 seen that the ne(ative su""i is 4u: -hen there is no absolutive su""i (-ith third !erson sub0ects)9 7i !;i0 li 0:a lan eF 7u !;i0 u:9 7i Ee! l avi im eF 7u Ee! u:9 Is the ladino intelli(entF He is not intelli(ent9 Do 3ou have much cornF ,o9

+ith other !ersons% the ne(ative !redicate ac<uires the "ollo-in( "orm$ mu L Predicate L i: L &bsolutive Su""i (*ne can see that the "orm 4u: is% in realit3% the ne(ative in"i 4i:4 -ithout an3 "ollo-in( su""i 9) 7i !;i0otF 7u !;i0i:on9 #zebon to9 7u tzebi:ot a9 &re 3ou intelli(entF I am not9 I am still a (irl9 Rou are no lon(er a (irl9

7an3 ad0ectives% o" the "orm .1.1l% li:e cha!al 6read3%6 or cho!ol 6bad%6 lose the second root vo-el -hen the3 combine -ith the in"i or the ne(ative su""i 9 7u cha!li:on9 7u cho!li:ot9 7u cho!lu:9 7u 0amlu:9 0amal% 6o!en6 I am not read39 Rou are not bad9 Is isn;t bad9 It isn;t o!en9

#he !ronouns voEon and voEot also have ne(ative "orms9 7i 0aE Ei! li Uun eF 7aEu:9 JaE Ei! li .he! e9 7i voEot Ei!otF 7u voEoni:on9 7i mu voEoti:ot 0EilolotF 1oEon cheEe9 Is John sic:F ,o% Jose!h is sic:9 &re 3ou sic:F ,o (but another !erson is)9 &ren;t 3ou a curerF Res% I am9

Forms li:e maEu: voEon and maEu: voEot also occur9

EI!ot vol0e9 Rou -ere sic: 3esterda39 7aEu: voEon9 7u voEoni:on9 I -asn;t sic:9 It -asn;t me -ho -as JaE Ei! :itz;in9 sic:9 It -as m3 3oun(er brother9

&bsolutive su""i es combine directl3 -ith interro(ative !redicates9 Cu3 li Uun eF Cu3otF Cu3on samelF #e3ot ta :antina9 J3a:ubelot9 03a:ubel% 6a drun:ard6 Furthermore% it is !ossible to as:$ 7uch;uotF +ho are 3ouF or$ T;usiot Eono F 7i tz;iEotF +hat are 3ouF &re 3ou a do(F +here is JohnF +here are 3ouF +here -as I last ni(htF Rou -ere at the bar% and 3ou -ere drun:9

Chapter 7: !ntran%iti)e +erb%

#24 Intransiti"e $er%s

#he :inds o" sentences that -e have seen so "ar are com!rised o" a !redicate (-hich can indicate e istence% location% or a state) and a sub0ect% -hich can either be a noun (!ossibl3 !ossessed) or a !ronoun (-hich re!resents either the s!ea:er446I644or the hearer4463ou6)9 #he3 are all o" the "ollo-in( "orm$



+e have also seen that the !redicate o" ever3 !reviousl3 mentioned sentence carries an absolutive su""i (althou(h it can be null)% -hich a(rees -ith the sub0ect in terms o" !erson9 GI,SER# DI&GR&7H Intransitive verbs also a!!ear in Gcom!oundH sentences -ith a !redicate and a sub0ect9 &s !redicates% intransitive verbs also carr3 absolutive a""i es that corres!ond to the sub0ects o" the sentences9 Intransitive verbs include three classes$ ,eutral 1erbs% &ctive 1erbs% and% in 7a3an lan(ua(es% Positional verbs9 ?9 ,eutral 1erbs (+hat ha!!enedF He "ell9) 29 &ctive 1erbs (+hat did he doF He -or:ed9) J9 Positional verbs (+hat !osition or "orm is he inF He is seated9)9 In (eneral% intransitive verbs in #zotzil can be reco(nized b3 the a""i es -ith -hich the3 combine9

#21 Stati"e +or)s of Intransiti"e $er%s

4atem ta %obel li $un e. 5'ajem ta lum li k'u`ul e. `Ech'em ta chan-vun li tzeb e. John has (one to San .ristZbal9 bat% 6to (o6 #he clothin( has "allen to the (round9 p'aj-% 6to "all6 #he (irl has !assed throu(h school (in other -ords% she has studied)9 `ech'-% 6to !ass6 chan-vun% 6school% to stud36 (literall3$ 6to learn !a!er6) vun% 6!a!er6 73 "ather has alread3 died9 cham-% 6to die6 73 sic:le is in the house ('iterall3$ It remains in the house)9 kom-% 6to remain6 #he -or:er has (otten tired9 lub-% 6to tire% to (et tired6 #he stubble has burned alread39

-hamem xa li jtot e. :omem ta na li jluk e.

3ubem li j`abtel e. :'ak'em xa li k'ajben e.

k'ak'-% 6to burn6 :;a0ben% 6stubble6 Sutem a 3a0nil9 sut4% 6to return6 His -i"e has alread3 returned9

& stative verb stem is "ormed "rom the root o" an intransitive verb9 (&ccordin( to the notation introduced b3 Josh Smith% I -ill -rite intransitive verb roots -ith a h3!hen at the end$ e9(9% bat4 6(o96) #he best translation o" this "orm o" the verb is the 6(!resent) !er"ect6$ Catem9 He has (one9

Cut the meanin( o" this "orm is% to be more !recise% stative$ the "orm -ith -em indicates that the sub0ect is in the state resultin( "rom the action% !rocess% or the event denoted b3 the verb9 #he -em verb "orms bear a stron( resemblance to ad0ectives9 T;oE li lum e9 :;oE% 6"ertile% rotten6 T;aEem li lum e9 :;aE4% 6to rot6 lum% 6(round% earth6 #o sa3 that somethin( k'a`em 6has rotted6 (usin( the stative "orm o" the verb k'a`-) is to sa3 that it has under(one the !rocess o" rottin(% but to sa3 that it is k'o` 6"ertile6 is sim!l3 to attribute to it the condition o" bein( rotten9 ,ote the relationshi! bet-een k'o` 6"ertile6 (ad0ective) and k'a` 6to rot6 (intransitive verb)% and the relationshi! bet-een k'ok' 6"ire6 (noun) and k'ak'- 6to burn6 (intransitive verb)9 #he basic "orms are k' ` and k' k res!ectivel3% "rom -hich the verbs are derived throu(h a re(ular !rocess (-hich en(enders the vo-el chan(e)9 I" the sub0ect o" the verb is 6I6 or 63ou%6 the absolutive su""i combines directl3 -ith the stative su""i 4em9 'ubemon ta 0me:9 EEch;emot ta Eabtel9 I am ver3 tried9 He has !assed -or: (in other -ords% he has done reli(ious or o""icial -or:)9 #he (round is "ertile9 #he (round has alread3 rotted5 it has alread3 become "ertile9

Cu3ot vol0eF 1a3emon to Eo 9 va34% 6to slee!6 7i Eabte0emot ta !in:aF E&3emon ti voEon e9 Eabte04% 6to -or:6 Ea34% 6to (o to (and come bac: "rom)6 voEon% 6lon( a(o% in the !ast6

+here -ere 3ou 3esterda3F I -as slee!in( toda39 Have 3ou -or:ed on the "armF I have (one% lon( a(o9

#he -ord `abtej is clearl3 related to Eabtel9 (#he root `abt can be seen in the #zeltal -ord `abat 6servant6% but #zotzil lac:s such an isolated "orm9) &lso% note that the article ti is used -ith vo`one% denotin( a remote time9 Uanavemon 0un :;a:;al9 anav4% 6to -al:6 I have -al:ed a da39

#his sentence is ne(ated -ith mu:; or -ith ne(ative e !ressions -ith bu9 7i lubemot toF 7i tzotzot aF 7u:; lubemon9 7u:; bu Eabte0emon9 Cu li Uun eF 7i te a ta JobelF 'iE to9 7u:; batem9 7u to bu :;a:;em li 0chob e9 E*3 to voE9 7i tzotz Ei! l ameEF #zotz Ei!% !ero mu:; chamem9 Tu ul to9 meE4el% 6mother% old -oman6 &re 3ou tired 3etF &re 3ou stron( alread3F I am not tired9 I haven;t -or:ed9 +here is JohnF Is he alread3 in San .ristZbalF He is here still9 He hasn;t (one9 73 corn"ield still hasn;t been burned (because) there still is no rain9 Is 3ou mother reall3 sic:F She is reall3 sic:% but she hasn;t died9 She;s still alive9

#he verb root cham4 6to die% to (et sic:6 is the basic root o" chamel 6sic:ness96 #he ne(ative "orms o" intransitive verbs are not "ormed -ith the su""i 4u:9 See the "ollo-in( e am!les$ 7i ch;a3em vol0e l atulu:; eF tulu:;% 6tur:e36 ch;a34% 6to (et lost% be lostF6 7aEu:9 JaE ch;a3em li 0chi0 e9 Did 3our tur:e3 (et lost 3esterda3F

,o (in other -ords% m3 tur:e3

didn;t (et lost% but rather m3 7aEu: ch;a3em li 0tulu:; e9 7u voEoni:on ch;a3emon vol0e9 shee!)9 +hat -as lost -as not m3 (ua0olote9 I didn;t (et lost 3esterda39

'ocative or tem!oral constituents also a!!ear in stative sentences9 Furthermore% it is !ossible to "ront nouns9 &li Uun e% 3ulem a ta Jobel9 &s "or John% he has alread3 E& ta0 :aE e% mi :;otem a Eo ta 0un EoraF arrived in San .ristZbal9 &s "or that horse% had it alread3 arrived b3 oneF

T;ot means 6to arrive (to another !lace)65 3ul4 means 6to arrive (here)96 #hus% :;otem ta Jobel means 6he has arrived in San .ristZbal%6 and this -ould be said i" the s!ea:er himsel" is not in San .ristZbal9 Cut 3ulem ta Jobel has t-o meanin(s$ either 6he has arrived in San .ristZbal (i" the s!ea:er is also in San .ristZbal)% or 6he has arrived here "rom San .ristZbal6 (i" the s!ea:er is not in San .ristZbal)9

#22 3ther +or)s of Intransiti"e $er%s

#he sentences that -e have seen contain a sub0ect (a noun or a 6!ronoun6)% and a main -ord (either the !redicate or an intransitive verb)% -hich combines -ith an absolutive su""i 9 #he su""i es alread3 mentioned belon( to the "ollo-in( series$ 4on 4ot 4[ (null) 6I6 63ou6 6she% he% it6

I -ill -rite these !re"i es -ith t-o h3!hens because% althou(h the3 !recede the verb root% the3 never remain in initial !osition but instead are al-a3s !receded b3 other

!re"i es9 For e am!le% the im!er"ective "orms o" intransitive verbs combine the verb root -ith the !re"i ch- and an absolutive mar:er that a(rees -ith the sub0ect9 For e am!le% .hibat ta Jobel9 .ha3ul ta Ea:;ubal9 .hlub ta Eabtel li Uun e9 I am (oin( to San .ristZbal9 Rou are (oin( to arrive at ni(ht9 John is (ettin( tired "rom -or:9 #hese verbs can be anal3zed in the "ollo-in( -a3$ Pre"i ch4 ch4 ch4 Pre"i i4 a4 [4 1erb Root bat 3ul lub

6I (o96 6Rou arrive96 6He tires96

#hese "orms are called 6im!er"ective6 because in their ordinar3 use the3 re"er to actions or events in the !resent or "uture44in other -ords% to actions that are un"inished9 #o be more e act% these "orms do not s!eci"3 the tense but rather the 6as!ect6 o" an action44the "act that the3 have not come to an end9 #he im!er"ective "orms o" a verb can denote un"inished actions in the !resent or in the "uture as -ell as the !ast9 (In the latter case% the !article `ox 6at another time%6 -hich -e have alread3 discussed% -ould be used9) 7i chabat aF .hibat liE ta 0li:el e9 li:el% 6moment6 ta 0li:el% 6in a moment6 (,ote the tem!oral use o" liE 6here96) 7i chali: aF li:4% 6to rise% (et u!% be(in6 7i chEabte0 to li Uun eF .hla0 a li 3abtele9 la04% 6to "inish6 1oEon chiva3 a9 &re 3ou (ettin( u! alread3F Is John still -or:in(F His -or: is alread3 "inished9 7e% I;m (oin( to slee!9 &re 3ou (oin( alread3F I;ll (o in a moment9

Im!er"ective "orms in the !ast tense denote actions that did not occur althou(h the3 -ere !lanned$

Cu3ot vol0eF 7u:; bu te3ot ta Jobel9 +here -ere 3ou 3esterda3F Rou -eren;t in San .ristZbalF #e3on to Eo ta :;in9 .hilo:; Eo ta chib Eora9 Pero ch;a3emon a Eo ta !o 9 lo:;4% 6to leave6 chib% 6t-o6 !o % 6shot% medicine6 .h;abte0 Eo lavie% !ero chamem a Eo smalel9 He -as (oin( to -or: toda3% but last ni(ht he died9 ,ote that the roots o" intransitive verbs do not lose -ord4initial (lottal sto!s -ith absolutive or im!er"ective !re"i es9 .ha4 Eech; ta 0na9 .hi4 Eabte0 ta Eora9 Rou are !assin( m3 house9 I am (oin( to -or: no-9 I -as still at the !art39 I -as (oin( to leave at t-o9 Cut (b3 t-o) I had alread3 lost m3 senses to li<uor9

#he im!er"ective "orms re"er to the be(innin( o" an action or an event9 #he 6stative6 "orms re"er to the resultin( state9 .hva3 a ta 0un Eora9 1a3em a ta 0un Eora9 1a3em a Eo ta 0un Eora9 .hva3 Eo ta 0un Eora9 He -as (oin( to slee! at one9 He -as aslee! b3 one9 &t one he -ill be aslee! alread39 He -as (oin( to slee! at one9

#he !article `ox indicates that an action% event% or state (de!endin( on -hether it is the verb or the !redicate) too: !lace not at the moment but at another s!eci"ic time% -hile the "orm o" the verb indicates the character o" the action$ in !ro(ress% not be(un% etc9 7i chabat Eono ta Jobel tanaF Do 3ou al-a3s (o to San .hibat Eo % !ero mu a bu ibat9 #he -ord Eono 6al-a3s6 indicates that some action% -hich ma3 be in doubt% trul3 did or -ill ta:e !lace9 .ristZbal toda3F I used to (o% but no- I don;t9

#he ne(ative "orms o" the im!er"ective use mu 6no6 -ith a neutral "orm o" the verb% -hich ta:es the !re"i x- instead o" the im!er"ective ch-9 7u ibat9 7u abat9 7u bat9 I am not (oin(9 Rou are not (oin(9 He is not (oin(9

#hese "orms su((est that the sub0ect does not -ant to (o or rather -ants to not (o9 #he3 contrast -ith other ne(ative "orms -ith muk' or mu`yuk9 7i chabat ta EolonF 7u:; ibat9 7i chaEech; ta na9 7uE3u:9 7i chEabte0F 7u iEabte09 &re 3ou (oin( to the lo-landsF I am not (neutral sense)9 +ill 3ou !ass b3 3our houseF ,o (neutral sense)9 &re 3ou (oin( to -or:F I am not (oin( to -or: (declaration o" un-illin(ness)9 In realit3% the !er"ective "orm (-ith the !re"i ch-) is anal3zable as a com!ound o" the neutral "orm (-ith the !re"i x-) !lus a !article ta that mar:s the im!er"ective9 For e am!le% the -ord chibat is a contracted "orm o" ta xibat% -hich results "rom the contraction o" ta L x- to ch-9 #he tem!oral !articles% -hich "ollo- the "irst -ord o" a sentence% directl3 "ollo- the shortened "orm or come bet-een ta and the verb9 7i chlo:; a li Uun eF #a a lo:; li E ta 0li:el9 7i ta Eono a0atavF .hi0atav Eono 9 .hital a% !ero ta to iEabte0 0li:elu:9 tal4% 6to come6 0li:elu:% 6a minute% a moment6 Is John leavin( alread3F He leave in a minuteF +ill 3ou reall3 "leeF Reall39 I;m reall3 (oin( no-% but I -ill still -or: "or a minute9

&ll the dialects o" #zotzil have ta as a si(nal o" the im!er"ective% but there are other !re"i es that re!lace or combine -ith ta9 For e am!le% in #zeltal and some other dialects o" #zotzil% the -ord yak indicates the im!er"ective9 In =inacantec #zotzil% yak !lus ta indicates an action that "ollo-s or continues9 Ra: chto3 sto0ol Ei im9 #he !rice o" corn continues to

rise9 to34% 6rise% incrase6 Ra: to chiEabte09 I;m (oin( to continue -or:in( still9 #he root 3a: also a!!ears in the verbal root 3a:et4 6to continue% the be on the -a396 Catz;i 3a:et Eabtel9 #he -or: is in !ro(ress9

#he !article te% -hich -e :no- as a locative and tem!oral !article% also occurs as an indicator o" the im!er"ective9 #o(ether -ith ta or the shortened "orm o" a verb -ith ch4% te has its normal meanin($ 6at such time% at such !lace96 #e chbat9 #e chbat ta Jobel9 #e chi:;ot ta Eolon Eosil9 He;s (oin( to (o there9 (*r$ He -ill (o at that time9) He;s (oin( to (o to San .ristZbal9 I customaril3 -or: in the lo-lands9 ('iterall3$ I arrive there in the lo-lands9) Cut te also can re!lace ta% -ith a "uture sense9 #e si(nals that the !erson s!ea:in( is in a(reement -ith the action that occurs in the s!eci"ied time or !lace9 #e bat9 #e i:;ot ta Eolon cheEe9 Res% he is (oin( (since -e are no- in a(reement)9 Res% I -ill (o to the lo-lands ("or e am!le% to -or:% #e atal cheEe9 accordin( to an a(reement)9 Go then (-hen it suits 3ou)9

#e has a determinate meanin( above% -hich is cou!led -ith the indication o" some "uture occurrence9 #he verbal !re"i tz;% the !re"i 4 assimilates to the inital consonant o" the verbal root9 Ce"ore s% tz% or

4 becomes s49 Perha!s he is returnin( toda39

#e nan ssut tana9 sut4% 6return6 nan% 6!erha!s6

7u stzul 3o:% ch;abal Each;el9 tzul4% 6to sli!% to slide6 Each;el% 6mud6 #a stz;iba0 li :rem e% 0aE cha!al ta vun9 #he bo3 is (oin( to -rite% since he :no-s ho- (literall3$ because he is read3 "or !a!er9) tz;iba04% 6to -rite6 (intransitive verb)

*ne;s "eet -on;t sli!% because there isn;t an3 mud9

In the "irst and second !erson there is no assimilation because the absolutive !re"i i4 or a4 comes bet-een the !re"i #a nan isut9 7u itzul9 #a atz;iba0 voEot9 4 and the initial consonant o" the verb root9 Perha!s I -ill return9 I -on;t sli!9 Rou;re (oin( to -rite9

+e have seen that ta L 4 (ives the shortened "orm ch49 Similarl3% ta L s4 (ives the assimilated "orm tz49 #ztzul 3o: tana9 'e: tztz;iba09 *ne;s "oot -ill sli!9 He -rites -ell9

& shortened "orm such as tztz;iba0 can then be anal3zed as$ ta L 4 L [ (null absolutive !re"i ) L tz;iba0% -hich assimilates "irst to ta L s4tz;iba0 and "inall3 to tz4tz;iba09 #he double consonants ss% !erson -ith an initial #a to anav li :aE e9 % and 00 are not !ronounced t-ice but are instead

!ronounced as a sin(le consonant9 #his e !lains -h3 intransitive verbs in the third or s "urther contract9 #he horse is still (oin( to -or:9 #he curer is (oin( to return to his house alread39 In both cases% the double consonants are !ronounced as i" the3 -ere sin(le$ anav

#a a ssut ta sna li 0Eilol e9

sounds li:e anav% and ssut sounds li:e sut9 In combination -ith the im!er"ective !article ta% these verbs !roduce the shortened "orms chanav 6he is (oin( to -or:6 and tzut 6he returns96 Students should learn the automatic !rocesses that !honeticall3

trans"orm the (rammatical "ormatives9 #hose -ho -ant to s!ea: #zotzil should ta:e note o" the structure hidden in the resultin( "orms9 &.#/&' F*R7 tzut chanav tztzul &,&'RSIS ta 4sut ta 4 anav ta 4tzul G'*SS 6He returns96 6He -al:s96 6He sli!s96

#here are also a "e- verbs be(innin( -ith 3 (-hich ultimatel3 derive "rom roots -ith an initial OH)% -hich lose the 3 -hen the3 combine -ith the !re"i Hul) contrast in the third !erson9 .hi3och ta Eabtel9 .hi3ul ta 0na9 Cut note the "ollo-in( cases$ .h3och 3a:;il li vob e9 Ea:;il% 6strin(% "iber6 .hul ta sna9 #he strin(s on the instrument are -ea:enin(9 He is arrivin( at his house9 I "eel -ea: (that is% I su""er) "rom -or:9 I arrive at m3 house9 49 #hus% "or e am!le% the verbs 3och4 6to "eel -ea:6 and 3ul4 6to arrive (here)6 ("rom the h3!othetical root

#he "orm chul can be anal3zed in the "ollo-in( manner$ ta 43ul9 Cut the 3 is a 6"alse6 3% derived "rom the h3!othetical OH% and there"ore disa!!ears% leavin( the "orm ta ul9 #he latter contracts to chul9 *n the other hand% the 6true6 3 "rom 3och4 does not disa!!ear a"ter 4% and the "orm ch3och is sim!l3 the shortened "rom o" ta 43och9 (In other dialects% "or e am!le% that o" .hamula% 3ul a!!ears as vul4 6to arrive (here)644more re(ular trans"ormation corres!ondin( to the h3!othetical OH be"ore the vo-el u9)

#23 The Perfecti"e +or)

#he !er"ective "orm% -hich denotes an alread3 "inished action% uses another verbal !re"i % -hich is l4 in =inacantec #zotzil9 l4 L &bsolutive Pre"i L 1erb Root

+hen the sub0ect o" a verb is in the third !erson% there is no absolutive !re"i % and the -ea: !re"i i4 (or no !re"i at all) is used to mar: the !reterite9 7i labat ta Jobel vol0eF 'ibat9I -ent9 #a 0a3ib Eora lalo:;F 'ilo:; ta Eol :;a:;al9 0a3ib% 6ho- much% ho- man36 Eol :;a:;al% 6noon6 7i iEoch a li 0Eilol eF IEoch a9 Eoch% 6to enter6 Cu ibat l atot eF Cat ta Eabtel9 7uch;u te i0atav ta teEti:F JaE i0atav li 0Eele:; e9 +hat time did 3ou leaveF I le"t at noon9 Did 3ou do to San .ristZbal 3esterda3F

Has the curer entered alread3F He has9 +here did 3our "ather (oF He -ent to -or:9 +ho "led to the "orestF It -as the thie" -ho "led9

#he !re"i i4% -hich si(nals the third !erson !er"ective% is ver3 -ea:% and usuall3 disa!!ears com!letel3% leavin( onl3 the bare verb stem9 E*ch li Uun e9 Sut tzna9 John entered9 He returned to his house9

(#he "orm tzna can be anal3zed as a contraction o" ta sna% -hich results "rom the !rocess alread3 seen$ ta L s4 (ives tz49) #he !er"ective "orms o" #zotzil verbs are usuall3 e<uivalent to the !ast tense in En(lish$ the3 denote actions that have come to a "inish8in other -ords% actions that too: !lace some time in the !ast9 ,evertheless% it is !ossible to s!ea: o" an action that -ill "inish in the "uture9 7i li:;ot ta Eolon% chiEabte09 JaE to chibat mi i3ul mantal9 /!on arrivin( to the lo-lands% I am (oin( to -or:9 I am not (oin( until the order comes9 ('iterall3$ I -ill onl3 (o i" the order arrives9) 0aE to% 6not\ until% until no-6 mantal% 6an order% a command6 7i la0 Eabtel% chi3a:ub9

+hen the -or: "inishes% I;ll

(et drun:9 3a:ub4% 6to (et drun:6 In these sentences% the !article mi has the meanin( 6i"96 (#he -ord timi 6i"6 also e ists9) In combination -ith the !er"ective "orm o" a verb% mi !roduces a clause -ith the meanin( 6once such an action is "inished\6 #he !er"ective "orm "ocuses u!on the com!letion o" the action or event% althou(h at the moment o" s!eech the action has not occured9 Ila0 Eo Eo:;ob9 'alo:; a Eo li:;ot Eo:;ob9 I -ill be "inished tomorro-9 +hen I "inish tomorro-% 3ou -ill have le"t alread39 #he !article Eo % -ith the !er"ective "orm o" a verb% e !resses the com!letion o" an action in either the "uture or the !ast9 IEoch a Eo ta Eol :;a:;al vol0e9 7i liEot to Eo e% mi labat Eo F *r$ +ill 3ou have (oneF *r$ +ere 3ou still there% or had 3ou le"t alread3F Gdouble4chec: ori(inal hereH & mi clause -ith the !er"ective "orm o" a verb has a tem!oral meanin($ 6-hen such a thin( ha!!ens\6 Cut a clause introduced b3 (ti)mi -ith an im!er"ective verb has a trul3 conditional meanin($ 6i" such a thin( ha!!ens\69 #imi chabat ta :;in% chibat Eu:9 #imi Eo3 !u:u0% chi0atav9 #imi chla0 Eabtel tana% Eo:;ob tzut tzna li 0Eabtel e9 I" the -or: "inishes toda3% tomorrothe -or:er -ill return to his house9 #his t3!e o" clause also occurs -ith stative "orms o" intransitive verbs9 I" 3ou (o to the !art3% I -ill (o too9 I" there are demons% I am (oin( to run a-a39 C3 noon tomorro- I -ill have entered9 &t that time$ are 3ou still (oin( to be here9

#imi va3em li 0chamel e% chisut noEo 9 I" the sic: !erson is slee!in(% I -ill return immediatel39 noEo % 60ust% onl36 #imi lubemot to Eo e% mu aEabte09 I" 3ou are still tired (then)% 3ou are not (oin( to -or:9 ,oEo 6onl36 (-hich sometimes shortens to no ) has various usa(es9 'i:e the tem!oral !articles% noEo "ollo-s the "irst -ord o" a sentence$ the !redicate% i" a verb% or an em!hatic -ord (such as 0aE or te)9 7i te noEo cha:om ta JobelF Rou are (oin( to (o to San .ristZbal onl39 ('iterall3$ #here in San .ristZbal onl3 JaE noEo chvaba0 li Uun e9 vaba04% 6!la36 7i Ei! li Ua! eF 'ubem noEo ta Eabtel9 Cu Eo3 siE9 JaE noEo Eo3 ta 0na9 3ou -ill remain9) *nl3 John is (oin( to !la39 Is Sebastian sic:F He is 0ust tired (due to -or:)9 +here is there "ire-oodF #here is some onl3 in m3 house9

#24 5e"ie6 of Intransiti"e $er% +or)s

#he e act meanin( o" a verb de!ends as much on the indicated "orm as it does on the meanin( o" the root9 #he conce!t o" the verb 6to slee!%6 "or e am!le% includes$ ?9 the state o" bein( aslee! 29 the event o" remainin( aslee!9 #he various "orms o" the verb va34 6to slee!6 denote$ ?9 the "act that some is (oin( to slee! but has not (one to slee! 3et (im!er"ective) 29 the "act that the event o" (oin( to slee! has alread3 occured (!er"ective)5 and J9 the "act that someone has entered the state o" slee! (stative)9 #he various "orms are summarized belo-$ .hva3 a9 He is (oin( to slee! alread39

Iva3 a9 1a3em a9 .hva3 to9 Iva3 to9 1a3em to9

He -ent to slee!9 He is aslee!9 He is (oin( to slee! still9 He remained aslee! (a"ter bein( a-a:ened)9 He remains aslee!9

#he case o" cham4 6to die6 is some-hat di""erent9 I" the event (o" d3in() has alread3 come to a "inish% someone has died (!er"ective)9 I" the3 are dead% the3 are in the state resultin( "rom d3in( (stative)9 Ho-ever% i" someone is (oin( to die% and i" the !rocess remains incom!lete% the !erson is sic:9 #a a cham9 Icham a9 .hamem a9 .hcham to9 He is (oin( to die (i9e9% he is (ravel3 ill)9 He died alread39 He is dead9 He is still (oin( to die (in other -ords% he is (oin( to become Icham to9 (ravel3 ill)9 He died nevertheless9 (In other -ords% he -as sill alive some time a"ter (ettin( sic:% but he "inall3 died9) &s another e am!le% consider the verb Eoch4 6to enter%6 -hich a!!ears to denote a s!eci"ic moment or de"inite event9 #he im!er"ective is the a!!ro!riate as!ect -hen the moment o" enterin( has not 3et come% -hile the !er"ective denotes the moment o" enterin( and the stative denotes the state o" bein( inside9 Here I -ill (ive a "ee am!les based on the e !ression `och ta `abtel (literall3$ 6enter -or:6 but essentiall3 meanin( 6to be(in an car(o6)9 .hiEoch ta Eabtel lavie9 ,o- I am (oin( to start (literall3$ enter) m3 car(o (but 'iEoch ta Eabtel lavie9 *chemon ta Eabtel lavie9 I still haven;t done so)9 #oda3 I start m3 car(o9 #oda3 I started m3 car(o9

Celo- is a summar3 o" the "orms o" the intransitive verb$

Stative 4emon 4emot 4em

Pe"ective ta i4 N chi4 ta 4 N cha4 ta 4 N ch4

Im!er"ective li4 la4 (i)4

#he !re"i es and su""i es combine directl3 -ith verb roots9 +e have seen the ne(ative "orm constructed "rom mu !lus the neutral as!ect (called 6aorist6 ) o" the verb (-ith 4)9 7u ibat9 7u Eabte09 7u tal9 I am not (oin( (I am un-illin( or unable)9 He doesn;t -or: (he re"uses)9 He isn;t comin( (-e can;t convince him to)9 #he im!er"ective and !er"ective "orms are also ne(ated -ith the ne(ative !article mu:; !lus the neutral as!ect 49 Here% the distinction bet-een !er"ective and im!er"ective a!!ears to be neutralized$ 7i chabatF 7u:; chibat9 7i labatF 7u:; ibat9 &re 3ou (oin(F I am not (oin(9 Did 3ou (oF I didn;t9

#hese a!!ear to be the !re"erred "orms% althou(h the "ollo-in( "orms are also heard$ 7u:; chibat9 7u:; libat9 I am not (oin( to (o9 I didn;t (o9

I am not sure -hether there is a di""erence bet-een the "orms -ith e !licit as!ect and those -ith the neutral 49 #he "orms -ith mu in the second !erson also serve as ne(ative im!eratives% o"ten -ith the additional !article me (-hich (ives a desiderative em!hasis)9 7u me abatQ 7u aEabte0Q Don;t (oQ Don;t -or:Q

#he !ositive im!erative is "ormed -ith a verb root and the su""i 4an9

CatanQ 'o:;anQ E&bte0anQ 1a3an meQ

GoQ 'eaveQ +or:Q Go to slee!Q

#2! +or)s 7eri"ed fro) Intransiti"e $er%s

Ilo:; a tal li :aro e9 E*ch; Eech;el tzna li t;ul e9 t;ul% 6rabbit6 'iEon ta 0ol na9 'i!;it mu3el tal9 .hmu3 a ta teE li mut e9 .h0atav Eochel9 'a!;a0 :omel ta Each;el9 #he car alread3 le"t "or here9 #he rabbit entered his house9 Here I am on the roo" o" the house9 I 0um!ed u! here9 #he bird climbed the tree9 He is (oin( to "lee inside9 Rou "ell in the mud (and remained there)9 7an3 monos3llabic intransitive verbs that denote some t3!e o" motion (or the lac: o" motion% as in :om4 6to remain6) "orm nouns -ith the su""i 4el9 #hese nouns add a directional sense to the sentence -hen the3 "ollo- the main verb o" a clause9 For e am!le% the verb Eoch4 6to enter6 "orms the noun Eochel9 #he sentence .h0atav Eochel9 means% 6He "led and entered%6 or% better said% 6He "led enterin(96 #he root tal ("rom tal4 6to come6) or the su""i al "orm talel serves as a directional -ith the meanin($ 6throu(h here% comin(96 .hmu3 tal N chmu3 talel9 He climbed u! here9

*ther "orms have meanin(s that are sli(htl3 !eculiar9 In =inacantec #zotzil% the noun that si(nals direction a-a3 "rom here (6(oin(6) is based not on bat4 6to (o6 but rather on Eech4 6to !ass96 #hus% one hears Eech;el (or the shortened "orm Eel)9 .hisut Eech;el tana9 'o:;em Eech;el li Uun e9 I am (oin( to return (to the !lace "rom -hence I came)9 Johns has alread3 le"t ("rom here)9 #he "orm batel% "rom bat4 6to (o%6 has the e !ected meanin( in other dialects o" #zotzil% but in =inacantec #zotzil% this -ords means$ 6at times% occasionall396

.hi:;ot batel ta .hamuE9 .hi!a 3a0 batel ta Ea:;ubal9 !a 3a04 6hunt% -al: around6

I occasionall3 (o to .hamula9 I occasionall3 (o out at ni(ht (e9(9% huntin(% to -al: around)9

#he most (eneral directional nouns44talel 6throu(h here6 and Eech;el 6"rom here%6 as -ell as the 6immobile6 directional :omel 6remainin(644can su!!lement another more s!ecialized directional9 .hEanila0 lo:;el talel li tz;iE e9 #he do( le"t "or here runnin(9 (#he !erson s!ea:in( is outside% and the do( runs in his Ivil 3alel :omel li ulem e9 3al4 6to descend6 vil4 6to "l36 'iEi!a0 3alel Eech;el9 direction9) #he buzzard s-oo!ed do-n (and remained there)9

I (ot sic: -hen I came do-n "rom here ("or e am!le% -hen I -ent to the lo-lands "rom the hi(hlands)9 Cut u!on arrivin(% I im!roved9

Pero lile:ub a :;otel9 le:ub4 6to im!rove6

1erbs such as 3ul4 and :;ot4% -hich a!!ear to denote events (6the moment o" arrivin(% the arrival6)% !rovide 6directional6 nouns -ith the meanin( 6u!on arrivin(% arrivin(96 See the "ollo-in($ IEo:; sutel9 Eo:;4% 6to cr36 'i3a:ub va3el9 /!on( arrivin(% he -e!t9 I (ot drun: -hen I sle!t (at slee!in( time)9 (#he class o" verbs that !roduce directional nouns is limited5 va34 6to slee!6 is the onl3 verb that has a 6directional6 usa(e -ithout a meanin( that involves motion8-ith the e ce!tion o" the motionless verb :om4 6to remain96) ,ouns "ormed "rom the su""i in( o" 4el to intransitive verb roots have various uses9 +e have alread3 seen a "e- s!ecialized usa(es$

cham4% 6to do% to "all (ravel3 ill6 chamel% 6sic:ness6 0chamel% 6a sic: !erson6 3a:ub4% 6to (et drun:6 03a:ubel% 6a drun:6 3a:ubel% 6drun:enness6 Each;4% 6to (et -et6 Each;el% 6mud6 li:4% 6to be(in% to rise6 li:el% 6moment% instant6 ,ouns -ith s!ecialized meanin(s also derive "rom other intransitive verbs that -e have seen$ Eoch;4% 6to enter6 Eoch;el ta na% 6ceremon3 "or the receivin( a bride4to4be into the house o" the (room4to4 be6 lub4% 6to (et tired6 lubel% 6"ati(ue6 :;aE4% 6to rot6 :;aEel% 6venereal disease6 #hese nouns have lost their verbal character and "unction as ordinar3 nouns9 #o0 tzotz li 0lubele9 #ol cha0atav ta s3a:ubel9 I;m ver3 tired9 ('iterall3$ 73 "ati(ue is (reat9) He usuall3 runs o"" -hen he is drun: (literall3$ in his drun:enness)9 tol% 6o"ten% a lot6 (#ol is a shortened "orm o" to3ol 6hi(h%6 -hich modi"ies !redicates and verbs as an intensi"ier9) In these e am!les the nouns -ith 4el carr3 !ossessive !re"i es9

&nother more clearl3 verbal construction uses a derived noun -ith 4el -ith a !ossessive !re"i 9 .onsider the "ollo-in( e am!le sentences -ith intransitive verbs$ ,a to li3ul9 T;usi Eora iEochF 1ol0e iEoch9 Ja3ib Eora lali:F Jun Eora to lili:9 I arrived earl39 ('iterall3$ I arrived earlier toda3) +hen (-hat da3) did he enterF Resterda39 +hat time did 3ou (et u!F I (ot u! at one9

In these sentences a tem!oral e !ression !recedes and modi"ies the verb9 In initial !osition% the tem!oral e !ression is the "ocus o" the sentence9

'i3ul na 9 ,a to li3ul9

I arrived earl39 I;ve been here since earlier toda3 (literall3$ earlier still I arrived)9 &re 3ou (oin( to (et u! earl3 (-ith em!hasis)F

7i sob cha0ulavF

#he meanin( o" a "ronted tem!oral e !ression can be seen in ne(ative "orms9 7u:; i3ul na 9 7u a bu na li3ul9 7u:; i0ulav ta sob9 7u masu: sob chi0ulav9 I didn;t arrive earlier (in other -ords% I didn;t arrive)9 It -asn;t earl3 -hen I arrived9 I didn;t (et u! earl39 It -as earl3 in the mornin( -hen I (ot u!9 (,ote that in the last sentence% the ne(ative !article mu combines -ith mas 6more% ver3%6 and the as!ect o" the verb is not a""ected9) In sentences -ith a "ronted tem!oral -ord "ronted% the verb a!!ears to be the 6sub0ect6 and the tem!oral e !ression the 6!redicate65 the sentence !redicates the tem!oral <ualit3% re!resented b3 the !redicate% -ith res!ect to the event or the action denoted b3 the verb$ 6the moment in -hich I (ot u! -as not earl3%6 etc9 & noun derived -ith 4el can also be the sub0ect o" a tem!oral !redicate9

,a to s3ulel9 7i na to avochel ta EabtelF

He arrived earl39 ('iterall3$ His arrival -as earl39) Did 3ou be(in -or: earl3F ('iterall3$ +as 3our entrance to -or: earl3F) I 0ust started9

,a:a to :ochel9 na:a% 60ust6 na:a to% 60ust a moment a(o6 7i na a0ulavelF ,a:a to 0li:el9

Has it been lon( since 3ou (ot u!F I 0ust (ot u! a moment a(o9

It is obvious that the 6!ossessive6 !re"i to(ether -ith the derived noun a(rees -ith the true sub0ect o" the verb9 #hat is to sa3% a verbal noun o" the "orm$ s43ul4el is related to the sentence$ I3ul (i4]43ul)9 He arrived9 6his arrival6

#he verb;s true sub0ect a!!ears e !licitl3 as the sub0ect o" an intransitive verb% or as the (rammatical !ossessor o" the "orm derived -ith 4el9 I3ul li Uun e9 ,a to s3ulel li Uun e9 John arrived9 John arrived earl39 ('iterall3$ John;s arrival -as earlier9) Here -e have another e am!le o" the hi(hl3 develo!ed usa(e o" (rammatical !ossession in #zotzil9 ,ote that there is a similar construction in En(lish$ 6John;s arrival% 6m3 arrival%6 etc9 #here is another verbal su""i % 4ebal% -hich occurs -ith intransitive verbs (es!eciall3 -ith 3ul4 and tal4) -ith the e !licit meanin( 6the moment in -hich somethin( ha!!ens96 #hus$ #alebal a li voE e9 Rulebal a li 0Eabtel e9 It;s about to rain9 ('iterall3$ the rain is about to come9) #he -or:ers are about to arrive9

Ja3ib Eora cha3ul Eo:;obF .hi3ul ta 0un Eora9 'o:;ebal a Eo li Uun e9

+hat time -ill 3ou arrive tomorro-F I -ill arrive at one9 John -ill be about to arrive at that time9

#hese -ords derived -ith 4ebal do not !ermit !ossessive !re"i es9 #he3 "unction in isolation as !redicates9 #hus% these -ords -ith 4ebal carr3 nominative su""i es9 Ja3ib Eora chalo:; tanaF Catz;i lo:;ebalon a9 +hat time -ill 3ou leave laterF I am about to leave9

#2# Co)plete Sentences 6ith Intransiti"e $er%s

In sentences li:e the "ollo-in(% the !redicate is an adverbial e !ression and the sub0ect is a com!lete !hrase9 Sob to li:;ot ta ch;ivit ta Jobel9 It -as earl3 -hen I arrived at the mar:et in San .ristZbal9 7u:; bu sob li:;ot ta ch;ivit ta It -asn;t earl3 -hen I arrived at the Jobel9 #he !hrase li:;ot ta ch;ivit\ denotes an event and a more com!le sentence asserts that the event did or did not occur earlier9 *ther adverbial e !ressions "unction in the same manner9 Jset; mu icham9 He almost died9 ('iterall3$ 'ittle he didn;t die9) 0set% 6a little6 He -ent dee! into in the cave9 He remained isolated "or a lon( time9 mar:et in San .ristZbal9

,at iEoch ta ch;en9 Jal i:om ta nom9 0al% 6a lon( time6 nom% 6"ar a-a36 S:otol :;a:;al chva3 ta be9 S0unul :;in mu va39

Ever3 da3 he slee!s on the road9 Durin( the !art3 he didn;t slee!9

(#he "orms o" 4:otol 6all6 and 40unul 6all% com!lete% entire6 are considered in the "ollo-in( cha!ter9) #he ne(ative "orm o" these sentences ne(ate not the verb% but rather the adverb% its modi"ier9 7u:; bu nat iEoch9 7u 0alu: i:om9 He -ent in% but not ver3 "ar9 He remained "or a lon( time9 ('iterall3$ It -asn;t "or lon( 7u s:otolu: :;a:;al te chva39 7u s0unlu: :;in9 Iva3 Eono 0un :;a:;al9 It -asn;t "or all o" the !art3 (that he slee!)9 He al-a3s slee! one ni(ht9 *ne can see that the sub0ects o" these sentences are entire sentences% modi"ied b3 adverbial e !ressions9 (#he distance) that he -ent into the cave$ it is (reat9 (#he time) -hen he remained isolated$ it -as (reat9 #he "ollo-in( sentences illustrate another class o" structures$ EI! a isut ta na9 J3a:ubel li3ul ta :;in9 1a3em la:om ta teEti:9 He returned to his house sic:9 I arrived to the !art3 ver3 drun:9 Rou remained slee!in( in the "orest9 & similiar meanin( is e !ressed b3 means o" the tem!oral con0unction :;alal 6-hen96 T;alal isut ta na% Ei! a9 He -as alread3 sic: -hen he that he remained9) He didn;t slee! there ever3 da39

returned to the house9 J3a:ubelon :;alal li3ul ta :;in9 I -as sic: -hen I arrived at the !art39 .om!are the "ollo-in( sentence% -ith the !article mi 6-hetherNi"6$ J3a:ubelon mi li3ul ta :;in9 +hen I arrive at the !art3% I

-ill be drun:9 1a3emot :;alal la:om ta teEti:9 Rou -ere slee!in( -hen 3ou remained in the "orest9 G-here does "ootnote endFH #he structure o" sentences -ith :;alal can be re!resented in the "ollo-in( manner$ GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH *n the other hand% in other sentences onl3 the !rinci!al verb carries an absolutive a""i % and the additional !redicate (oes -ithout an absolutive su""i 9 GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH Ho-ever% the additional !redicate is understood as re"errin( to the same sub0ect9 From the sentence$ EI! libat ta 0na9 Cein( sic:% I -ent to m3 house9 one understands that$ EI!on9 I -as sic:9

althou(h the ad0ective Ei! does not carr3 an a""i in the ori(inal sentence9 .onsider the "ollo-in( conversation$ 8'alo:; ta :;in ta Ea:;ubal9 7i 03a:ubel la:;ot ta anaF I le"t the !art3 at ni(ht9 +ere 3ou drun: -hen 3ou arrived at 3our houseF 8EIEi% :u ulon9 ,o% I -as sober9 8Pero ch;a3em 3ilel lalo:;9 Cut 3ou seemed li:e 3ou -ere read3 to !ass out -hen 3ou le"t9 3ilel% 6a!!ears that -a36 ch;a3em% 6!ass out6 (literall3$ lost) 8C-eno% !ero :u ul liva39

Res% but I -as sober -hen I -ent to slee!9

In these constructions% the "irst !redicate !rovides the !rinci!al commentar3 on the to!ic% the sub0ect9 #his !redicate combines -ith the intransitive verb -hich in turn carries an e !licit absolutive !re"i % thereb3 <uali"3in( the meanin( o" the main !redicate9 #he -ord 3ilel is related to the root 4il 6to see6 (a root that can also be seen in 0Eilol 6curer% seer6)9 Rilel means 6a!!arentl3% it seems that% it loo:s as i"6% as in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ EI!ot 3ilel9 Ibat a ta Jobel 3ilel9 1a3em to 3ilel9 Rou loo: sic:9 It loo:s li:e he has (one to San .ristZbal9 &!!arentl3 he is still slee!in(9

Rilel can also be "ronted% as an adverb$ Rilel te to ta ch;ivit9 Rilel to mu tal9 He a!!ears to be in the mar:et still9 It loo:s li:e he isn;t comin(9

&nother similar construction is the "ollo-in($ Rochel ta Eabte09 Rochel ta lo:; Ea0an9 He is be(innin( to -or:9 #he corn is startin( to leave9

#he -or: 4ochel ("rom Eoch 6to enter6) a!!ears to have an entire sentence as its (rammatical !ossesor and it is this !ossesssor -hich (ives the !ossessive !re"i 349 #he combination means 6it is the entrance o" S6 (-here S stands "or sentence) or 6S be(ins96 #he -ord 3olel "unctions in a similar manner% -ith the meanin( o" 6in the !rocess o"% in the midst o"96 (See also 3a:% 3a:et9) Rolel chEabte09 Rolel ch3a:ub9 Rolel Eabtel9 Rolel Ea:;ot9 Ea:;ot% 6dance6 He is -or:in(9 He is (ettin( drun:9 #he -or: is under -a39 #he dance is in !ro(ress9

&nother construction em!lo3s "orms o" intransitive verbs -hose sub0ects do not en(ender absolutive a""i es9

#o0 :;asel li3al ta lum9

I bro:e somethin( "allin( to the (round9 (In other -ords% -hen I "ell to the (round% I hurt m3sel"9)

:;as% 6to brea: somethin(6 .h;a3el i:;ot s0ol9 Catel a chibat9

He (ot u!set9 ('iterall3$ His head became lost9) I am still (oin( "ar a-a39

Redu!lication o" verbal nouns -ith 4el indicates a !rocess or a re!etetive and continous action$ Solel to3el to3el sto0ol9 solel% 6onl3% sim!l36 'o:;el lo:;el s:;o!lal9 #he !rice :ee!s risin( (a(ain and a(ain)9 Jo:es about the sur(eon are constantl3 comin( u! (literall3$ leavin()9 #hese nouns -ith 4el can also carr3 e !licit absolutive su""i es -hen the3 "unction in isolation as !redicates9 #o0 :;aselon ta 0me:9 #o0 :;aselot 3ilel% to0 :;asel avo:9 I am ver3 sha:en u!F Rou seem hurt$ 3our le( is bro:en9

#hese absolutive su""i es disa!!ear in combination -ith another verb% as in$ #o0 :;asel li:;ot ta 0na9 I -as reall3 sha:en u! -hen I arrived at m3 house9 ,ote the !osition o" the absolutive su""i -ith redu!licated "orms$ #e noEo ch;a3el ch;a3elon ta +henever I (o to 7e ico I (et 7e0i:o9 Solel talel batelon ta0me:9 lost9 I onl3 come and (o% come and (o9

#2& Intransiti"e Sentences 6ith Instru)ent or 8gent

'ila0 ta ton9 .hacham ta bala timi chabat9 &li i :irvano e% tztz;iba0 ta I hurt m3sel" on a roc: (literall3$ I "inished m3sel"9) I" 3ou (o% 3ou -ill die "rom a bullet9 #he -riter is -ritin( on a

ma:ina9 t3!e-riter9 &li meEel e% mu anav ta :aro9 #he old -oman doesn;t -ant to (o (literall3$ to -al:) b3 car9 +e alread3 :no- that ta is the onl3 #zotzil !re!osition9 #a combines -ith various t3!es o" nouns in order to incor!orate tem!oral and locative constituents into a sentence% as -e have alread3 seen9 Phrases that s!eci"3 instrument are also "ormed -ith ta9 (#here are even sentences -ith t-o or three di""erent constituents that all use the !re!osition ta9) 'i0ach; ta Each;el ta teEti: ta b3erne 9 I sli!!ed in the mud in the "orest on Frida39 0ach;% 6to sli!% to "all6 #a Ea:;in ta Eolon Eosil chiEate0 ta Easaluna9 In the lo-lands I -or: -ith a hoe at cleanin( time9 Ea:;in% 6to clean (as in a corn"ield)6 Easaluna% 6hoe6 .lauses -ith ta can indicate various t3!es o" cause% instrument% or a(ent in relation to an action9 I0am ta Ea:;in li na e9 0am4% 6to o!en6 Ei:;% 6-ind6 'ila0 ta Eutel9 #he house -as o!ened b3 the -ind9

#he3 reall3 scolded me9 ('iterall3$ I "inished m3sel" "rom scoldin(9)

Eutel% 6scoldin(6 Ibat ta vini: li tzeb e9

#he (irl married a man9

('iterall3$ the (irl -ent -ith a .hEo:; ta viEnal li Eunen e9 viEnal% 6hun(er6 viEna0% 6to be hun(r36 Eo:;4% 6scream% cr36 .h0atav ta !o li Eantz e9 man)9 #he (irl cried "rom hun(er9

#he -oman "led "rom the li<uor (because she didn;t -ant to drin: an39)

#hese instrumental constituents -ith ta can be "ronted and ne(ated -hen the3 serve as the "ocus o" a com!le sentence9 7i ta machita ila0 mi ta balaF Did he die "rom a machete or a 7i ta Ei:; i0am li na eF 7aEu:% tz tz;iE i0am9 7i ta :aro cha:;ot ta #u taF bulletF +as it "rom the -id that the house o!enedF ,o% b3 a do(9 Is it b3 car that 3ou are (oin( to (literall3$ arrivin( in) #u tla9 7u ta :arou:9 #a :o: chi:;ot9 ,ot b3 car% but b3 -al:in(9 &(ain% note that the com!lement o" ta lac:s the article li% althou(h it is de"inite9 *n the other hand% there is a construction to e !ress the instrument or the cause o" an action% or event% that !ermits the use o" articles9 #his construction uses the related -ord Eo9 'i iE Eo li chon liEe9 E&li chon liEe% li iE Eo9 I -as scared b3 this sna:e9 It -as because o" the sna:e that I (ot scared9 .om!are$ 'i iE ta chon9 I -as scared b3 a sna:e9

In these sentences% the ordinar3 order o" constituents is the "ollo-in($ 1erb Eo Instrument Sub0ect

-here the sub0ect !roduces absolutive a""i es on the verb9 I" there is no ambi(uit3 (i" the 6instrument6 or the sub0ect is in the "irst or second !erson)% the instrument or the sub0ect can be "ronted9 (&nd remember that -hen t-o de"inite nouns -ith li occur in se<uence% onl3 the last article survives9 #he rest disa!!ear9) .hi0atav ta !o li voEon e9 .hi0atav Eo li !o e9 1oEon chi0atav Eo li !o e9 I "led because o" the li<uor9 Cecause o" the li<uor% I "led9 I -as the one -ho "led "rom o"

the li<uor9 E&li !o e% chi0atav Eo (li voEon It -as because o" the li<uor e)9 Po chi0atav Eo9 7i voEon cha iE EoF 7u voEoti:ot chi iE Eo9 JEi:;al chi iE Eo9 that I "led9 It;s the !o that I "led "rom9 +as it me 3ou -ere a"raid o"F It -asn;t 3ou I -as a"raid o"9 It -as a s!oo: that I -as a"raid o"9 +hen the sub0ect and the instrument are nouns (in the third !erson) there e ists the !ossibilit3 o" ambi(uit3% -hich is avoided throu(h circumlocution9 E&li Eunen e% i iE Eo li chon e9 #he child -as scared b3 the .hon i iE Eo li Eunen e9 sna:e9 It -as a sna:e that the child

-as scared o"9 E&li chon e% i iE Eo li Eunen e9 #he sna:e -as scared o" the JaE i iE li chon e9 child9 It -as the sna:e that -as scared9 ,ote that the construction -ith Eo al-a3s indicates instrument or cause% -hile a clause -ith ta can also denote a time or !lace9 7i la iE ta voEF *r$ +ere 3ou scared near the -aterF 'i iE ta voEti:9 voEti:% 6rain3 season6 'i iE Eo li voE e9 +ere 3ou scared b3 the -aterF It -as scared durin( the rain3 season9 I -as scared o" the -ater9

It is also !ossible to <uestion the instrumentNa(entNcause9

T;usi chiE Eo li Eunen eF

+hat -as the child scared o"F iE%

(#he root iE4 6to be a"raid%6 in the im!er"ective "orm o" the third !erson (ives ta -hich reduces to chiE)9 7uch;u cha0atav EoF T;usi lala0 EoF 'ila0 ta ton9 7uch;u i iEF 7uch;u i iE EoF +ho are 3ou "leein( "romF +hat did 3ou hurt 3oursel" onF It -as a roc:9 +ho -as a"raidF +ho -as he a"raid o"F

In the last <uestion% -e alread3 :no- -ho is a"raid% and -e are as:in( -ho the !erson "ears9 *n the other hand% the "ollo-in( sentence is ambi(uous9 7uch;u i iE Eo li 0ma:4beF 0ma:4be% 6assassin% hi(h-a3man6 #here are t-o !ossible inter!retations$ ?9 +ho -as the bandit a"raid o"F 29 +ho -as a"raid o" the banditF (#he s!eech conte t -ill (enerall3 resolve this ambi(uit39) #he -ord Eo also relates one sentence to another% in the "ollo-in( -a3$ .h;abal Easaluna9 .hiEabte0 ta Easaluna9 .h;abal Easaluna chiEabte0 Eo9 T;usi la iE EoF .h;abal :;usi li iE Eo9 #here isn;t a hoe9 I -or: -ith a hoe9 #here isn;t no hoe "or me to -or: -ith9 +hat "ri(htened 3ouF ,othin( "ri(htened me9

#here is a relation o" subordination bet-een t-o sentences o" the "orm$ .h;abal #here isn;t .h;abal GEasaluna a hoe GEasaluna chiEabte0 EoH GchiEabte0 ta EasalunaH H I -or: -ith a hoe

#he -ord Eo re!laces the clause ta Easaluna in the second sentence9 & similar subordinate relation can be seen in the "ollo-in( sentences$ E*3 ma3ol9 .hbat ta mantal li ma3ol e9 #here is a constable9 #he constable -ill (ive a mandate9 ma3ol% 6constable6 mantal% 6command% mandate6 #here is a constable -ho is (oin( to (ive a mandate9 Here the re!eated noun in the second !art o" the sentence44mayol44is the sub0ect o" the verb chbat -hich sim!l3 disa!!ears -ithout leavin( a -ord li:e Eo as a trace9 E*3 #here is E*3 Gma3ol a constable Gma3ol chbat ta mantalH Gchbat ma3ol ta mantalHH the constables -ill (ive a mandate

E*3 ma3ol chbat ta mantal9

#hese t-o !rocesses o" subordination can combine in a sin(le com!lete sentence9 E&li Easaluna liEe% ch;abal 0to0balal chEabte0 Eo9 &s "or that hoe% there isn;t a -or: -ho -ill -or: -ith it9 #he !hrase chEabte0 Eo results "rom the disa!!earance o" t-o constituents "rom the underl3in( sentence$ chEabte0 chEabte0 #here"ore% a sentence li:e$ JaE chcham Eo9 Cecause o" this% he is (oin( to die9 results "rom a !rocess o" subordination o" t-o sentences$ JaE U9It is U9 .hcham ta U9 Gta EasalunaH Eo Gli 0to0balal eH9 [

He is (oin( to die "rom U9

-here U re!resents somethin( alread3 :no-n9 #he "ollo-in( e am!le sentence results "rom the same !rocess$ 1oEon chiE Eo9 He is a"raid o" me9

(Remember that the !ronouns voEon and voEot contain the basic !redicate 0aE9) #he -ord Eo is also used in other conte ts9 +ith verbs% Eo can si(ni"3 6"orever69 Ibat Eo9 Ila0 Eo9 'ital Eo9 Ila0 Eo :;o!9 He le"t (and hasn;t returned)9 It is "inished "orever9 I;m here "or (ood9 #he ar(ument ended "or (ood9

+ith the number 0un 6one%6 and -ith other e !ressions li:e 04tos 6one classNt3!e6 or 04 cho! 6a "amil3N!airN(rou!6 or 040ot 6one side6% one uses Eo in the sense o" 6another% di""erent96 Jun Eo a ital9 Jcho! Eo la:;uEe9 J0ot Eo ch:;o!o09 It -as the other one -ho came9 Rour clothin( is di""erent9 He tal:s di""erentl3 (literall3$ "rom another side)9 :;o!o04% 6tal:% converse6 #hat is a di""erent :ind9

Jtos a Eo leEe9

Chapter 8: The Str,ct,re of o,n%2 &art 0

0.0 (t#er Expressions +it# Possessi"e Prefixes

+e alread3 :no- ho- to "orm a sentence such as 6I have a house644b3 means o"'oy% -hich si(nals e istence% !lus a !ossessed noun -ith a !ossessive !re"i $ jna 6m3 house96 '0y jna. I have a house9 '0y jtot. I have a "ather (in other -ords% m3 "athers is still alive)9 '0y skaro stot li $un e. John;s "ather has a car9 #here are also 6nominative6 sentences -hose !redicates are !ossessed nouns9 #hus% in the "ollo-in( e am!les% the !redicate is a noun and the sub0ect is a demonstrative -ord or a name9 %a' jna li'e. #his is m3 house9 %a' jbankil li $un e. John is m3 "ather9 +e can distin(uish bet-een t-o constructions -ith ja'9 In the "irst% ja' is an em!hatic !art o" the nominal !redicate (or an3 other t3!e o" !redicate)% -hich calls attention to the sub0ect and em!hasizes -hat it bein( !redicated9 #he structure is$ ja' L Predicate L Sub0ect #he !revious sentences -ith ja' are o" this "orm% as are the "ollo-in($ Predicate Sub0ect ja' bankilal-on (li vo'on e) I am the older brother9 ja' kitz'in-ot to (li vo'ot e) Rou are 3oun(er9 In these e am!les% the !article ja' disa!!ears i" s!ecial em!hasis is unnecessar39 (*ther authors have called the !article ja' a !article o" 6attention96 See .o-an% ?@^@$J?)9

%a' can also "unction as the entire !redicate o" a sentence% re!lacin( another !redicate (much li:e a 6!ro4verb6) or 0ust the !redicate 9h,h:;% -ith the meanin( 6it is this% it is that96 For e am!le$ %a' li $un e. It is John9 %a' li jbankil e. It is m3 older brother9 8o'on. It;s me9 In that case% the "ollo-in( sentence is ambi(uous$ %a' sbankil li $un e. &ccordin( to its basic structure% this sentence can have t-o meanin(9 It can either mean 6John is his older brother%6 -ith the "orm Predicate Sub0ect ja' sbankil li $un e *r it can mean 6It is John;s older brother%6 -ith the "orm Predicate Sub0ect ja' sbankil li $un e & s!ecial relationshi! bet-een the t-o structures de!ends on the 6!ro4verbal6 use o" ja'% because not onl3 the sub0ect% but also the !redicate% can be "ronted% leavin( ja' as the residual !redicate o" the sentence9 %a' jbankil li $un e. John is m3 older brother9 ' li $un e/ ja' jbankil. S!ea:in( o" John% he is m3 older brother9 (In both sentences the !article ja' can disa!!ear9) Cut -hen "rontin( the !redicate44in the "orm o" a noun -ith a de"inite article44the !article ja' should remain as the 6!ro4verbal6 !redicate9

' li jbankil e/ ja' li $un e. 73 older brother% it;s John here9 #he same !ossibilities accom!an3 those sentences that have a demonstrative !ronoun as their sub0ect9 (%a') jchob le'e. #hat is m3 corn"ield9 ' le'e/ (ja') jchob. #hat% it;s m3 corn"ield9 ' li jchob e/ ja' le'e. 73 corn"ield% it;s that one9 *ne "orms such sentences -ith "irst or second !erson sub0ects9 %a' mas bankilalon (li vo'on e). I am older9 8o'on mas bankilalon. I;m the one -ho;s older9 ' li vo'on e/ mas bankilalon. &s "or me% I;m older9 ' li vo'on e/ ja' mas bankilalon. 7e% I;m older9 ' li mas bankilal e/ (ja') vo'on. #he older one% that;s me9 #he last sentence -ould be used to correct the im!ression that someone else is older than I am9 #he im!ortant thin( is that the true !redicate o" this !hrase44mas bankilal44 does not carr3 an absolutive a""i $ in this case it a!!ears in a sim!le "orm% -ith the de"inite article that identi"ies it as a nominalized "orm o" the !redicate$ 6the older one96 #he same construction that is used "or nominal and ad0ectival !redicates is also used "or verbs9 For e am!le% 4atem ta %obel li $un e. John has (one to San .ristZbal9 %a' batem ta %obel li $un e. It is John -ho has (one to San .ristZbal9 ' li $un e/ ja' batem ta %obel. John% he;s the one -ho -ent to San .ristZbal9 ' li batem ta %obel e/ ja' li $un e. #he one -ho -ent to San .ristZbal% it;s John9

-hi'och ta 'abtel li vo'on e. I;m (oin( to -or:9 ('iterall3$ I am (oin( to enter -or:9) %a' chi'och ta 'abtel li vo'on e. I;m (oin( to -or:9 8o'on chi'och ta 'abtel. I;m the one -ho is (oin( to -or:9 ' li ch'och ta 'abtel e/ (ja' li) vo'one (e). #he one -ho is (oin( to -or:% it;s me9 In these e am!les one can see that "rom the "ollo-in( structure one can "orm the "ollo-in( structure b3 "rontin( the sub0ect &lternativel3% b3 "rontin( the verb or the !redicate% one can "orm the "ollo-in( structure$ & !redicate% -hether nominal or verbal% does not carr3 absolutive a""i es -hen "ronted9 #he absolutive a""i es combine -ith ja'9 %a' jna le'e. #his is m3 house9 %a' ku'un li na le'e. #hat house is m3 house9 '0y jka'. I have a horse9 +i 'oy avu'un2 Do 3ou have oneF ' li pixalal li'e/ ja' ku'un. #his hat is mine9 1an li'e/ much'u yu'un2 #his other one% -hose is itF +uch'u spixol li'e2 +hose hat is thisF pix l-al% 6hat6 'u'un-il% 6!ossession o"% "or the bene"it o"6

#he -ord pix l-al is a noun that loses its su""i -hen !ossessed (similar to% "or e am!le% tot-il 6"ather6)9 #he h3!othetical vo-el "orm comes to sound li:e o9 #hus% pixalal hat jpixol m3 hat apixol 3our hat spixol his hat #hese t-o nouns sho- the same !attern$ sik' l-al ci(arette jsik'ol m3 ci(arette 'ixt l-al to3% rin( kixtol m3 rin( #he s!ecial noun 'u'un-il "unctions as a !ossessive !ronoun$ 6the !ossession o"99969 #he h3!hen indicates that the root -ithout a su""i combines -ith !ossessive !re"i es in order to (ive em!hasis to the !ronoun$ ku'un m3% mine avu'un 3our% 3ours yu'un his #he !ossessed "orm can be the !redicate o" a sentence -hose sub0ect is somethin( !ossessed$ :u'un li ka' e. #he horse is mine9 1u'un $un li 'ek'el e. #he a e is John;s9 in the non4!ossessible (shortened)

+i ja' avu'un li si' li'e2 Is this "ire-ood 3oursF '='un-il is also used to indicate !ossession -hen a noun cannot combine -ith !ossessive !re"i es9 +i 'oy 'aktav'us avu'un2 Do 3ou have a carF +i 'oy atak'in2 +i 'oy tak'in avu'un2 Do 3ou have mone3F +uch'u 'oy ska'2 +ho has a horseF '0y yu'un li $un e. John has one9 *r$ #here is one that is John;s9 +uch'u 'oy skaro2 +ho has a carF +uk' much'u 'oy yu'un. ,o one has one9 ('iterall3$ there is no one -ho has one9) #he ne(ative "orms o" 'u'un-il are similar to the ne(ative "orms o" other nouns9 +i ja' avu'un li 'ixim li'e2 Is this corn 3oursF +a'uk. +u ku'unuk. ,o9 It isn;t mine9 +i mu yu'unuk $un li tz'i' li'e2 Is this do( here John;sF +u'yuk. %a' ku'un. ,o% it;s mine9

0.1 )ord (rder in Possessi"e Sentences

,ote the -ord order in a sentence that has a !ossessed noun as its !redicate9 #he (eneral "orm is the "ollo-in($ I" the sub0ect is in the "irst or second !erson% the absolutive su""i combines directl3 -ith the !redicate44that is% -ith the !ossessed noun44althou(h the e !licit !ronoun "ollo-s9

%a' yamikoon li 5alas e. I am Fran:;s "riend9 +i skremot mol $un li vo'ot e. &re 3ou 7r9 Johnston;s sonF ' li v'on e/ yajvabajomon li martomo 'une. I am the ma3ordomo;s musician9 8o'on jvabajomon yu'un nupunel. I am the musician "or the -eddin(9 nupunel% 6-eddin(% marria(e6 +i kamikoot to2 &re 3ou still m3 "riendF +uch'u skremot2 +hose son are 3ouF +uch'u skrem li k'ox li'e2 +hose son is the bo3 hereF *r$ +ho is this bo3;s sonF +i vo'ot akrem2 Is he 3our sonF In (eneral% it is !ossible to "ront the "inal constituent o" a sentence9 For this reason% the sub0ect is ordinaril3 "ronted in sentences -ith a !ossessed noun as !redicate9 %a' skrem 5alas li -hep e. Joe is Fran:;s son9 ' li -hep e/ ja' skrem li 5alas e. &s "or Joe% he;s Fran:;s son9 I" the sub0ect does not a!!ear e !licitl3 (or i" it is not in the "irst or second !erson)% the !ossessor can still be "ronted9 %a' skrem li mol $un e. I am *ld John;s son9 ' li mol $un e/ ja' skremon. &s "or old man John% I;m his son9 #hus% the ordinar3 inter!retation o" a sentence o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ ' li $un e/ ja' skrem.

-ould be$ 6John is his son96 ,evertheless% conte t can su((est another meanin($ 6He;s John;s son644re"errin( to another !erson alread3 mentioned in discourse9 #he inversion o" -ord order caused b3 an interro(ative -ord creates even more com!le situations9 For e am!le$ +uch'u skremot2 +hose son are 3ouF +uch'u akrem2 +ho is 3our sonF Ho-ever% the "ollo-in( <uestion is ambi(uous$ +uch'u skrem li $un e2 #his sentence can have t-o meanin(s$ (?) +hose is John the son o"F (2) +ho is John;s sonF accordin( to -here the -ord much'u 6-ho6 ori(inates ("rom the sub0ect or "rom the !ossessor)9 In some cases% i" the !ossessor is a s!eci"ic !erson% the entire !ossessed !hrase44and not onl3 the !ossessor44is enclosed -ithin the article li and the enclitic -e9 %a' skrem 'ajente le'e. #hat;s the son o" the a(ente9 +i ja' 'ip li skrem 'ajente e2 Is the a(ente;s son sic:F ' le'e/ ja' stz'i' me'el +al. #hat44it;s 7ar3;s do(9 ,ote the !osition o" the absolutive su""i es in the "ollo-in( e am!les -ith 'u'un-il$ 8o'on preserenteon avu'un. I am 3our !resident9 8o'on avu'unon. I am 3ours9

#he absolutive su""i combines -ith the !redicate;s head% that is to sa3% the !rinci!al -ord o" the !redicate9 #hese !redicates have ne(ative "orms li:e those o" other !redicate nominatives9 +i ja' avu'un li machita li'e2 Is this machete here 3oursF +u'yuk. +a'uk ku'un. +u ku'unuk. It;s not mine9 +i ja' akrem li $un e2 Is John 3our sonF +a'uk. +u jkremuk. ,o9 He isn;t m3 son9 &nd -ith other !ersons44 +i ja' skremot li $un e2 &re 3ou John;s sonF +a'uk. +u skremikon. ,o% I;m not his son9 +i mu vo'onikon avamikoon2 I am not 3our "riendF +u xa bu kamikoot. Rou;re not m3 "riend no-9 %a' jkrontaot xa. Rou;re m3 enem3 no-9 kronta% 6enem36

0.2 (t#er -ses of

+e have alread3 seen that 'u'un-il serves as a !ossessive !ronoun9 Here the root has the meanin( 6"or999% "or the bene"it o"99969 #hus% ku'un 6mine6 means 6"or me% "or m3 bene"it96 Tak'in avu'un% then% means 6the mone3 that is "or 3our bene"it% 3our mone396 In realit3% there are man3 uses o" 'u'un-il% and all the other uses ta:e advanta(e o" this basic meanin(9 -hibat yu'un li k'in e. I am (oin( to the !art39

3ijatav yu'un li vo' e. I "led "rom the rain9 -hi'abtej avu'un 'ok'ob. #omorro- I am (oin( to -or: "or 3ou9 In these sentences% constituents -ith -u'un denote the ob0ect% the cause% or the bene"iciar3 o" some action9 #he ob0ects (the 6(rammatical !ossessors6) o" -u'un are nouns$ 6to the !art3%6 6"or 3ou%6 etc9 #he (rammatical !ossessor also can be an entire sentence% in -hich case yu'un (-ith a third !erson !ossessive !re"i % (enerated b3 the sentence) means 6because6 (literall3$ 6because o" the "act that9996)9 -hibat yu'un 'oy k'in. I am (oin( because there is a !art39 %a' 'o ital li vo' e. &t the !oint% the rain came9 3ijatav yu'un ja' 'o ital li vo' e. I "led because the rain came at that !oint9 -hi'abtej 'ok'ob yu'un mu to xlaj lavabtel e. I -ill -or: tomorro- because 3our -or: hasn;t "inished9 Similarl3% the e !ression k'usi yu'un (or more "re<uentl3 in the abbreviated "orm k'u yu'un) means% 6"or -hatF6 or 6-h3F6 :'u yu'un chabat ta %obel2 +h3 are 3ou (oin( to San .ristZbalF -hibat yu'un 'abtel. I am (oin( because o" -or:9 +uch'u yu'un li 'abtel e che'e2 +ho is the -or: "or% thenF ' li 'abtel e/ ja' yu'un balamil. #he -or: is "or the land9 :'' yu'un tol chbat ta te'tik li 'antz e2 +h3 does the -oman (o to the "orest so muchF -hbat yu'un te 'oy si'. She (oes because there is "ire-ood there9 (#here is an e !ression%

:'u yu'unot2 -hich means$ 6+hat is it to 3ouF6 or 69:::;96 #his e !ression is used to scold someone -ho misbehaves or -ants to stic: their nose into someone else;s business9) #hus% one can see that the use o" -u'un (oes even "arther be3ond its "unction as !ossessive !ronoun9 #he !ossessed "orms o" -u'un can modi"3 or clari"3 a noun that alread3 has a !ossessive !re"i 9 '0y to yil li 5etul e. Peter still has doubts9 'il-il% 6debt6 '0y to yil ku'un li 5etul e. Peter still o-es me9 -h'abal xa kil avu'un. I don;t o-e 3ou mone39 ('iterall3$ 73 debt -ith 3ou no lon(er e ists9) In these e am!les there is no ambi(uit3$ one understands that the3 re"er to the !erson in debt (the (rammatical !ossessor o" -il) and the !erson -ho loaned the mone3 (the (rammatical !ossessor o" -u'un)9 +hen the t-o 6!ossessors6 are nouns% both (enerate the !re"i y-% and onl3 -ord order determines meanin($ '0y yil yu'un 5etul li jbankil e. 73 older brother o-es Peter mone39 +hen the borro-er or the lender is in the "irst or second !erson the order is the same$ E istence -il 'ender Corro-er '0y y-il ku'un li 5etul e. Pedro o-es me mone39 '0y k-il yu'un li 5etul e. I o-e Peter mone39 In both sentences it is !ossible to "ront$ vo'on or 5etul9

8o'on 'oy yil ku'un li 5etul e. &s "or me% Peter o-es me mone39 8o'on 'oy kil yu'un li 5etul e. &s "or me% I o-e Peter mone39 ' li 5etul e/ 'oy yil ku'un. &s "or Peter% he o-es me mone39 ' li 5etul e/ 'oy kil yu'un. &s "or Peter% I o-e him mone39 +hen the borro-er or the lender is in the third !erson% onl3 the last constituent44the borro-er% the (rammatical !ossessor o" the noun -il44can be "ronted$ '0y yil yu'un 5etul li jbankil e. ' li jbankil e/ 'oy yil yu'un (li) 5etul (e). 73 brother o-es Peter mone39 *ther -ords a!!ear in a similar construction9 :'usi smul avu'un li krem e2 +hat has the bo3 doneF ('iterall3$ +hat bee" does the bo3 have -ith 3ouF) mul-il% 6crime% sin% (uilt6 +i 'o kabtel avu'un2 Do 3ou have -or: "or meF ('iterall3$ Does m3 -or: "or 3ou e istF) In the e am!les -e have seen% the -ord -u'un means 6belon(in( to $6 or 6"or $;s bene"it96 In other constructions% -ith intransitive verbs% -u'un means 6throu(h $;s e""orts%6 6b3 means o" $%6 or 6on account o" $644that is to sa3% it indicates an a(ent or an actor9 -hlok' li ton e. #he roc: -ill move9 -hlok' ku'un li ton e. I can move the roc:9 (#hat is% the roc: moved throu(h m3 e""orts9) +u xk'ot li 'ikatzil e. #he load isn;t (oin( to arrive9 'ikatz-il% 6load6

+u xk'ot avu'un lavikatze. Rou can;t carr3 the load9 ('iterall3$ 3our load -on;t arrive because o" 3ou9) ' li chitom e/ mu xcham. #he !i( -on;t die9 ' li chitom e/ mu xcham yu'un li $un e. John can;t mana(e to :ill the !i(9 Here% 'u'un re!resents not onl3 the a(ent44the one -ho !er"orms the action44but also adds to the sentence a sense o" !ossibilit3 or abilit3 (or inabilit3)9 3a'ok ku'un. I mana(ed to ma:e 3ou scream9 -hajatav yu'un li toro e. #he bull is (oin( to char(e 3ou9 ('iterall3$ #he bull is (oin( to send 3ou runnin(9) +u xi' ku'un li chon e. #he sna:e doesn;t "ear me5 I can;t scare the sna:e9 #here is an e !licit verb that e<uates to 6be able to% be !ossible% to be ca!able o"96 Its !aradi(m is de"ective$ it a!!ears onl3 in the basic "orm (-ithout "irst and second !erson absolutive a""i es)% -ith various a""i es o" tense and as!ect% <uite o"ten -ith the "orm -u'un% -hich indicates the a(ent9 #he root o" this verb is yu'- (in realit3 ,!u'-)% and its "orms are a bit irre(ular9 ('i:e yul- 6to arrive (here)%6 the initial y- disa!!ears a"ter the x o" neutral tenseNas!ect5 conse<uentl3% a"ter the ch- o" incom!letive as!ect% the root reduces to -u'% (ivin( xu' and chu' 6he is able9) 4u chu' li k'op e2 +here can the tal: ta:e !laceF +i mu xu' li' toe2 It can;t ha!!en around hereF +i xu' avu'un li 'abtel e2 .an 3ou do the -or:F ('iterall3$ Is the -or: !ossible "or 3ouF) +u xu' ku'un. I can;t9 3ek to'ox iyu' ku'un. Ce"ore I -asn;t !ros!erous9 ('iterall3$ Ce"ore% ever3thin( -as !ossible "or me9)

3avie/ mu k'usi 'oy ku'un. ,o-% I have nothin(9 ('iterall3$ #here is nothin( that is mine9) #he verb yu'- also combines -ith other verbs% o"ten -ith neutral as!ect (in the "orm o" xu' 6it is !ossible% it is !ossible that99969) 9laj xa ku'un li 'abtel e. I mana(ed to "inish the -or:9 ('iterall3$ #he -or: "inished throu(h his e""orts9) +i xu' xa xibat2 .an I (o alread3F $u' xabat mi ilaj lavabtel a'a. Res% 3ou can indeed i" 3our -or: is "inished9 +i xu' xi'och jlikeluk ta ana e2 .an I enter 3our house "or a momentF +u xu'. %a' 'oy chamel. Rou can;t9 #here is sic:ness9 +ith ne(ative or incom!letive as!ect yu'- denotes the !ossibilit3 (or im!ossibilit3) o" somethin($ in the !er"ective as!ect yu'- denotes the termination o" an action% the realization o" a !ossibilit3$ 9yu' 'onox li na e. #he house is "inished "or (ood5 it is constructed9 #he stative "orms o" yu'- also occur5 "or e am!le$ 1u'em to li k'op e. #he issue lin(ers on ("or e am!le% a sic:ness% a dis!ute)9 +e can "inish b3 revie-in( the various uses o" -u'un -ith a "e- more e am!les9 &s e am!les% consider the "ollo-in( meanin(s$ *-nershi!$ -h'abal jtuk'. +i 'oy avu'un2 I don;t have a ri"le9 Do 3ouF :u'un yilel li ka' taj e. #hat horse is mine% it seems9 +uch'u yu'un le'e2 +hose is thatF Cene"it$

-hi'abtej yu'un kovyerno. I -or: "or the (overnment9 '0y kil yu'un jme'. I borro-ed mone3 "rom m3 mother9 +i lavabaj yu'un nupunel2 Did 3ou !la3 music "or the -eddin(F .ause$ 3ikom yu'un chamel. I sta3ed GhomeH because o" the illness9 3i'ipaj/ yu'un li'ay ta k'in. I (ot sic:% because I -ent to the !art39 :'u yu'un cha'ok'2 +h3 are 3ou cr3in(F &(enc3$ 8o'on e/ chlaj ku'un li tarya. &s "or me% I can "inish m3 -or:9 1an li vo'ot e/ mu xlaj avu'un. Rou% on the other hand% can;t mana(e it9 +u xu' 'abtel yu'un li krem e. #he bo3 can;t -or:9 ('iterall3$ the -or: is im!ossible "or him9)

0.3 (t#er Possessed *ouns

#zotzil "re<uentl3 ma:es use o" 6!ossessive6 !re"i es in situation -here a !ossessive "orm -ould not be used in En(lish9 #here are man3 relational -ords ("or e am!le% -u'un) or bod3 !art terms (jol-ol 6head%6 'ok-ol 6"oot) that have !ossessive !re"i es but lac: a !ossessive meanin(9 For e am!le% the -ord k"enta% borro-ed "rom the S!anish -ord 6cuenta%6 "unctions in a similar manner to 'u'un-il9 8o'ot avu'un. It;s 3ours9 It is "or 3ou9 8o'ot ta ak"enta. It;s 3our business9 Ta k"enta yu'un> ta sk"enta. It;s his res!onsibilit39 +u ku'unuk. It isn;t mine9

+u jk"entauk. It;s none o" m3 business9 :'u jk"enta 'o2 +hat does it matter to meF 1u'un% as much as sk"enta% can be e<uivalent to 6because6 or 6"or%6 as in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ ' li limite/ ja' sk"enta pox. ' li limete/ ja' yu'un pox. #he bottle is "or li<uor9 -hi'abtej lavi ta rominko yu'un chibat ta k'in 'ok'ob. #his Sunda3 I -ill -or: because tomorro- I am (oin( to the !art39 -hi'abtej lavie sk"enta xu' xibat ta k'in 'ok'ob. I -ill -or: toda3 so that tomorro- I can (o to the !art39 :"enta su((ests a translation such as 6"or% in order "orNtoNthat96 & constituent -ith k"enta can also be a !redicate9 %a' sk"enta $un li vaj e. #he tortillas are "or John9 +u sk"entauk $un taj e. #hat isn;t "or John9 Tol chixanav sk"enta kabtel. I -al: a lot "or m3 -or:9 %a' sk"enta kabtel ti tol chixanav e. It is "or m3 -or: that I -al: so much9 Here the entire sentence tol chixanav serves as the sub0ect o" the !redicate -ith -k"enta9 #he sub0ect be(ins -ith the article ti (-hich could be considered e<uivalent to the En(lish com!lementizer 6that6)9 #he sub0ect% a nominalized sentence% ends -ith the enclitic -e9 &lso% in other conte ts% entire sentence are nominalized b3 means o" the article ti9 (%a') lek ti cha'abtej e. It is (ood that 3ou -or:9 3ek cha'abtej. Rou -or: -ell9

-hopol ko'on. I am sad9 ('iterall3$ 73 heart is bad9) :'usi chopol 'o avo'on2 +h3 are 3ou sadF ('iterall3$ +h3 is 3our heart badF) %a' chopol 'o ko'on ti chabat e. I am sad because 3ou;re (oin(9 +e -ill later re4encounter the con0unction ti in other constructions (see .ha!ter @)9 +e can anal3ze the constituents -ith -u'un or -k"enta as o!tional constituents -ith a 6bene"active6 meanin(9 In (eneral% these constituents tell us "or -hat or -hose bene"it some event or action ta:es !lace9 (In some cases% these 6bene"active6 constructions have a more instrumental or a(entive meanin($ +hat -as it done -ithF +ho did itF It can also have a meanin( that concerns ob0ectives$ +hat !ur!ose did it serveF +h3 -as it doneF #o -hat endF) #he -ord -koj 6blame% "ault6 "unctions similarl39 ;koj pox icham. He died "rom drin:in(9 ;koj sbolil ti jal i'ipaj e. #he "act that he (ot sic: "or so lon( o-es to his stu!idit39 -bolil% 6stu!idit36 +i vo'on ta jkoj2 Is it m3 "aultF +u me ta jkojuk mi lalaj e. I" somethin( ha!!ens to 3ou% it isn;t m3 "ault9 ('iterall3$ It isn;t m3 "ault i" 3ou hurt 3oursel"9) Here -e can see the di""erent -a3s o" re!resentin( the relationshi! bet-een an event (the death o" someone% "or e am!le) and -hat causes it to ta:e !lace ("or e am!le% li<uor)9 9cham ta pox. He died "rom drin:in(9 9cham yu'un. 'i<uor mana(ed to :ill him9 Icham 'o li pox e. He died o" overdrin:in( (a s!eci"ic amount o" li<uor)9 Ta pox icham. From drin:in(% he died9 Pox icham 'o. It -as the li<uor that :illed him (that is to sa3% li<uor in (eneral)9

;koj pox icham. 9.o,ble<check all the%e tran%lation%; #he di""erence in em!hasis can be seen in the ne(ative "orms$ +uk' icham ta pox. He didn;t die "rom drin:in(9 (,eutral sense9) +uk' icham yu'un pox. 'i<uor didn;t :ill him9 +uk' icham 'o li poxe. #he li<uor didn;t mana(e to :ill him9 +u ta poxuk icham. #he li<uor didn;t :ill him (althou(h he dran: a s!eci"ic amount)9 +a'uk pox icham 'o. It -asn;t "rom li<uor that he died (but rather another thin()9 +u ta skojuk pox mi icham e. I" he died% it -as because o" li<uor9 (*r$ I" he dies% it -on;t be "rom li<uor9) G?H 6Possessed6 "orms o" the -ords -tuk 6alone%6 and -kotol 6all6 have unusual characteristics$ these -ords also illustrate #zotzil;s develo!ed usa(e o" !ossessive !re"i es9 -hi'abtej ta jtuk. I -or: all b3 m3sel"9 3akom ta stuk. Rou sta3ed alone9 9'ipaj ta skotol e. #he3 all (ot sic:9 +i latal ta akotolik2 Did 3ou all arrive to(etherF (#he su""i -ik "rom akotolik is a !lural su""i -hich -e -ill discuss in more detail later9) In these e am!les% the e !ressions -ith the !re!osition ta a!!ear to modi"3 the subject o" the sentences% s!eci"3in( its <uantit3 or e tension9 #he !ossessive !re"i es ori(inate in the sub0ects o" these sentences and re"lect them9 $u' ta jtuk xi'abtej. It is !ossible b3 m3sel" I -or:9

I can -or: b3 m3sel"9 In this sentence% "or e am!le% the !re"i j- should be derived "rom the im!licit sub0ect o" chi'abtej$ vo'on 6I96 It cannot be derived "rom another inde!endent constituent9 *ne cannot sa3% "or e am!le$ ,,, -hi'abtej ta stuk. because the 6!ossessive6 !re"i o" -tuk must corres!ond to the sub0ect o" the verb or !redicate9 &lso%-tuk and -kotol can occur -ithout ta% o"ten at the be(innin( o" the sentence9 %tuk li'ech' ta 'abtej. I -ent throu(h m3 reli(ious car(o on m3 o-n (-ithout an3one;s hel!)9 ;kotol chbat. Ever3one is (oin(9 -hbat skotolik. &ll o" them are (oin(9 #hese -ords are also ne(ated as the "ocus o" a sentence$ +u atukuk li'ot e. Here 3ou aren;t alone9 +u skotoluk chbat. ,ot ever3one is (oin( to (o9 #he di""erence bet-een the "orms -ith and -ithout ta is ver3 subtle9 %tuk to'ox li'ech ta 'abtel. 9:::; Ta jtuk to'ox li'ech' ta 'abtel. 9:::; Ta skotol chbatik. #he3;re all (oin( to(ether9 ;kotol chbatik. Ever3one is (oin( (but not necessaril3 at the same time)9 &(ain% the su""i -ik indicates !luralit3 -ith a third !erson verb9

-:otol also combines directl3 -ith a noun5 it re<uires the !re"i s-9 #he resultin( com!ound can "unction as another com!le noun9 -hbat skotol krixchano. #he -hole -orld is (oin(9 -hbat skotol li j'ilol e. &ll the curers are (oin(9 '0y k'ok' ta skotol na. #here;s "ire in all the houses9 ;kotol jpas-'abtel 'oy sna ta %teklum. &ll the reli(ious o""icials have a house in =inacant>n9 -hixi' 'o skotol li chon e. &ll sna:es scare me9 I" the e !licit sub0ect o" the verb is a !ossessed "orm o" -kotol in the "irst or second !erson% the verb should carr3 the corres!ondin( absolutive a""i 9 +i chabat skotolik2 &re all o" 3ou (oin(F *n the other hand% -tuk does not a!!ear as an isolated noun% but rather as an 6em!hatic6 related to another noun that !la3s an inde!endent role in the sentence9 %tuk li'on e (li vo'on e). I am here all b3 m3sel"9 %tuk vo'on chibat. I m3sel" -ill (o9 +uch'u i'ay ta ana e2 +ho -ent to 3our houseF 3i'ay jtuk. I -ent b3 m3sel"9 4u batem li $un e2 +here has John (oneF Te ta sna stuk. He;s in his o-n house9 *ne can see that -tuk means as much 6alone6 as 6b3 himNhersel"96 #he "orm o" the third !erson% stuk% is the onl3 -ord in #zotzil that "unctions as a 6!ronoun6 o" the third !erson$ 6he% she% it96

+i 'ip skrem li mol $un e2 Is John;s son sic:F %a' 'ip stuk. He himsel" is sic: (that is to sa3% John himsel")9 +i laxi' k'ai ijach' lakreme2 +ere 3ou "ri(htened -hen 3our son "ellF +uk' lixi' li vo'on a'a. +ell% I -asn;t "ri(htened9 %a' ixi' li stuk e. He he sure -as9 &lso% atuk and jtuk "unction similarl3$ Timi chamilvan e/ chcham atuk. I" 3ou :ill !eo!le% 3ou 3oursel" -ill die9 ' li t'ul e/ mi ixi' 'o lachi'il ta paxyal2 +as the rabbit a"raid o" 3our com!anion durin( the huntF +a'uk. %a' ixi' 'o li jtuk e. ,o% it -as a"raid o" me9 chi'il-il% 6com!anion6 paxyal% 6stroll% hunt6 I -ill (ive t-o e am!les more "rom R979 'au(hlin (?@AB$JK_)$ %a' stuk toj mas lek. He is the better one9 ('iterall3$ He;s the onl3 (ood one9) 4atz'i ja' tra)o stuk. It;s the real thin($ it;s !ure alcohol9 ('iterall3$ It is in realit3 the drin: itsel"9) In the second sentence% stuk "unctions em!haticall3$ 6#his is the drin: itsel"96 *ne can also sa3$ +i vo'ot atuk2 Is it 3ouF #he "irst e am!le "rom 'au(hlin demonstrates the #zotzil "orm "or e !ressin( su!erlatives in an ad0ectival e !ression9 #he (eneral "orm is the "ollo-in($

I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he sub0ect is mar:ed -ith absolutive a""i es on the ad0ective and a 6!ossessive6 !re"i -ith -tuk9 %a' stuk mas p'ij li $un e. John is the more intelli(ent one9 I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE +i atuk tzotzot ta 'abtel2 &re 3ou the onl3 stron( one -hen it comes to -or:F +u jtukuk. I;m not the onl3 one9 &nother construction related to this one omits the ad0ective9 +hen the ad0ective is !resent% it ta:es an absolutive su""i 9 +i atuk 'ipot2 &re 3ou the onl3 one -ho is sic:F +u jtukuk 'ipon. I;m not the onl3 one (there are also others)9 +ithout the ad0ective% the absolutive su""i combines -ith -tuk9 %a' jtukon. I;m the onl3 one9 +i atukot2 +i stuk lavajnile2 &re 3ou aloneF Is 3our -i"e aloneF %a' stuk li kajnil a'a. 8o'on e/ 'oy jchi'il. Res% m3 -i"e is alone% but I have m3 "riends9 Here one can see that the sub0ect is doubl3 mar:ed on the main -ord -tuk$ #his t3!e o" double4re"erence can also be seen in the En(lish construction$ b3 onesel"9 %tukon. I am b3 m3sel"9 tukot. Rou are b3 3oursel"9 ;tuk. HeNshe is b3 himNhersel"9

+i stuk ital2 Did he come aloneF +o'oj/ ital xchi'uk li $un e. ,o% he came -ith John9 mo'oj% 6no6 -chi'uk% 6-ith6 4uch'u chachabaj achi'uk2 +ho do 3ou "arm 3our corn"ield -ithF -hichabaj jchi'uk li jbol e. I "arm it -ith m3 brother4in4la-9 chabaj-% 6"arm a corn"ield6 bol-il% 6brother4in4la-6 +i 'oy xa avajnil2 Do 3ou have a -i"e alread3F '0y. 3inupun jchi'k stzeb li preserent e. I do9 I married the !resident;s dau(hter9 nupun% 6marr36 #he noun -chi'uk (-ith alternative "orms li:e -chu'uk5 see #zeltal -jok) is related to the -ord -chi'il% 6com!anion96 --hi'uk carries a 6!ossessive6 !re"i (-hich corres!onds to the noun that accom!anies somethin()9 It al-a3s carries a com!lement (althou(h it can be im!licit)% -hich corres!onds to the entit3 that the 6!ossessor6 accom!anies9 In (eneral% the !ossessive !re"i derives "rom the sub0ect o" the sentence9 In the third !erson the "orm xchi'uk derives "rom s-chi'uk throu(h the assimilation o" sbe"ore ch9 &s in other constructions that -e have alread3 encountered% -ord order is stricter -hen the constituents o" the sentence are all nouns9 .onsider the "ollo-in( sentence$ -hbat ta %obel xchi'uk $un li 5etul e. 1ERC -ith L *CJE.# S/CJE.#

Peter is (oin( to San .ristZbal -ith John9 In this sentence% onl3 the sub0ect can be "ronted$ ' li 5etul e/ chbat ta %obel xchi'uk li $un e. From the above sentence% one can construct the "ollo-in( <uestions$ 4uch'u chbat ta %obel xchi'uk li $un e2 +ho is (oin( to San .ristZbal -ith JohnF ' li 5etul e/ much'u chbat ta %obel xchi'uk2 &nd Peter% -ho is he (oin( to San .ristZbal -ithF +ith constituents that are not in the third !erson% -ord order can be even more "le ible% as lon( as there is no !ossibilit3 o" ambi(uit39 +uch'u chabat achi'uk ta %obel2 +ho are 3ou (oin( to San .ristZbal -ithF Te much'u chibat jchi'uk. I;m (oin( -ith someone (but I;m not sa3in( -ho)9 --hi'uk shares some characteristics o" transitive verbs that -e -ill consider in .ha!ter 1III (Section _9??)9 Possessive !re"i es sho- u! in une !ected !laces9 I -ill mention a "e- common e am!les here9 #o describe the se o" an animal (and% rarel3% a !erson) one utilizes the "orms sme' (literall3$ 6his mother6) and stot (literall3$ 6his "ather6)9 +i sme' mi stot latz'ie2 Is 3our do( male or "emaleF ' li t'ul e/ mu xvinaj mi sme' mi stot k'alal bik'it 'une. +ith rabbits% 3ou can;t tell -hether the3 are male or "emale -hen the3;re 3oun(9 vinaj-% 6a!!ear% be evident% be visible6

#hat use a!!ears to derive "rom com!ound e !ressions% o" the jol-na t3!e9 For e am!le% one can sa3$ me' kaxlan hen (literall3$ a chic:en;s mother) Cut i" the second element o" the com!ound receives a !ossessive !re"i or article% the "irst element can also ta:e a !re"i 9 #here"ore% one can sa3% "or e am!le$ sme' kalak' m3 hen -alak'% 6chic:en% bird (al-a3s !ossessed) .om!are the "ollo-in( !airs$ me' k'obol thumb$ (literall3$ mother o" m3 hand) sme' jk'ob m3 thumb me' vinik nausea% seasic:ness% dizziness sme' jvinik m3 nausea (-hich I "eel) (literall3$ mother o" m3 man) #he attributive usa(e o" sme' (6"emale6) and stot (6male6) ma3 derive "rom constructions o" this t3!e9 &nother une !ected usa(e o" !ossessive !re"i es can be seen in e !ressions -ith -talel% a noun that comes "rom the verb meanin( 6to come96 :'u yu'un chbat 'alperes ta 7i'bak2 +h3 are the ensi(n4bearers (oin( to I ta!aF ;talel yech (ti chbat e). Just because9 7i'bak% 6I ta!a6 'alperes% 6ensi(n4bearer6 :'u yu'un tol chave'2 +h3 do 3ou eat so muchF ;talel (ti tol chive'). I 0ust do9

ve'-6to eat (intransitive)6 #he meanin( o" stalel 6custom6 ma3 relate to e !ressions li:e the "ollo-in($ ta stalel ta slikel b3 tradition (literall3$ since its arrival% "rom the be(innin() in -hich the (rammatical !ossessor is a !erson% !lace% or thin( that has been that -a3 "rom the be(innin(9 7an3 #zotzil e !ressions have the "orm o" a !ossessed noun that has lost its !ossessive character9

0.' *umeral Expressions

+e have alread3 seen com!le nouns o" the "orm$ ,oun L Possessor or o" the "orm$ &rticle L ,oun (L Demonstrative) #hus% "or e am!le$ sna li $une li jna e li ton li'e taj sna e S!eci"ic numeral e !ressions !recede the nouns that the3 modi"39 9tal jun vinik. #he man came9 '0y chib pexu ku'un. I have t-o !esos9 4uy li chib limete e2 +here are the t-o bottlesF jun% 6one6

chib% 6t-o6 pexu% 6!eso6 limete% 6bottle6 ,umbers can also be !redicates9 +i jun mi chib li be e2 &re there one or t-o roadsF +i mu chibuk 'ak'ubal ich'ay2 Rou -eren;t lost "or t-o ni(htsF '0x vo' jkrem. I have three sons9 -ha' vo' no'ox jtzeb. I have onl3 t-o dau(hters9 5ero jkot no'ox li jtz'i' e9 Cut I have onl3 one do(9 &ccordin( to the nature o" the thin(s bein( counted% #zotzil numbers have di""erent "orms9 #zotzil uses a s3stem o" 6numeral classi"iers6$ -ords that denote countable units o" some thin(9 (See Cerlin% ?@^_9) For e am!le% human bein(s are counted -ith vo' (-hich can be rou(hl3 translated as 6!erson% bi!edal thin(6)% -hile animals are counted -ith kot (6"our4le((ed6)9 Some thin(s are counted -ith 6absolute6 "orms o" numbers9 #he numbers in #zotzil are the "ollo-in($ ,o9 &bsolute Form .lassi"ier Form ? jun j-kot one animal 2 chib cha'-kot t-o animals J 'oxib 'ox-kot three animals K chanib chan-kot etc9 B vo'ob vo'-kot ^ vakib vak-kot

A vukub vuk-kot _ vaxakib vaxak-kot @ baluneb balun-kot ?] lajuneb lajun-kot ?? buluchib bulun-kot ?2 lajcheb*lachaeb lajcha'-kot ?J 'ox lajuneb 'ox lajun-kot ?K chan lajuneb chan lajun-kot ?B vo' lajuneb vo' lajun-kot 999 999 ?@ balun lajuneb balun lajun-kot 2] j-tob j-tob ta kot 2? jun xcha'-vinik jun xcha'-vinik ta kot 22 chib xcha'-vinik chib xcha'-vinik ta kot 999 999 K] cha'-vinik etc9 B] lajuneb y-ox-vinik ^] 'ox-vinik _] chan-vinik 2]] lajun-vinik

J]] vo' lajun-vinik K]] (j-bok') #he shortened "orms o" numbers (-hich are here !resented -ith the classi"ier -kot) are used -ith classi"iers9 #he 6absolute6 "orms derive "rom shortened "orms !lus a h3!othetical 6(eneral6 classi"iers (o" the "orm -8b)9 #hus% "or e am!le$ chib vaj t-o tortillas cha'-vo' vinik t-o men chan-vo' tzeb "our (irls vakib pexu si !esos vak-p'ej si houses -p'ej 6classi"ier "or round thin(s% houses% "lo-ers% etc96 From the number t-ent3 on-ard% the 6absolute6 "orm is used b3 itsel" or -ith ta% !lus the a!!licable classi"ier9 jtob ta vo' j'ilol t-ent3 curers 'ox-vinik pexu si t3 !esos vo'ob xcha'-vinik ta lik vun t-ent34"ive sheets o" !a!er -lik 6classi"ier "or !a!ers% articles o" clothin(% nets% hats% etc96 *ne can see that the numbers ? to ?] are sim!le roots9 4uluchib a!!ears to denote 6nine !lus t-o%6 and lajchaeb 6ten !lus t-o96 #he numbers "rom thirteen to nineteen are com!osed o" the shortened "orms o" three to nine !lus lajun(eb) 6ten96 #he 7a3an numeral s3stem is vi(esimal$ based on multi!les o" t-ent39 (*n the other hand% the &rabic s3stem is based on multi!les o" ten9) #he absolute "orm "or 6t-ent36 is j-tob (6a t-ent36)% but the root -tob onl3 occurs in that conte t9 #he classi"ier "or more than t-ent3 is vinik (6man6)$ a re"erence to the "act that a man has t-ent3 di(its9 &lso%

"or e am!le% one e !resses 6"ort36 as cha'-vinik 6t-o t-enties65 6one4hundred6 as vo'-vinik 6"ive t-enties%6 etc9 #he sim!le numeral roots that survive in #zotzil and #zeltal are the "ollo-in($ -tob*-vinik (#zeltal$ -tahb% -"inik) t-ent3 -bok' (#zeltal$ -bahk') "our hundred (M 2] -pik (#zeltal) ei(ht thousand (M 2] 2] 2]) 2])

#he numbers o" each 9)eintena; belon( to the "ollo-in( 9)eintena;$ 2B M 69cinco .e la %e',n.a )eintena;%6 vo'ob xcha'-vinik9 (&ccordin( to Josh Smith;s observation% this s3stem is similar to the one o" countin( centuries$ ?@A^ belon(s to the 9)i'=%imo; centur3% and not to the 9.=cimonono;9 ,ote that the 6!ossessive6 !re"i combines -ith the number that denotes the 9)eintena; -hich belon(s to the entire e !ression9 For e am!le$ cha'-vinik M K] jun x-cha'-vinik M 2? 'ox-vinik M ^] chib y-ox-vinik M K2 7an3 #zotzil4s!ea:ers no lon(er use this s3stem9 #he3 count in S!anish instead and ma:e use o" neolo(isms based on the root -chi'uk 6-ith96 '0xib syen pexu ich'ay. #hree4hundred !esos -ere lost9 %tob xchi'uk vo'ob stojol. Its !rice is t-ent34"ive (literall3$ t-ent3 -ith "ive)9 Sometimes the S!anish -ord 6mil6 "unctions as a numeral classi"ier9 .onsider the "ollo-in( e !ressions$ cha'-mil M 2%]]] chib syen ta mil M 2]]%]]]

+e alread3 :no- another -ord% jayib 6ho- much% ho- man3%6 -hich can be anal3zed as a number$ it is the interro(ative number% a com!ound o" jay- (the shortened "orm that is used -ith classi"iers) !lus -ib9 %ayib pexu stojol2 Ho- man3 !esos does it costF %ayib 'ora chabat2 +hat time are 3ou (oin(F -hibat ta 'oxib 'ora. I;m (oin( at three9 %ay vo' vinik chabat achi'uk2 Ho- man3 men are 3ou (oin( -ithF Te jay-vo'uk. & "e-9 #he su""i -uk (ives a diminuitive sense to numbers9 %ay-kot aka'2 Ho- man3 horses do 3ou haveF 8uk kotuk no'ox. *nl3 si or so9 +i chtal to vaj2 &re more tortillas comin(F (In other -ords$ Should I (ive 3ou more tortillasF) -hibuk no'ox. *nl3 t-o or so (in other -ords$ not man3)9 &lso% the -ords juteb (-hich can be anal3zed as the number jut- 6"e-6 !lus -eb 6(eneral classi"ier6)% and jutuk 6"e-6 denote small <uantities9 #here is also another -ord j-set' (literall3$ 6a !inch%6 6a dro!%6 6a small !ortion6)9 +i 'oy jset' juteb2 Is there 0ust a littleF *rdinal numbers are "ormed b3 means o" !ossessive !re"i es44another use o" the mechanism o" (rammatical !ossession9 #he su""i -8l (-here 8 re!resents the "inal vo-el o" the classi"ier) is added to a number o" a numeral classi"ier or -al is added to absolute "orms9 chib% 6t-o6 x-chib-al% 6the second6

vakib% 6si 6 s-vakib-al% 6the si th6 vak-vo' moletik% 6si elders6 s-vak-va'-al mol% 6the si th elder6 'ox-p'ej na% 6three houses6 y-ox-p'ej-el na% 6the third house6 +ith the numbers vo'ob% 6"ive%6 and vukub% 6seven6 (-hich in their h3!othetical "orms have an initial ,!)% ordinals are "ormed -ith y- instead o" s- (!re"i ) -ith the initial v o" the root9 vo'ob% 6cinco6 s-vo'ob-al yo'ob-al% 6the "i"th6 vuk-lik vun% 6seven !ieces o" !a!er6 s-vuk-lik-il vun yuk-lik-il vun% 6the seventh !iece o" !a!er6 ,ote that the classi"ier -vo' chan(es its vo-el in its su""i al "orm$ chan-vo'% 6"our (!eo!le)6 x-chan-va'-al% 6the "ourth (!erson)6 #he basic "orm o" the root is$ v '9 7an3 roots -ith the vo-el classi"ier "orm% but have a in su""i al "orms9 &n ordinal number can be the !redicate o" a sentence$ have o in their numeral

8o'on rejirolon. I am a re(idor (reli(ious !osition)9 5ero 'oy chan-vo' rejirol. Cut there are "our re(idors9 ;jay-va'al rejirolot2 +hich re(idor are 3ouF $cha'-va'alon. I am the second9 (,ote that an ordinal number is also "ormed -ith jay- 6ho- much% ho- man396) #he ordinal numbers in e !ressions that denote a !eriod o" time ('ora% 6hour%6 k'ak'al% 6da3%6 jabil% 63ear%6 etc9) are e<uivalent to the e !ression 6999 a(o6$ :'usi 'ora layul tal2 +hen (-hich da3) did 3ou arrive hereF ;vaxakibal k'ak'al. Ei(ht da3s a(o9 ('iterall3$ the ei(ht da3)9 ;jayibal jabil la'ay ta +ejiko2 Ho- man3 3ears a(o did 3ou (o to 7e icoF 1ukubal xa. Seven 3ears a(o9 *ne must be mind"ul o" the di""erences bet-een the "ollo-in( e !ressions$ :'usi 'ora2 +hat da3F +henF %ayib 'ora2 +hat timeF :'usi k'ak'alil2 +hich da3 (o" the -ee:)F :'usi 'ora chatal2 +hen -ill 3ou comeF :'al to chib jabil. In t-o 3ears9 :'usi k'ak'alil lavie che'e2 +hat da3 is toda3F %ay melkulex lavie. #oda3 is +ednesda39

*rdinal numbers are not "ormed -ith the number jun (or the shortened "orm j-) 6one96 =inacantec #zotzil uses% in its !lace% the S!anish -ord 6"irst6 or com!ound !ossessive e !ression -ith the -ord ba-il 6"ront% "ace% to!% above96 '0x vo' yol li 'antz e. #he -oman has three :ids9 'ol-ol% 6child% son (o" a -oman)6 %a' sba yol li $un e. John is the "irst (i9e9% the eldest) child9 %a' xcha'-va'al (yol) li 5etul e. Pedro is the second oldest9 5rimero rejirolot. Rou;re the "irst re(idor (the First Re(idor)9 %a' xcha'-va'alon. I am the second9 #he contraction junabi (o" jun L jabil) means 6one 3ear a(o96 :'al junab means 6in a 3ear96 .uriousl3 enou(h% in order to sa3 6one !erson6 one sa3s jun vinik and not ,,,jvo' vinik9 #he -ord 'o'lol 6hal"6 has some characteristics in common -ith numbers and numeral classi"iers9 It also occurs in combination -ith j- 6one96 9'ipaj j'o'lol li parajel e. Hal" o" the hamlet is sic:9 %'o'lol icham j'o'lol ikux. Hal" died% and the other hal" recovered9 kux-% 6to recover6 Cut% as a sim!le number% 'o'lol a!!ears in man3 "i ed com!ounds9 For e am!le$ 'o'lol xchibal on and a hal" (literall3$ hal" o" the second) 'o'lol yoxp'ejel )arapon t-o and a hal" lar(e cara"e (literall3$ hal" o" the third lar(e cara"e) 'o'lol xchanibal syen three4hundred and "i"t3

In the !revious section% -e sa- ho- an e !ression li:e -tuk or -kotol% used -ith !ossessive a""i es% could modi"3 a noun% s!eci"3in( its reach or e tension9 .om!le numeral e !ressions% -ith the su""i -8l% "unction in a similar manner9 %ay vo' chbat2 Ho- man3 !eo!le are (oin(F -hbat xcha'-va'alik. #-o are (oin(9 +i chabat avoxva'alik2 &re the three o" 3ou (oin(F +u'yuk. -hibat jtuk. ,o9 I;m (oin( alone9 #he -ord avoxva'alik can be anal3zed in the "ollo-in( -a3$ 'ox vo' three !eo!le -ox-va'al su""i al "orm -ith 41l av-ox-va'al-ik 6!ossessed6 "orm -ith the second !erson !re"i av- and the !lural su""i -ik +i 'ep ik'ak' naetik2 +ere the houses that burned man3F 9k'ak' yoxp'ejel sna li $un e. #hree o" John;s houses burned do-n9 *r$ His third house burned do-n9 #he su""i -etik denotes !luralit3 -ith un!ossessed nouns9 #here is a (reat number o" numeral classi"iers% man3 o" -hich have ver3 s!ecialized and restricted usa(es9 For e am!le% the e !ression ta 0me: 6ver36 contains the archaic classi"ier -mek 6time96 #he literal meanin( o" ta jmek is 6one time96 'au(hlin (?@AB$ 2JK) !rovides another e am!le$ +u jmekuk chabat 'o. Don;t (o "orever9 Positional roots create man3 classi"iers "or countin( thin(s -ith the indicated !ositional "orm9 For e am!le$ busul% 6in a !ile% accumulated6

-bus% 6classi"ier "or !iles (sa3% o" accumulated -ord)6 tzelel% 6in a lar(e mound6 -tzel% 6a lar(e mound6 chepel% 6sittin( (sa3% a load o" somethin()6 -chep% 6a load (o" "ire-ood% "or e am!le)6 etc9 #here are also classi"iers that derive "rom intransitive verbs% o"ten -ith the su""i ation o" -el to the verbal root9 +e alread3 :no- a classi"ier o" this t3!e$ -hibat ta jlikel. I;ll (o in a moment9 %-likel means 6one moment96 -3ikel can be anal3zed as a classi"ier derived "rom the intransitive verb lik- 6to rise% to be(in96 &nother ver3 common classi"ier derives "rom lok'- 6to leave96 '0xlok'el li'ay. I -ent three times9 +u jay-lok'el li'ay. I -ent man3 times9 ('iterall3$ It -asn;t 0ust a "e- times that I -ent9)G2H In the "ollo-in( cha!ter -e -ill see classi"iers based on transitive verbs9 *ther common classi"iers are the "olo-in(9 -p'is% 6a measure or servin(6 'ox p'is pox% 6three shots o" li<uor6 -chop% 6(rou!% "amil3% hamlet6 jchop xonobil% 6a !air o" sandals6 xonob-il% 6sandals6

-tos% 6t3!e6 cha'-tos 'ixim -koj% 6(rade% level6 'ox koj 'abtel% 6three levels o" -or: (in other -ords% three !ositions in the reli(ious hierarch3)6 .om!are the e !ressions$ jchop 'o and jtos 'o 6di""erent96 Similarl3% one sa3s$ jkoj 'o% 6one more (rade6 jlik 'o% 6another sheet% another !iece (o" ro!e% "or e am!le)6 jun 'o% 6another% di""erent% one more6 yan 'o% 6di""erent% se!arate6 yan% 6di""erent% distinct% un!leasant6 *ther e !ressions o" <uantit3 and e tension are "ormed b3 means o" classi"iers to(ether -ith !ossessive !re"i es and certain !roductive a""i es9 #he entiret3 o" somethin( is e !ressed% "or e am!le% in a similar manner$ Possessive Pre"i L ,umeral .lassi"ier L -lej ;olel ilaj sp'ejlej sjol. His entire head is (one9 ' li chije/ i'och ta p'in skotlej. #he deer -ent all the -a3 into the !ot9 ;va'lej xa li tzeb e. #he (irl has alread3 achieved her "ull hei(ht9 +ith the number one there are t-o e !ressions that si(ni"3 entiret3$ sjunul and sjunlej9 '0y vo' sjunul k'ak'al. #here is -ater (or$ it rains) all da39 '0y vo' skotol k'ak'al. #here is -ater ever3 da39

;olel 'ipon ta jjunlej. &ll o" m3 bod3 is sic:9 #he redu!licated "orms o" numeral e !ressions si(ni"ies 6each one% ever3 t-o% etc96 or 6one b3 one% t-o b3 t-o% etc96 #hose "orms are some-hat irre(ular% and circumlocutions o"ten substitute "or them9 '0y preserente ta jujun jteklum. Each district has a !resident9 jteklum% 6munici!alit3% "atherland6 Ta chab-chab k'ak'al 'oy ch'ivit. #here is a mar:et ever3 da39 Ta jujun vaxakib k'ak'al 'oy ch'ivit. Ever3 ei(ht da3s there is a mar:et9 Ta 'ox-'ox vo' chlok'ik tal. #he !eo!le are leavin( three b3 three9 '0y cha'-p'ej alobol jujun. Ever3 one (o" 3ou) -ill have t-o "ruits9 lobol% 6"ruit6

0., T#e Structure of *ouns and Ad/ecti"es

+e have alread3 various "orms o" nouns9 So% "or e am!le$ li $un e John li na le' e that house l ana e 3our house jkot ka' a horse cha' p'ej jna m3 second house% t-o houses o" mine xcha'-p'ejel jna m3 second house% the t-o houses o" mine li chib pexu taj e those t-o do(s (there) #he (eneral "orm o" a com!le noun can be re!resented -ith the "ollo-in( dia(ram$

(&rticle) (,umeral) ,oun (Possessor) It is note-orth3 that numeral e !ressions or !ossessors can directl3 modi"3 a noun or serve as a !redicate in a sentence -here the noun is the sub0ect9 For e am!le% there is a relationshi! bet-een the com!lete sentence and the com!le noun in the "ollo-in( !airs$ 3i' li na e. #he house is here9 li na li'e this house here avu'un li ka' e #he hourse is 3ours9 l aka' e 3our house '0x vo' li jvabajometik e. #he musicians are three in number (in other -ords% there are three musicians)9 li 'ox vo' jvabajometik e the three musicians In all o" these cases% the !redicate o" a sentence is attributed to the sub0ect noun or is an inte(ral !art o" a com!le noun9 & noun can also incor!orate an attributive ad0ective9 In most ad0ectives% there is a s!ecial su""i al "orm that is used in such circumstances9 +uk' li na e. #he house i" bi(9 ' li muk'ta na e/ ja' yu'un li $un e. #he bi( house is John;s9 ;ik li vo' e. #he -ater is cold9 3i'atin ta sikil vo'. I -ashed m3sel" -ith cold -ater9 'atin-% 6to -ash onesel"6 7at li vinik e. #he man is tall9 ' li 'unen e/ ixi' 'o li natil vinik e. #he child -as a"raid o" the tall man9 1ox to li si' e. #he "ire-ood is still (reen9

+u xk'ak' li yaxal si' e. Green "ire-ood doesn;t burn9 y x(al)% 6(reen% humid% "resh6 +e -ill re!resent such ad0ectives -ith !arentheses% in order to sho- that the ad0ective ta:es a su""i -hen used attributivel39 In the case o" y x(al)% the o" the non4su""i al "orm sounds li:e o9 #hus% yox 6(reen6 (!redicative "orm)% yaxal 6(reen6 (attributive "orm)9 7an3 o" the ad0ectives that -e alread3 :no- "ollo- this !attern9 So% "or e am!le$ sik(il) cold muk'(ta) bi( lek(il) (ood 'ep(al) man3 tz tz(al) hard% stron( nat(il) tall% lon(% dee! p'ij(il) intelli(ent ch'aj(il) laz3% in"ertile .olor ad0ectives are o" the same t3!e$ 'ik'(al) blac: sak(il) -hite tz j(al) red k' n(al) 3elloy x(al) (reen% blue

&ttributive ad0ectives are com!letel3 incor!orated into the com!le noun9 Possessive !re"i es do not combine -ith the noun itsel"% in a com!le e !ression% but instead -ith the attributive ad0ective that modi"ies and !recedes it9 '9k' li jpixol e. 73 hat is blac:9 9ch'ay li k-ik'al pixol e. 73 blac: hat is lost9 5oj li 'ul e. #he atole is sour9 +i 'oy a-pajal 'ul2 Do 3ou have sour atoleF p j(al)% 6sour6 In (eneral% the attributive su""i is -il% or -al a"ter a bis3llabic root or in a root -ith the vo-el % althou(h there are some e ce!tions9 Takin li te' e. #he -ood is dr39 -h'abal taki te'. #here is no dr3 -ood9 Takin xa li balamil e. #he (round is dr3 alread39 -hicham ta taki ti'. I;m d3in( o" thirst (literall3$ o" dr3 mouth)9 Here% takin is the !redicative "orm o" 6dr396 Taki- is the attributive "orm% -hich also "unctions in various "i ed com!ounds (-hich don;t receive !ossessive !re"i es)9 #here are also ad0ective that can modi"3 nouns directl3% -ithout the use o" an3 sort o" attributive su""i 9 :'ixin xa li vaj e. #he tortillas are alread3 -arm9 +i 'oy k'ixin vaj2 &re there -arm tortillasF ' ch' to li balamil li'e. #his land is still ne-9 (In other -ords% #his is still vir(in land9) -hi'abtej xa ta 'ach' balamil. I -or: on ne- land9

'=nen to li jtzeb e. 73 dau(hter is still a little (irl9 '9p li kunen tzeb e. 73 little (irl is sic:9 #here are also some ad0ectives that can modi"3 nouns -ith or -ithout the use o" an attributive su""i 9 #here ma3 be some di""erence in meanin( bet-een the su""i al and the sim!le "orm% or !erha!s the sim!le e !ressions are 9comp,e%to% con'ela.o%;9 3ek mu li vaj e. #he tortillas are reall3 tast39 9laj xa li muil vaj e/ naka xa poj. #he tast3 tortillas are (one5 there are no more sour ones9 9tal li mu vinik e. #he re!u(nant man came9 mu-il% 6tast3% "ra(rant5 re!u(rant6 4ik'it tajmek li tonetik e. #he roc:s are ver3 small9 7aka xa chtun li bik'tal tonetik e. ,o- the3 onl3 use little roc:s9 -h'ak'otaj li bik'it 'alkalte e. #he second alcalde vie0o is dancin(9 +u means 6tast3% "ra(rant%6 or44-ith a sarcastic t-ist446re!u(nant% bitter96 #he sim!le "orm in attributive !osition onl3 maintains the second meanin(9 I do not understand the !recise di""erence bet-een bik'it and bik'tal in attributive !osition9 4ik'tal a!!ears to su((est !luralit3$ bik'tal chonetik little animals bik'tal j-toy-k'inetik 9entretene.ore% menore%; (reli(ious o""icials "or the Part3 o" Saint Sebastian) *n the other hand% bik'it in attributive !osition a!!ears to have the meanin( o" 63oun(er96 In order to sa3 6small%6 =inacantecos "avor the -ord k'ox 6small6 (-hose e<uivalent in other dialects is chin)9 4ik'it li p'in e. #he !ot is small9

Te ta k'ox p'in li 'ul e. #he atole is in the little !ot9 ,ot all ad0ectives can be incor!orated into a com!le noun9 For e am!le% some ad0ectives onl3 "unction as !redicates and can onl3 directl3 modi"3 nouns b3 means o" relative clauses9 #his is true% "or e am!le% o" some derived ad0ectives -ith the su""i -8l o" verbs and !ositional roots9 -hapal ta kastiya li tzeb e. #he (irl :no-s (literall3$ is read3 "or) S!anish9 9tal li tzeb ti chapal ta kastiya. #he (irl that :ne- S!anish came9 :uxul li jvabajom e. #he musician is sober9 9'ilin li jvabajom ti kuxul e. #he musician -ho is sober (ot mad9 #he "ormation o" such relative clauses is obviousl3 related to the !rocess o" noun "rontin(9 '9p to'ox li t'ul e. #he rabbit is sic:9 ' li t'ul e/ 'ip to'ox. &s "or the rabbit% it is sic:9 9cham xa li t'ul ti 'ip to'ox e. #he rabbit that is sic: died9 +e can consider that the last sentence results "rom a concatenation o" sentences -ith the "ollo-in( "orm$ 9cham xa li t'ul e. ' li t'ul e/ 'ip to'ox. #he second occurence o" li t'ul e is re!laced b3 the relative !article ti (-hich a!!ears to be related to the article ti)5 the relative clause that results end -ith the enclitic -e9 9cham xa li t'ul (ti) 'ip to'ox e. ,ote that ad0ectives -ith a su""i al attributive "orm can also "orm relative clauses$ :'un li vaj e. #he tortillas are smooth9 k'un-il% 6smooth% -ea:% so"t6

9laj xa li k'unil vaje. #he smooth tortillas are (one9 9laj xa li vaj ti k'un e. #he tortillas that are smooth are (one9 +e can use the "ollo-in( notation to re!resent the various t3!es o" ad0ectives$ (?) -ith !arentheses -e can indicate attributive su""i es$ e9(9% lek(il)5 (2) -ith a h3!hen% -e can indicate an o!tional su""i "or the attributive use$ e9(9% k'a'-al 6old% ruined% rotten65 and (J) -ith

% -e can indicate that it does not have an attributive use ((iven that the derived 6sic:%6 jal 6lon( (duration)96 I -ill !resent a "e- more e am!les$

ad0ectives do not have it)$ e9(9% 'ip

, ,

3ek to'ox jlik jpixol. & hat o" mine -as (ood9 5ero ich'ay xa li jlekil pixol e. Cut m3 (ood hat is lost9 :'ajomal iko li chopol e. *nl3 the bad one remained9 k'ajomal% 6onl3% no more6 (,ote that in the last e am!le the ad0ective chopol "unctions as a noun% -ith the article li and the enclitic -e 9>here i% clo%in' parenthe%i%:; '0y to jk'a' pixol. I still have m3 old hat9 :'ajomal xa 'oy k'a'al lobol. ,o- there are onl3 rotten "ruits9 'Ep xa ikom k'a' limete. 7an3 bro:en bottles remain9 %al chi'abtej/ pero toj jal to li 'abtele. I -or: a lot% but the -or: isn;t lon(9 #here are also ad0ectives that are onl3 used in attributive "orm9 #hose ad0ectives cannot be !redicates alone5 the3 are re!resented in our notation -ith a "inal h3!hen9 batz'i- 6true6

ch'ul- 6hol36 -hapalot ta batz'i k'op. Rou :no- #zotzil9 9cham ti jbatz'i ka'. 73 true horse (in other -ords% m3 stud) died9 -htal xa lach'ul tot e. Rour (od"ather is comin( (literall3$ 3our hol3 "ather)9 #he t-o ad0ectives batz'i- and ch'ul- are also incor!orated into com!ound verbs% as inte(ral !arts o" the verb stems9 +u xatun. Rou;re useless9 +u xabatz'i-tun. Rou;re trul3 useless9 tun- 6to serve% be use"ul6 +i cha'abolaj2 +ill 3ou do me a "avorF +i chach'ul-'abolaj. +ill 3ou do me a bi( (literall3$ hol3) "avorF 'abolaj- 6to do a "avor% be "riendl3% be bothered6 #he com!ound roots receive absolutive and tem!oral a""i es as unities9 xa -tun Rou;re not use"ul9 xa -batz'i-tun Rou;re trul3 useless9 #here are also attributive "orms o" nouns% -ith su""i es ver3 similar to those -ith -hich attributive ad0ectives are "ormed9 -hlaki ta 'ich li mail e. #he !um!:in is boilin( -ith chile9 laki-% 6to boil% coo:6 'ich% 6chile6 mail% 6!um!:in6

-hlaki xa li 'ichil mail e. #he chili !um!:in is boilin(9 Tzeb to li chij e. #he shee! is still 3oun(9 %a' tzebal chij li'e. #his is the 3oun( shee!9 &lso consider the "ollo-in( e !ressions$ -h'ivital vo' chica (iven to the "amil3 o" the bride4to4be b3 the "amil3 o" her husband4 to4be in the mar:et o" 9la% feria%; ch'ivit% 6mar:et6 vo'% 6-ater6 'antzil ton a roc: occu!ied b3 a su!ernatural -oman 'antz% 6-oman6 ton% 6roc:6 chenek'ul vaj bean tamale chenek'% 6bean6 vaj% 6tortilla6 te'tikil chij deer (literall3$ "orest shee!) te'tik% 6"orest6 chij% 6shee!% deer6 7odi"3in( a noun -ith the attributive "orm o" another noun can si(nal a variet3 o" relations bet-een the t-o o" them% "or e am!le$ 6!um!:in that is !re!ared -ith chili%6 6a shee! that is li:e a (irl%6 6-ater that is bou(ht in the mar:et%6 6roc: that is -oman4 li:e%6 etc9 9?a%ta; the <uasi4!ossessive com!ound can receive attributive su""i es% as in the "ollo-in( e am!le$

9ch'i ta yut mok li chenek' li'e. #hese beans (ro- inside o" the "ence9 9laj xa li yut-mokil chenek' e. #he !atio beans are all (one9 ,ote the "orm te'tikil (or te'tikal) 6o" the "orest96 Te' means 6tree% -ood96 #he su""i -tik denotes an area or e tended s!ace o" some natural thin(9 For e am!le% one sa3s$ te'tik% 6"orest6 te'% 6tree6 chobtik% 6corn"ield6 chob% 6corn"ield6 tontik% 6roc:3 !lace6 ton% 6roc:6 vo'tik% 6rain3 season6 vo'% 6-ater6 Te'tikil has an additional su""i % the attributive -il9 Sometimes the attributive su""i also en(enders other chan(es in the root9 ja'al tzo'% 6diarrhea6 vo' (M,! ') 6-ater6 tzo'% 6shit6 me'anal 'antz% 6-ido-6 me'on (M ,me' n) 6or!han% !oor !erson6 'antz% 6-oman6 pamal 'ul% 6aromatic atole6

pom (M,p m)% 6incense6 'ul% 6atole6 ,ot all noun have attributive "orms9 #here is another ver3 common e !ression in #zotzil% -hich !roduces com!ounds o" t-o con0oined nouns% -ithout an3 a""i 9 #he construction is o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ 4 ,oun ? L ,oun 2 #he com!ound means 64 o" t3!e 6 tzotz k'u'ul% 6-oolen !oncho6 tzotz% 6-ool6 k'u'-ul% 6clothin(6 'ixtol k'op% 60o:e6 'ixt l-al% 6to36 k'op% 6-ord% s!eech6 nukul moral% 6leather ba(6 nukul% 6leather6 moral% 6ba(6 #here are com!ounds o" the same "orm in En(lish% "or e am!le% 6do( "ood%6 6stra-berr3 0am%6 or 6s<uash blossom96 #here are also com!ounds in En(lish -here the "irst element has an attributive su""i $ 6-ater3 !lace%6 6roc:3 !lace96 In #zotzil% com!ounds o" these t-o t3!es can carr3 !ossessive !re"i es in their inte(ral "orm% in contrast to the ri(id <uasi4!ossessive com!ounds li:e ti'-na 6house entrance96 For e am!le one can sa3$

'0y j-tzebal-chij. I have a 3oun( shee!9 '0y j-nukul-moral. I have a leather ba(9 Cut% note the !ossessive !re"i es in the "ollo-in( e !ression$ '0y sti' li jna e. 73 house has an entrance9 Students need to learn -hich nouns have an attributive su""i al "orm% and -hich "orm com!ounds -ithout an3 such attributive su""i 9 +i chtal 'ep krixchano2 &re man3 !eo!le comin(F 'Ep'eptik. (Res)% enou(h9 +i lek lachobe2 Is 3our corn"ield (oodF 3eklektik. Prett3 (ood9 +i ya li 'ich e2 Is the chili hotF 1ayatik. Prett3 hot9 ya(il)% 6hot% s!ic36 #he redu!licated "orm o" ad0ectives -ith the additional su""i -tik means 6!rett3 PPP%6 6some-hat PPP96 Pol3s3llabic ad0ectives combine -ith the su""i -tik -ithout bein( redu!licated9 +i k'ixin to li vaj e2 &re the tortillas still hotF :'ixintik to. (#he3;re still) some-hat hot9 +i p'ij li vinik e2 Is the man smartF '9'i/ sonsotik. ,o% he;s some-hat stu!id9 sonso% 6stu!id6

#he diminuitive sense o" the redu!licated "orms can also be seen in the stems o" a "everbs and nouns9 '0ch'ochan tal. Scoot u! a little9 'och- 6to enter6 Tey ta ti'ti vo'. It;s on the riverban:9 +i po'ot xa li k'in e2 #he !art3 is nearb3 (in other -ords$ Is it comin( soonF) Tzk'an to. In a bit (literall3$ it -ants still)9 Tzk'ank'an to. In a little bit9 (See the "ollo-in( cha!ter -ith res!ect to the transitive verbs9) +uch'u li jmeme'tik le'e2 +ho is that old -omanF me'% 6mother6 jme'tik% 67rs96 (literall3$ our mother) jme'me'tik% 6little old -oman% (randmother6 In (eneral% onl3 ad0ectives have redu!licated "orms9 &d0ectives "or colors "orm numerous com!ounds -ith diverse roots9 #hose com!ounds denote the colors o" s!eci"ic ob0ects9 -hibat 'ik'-luman. 9:::; I am (oin( at sun u!9 'ik'% 6blac:6 lum% 6land6 ;olel sak-nexan li sjol e. His 9.e%tello; hair9 :'an-nexan li sjol e. His hair is blonde9

nex% 6blonde% o" -hite com!le ion6 sak(il)% 6-hite6 k' n(al)% 63ello-6 #he (eneral "orm o" those como!unds is the "ollo-in($ .olor &d0ective L .1. Root L -an #here is a s!ecial root that re!laces tz j(al) 6red6 in com!ounds o" this t3!e$ chak6red96 ;olel chak-p'itan ssat li jyakubel e. #he drun:ard;s e3es are red9 chak-% 6red6 p'it-% 60um!6 #he situation is "urther com!licated b3 the e istence o" nominal ad0ective "orms% -hich should carr3 !ossessive !re"i es9 #he nominalizin( su""i a!!ears to be the attributive su""i $ -ith man3 bis3llabic roots and -ith roots -ith % the su""i is -al5 -ith other roots the su""i is -il9 In its !rimar3 usa(e% nouns derived "rom ad0ectives "unction as true !ossessed nouns9 ;koj sbolil ti ichuk e. He -as 0ailed because o" his stu!idit39 sbol[]% 6stu!id6 -bolil% 6stu!idit36 Tol lixanav ta jbik'tal. I travelled a lot in m3 3outh9 bik'it% 6small6 -bik'tal% 63oun(% smallness6 +i 'ol tajmek li 'ikatzil e2 Is the load ver3 heav3F

'ol (M,' l)% 6heav36 -alal% 6-ei(ht6 +ith those derived nouns <uestions such as 6ho- muchF6 or 6ho- heav3F6 are "ormed9 :'u yepal 'oy2 Ho- man3F 'ep(al)% 6man36 :'usi yalal2 Ho- much does it -ei(hF :'u smuk'ul li krem e2 Ho- bi( is the bo3F muk'(ta)% 6bi(6 :'u snamal alumale. Ho- "ar a-a3 is 3our countr3F -lumal% 6countr36 n m(al)% 6distance6 :'u sjalil latal2 Ho- lon( have 3ou come "orF jal[]% 6a lon( time6 T;u snatil la;och ta ch;enF Ho- "ar did 3ou (o into the caveF nat(il)% 6tall% lon(6 ,ote that in the "ollo-in( e am!les% the !ossessive !re"i s- (third !erson) does not corres!ond to an3 actual !ossessor% but instead !la3s a !urel3 (rammatical role9 7at li'och ta ch'en. I entered dee! into the cave9 :'usi snatil la'och2 Ho- dee! did 3ou (o inF ('iterall3$ ho- is the len(th 3ou -ent inF) &nother similar use% in -hich the noun "unctions as an ad0ective% is based u!on the im!eratives k'elo 6loo:Q6 and vi 6seeQ6$

8i slekil. 'oo: ho- (ood it isQ :'e(lo) smuk'ul li xchob e. 'oo: ho- bi( his corn"ield isQ 8a'i sbolil li $un e. 'isten to ho- stu!id John isQ va'i% 6listenQ6 In these constructions% a sentence -ith an ad0ectival !redicate becomes a constituent that a!!ears as a !ossessed noun9 ! SE"T #!AG"A@ ?E"E *ther e !ressiosn that also have the (rammatical "orm o" !ossessed nouns are clearl3 e<uivalent to ad0ectival sentences9 For e am!le$ 1ach'il to li jpixol e. 73 hat is ver3 ne-9 ('iterall3$ the ne-ness still o" m3 hat9) ;lekil yo'on ital. He came out o" the (oodness o" his heart9 1epal to ikom lobol e. #here remained man3 "ruits9 ('iterall3$ the numerousness o" the "ruits remained9) ;namal chabate. Ho- "ar 3ou;re (oin(Q ('iterall3$ his distance that 3ou;re (oin(9)

0.1 *oun 2lasses

+e alread3 :no- about t-o t3!es o" noun roots9 #here are nouns that can occur -ith or -ithout !ossessive !re"i es9 na% 6casa6 jna% 6m3 house6 #here are also nouns o" the 6inalienable6 t3!e% -hich al-a3s ta:e !ossessive !re"i es or combine -ith a su""i (t3!icall3 o" the "orm -il) denotin( 6inde"inite !ossession96 jk'ob% 6m3 hand6

k'ob-ol% 6the hand (o" someone)6 atot% 63our "ather6 tot-il% 6the "ather (o" someone)6 #he t-o noun classes alread3 mentioned contain sub4classes o" more s!ecialized roots9 For e am!le% there is a small (rou! o" nouns that can never carr3 !ossessive !re"i es9 It de!ends in !art on the !ossibilities o" !ossession9 'au(hlin (?@AB$2K) tells us that in ?@B@ -hen no =inacantecos had buses% the -ord 'aktavus never occured in a !ossessed "orm% but toda3 =inacantecos don;t hesitate to bu3 buses or to utter the "ollo-in( !ossessed "orms$ kaktavus% avaktavus% yaktavus% etc9 Ho-ever% other nouns cannot combine -ith !ossessive a""i es% a!!arentl3 "or !urel3 (rammatical reasons9 #hese nouns are related to !ossessors onl3 b3 means o" the relational -ord 'u'un-il9 ch'ivit% 6mar:et6 ch'ivit avu'un% 63our mar:et6 'ak'ot% 6dance6 'ak'ot yu'un% 6his dance6 +i 'oy 'ak'ot yu'un li nupunel e2 Is there (oin( to be a dance "or the -eddin(F +e -ill re!resent these nouns -ith the -ord4initial s3mbol

% in order to indicate that !ossessive !re"i es do not combine -ith the root9 +e alread3

:no- other nouns o" the same t3!e$

ch'ivit% 6mar:et6

'ak'ot% 6dance6

'ak'ubal% 6ni(ht6

'ok'ob% 6mornin(6

vaj% 6tortilla6

It is !ossible to sa3 6m3 tortilla%6 but in #zotzil this idea is e !ressed b3 means o" a su!!letive root% -hich is a member o" a sub4class o" inherentl3 !ossessed nouns (o" inalienable !ossession)9 #his root can be re!resented this -a3$ 'ot-il 6tortilla (o" someone)65 ho-ever% there is no inde"inite "orm o" this root9 For e am!le% one can sa3 kot% 6m3 tortilla6 avot% 63our tortilla6 yot% 6his tortilla6 &lthou(h b3 OOO'otil one understands somethin( e<uivalent to vaj% 6tortilla%6 this "orm is never actuall3 used9 +e -ill re!resent roots o" this t3!e (nouns that are al-a3s !ossessed or have no inde"inite "orm) -ith a h3!en at the be(innin($ -ot% 6tortilla96 #he s!ecial nouns -e learned about in the !revious section are members o" this subclass$ -chi'uk% 6-ith6 -tuk% 6alone% b3 himNhersel"6 -kotol% 6all6 +e also :no- o" the -ord -lumal 6native land% !lace o" ori(in%6 -hich -e can also consider a member o" the same sub4class9 (#his -ord is obviousl3 related to lum 6land644a relation -e -ill later e amine9) ,ouns derived throu(h this !rocess o" a""i ation inherit the characteristics o" the sub4 class to -hich the3 belon(9 For e am!le% nouns -ith the su""i -tik% -hich denotes the e tension o" somethin( natural% belon( to the class o" un!ossessable nouns$ te'tik (M

te'tik) 6"orest6

tontik (M

tontik) 6roc:3 !lace6

Similarl3% nouns derived "rom "rom ad0ectives throu(h the su""i -8l ((enerall3 -al) belon( to the class o" al-a3s !ossessed nouns$ -epal% 6a <uantiti3 o"9996 'ep% 6man36 -alal% 6the -ie(ht o"9996 'ol% 6heav36 -bik'tal% 6the smallness o"9996 bik'it% 6small6 -bolil% 6the stu!idit3 o"9996 bol% 6stu!id6 #he o-nershi! o" these nouns derived "rom a certain class o" noun is automatic% and it is not necessar3 to note that relationshi! o" o-nershi! in ever3 case9 &nother !ur!orted e am!le o" a su!!letive "orm is the "ollo-in($

vo'% 6-ater6

-al'al% 6-ater (o" someone)6 +e have alread3 seen that the basic "orm o" vo' is ,! '9 In realit3% the 6su!!letive6 "orm -a'al results "rom su""i in( -al (the same su""i that -e see in -lumal 6homeland6) to ,! '9 #he result is -!a'al9 #his h3!othetical "orm% united -ith the !ossessive !re"i s-% can (ive either ,,,sya'al or ya'al (see$ svo'obalNyo'obal 6the "i"th6)% and it a!!ears !ossible that the "orm -ith an initial vo-el% -a'al% results "rom the re4inter!retation o" ya'al% 6-ater96GJH

Similarl3% the ordinar3 -ord "or 6chic:en6 in =inacantec #zotzil is kaxlan9 #his -ord a!!ears to be derived "rom the S!anish -ord 6castellano6$ it is used as an attribuitive ad0ective "or sa3in( 6stran(er% not native% introduced96 +ith the a(entive !re"i % the -ord j-kaxlan means 6ladino% non4indi(enous !erson96 In order to sa3 6m3 chic:en6 one must use another root$ -alak'9 '0y 'ox-kot kaxlan ta jna/ jot yalak' li jme' e/ jokot kalak' li vo'on e. #here are three chic:ens in m3 house$ t-o that belon( to m3 mother and one that belon(s to me9

kaxlan% 6chic:en6

-alak'% 6chic:en (o" someone)6 In =inacantec #zotzil the -ord 'alak' does not occur alone% but onl3 a!!ears in !ossessed "orm9 *n the other hand% in .hamulan #zotzil% the ordinar3 -ord "or 6chic:en6 is 'alak'% -hich occurs in !ossessed or absolutive "orm9 #han:s to this su!!letive root it is unnecessar3 to con"use jkaxlan 6ladino6 (-ith the a(entive !re"i j-) -ith the !ossessed "orm9 +e alread3 :no- that in #zotzil (rammatical !ossession is used in man3 non4 !ossessive conte ts9 For e am!le% the (rammatical !ossessor o" a noun derived "rom a verb b3 the su""i ation o" -el corresonds to the sub0ect o" the verb in a sentence -here the verb is e !licit9 For e am!le$ 7ax to liyul. I arrived earl39 7ax to jyulel. 73 arrival -as earlier9 In both sentences the true sub0ect o" the verb yul- 6to arrive (here)6 is in the "irst !erson$ 6I96 In one% there is a absolutive !re"i o" the third !erson9 In the other% there is a 6!ossessive !re"i 6 o" the "irst !erson9 #here is im!ressive varitet3 in the uses and meanin( o" (rammatical !ossession% 9onl( in it% relation%hip >ith no,n%;9 +e -ill anal3ze the di""erent uses o" (rammatical !ossession -ith res!ect to the di""erent "orm o" nouns9

(a) #he absolute "orm o" a noun does ma:e re"erence to someone (or somethin() -ho o-ns or is someho- related to the ob0ect9 '0y chitom ta ch'ivit. #here are !i(s in the mar:et9 5o'ot chlok' 'ixim. #he corn -ill soon leave (in other -ords$ be harvested)9 po'ot% 6soon6 (b) #he 6sim!le !ossessed6 "orm o" a noun indicates that there e ists a s!eci"ic relation bet-een the thin( desi(nated b3 the noun and the (rammatical !ossessor9 &mon( the various relationshi!s that have been mentioned are the "ollo-in($ (i) the relationshi! o" a !art o" the -hole %a' kok. #his is m3 le(9 Te ta sti' jna. #his is the entrance to m3 house9 (ii) the relationshi! o" the thin( or the ob0ect !ossessed to the !ossessor% -hich has control or !o-er over it$ %a' jna. It is m3 house9 %a' jpixol. #his is m3 hat (-hich I bou(ht and use999) %a' jkrem. It is m3 son (-hose "ather I am and -ho I am in char(e o"999)9 %a' kot. It is m3 tortilla (-hich I !lan to eat999)9 (iii) the relationshi! o" somethin( !roduced to its !roducer$ o" -or: to the !erson -ho did it9 %a' kot. It is the tortilla that I made9 %a' kabtel. It is m3 -or: (-hich resulted "rom m3 labor)9 & noun% b3 itsel"% can share various relations9 3i jchobe 6m3 corn"ield6 can denote the corn"ield that belon(s to me% as -ell as the corn"ield I have -or:ed on and cultivated9

(In the state o" .hia!as% the t-o thin(s are <uite distinct9) &lso% man3 -ords are "undamentall3 relative$ -ith these sim!le !ossession is related !recisel3 to the terms o" the relation$ jtot 6m3 "ather6 (M the !erson -ith -hom I have a "atherNson relationshi!9) (b;) 7an3 #zotzil nouns have a "orm o" 6inde"inite !ossession%6 -ith the meanin( o" 6the $ o" someone% o" a !erson alread3 understood% or ins!eci"ic% or o" !eo!le in (eneral96 #he -ords that denote bod3 !arts% or :inshi! terms% "ormed -ith the su""i -8l (in (eneral% -il) sho- this meanin( o" 6inde"inite !ossession96 #he su""i -il is added to other -ords -ith absolute "orms (in the sense o" (a)) in order to !roduce a meanin( o" inde"inite !osession9 -hchap 'iktazil. Someone;s load is bein( !re!ared9 chap-% 6to be !re!ared% -ra!!ed u!6 'ikatz-il% 6load% burden6 'Ep 'ilil. #here are man3 doubts (o" someone)9 -hopol chpoj 'abtelil. It is bad to steal (!eo!le;s) -or:9 Toj 'antzil le'e. #hat is 0ust li:e a lover9 9lik chamelil. 7enstruation (literall3$ (someone;s) sic:ness)) be(an 9 #hese "orms im!l3 a relationshi! bet-een the noun and the !ossessor similar to the one indicated b3 the sim!le !ossessed "orm (in the sense o" (b))9 Ho-ever% here the !ossessor is not made e !licit9 (c) #he ma0orit3 o" nouns also have a !ossessed "orm% -hich various authors have called the "orm o" 6inanimate !ossession6 ('au(hlin% ?@AB) or 6im!ersonal !ossession6 (.o-an% ?@^@)9 I believe that this "orm also e !resses 6bene"active !ossession6$ in other -ords% it e !resses a relationshi! o" mutual bene"it (or detriment) bet-een a noun its (rammatical !ossessor9 #he (eneral "orm is the "ollo-in($ a !ossessive !re"i combines a the noun -ith the su""i -8l (o"ten -al) to indicates bene"active !ossession9 I -ill (ive e am!les o" various t3!es$

(i) the location or ori(in o" a thin( ' li ch'en le'e/ 'oy sbolom -al. Ja(uars live in that cave there9 '0y yuch' -al jjol. 73 head has lice9 '0y avinatab -il. Rou;ve (ot a lizard ("or e am!le% -al:in( on 3our bac:)9 %a' yak'al -el tulan li'e. #his is oa: charcoal9 'ak'al% 6charcoal6 tulan% 6oa: (a t3!e o" -ood)6 :'usi sbek't -al li'e2 +hat :ind o" animal is this meat "romF (ii) ob0ect or "unction o" a thin( -h'abal yak' -il li ka' e. #here isn;t an3 ro!e "or the horse9 'ak'% 6vine6 Tol yabtel -al li balamil e. #he land needs too much -or:9 Tzk'an yot -al (svaj -il) li bek'et e. #he meat needs tortillas9 -h'abal yik' -al li pelota e. #he ball doesn;t have an3 air9 'ik'% 6air% -ind6 +i 'oy yasuka -il li kajve2 Does the co""ee have su(ar alread3F :'usi yaj -il li'e2 +i ja' yaj -il yakil vo'2 +hat is this Gca`aH "orF Is the Gca`aH "or the GchichaHF 'aj% 6reed6 yakil vo'% 6GchichaH6 (literall3$ Gembria(uenteH -ater)

(iii) destination% intention% cause5 victim or bene"iciar3 o" a thin( '0ch yalak' -il chobtik. #he chic:ens entered the corn"ield (to eat it)9 'Ep ikom yil -al li na e. Cecause o" the house there remain a lot o" debts9 %a' sbel -el %obel li'e. #his is the road "or San .ristZbal9 %a' xa jbolom -al xa chtal. +hat;s comin( is the ti(er that is (oin( to :ill me9 9cham xa latzek -ale. #he scor!ion that -as (oin( to stin( 3ou alread3 died9 ' nimal 'oy sbot -al li chobtik e. #here is a lot o" hail9 tzek% 6scor!ion6 bot% 6hail6 Tzotz xchamel -al li pox e. #he han(over is bad9 Tol xchan -ul li kixim e. 73 corn is in"ested -ith animals9 chon (M,ch n)% 6animal% sna:e6 -hapal xa yasaluna -il li tz'i'lel e. #he hoe is read3 "or the -eeds9 tz'i'lel% 6!lant% -eed Gmala hierbaH6 +ith ver3 "e- e ce!tions% the root o" a noun;s bene"active or im!ersonal "orm ta:es the su""i -al (-hich chan(es to -il a"ter a "inal s3llable -ith -a-)% althou(h there are also su""i es -ith other vo-els$ -el a"ter -8l% -ul a"ter - n% etc9 #he di""erence bet-een use (b)44sim!le !ossession44and use (c)44bene"active or im!ersonal !ossession44can be seen in the contrast bet-een the "ollo-in( !airs o" e !ressions$ kalak' m3 chic:en kalak'il the chic:en "or m3 curin( ceremon3

kasuka m3 su(ar kasukail (2) the su(ar that is made b3 m3 bod3 (F) jmachita m3 machete jmachitail the machete the3 are (oin( to :ill me -ith kinatab m3 lizard kinatabil the lizard that bit me% or that is on m3 bod3 kak'al the charcoal that belon(s to me kak'lel the charcoal that results -hen m3 bod3 burns 'oy column% G!ilarH koy the column that belon(s to me% that I;ll use yoyal jna m3 house;s column% the column "or m3 house koyal the column that I am 9amarra.o; in #he "orms -ith -al sho- -hat is called 6inanimate !ossession6 because% as is obvious a"ter re"lectin( u!on it% inanimate thin(s and inanimate bein(s do not !ossess thin(s in the same sense9 I" -e re4e amine the meanin( o" sim!le !ossession% -e should be able to see that onl3 one o" the menain(s allo-s "or an inanimate thin( to !ossess somethin( in a sim!le manner$ -hen the noun !ossessed denotes the !art and the !ossessor (the inanimate thin() denotes the -hole$ yok li vitz e the "oot o" the mountain yok li ka' e the horse; "oot kok m3 "oot In these e am!les the relationshi! bet-een the !ossessed noun and the !ossessor is the same5 there is no di""erence bet-een the "orms9 Cut i" the relationshi! bet-een the

!ossessed and the !ossessor is a relationshi! o" 6o-nershi!6 or o" 6!roduct%6 the !ossessor cannot be inanimate9 #hus% the noun roots and the meanin(s o" (rammatical !ossession contrast in the "ollo-in( !hrases$ sna li vinik e the man;s house snail 'ixim the house "or corn yabtel li $un e John;s -or: (the -or: he did) yabtelal chobtik the -or: the corn"ield needs sbe ka' the road "or horses sbelel vo' the road "or -ater yixim li jchabajom e the "armer;s corn (the corn he !roduced) yiximal chobtik the corn "rom the corn"ield #here also seems to be a relationshi! bet-een nouns o" the alread3 mentioned t3!e -ith the su""i -al (or -ith another vo-el) and the nouns derived "rom ad0ectives -ith the same su""i -al$ jsonsoal m3 stu!idit3% the stu!idit3 that a""licts me kakoval m3 -as!% the -as! that a""licts me #here are other similarities bet-een nouns and ad0ectives that -e -ill see belo-9 (c;) &ddin( the su""i o" inde"inite !ossession to the bene"active or inanimate "orm o" a "e- nouns !roduces an un!ossessable "orm% -hich has the meanin( o" 6inde"inite bene"active !ossession6$ in other -ords% a "orm -ith the same meanin( as the noun -ith -al% but -ithout an e !licit !ossessor9 For e am!le% "rom the root 'e-al 6mouth%6 there are sim!le !ossessive "orms (uses (b) and (b;))$ ke 6m3 mouth6 'eal% 6the mouth (o" someone)6

#here is also a "orm o" 6bene"active !ossession644alread3 -ith an e tended or idios3ncratic meanin($ '0y keal. I have ulcers o" the mouth9 :'usi 'ip 'o2 +hat is he sic: "romF %a' 'ealil. (He is sic: -ith) ulcers o" the mouth9 #he -ord 'ealil can be anal3zed as "ollo-s$ 'e L -al L -il mouth L Cene"active Possession Su""i L Inde"inite Possession Su""i #he same is true o" the -ord 'ak'lelil (M 'ak'al L el L il) -hich means 6charcoal6 that results "rom burnin( someone6$ in other -ords% the inde"inite "orm o" the root o" kak'lel 6charcoal made "rom m3 bod396 #hese "orms are uncommon9 (&nother% more common e am!le is 'ajvalil 6o-ner%6 the inde"inite "orm o" -ajval 6boss% lord% o-ner65 the basic root is 'ojob (M O;&0&v) 6o-ner65 -ajval contains the su""i o" bene"active !ossession% -al9 .onse<uentl3% kajval doesn;t mean 6the !erson that I !ossess6 but rather 6the !erson that !ossesses me% that controls me% that threatens me96) #here are other "orms o" nouns that also occur -ith !ossessive !re"i es% althou(h the3 have ver3 s!ecialized uses9 (d) & su""i al "orm is used to as:% 6+hat t3!e o" $ is itF +h3 is it so $F6 #he root (enerall3 carries the su""i -al (-ith the same vo-el chan(es that are observed in the su""i o" bene"active !ossession)9 *"ten% it carries the additional su""i -il9 #his "orm does not re<uire !ossessive !re"i es9 :'usi botal chtal/ 'animal muk'tik. +hat :ind o" hail is comin(% that is should be so bi(F :'usi bililal taj e2 +hat :ind o" name is thatF (,ote here$ bi-il 6name644a "orm o" inde"inite !ossession44!lus -al)9 :'usi 'unenalil/ tol x'ok'. +hat a bab3% -hat a cr3 bab3F

:'usi 'osilal lavi e2 +hat da3 is toda3F :'usi 'oyal(il) chich' li mok e2 +hat t3!e o" !ost does the "ence needF -ich'% 6to receive6 -k'an% 6to -ant6 (+e -ill consider transitive verbs in the ne t cha!ter9) :'usi 'omal le'e2 +hat :ind o" sand is thatF :'usi 'omalil ti batz'i toj mas2 +hat :ind o" sand is that% that there should be so muchF (Here -e can see that the additional su""i -il im!lies the !luralit3 o" the noun9) #his "orm% -hich denotes the 6t3!e%6 also occurs -ith ad0ectives9 For e am!le$ :'usi toj 'alalil taj e2 +hat is it that it should be so heav3F 'ol (M,' l)% 6heav36 :'usi 'asukail2 +hat :ind o" su(ar (-hite% bro-n% etc9)F :'usi 'iximal2 +hat :ind o" corn (-hite% red% h3brid% etc9)F (e) #here is another% ver3 similar noun "orm that does carr3 !ossessive !re"i es% in order to denote <uantit3 or <ualit39 #his t3!e o" construction is ver3 !eculiar9 1ajval to much'u lek xvabaj. #hose that have mastered music are "e-9 1osilal(il) to ti bu lek xch'i chobtik. It isn;t in ever3 land that corn (ro-s -ell9 ;sotz'al to ti xti'van. ,ot all bats bite9 sotz'% 6bat6 ti'van-% 6bite% bar:6 ;tzekilal to li 'ep chanav. ,ot all scor!ions -al: around so much9

1okolal yech much'u chanav. #hat ho- the le(s are "or -al:in( (o" someone that -al:s -ell or a lot)9 :'u yu'un toj lek lachobe2 +h3 is 3our corn"ield so (oodF 1iximal(il) to. Cecause o" the <ualit3 o" the corn9 4atz'i muk' li 'inatab li'e. #his lizard is !rett3 bi(9 1inatabilal 'o yech. #hat;s ho- this :ind o" lizard is9 :'u yu'un tol chalo'ilaj2 +h3 do 3ou chat so muchF :ealil 'o yech. #hat;s the -a3 m3 mouth is9 #his "orm can be anal3zed as "ollo-s$ k- e -al -il ?st !erson !re"i mouth Su""i es o" )ualit3 :'u yu'un toj lek lavabtele2 ;k'abalil to yech. It de!ends on the hand that ma:es it9 (M s- k' b -al -il) #he e act order o" the su""i es a!!ears to de!end on the root$ roots -ith a h3!hen (-ith ine"inite "orm o" sim!le !ossession) add -al to the inde"inite "orm5 other roots add -al (il)% unless the last vo-el o" the root is -a-% in -hich case the se<uence o" su""i es is -il (al)9 #here also a!!ears to be a (ood deal o" individual variation in the "inal (rou!in( o" su""i es9 (") +e alred3 :no- about the use o" the su""i -ik "or denotin( the 6e tension6 o" somethin(9 ,ouns that denote natural thin(s (!lants% trees% etc9) also combine -ith the su""i -al (or -il a"ter a s3llable -ith -a-)% o"ten !lus -tik% in order to denote a more e tended s!ace% "ull o" some thin(9 'iximaltik corn"ields

'osilal(tik) an e !ansive s!ace o" mountains 'akovaltik a -as! nest% an area "ull o" -as!s 'ajil(al)tik a stretch o" Gca`aH 'alavena(il)tik a stretch o" GhierbabuenaH 'alavena% 6hierbabuena6 (() &nother use o" the su""i -al (or -il a"ter a s3llable -ith -a) !roduces a noun root that can combine -ith !ossessive !re"i es and -hich denotes the state o" bein( somethin( or the com!letion o" some dut39 (#his su""i -al combines -ith noun as -ell as certain ad0ectives9) ' li jtot e/ i'ech' ta martomoal. 73 "ather had a (reli(ious) term as 6ma3ordomo96 martomo% 6ma3ordomo6 5ero i'ipaj ta smartomoal. Cut he (ot sic: durin( his terms as 6ma3ordomo96 In other dialects% "or e am!le in that o" .hamula% the "orm o" the -ord borro-ed "rom S!anish 6ma3ordomo6 is martoma9 For e am!le% one sa3s$ 9'ech' ta martomail. GLOSS: +e'on k'al ilok' ta spreserenteal. He -as !oor -hen he le"t "rom his term as !resident9 5ukujon ta jkremal e. I -as a terror -hen I -as 3oun(9 Tzpas chitomal. He carries himsel" li:e a !i(9 -pas% 6to do% to ma:e6 Tzpas sonsoal. He is bein( stu!id (literall3$ he ma:es stu!idit3)9 1u'van me'elot xa> atzebal to. Rou;re not 3et an old -oman5 3ou;re still 3oun(9 ('iterall3$ Rou are in the !eriod o" bein( a (irl9)

yu'van% 6it isn;t as that999% 9a% it >ill be thatAAA;% ho- can 3ou believe that9996 ;lajunebal xa jabil i'och ta mastroale. #en 3ears a(o he became a teacher9 /ses (d) throu(h (() o" the su""i al noun "orms are s!ecialized and limited9 It is !recisel3 the behavior o" a sustantival root in the uses (a) throu(h (c) that determines its t3!e or nominal class9 ,ot ever3 root ta:es ever3 "orm$ the !ossibilities is a "unction o" each root;s meanin( and s3ntactic character9 &lso% man3 roots have re(ular "orms ("or e am!le% "orms o" 6bene"active !ossession6)% -hich include e tended or s!ecialized meanin(s% un!redictable on the basis o" the s3ntactic "orm alone9 +e -ill e amine a "e- e am!les in order to see the diversit3 and the com!le it3 o" the s3stem$ 'abtel44verbal noun% 6-or:6 (a) 'abtel% 6-or:6 -h'abal 'abtel. #here is no -or:9 +i ilaj li 'abtel e2 Has the -or: "inishedF (b) -abtel% 6-or: o"9996 %a' to chlaj kabtel 'ok'ob. #he -or: -ill last till tomorro-9 'Ep yabtel li povre karo e. #he !oor car has a lot o" -or: to do9 (b;) 'abtelil% 6someone;s -or:6 Tol chch'ay 'abtelil. #he -or: (o" some uns!eci"ied !erson) is al-a3s lost9 (c) -abtelal% 6the -or: needed b3 somethin(6 Tol yabtelal li balamil e. #he land needs too much -or:9 vo' (M ,! ') 6-ater6


vo'% 6-ater6

-htal vo'. It;s (oin( to rain (literall3$ rain is comin()9 vo'-ch'oj vo' name o" a hamlet (6Five +ells6) -ch'oj% 6numeral classi"ier "or holes% (a!s% o!enin(s% etc96 (b) -a'al% 6someone;s -ater6 %a' ka'al li' e. #his is m3 -ell% m3 -ater9 Te ta tzu li ya'al e. His -ater is in the !um!:in9 (c) -a'lel (M ,! ' L al L el) 6-ater that somethin( !roduces or needs6 -h'abal ya'lel li limon e. #he lime doesn;t have an3 0uice9 9lok' ya'lel jsat. From m3 e3es the tears le"t9 ya'lel 'itaj ve(etable 0uice5 or$ -ater in -hich ve(etables are boiled5 or$ -ater "or 9re'ar %obre; the ve(etable% etc9 In this e am!le% the !ossessed "orm o" vo' has been derived throu(h the su""i ation o" -al9 &s in (b)% this su""i al "orm serves as the root -ith -hich another su""i is combined in order to indicate bene"active !ossession9 (In #zeltal% the co(nate "orms have di""erent meanin(s$ ha' 6-ater%6 ha'al% 6rain6)9 #he s3stem o" !ossessive su""i es a!!ears to be ver3 com!licated because #zotzil em!lo3s man3 su""i es that have the same "orm (-8l)% but di""erent meanin(s9 #he su""i -al o" -a'al is !robabl3 related to the su""i -al b( mean% of >hich no,n are .eri)e. from other no,n%9 .onsider% "or e am!le$ bak% 6bone5 thin% s:inn3% bon36 bakal% 69olote;6 k'ok'% 6"i(ure% li(ht% "ever% heat% hot% burnin(6

k'ak'al% 6da3 (root$ ,k' k') mol% 6elder% old man% husband6 malal-il% 6husband6 #he second -ords in each !air have been derived "rom sim!le roots throu(h the su""i ation o" -al9 #he members o" each !air have di""erent meanin(s (althou(h the3 are related) and di"erent characteristics 9en c,anto a %, relaciBn; to the !ossessive9 bak% 6bone6 (a) bak% 6bone6 '0y bak. #here are bones9 (b) -bak% 6someone;s bone6 4uch'u sbak2 +ho o-ns this boneF (c) -bakel% 6somethin(;s bone% bone to accom!an3 somethin(6 :'ux jbakel. 73 bones hurt9 3i'e/ ja' sbakel vakax. #hose are the co-;s bones9 +i 'oy jset' sbakel li bek'et e2 Is there a !iece o" bone "or the meatF (c;) ba:elil% 6bone o" some (inde"inite) thin(6 ba:al% 69olote;6 (a) bakal% 69olote;6 4ut ta xch'ay li bakaletik e2 +here 9%e echan; the 9olote%;F (b) 4ba:al% 69olote; that belon(s to someone6 +uch'u sbakal li'e2 +hose 9olote%; are theseF

(c) 4ba:lel% 6somethin(;s 9olote; (a !lant)6 3i'e/ ja' sbaklel 'ixim/ ja' vojton. #his is the corn 9olote;9 vojton% 6ear o" corn6 From the ad0ectival root mol 6old6 the noun -malal is "ormed 6old a(e (o" men)%6 -hose !ossessor can be someone u!on -hom the ad0ective mol is !redicated9 +ol li ka'e. #he horse is old alread39 ;molal to li ka'e. #he horse has entered into old a(e9 Cut the -ord -molal should not be con"used -ith the homo!h3nous -ord% -ith the derivative su""i -al$ -molal (or more "re<uentl3 malal-il)% -hich means$ 6husband% s!ouse96 malal-il% 6husband% s!ouse6 (b) -malal (-molal) 6someone;s husband6 '0y jmalal. I have a husband (that is% I;m married)9 (b;) malalil% 6someone;s husband6 -hlok' ta 'abtel li malil e. #he husband le"t "or -or:9 #he number o" homo!h3nous -ords is even (reater -ith the !air k'okNk'ak'al9 #here is "irst the ad0ectival use o" k'ok'% -hich -e can re!resent -ith the "ollo-in( "ormula$ k' k'(al) aj$ 6hot6 :'ok' li vo' e. #he -ater is hot9 +i 'oy k'ak'al vo'2 Is there hot -aterF (attributive "orm) From the same root (k' k') comes the noun k'ok' 6"ire% li(ht%6 -ith the "ollo-in( "orms$ k'ok'% 6"ire% li(ht6

(a) k'ok'% 6"ire6 (absolute "orm) +i 'oy k'ok2 Is there "ireF 'och''ochan li' ta ti' k'ok' e. Scoot u! to the "ireQ (b) -k'ok' 6someone;s "ire (or li(ht)6 (sim!le !ossessed "orm) +i ch'abal ak'ok2 Rou don;t have a "ireF 9tup' li jk'ok' e. 73 "ire -ent out9 tup'-% 6to (o out% to be e tin(uished6 (c) -k'ak'al% 6"ire% heat% li(ht "or somethin(6 (bene"active "orm) 9lik sk'ak'al ko'on. I (ot an(r39 ('iterall3$ #he "ire in m3 heart arose9) +i 'oy sk'ak'alil li ve'lil e chta'aj 'o e2 Is there a "ire "or the "ood so that it -ill 9%e c,eza;F #here are also various "orms o" the derived -ord$ k'ak'al% 6da36 (a) k'ak'al% 6da3% sun6 (absolute "orm) -hik'ot ta jun no'ox k'ak'al. I -ill arrive in one da39 9toy xa li k'ak'ale. #he sun rose alread39 (c) -k'ak'alil% 6da3 "or someone6 (bene"active "orm) 9'ech' xa sk'ak'alil. #he da3 "or this has !assed alread39 '0y xa sk'ak'alil. It;s been a "e- da3s since this ha!!ened9 #hus one can see the com!lications introduced b3 the multi!licit3 o" su""i es o" the "orm -8l9

In the same -a3 -e can e !lain the "orm o" 'av-il% 6!lace6$ (b) -av% 6!lace (o" someone or somethin()6 %a' yav 'ak'al li'e. #his is the incensar3 (literall3$ the !lace "or charcoal)9 %a' kav li' e. #his is m3 !lace9 (b;) 'avil% 6!lace6 (inde"inite !ossessed "orm) (c) -avil% 6ori(in% !lace "rom -hence somethin( came6 9kom ta yavil. It sta3ed in its !ermament !lace9 It should be a!!arent that the t-o -il su""i es have t-o di""erent "unctions$ one is the su""i o" inde"inite !ossession and the other is the su""i o" bene"active !ossession9 +e can no- revie- the t3!es o" nouns% in terms o" their !ossibilities "or (rammatical !ossession9 #he "irst t3!e can be re!resented b3 'abtel 6-or:96 +e -ill -rite the -ord -ithout a h3!hen% -hich indicates that the root can occur in an absolute as -ell as a sim!le !ossessed "orm9 &lso% there are "orms o" bene"active and inde"inite !ossession$ (a) 'abtel (b) -abtel (b;) 'abtelil (c) -abtelal -or: & subclass o" this t3!e o" nouns has -ords -ithout sim!le !ossessed "orms% "or e am!le%

vaj 6tortilla6$

(a) vaj (b) 44 (b;) 44

(c) -vajil tortilla &nother e am!le o" this subt3!e is


'ok'ob% 6tomorro-6$

(a) 'ok'ob (b) 44 (b;) 44 (c) -ok'omal tomorro(a) 'ak'ubal (b) 44 (b;) 44 (c) -ak'ubalil ni(ht 3ik'ot ta lunex/ pero lak'ot ta yok'omal. I arrived on 7onda3% but 3ou on the "ollo-in( da39 3ik'ot ta yak'ubalil k'in. I arrived on the ni(ht o" the !art39 It a!!ears that the !ossibilit3 o" "ormin( roots o" bene"active !ossession is limited more b3 semantic characteristics than b3 s3ntactic ones9 +e have -ritten the second t3!e o" noun -ith a h3!hen to indicate that the root al-a3s has !ossessive !re"i es o" some "orm (o"ten -ith the su""i -il) -hen there is no e !licit !ossessor9 & !rotot3!ical e am!le is k'ob-ol% 6hand96 (a) 44 (b) -k'ob (b;) k'obol

(c) -k'abal hand (a) 44 (b) -sat (b;) satil (c) -satilal e3e% "ace #he names o" articles o" clothin( also sho- the characteristics o" inalienable !ossession9 (a) 44 (b) -k'u' (b;) k'u'ul N k''il (c) -k'iu'ilal clothin(% shirt (a) 44 (b) -tzek (b;) tzekil (c) -tzekilal s:irt 9laj jk'ob. I hurt m3 hand9 -hi'abtej ta k'obol. I -or: -ith m3 hands9 -hopol sk'abal li be li'e/ mu tuk'uk. #he hand that made this road -as bad% because this road isn;t strai(ht9 tuk'(il)% 6strai(ht6 +u xk'ot ssatilal. G o %e )e; (literall3$ the e3es "or this don;t arrive)9 '0y xa yach'-tzek. She alread3 has a ne- s:irt9

5ero p"ersa chtal stzekilal k'in. She badl3 needs a s:irt "or the !art39 & subset o" the above4mentioned nouns have de"ective noun roots44that is to sa3% roots that lac: some "orm o" the !aradi(m9 #he most common situation is the absence o" non4 !ossessed (inde"inite) "orms9 (a) 44 (b) -ot (b;) 44 (c) -otal 6tortillas6 (a) 44 (b) -alak' (b;) 44 (c) -alak'il 6chic:en6 #here are also nouns that onl3 have a sim!le !ossessed "orm9 (a) 44 (b) -bek' (b;) 44 (c) 44 6seed% bone6 (a) 44 (b) -bel (b;) 44 (c) 44 6content6

It seems to me that the lac: o" "orm (c) (bene"active !ossession) or "orm (b) (sim!le !ossession) o"ten re"lects semantic limitations9 &nimate and inanimate thin(s do not !ossess 6contents6 in di""erent senses$ there is no need "or an 6inanimate; "orm o" the -ord -bel9 #hus% "or e am!le% an animate bein( cannot be the !ossessor o" 6mornin(65 in that sense% there doesn;t e ist a "orm (b) o" the -ord


#his -ell4develo!ed s3stem o" !ossession !rovides the o!!ortunit3 "or (reat subtlet3 o" e !ression9 In -hat "ollo-s a "e- more e am!les -ill be (iven9 First% the -ord 'antz 6-oman6 shares characteristics o" t-o t3!es o" nouns9 &s a !redicate% this -ord a!!ears to be an ad0ective (and has an attributive "orm)9 'antz(il) ad0$ 6"eminine6 ' ntz li +aruch e. 7ar3 is a -oman9 Te lijach' ta 'antzil ton. I "ell nearb3 the 6"eminine6 roc:9 &s a noun% the -ord 'antz has all the ordinar3 "orms% !lus an e tra one$ (a) 'antz -oman (b) -antz lover (b;) 'antzil lover (c4?) -antzil -oman (c42) -antzilal -i"e & more ade<uate anal3sis% ho-ever% -ill divide these -ords in t-o (rou!s% li:e the "ollo-in($ (a) 'antz (b) 44 (b;) 44

(c) -antzil 6-oman6 (a) 44 (b) -antz (b;) 'antzil (c) -antzilal 6lover6 #he "orms "rom the "irst (rou! !ertain to the -ord

'antz 6-oman%6 -hich does not have a sim!le !ossessed "orm9

9tal li 'antz e. #he -oman came alread39 -h'abal yantzil li na e. #he house does not have a -oman (to care "or it)9 #he "orms o" the second (rou! belon( to the -ord 'antz-il 6lover% -i"e96 ,ote that the conce!t o" 6lover6 !resu!!oses a !ossessor9 #hat is to sa3% the -ord is intrinsicall3 !ossessed or relational9 '0y avantz. Rou have a lover9 ' ntzil no'ox le'e. #hat;s 0ust a -oman "or 3ou9 &nal3sis o" the su""i -al "or bene"active !ossession (ives -antzilal 6-i"e6 (that is to sa3% 6lover "or someone6)9 +i chbat avantzilal vo'ote2 Is 3our -i"e (oin( to (oF #here are also "orms "or other uses that -e have seen5 "or e am!le% the -ord -antzil(al) e !resses use (d)% -hich e !resses the t3!e o" <ualit3 o" somethin(9 1antzil(al) to much'u xnop ta 'olon 'osil. ,ot all -omen are accustomed to hot countr39 nop- 6to be accustomed6

#he -ord tzeb 6-oman6 a!!ears li:e 'antz and has ad0ectival uses9 Tzebot to. Rou are still 3oun(9 Tzebal-'antzot to. She;s still a 3oun( -oman9 &ll the e !ected "orms also occur$ (a) tzeb -oman (b) -tzeb dau(hter (b;) tzebil dau(hter (c) -tzebal sister In absolute "orm% tzeb means 6(irl%6 a "emale 3outh% -ithout e !licit relation to an3one9 In the sim!le !ossessed "orms% -tzeb means 6dau(hter6$ the (irl -ho belon(s to someone (namel3% to her !arents)9 '0y cha' vo' jtzeb. I have t-o (irls9 Ta tzebil ikom li me'on e. #he or!han sta3ed around li:e a dau(hter9 #he bene"active "orm% -tzebal% means 6(irl "or someone6$ in other -ords% 6sister96 +i 'oy atzebal2 Do 3ou have a sisterF (#here is also another -ord% -tzebal% derived "rom the ad0ectival use o" tzeb% that means 63outh (o" a (irl)96) Finall3% in order to com!lete this com!le descri!tion% I -ill mention the "act that there is another su""i -il that si(nals !luralit39 '0y jtzebalil. I have (man3) sisters9 #he same su""i can be seen in the "ollo-in( e am!le$ :ich'akil ilaj 'o. He su""ered "rom m3 "in(ernails9 (In other -ords% I scratched him9) 'ich'ak-il% 6"in(ernail% cla-6

G?H It is note-orth3 that the -ord -koj does not "unction as an ordinar3 noun% but onl3 b3 itsel" in 6bene"active6 or instrumental constituents9 In order to sa3 6I am at "ault% I am (uilt3%6 one uses the -ord mul-il 6crime% blame% (uilt96 For e am!le$ ?0y jmul. I am (uilt39 *n the other hand% the -ord k"enta as an ordinar3 noun% sometimes !ossessed% means 6debt96 9laj li j"enta e. 73 debt is "inished9 G2H #he e !ression mu jayuk means 6too much% so much that there -as no end to it96 +i ilaj li ?abtel e2 Is the -or: "inished 3etF 4atz'i mu jayuk. It;s over-helmin(9 (In other -ords% it never ends)9 GJH It is !ossible that the restrictions on the !ossessed "orms o" some nouns is motivated b3 the desire to avoid homo!honous -ord9 For e am!le% the root

?ok% 6turtle6

does not occur -ith !ossessive !re"i es% but onl3 -ith "orms o" ?u?un-il9 %a? ku?un li ?ok le?e. #hat turtle is mine9 #hus% a !ossessed "orm o" 6turtle6 is not con"used -ith a "orm o" the inalienabl3 !ossessed noun ?ok-ol% 6"oot96 %a? kok le?e. #hat is m3 "oot9

Chapter C: Tran%iti)e +erb%

3.0 Transiti"it4
&ll the sentences -e have seen so "ar are intransitive% and consist o" a verb or some other t3!e o" !redicate (nominal or ad0ectival) and a sub0ect noun% -hich (enerates absolutive a""i es on the verb or !redicate9 (#here are o"ten additional constituents% as -ell9) '0y 'ixim. '0y jtz'i'. vu'un li na e. Teyot ta ch'en. 9k'a' li lobol e. 9'abtej li $un e. #here is corn9 I have a do(9 #he house is 3ours9 Rou are in the cave9 #he "ruit is rotten9 John -or:ed9

+e have seen a "e- sentences -ith e !licit a(ents9 (#he a(ent is the !erson doin( the action$ +ho did itF) Cut the a(ent is al-a3s introduced b3 means o" the !re!osition ta or the relational !article 'o9 9bat ta vinik li tzeb e. 8o'on ixi' 'o li 'unen e. The )irl "ent "ith (that is/ marrie&) the boy. #he bo3 -as "ri(htened b3 me9

#here are also transitive sentences% -hich consist o" a transitive verb% an a(ent (the actor)% and a !atient or ob0ect (-hich corres!onds to the !erson or thin( under(oin( the action)9 #he ob0ect is s!eci"ied as a res!onse to <uestions li:e% 6+ho did it ha!!en toF +hat ha!!enedF6 In #zotzil% a transitive verb carries a""i es that re"er to the a(ent and the !atient (in the same -a3 that intransitive verbs and the intransitive !redicates carr3 6absolutive6 a""i es that re"er to the sub0ect o" the sentence)9

3.1 Transiti"e 5er. 2ommands

+e have alread3 seen a "e- im!erative sentences -ith transitive verbs9 #he im!erative "orm o" a transitive verb uses the su""i -o9 (In the notation that -e develo! here% transitive verb roots -ill be -ritten -ith a -ord4initial dash to distin(uish them "rom intransitive verb roots% -hich -ill be -ritten -ith a -ord4"inal dash)9

:'elo li na e@ '9ch'o lavote. 5aso perton. ' k'o perton.

'oo: at the houseQ -k'el/ <look< #a:e 3our tortillaQ -ich'/ <take/ carry< Pardon me9 ('iterall3$ 7a:e -pas/ <make/ &o< !ardon9) Pardon me9 ('iterall3$ Give -ak'/ <)ive< !ardon9)

.ommands can be made more ur(ent (and !olite) b3 addin( the 6desiderative6 !article me% -hich si(ni"ies desire9 -hapo me lavikatze. Tzoyo me lak'ok'e. ' 'yo me k'op. 5lease )et your loa& rea&y. 3i)ht your (ire (Auickly). 3isten to the "or&s. -a'iy/ <hear/ listen/ un&erstan&/ (eel< In those im!erative sentences% the a(ent (-ho !er"orms the action) is the addressee$ the second !erson% ;3ou;9 #he ob0ect o" the verb;s action is a noun9 Im!erative verbs can also combine -ith directionals9

3.2 Transiti"e 5er.s +it# Auxiliaries

#here is a construction that combines a transitive verb (-ith both a sub0ect and an ob0ect) -ith an intransitive 6au iliar36 root% -hich adds a sense o" motion (or lac: o" motion) and intention to the action denoted b3 the transitive verb9 .onsider the "ollo-in( e am!les -ith the au iliar3 tal- 6to come96 Tal jk'el li k'in e. I came to see the !art39 +i tal amil vakax li vo'ot e2 Did 3ou come to :ill the co-F +a'uk. ' li $un e/ ja' tal smil li ,o9 It -as John% -ho came to vakax e. +i tal ava'iy mantal2 +o'oj. Tal kich' jtak'in. +uch'u tal yak' li tak'in e2 %a' ital li 5etul e. :ill the co-9 Did 3ou come to hear the ordersF ,o% I came to receive m3 mone39 +ho came to (ive mone3F Peter did9

In these e am!les% the sub0ect is mar:ed on the (transitive) verb b3 means o" !re"i es that are identical to the !ossessive !re"i es9

8o"el-9nitial * -onsonant9nitial 6I6 j- N k6he% she6 63ou6 +ith those !re"i es% verbs can "ormed% as sho-n belo-$ Tal jk'el. Tal kak'. Tal ak'el. Tal avak'. Tal sk'el. Tal yak'. 9 came to see it. 9 came to )ive it. 1ou came to see it. 1ou came to )ive it. !e came to see it. !e came to )ive it. a- N avs- N y-

1erbs -ith au iliaries can occur -ith an3 as!ect or tense$ neutral% !er"ective% im!er"ective% or stative9 #he au iliar3 verb% and not the main verb% carries the a""i that indicates tenseNas!ect9 #he "orms are the "ollo-in($ x- 6neutral%6 ch- 6im!er"ective%6 -em 6stative%6 B- (null) 6!er"ective96 +i chtal ak'el k'in 'ok'ob e2 +u xa bu xtal jk'el. +i 'ay xa yich' vo' li 'unen e2 -hba 'ox yich' volje/ pero muk' ibat. %a' to chba He is (oin( to (o tomorro-9 yich' 'ok'ob. ,ote that the tem!oral !articles (e9(9% to% xa% and 'ox) directl3 "ollo- the au iliar39 #he3 can also "ollo- the im!er"ective as!ect mar:er% ta% as alread3 seen -ith intransitive verbs9 He -as (oin( to 3esterda3% but never -ent9 I am not comin( to see it9 Has the child alread3 (one to be ba!tizedF &re 3ou comin( to see the !art3 tomorro-F

Ta 'ox xba jman stojol.

I -as (oin( to bu3 have the mone3 (literall3$ the !rice -asn;t there% didn;t e ist)9

kantela/ <can&le<

-tojol/ <price/ "a)e/ expense<

kantela/ pero ch'abal candles% but I didn;t

#he intransitive verbs bat- 6(o6 and 'ay 6(o and return6 have the shortened "orm ba and 'a% -hich are used as au iliaries9 +i 'a amaj li 'ixim e2 +uk' xi'ay. ' li jkrem e/ batem xa smaj. :'usi talem apax li'e2 Talem jk'an tak'in. Did 3ou (o to beat the cornF I didn;t (o9 73 son has (one to do it9 +hat have 3ou come here to doF I have come to as: "or (literall3$ -antin() mone39 -k'an% 6to -ant% need% re<uest6

3.3 Direct (./ects of Transiti"e 5er.s

:'usi tal spas li $un e2 Tal smilot. 4u chba jmalaot2 -hba amalaon ta be. +hat did John come to doF !e came to kill you. Chere am 9 )oin) to "ait (or you2 1ou are )oin) to "ait (or me -mala/ <"ait< on the roa&. I" the direct ob0ect o" a transitive verb is in the "irst or second !erson% the verb should carr3 an absolutive a""i corres!ondin( to the direct ob0ect9 In the !resence o" an au iliar3 verb% the direct ob0ects al-a3s en(ender absolutive su""i es9 -hba s-mil-on. -hba s-mil-ot. -hba s-mil-B (null). -htal a-mil-on. -htal a-mil-B (null). ' j-mil-ot. ' j-mil-B (null). He is (oin( to :ill me9 He is (oin( to :ill 3ou9 He is (oin( to :ill him9 Rou;re comin( to :ill me9 Rou;re comin( to :ill him9 I -ent to :ill 3ou9 I -ent to :ill him9

,ote that the same absolutive su""i es that are used to indicate the sub0ects o" intransitive verbs (or stative !redicates) are used to indicate the ob0ects o" transitive

verbs9 ('an(ua(es that use a sin(le mar:er "or these t-o "unctions are called er)ative lan(ua(es9) It is -orth !ointin( out that the !re"i es mar:in( the sub0ect o" a transitive verb are identical to the !ossessive !re"i es44both o" -hich are called 6er(ative96 &ccordin( to the tradition in 7a3an lin(uistics% the 6!ronominal6 a""i es o" noun !ossessors and a(ents o" transitive verbs ma:e u! Grou! &9 #he absolutive a""i es44 -hich indicate the themes o" stative sentences% the a(ents or !atients o" intransitive verbs% and the !atients (ob0ects) o" transitive verbs44ma:e u! Grou! C9 (In #zotzil% there are in "act t-o Grou! C;s$ one o" !re"i es and another o" su""i es9) +hen a verb;s sub0ect and ob0ect are indicated b3 a""i es on the verb% there is no !ossibilit3 o" ambi(uit3 as lon( as either the sub0ect or the ob0ect is "irst or second !erson9 In such cases% it is al-a3s clear -ho is the a(ent and -ho (or -hat) is the !atient9 ' amaj li $un e. ' li $un e/ 'a amaj. -htal smajon li $un e. ' li $un e/ chtal smajon (li vo'on e). Rou -ent to hit John9 It -as John -ho 3ou -ent to hit9 John is comin( to hit me9 It is John -ho is comin( to hit me9

*nl3 -hen the a(ent and the ob0ect are both third !erson -ill a transitive verb be ambi(uous9 In such cases% constituent order (1 * S) is o" the utmost im!ortant9 #he sub0ect is either "ronted or comes at the end o" the sentence9 4a smaj $un li ' ntun e. &nthon3 -ent to hit John9 ' li ' ntun e/ ba smaj li $un e. It -as &nthon3 -ho -ent to hit John9 Similarl3% interro(ative -ords (-hich are al-a3s "ronted) can <uestion the identit3 o" the sub0ect or the ob0ect9 &s lon( as one o" the t-o is in the "irst or second !erson% no ambi(uit3 -ill arise9 4uch'u 'a smajot2 4uch'u 'a amaj2 -hopol ti k'usi ba jk'el. -hopol ti k'usi ba sk'elon. +ho -ent to hit 3ouF +ho did 3ou (o to hitF +hat I -ent to see -as bad9 +hat -ent to see me -as bad9

Cut in cases -here the sub0ect and the ob0ect are both third !erson% the verbal a""i es do not !rovide enou(h in"ormation to determine -hich noun is sub0ect and -hich is ob0ect9 4uch'u ba smaj2 Cho "ent to hit him2 0r# Cho &i& he )o to hit2

)uite o"ten% the inter!retation (iven to an ambi(uous sentence o" the :ind mentioned above de!ends u!on the meanin( o" the nouns and verbs involved9 :'usi ba sman li $un e2 +hat did John (o to bu3F

John% bein( animate% does the bu3in( o" somethin( inanimate (k'usi) and is there"ore sub0ect9 +uch'u ba sman li 'ixim e2 +ho -ent to bu3 cornF

.orn% bein( an inanimate thin(% cannot bu3 a !erson% and is there"ore ob0ect% althou(h the (rammatical structure o" ths sentence does not s!eci"3 -hether 'ixim is sub0ect or ob0ect o" the verb -man 6to bu369 'ater -e -ill e amine a "e- s3ntactic resources that #zotzil !rovides to avoid such ambi(uit39 Intransitive verbs also occur -ith au iliaries% but -ith s!ecial su""i es9 -hba 'abtej-k-on. +i 'a xa ve'-ik-ot2 9 am )oin) to "ork. Di& you )o to eat2

#hese "orms -ill be discussed in section @9K9

3.' T#e 6&uasi7Su./uncti"e6 -se of Transiti"e 5er.s

#he sim!le "orm o" a transitive verb is a com!le com!osed o" the verb;s stem% an er(ative !re"i (indicatin( the sub0ect)% and an absolutive su""i (indicatin( the ob0ect)9 Josh Smith (n9d9) has called this sim!le "orm 6<uasi4sub0unctive6 due to the "act that this "orm is not used "reel3% but onl3 to e !ress a desire% a (oal% or an ob0ective9 #he au iliar3 verb construction ma:es this inter!retation clearer9 -hmuy ak'el li mut e. Rou climb u! to see the bird9 mut/ <bir&<

#he construction chmuy ak'el literall3 means$ 63ou rise to see it644in other -ords% 63ou rise in order "or 3ou to see it96

#he same sub0unctive meanin( can be seen in constructions -here the verb is subordinated to another sentence% e !ressin( the !ro!osition o" the action denoted b3 the !rinci!al verb9 4u batem lavajnil e2 4a smeltzan vaj jve'. +here has 3our -i"e (oneF She -ent to ma:e tortillas "or me to eat9 -meltzan% 6ma:e% "i % create6 I am (oin( to enter here and :ill a bird toeat9 -ve'% 6eat (tortillas% bread% etc9) -ti'/ <eat (meat/ beans/ etc.)/ bite< In this e am!le% the verb jti' is subordinate to the noun mut9 #he construction su((ests that the bird is obtained 6in order to be eaten b3 me96 +ith the relational !article 'o (-hich% as -e have seen% si(nals an instrument or a(ent) more com!le subordinate constructions are "ormed9 ' li jkrem e/ ba ssa' tal te'/ jmaj 'o li jtz'i' e. 73 son -ent to loo: "or (and brin( bac:) a stic: "or me to hit the do( -ith9 -sa'% 6see:% loo: "or6 ;a'o tak'in aman 'o bek'et.

3i' ch'och jmil mut jti'.

'oo: "or mone3 to bu3 meat -ith9

(In the s!eech o" man3 =inacantecos% the second verb in these constructions re<uires a tem!oral !re"i % as -e -ill see later9) ,ote that the im!erative o" a transitive verb -ith an au iliar3 is mar:ed t-ice$ "irst on the intransitive verbs (-ith the su""i -an on the au iliar3) and second b3 the su""i "or transitive im!eratives9 '0chan ava'iy li k'op e. '0ch 'a'iyo li k'op e. .ome in to hear the discussion9 -ome hear the &iscussion.

+ith verbs o" !erce!tion ("or e am!le% -a'iy 6understand% hear% listen%6 and -il 6to see6) a construction that combines an im!erative verb -ith a 6<uasi4sub0unctive6 verb is "re<uentl3 used9

:'elo avil (Dk'elavil).

'oo:9 ('iterall3$ 'oo: and

see9) -hopol li bek'et e> mano avil. #he meat is bad5 (i" 3ou don;t believe me) bu3 it and see "or ' 'iyo ava'i li son e. 3oursel"9 3isten (so you can hear) the son). son/ <son)/ piece< (In "inal !osition% the y o" -a'iy is lost)9 #he sim!le "orm o" a transitive verb is also used in more clearl3 sub0unctive constructions9 & construction o" this t3!e uses the im!erative "orm o" -ak' 6to (ive6$ 'ak'o% literall3$ 6(ive it%6 in other -ords% 6-ould that% let it be that9996 &nother construction uses the !article chak (o"ten !ronounced as chk% -ithout a vo-el)% -hich means$ 6he -ants% -ould that% he desires99969 -h'abal jtak'in> 'ak'o sman stuk sbek'et. Timi pukuj e/ 'ak'o ya'i pus jlikeluk. -hak jti' bek'et. -hak aman akaro/ lek. -hak sjam li sna e/ chi'och. I have no mone35 let him bu3 his meat himsel"9 I" he is so brave% let him "eel the s-eat bath (i9e9% 0ail)9 I -ant to eat meat9 Rou -ant to bu3 a car5 that -ould be (ood9 *!en 3our door and I;ll come in9 In e""ect% the construction 'ak'o L sim!le "orm o" transitive verb is the im!erative o" the third !erson9 ' ' ' ' k'o smaj. k'o smajon. k'o smajot. k'o me smil ta jmoj. +ould that he -ould hit itQ +ould that he -ould hit meQ +ould that he -ould hit 3ouQ Till him once and "or allQ -moj% numeral classi"ier$ 69'olpe;6

ta jmoj% 6once% "orever6 Im!eratives o" the "irst !erson !lural are also "ormed -ith the er(ative !re"i j-*k- and the !lural su""i -tik9 %majtik ch'e. 'et;s hit himQ %mantik. 'et;s bu3 itQ (#here is no "orm -ith a second !erson ob0ect% since the im!erative o" the "irst !erson !lural includes the listener$ :ich'tik ch'e. See Section @9?9) 3et's you an& me take it@

3., Time and Aspect +it# Transiti"e 5er.s

#ransitive and intransitive verbs occur in the same tense "orms9 +hat is im!ortant to note is the !osition o" the various !erson and tenseNas!ect mar:ers9 %manoj jka'. 1ich'oj xa vo' li 'unen e. %baik'oj pox. 9 have bou)ht my horse. #he bo3 is ba!tised9 9 have bou)ht me&icine.

(7ore accuratel3$ I am in the state resultin( "rom havin( ta:en medicine)9

;makoj yajnil li krem e.

-bik'% 6ta:e6 pox% 6shot% medicine6 #he bo3 is courtin( his "iance9 ('iterall3$ He has alread3 covered his "iance9) -mak% 6close% -ra! u!% cover6

#he stative "orm o" a transitive verb denotes the state that results "rom !er"ormin( some action9 #his is "ormed -ith the stative su""i -oj -hich is added to the verb stem9 Pronominal ob0ects en(ender absolutive su""i es that "ollo- -oj9 :ilojot 'onox. I have al-a3s seen 3ou9 (In other -ords$ I :no- 3our "ace9)

;majojon lek> yech'o i'och ta chukel.

He has hit me a lot5 that;s -h3 he -ent to 0ail9 -chuk% 6tie u!% 0ail6 chukel% 6to be in 0ail6

+ith !er"ective and im!er"ective as!ect there are certain com!lications9 #hese "orms are indicated b3 means o" !re"i es that can be re!resented in the "ollo-in( manner$ Im!er"ective &s!ect$ ta L xPer"ective &s!ect$ l- (be"ore a nominal !re"i ) -i (be"ore an isolated verb root) ,eutral &s!ect$ -x#hese rules a!!l3 to both transitive and intransitive verbs9 Ta xibat. Ta xabat. Ta xbat. 3ibat. 3abat. 9bat. 9'm )oin). 1ou're )oin). !e's )oin). 9 "ent. 1ou "ent. !e "ent.

#he "orms ta:en b3 transitive verbs -hose ob0ects are in the third !erson (and there"ore do not en(ender absolutive a""i es) are the "ollo-in($ Ta j-maj Ta x-k-ich' Ta x-a-maj. Ta x-av-ich'. Ta s-maj. Ta x-ich'. 9 hit it. 9 receive it. 1ou hit it. 1ou receive it. !e hits it. !e receives it.

(,ote that the as!ectual !re"i x- is lost be"ore j and s "or eu!honic reasons9 &lso the !re"i o" the third !erson -ith vo-el roots% y% disa!!ears a"ter the as!ectual x-9) #here are also shortened "orms% -hich result "rom the contraction o" ta L x to ch-9

Ta j-maj. -h-k-ich'. -h-a-maj. -h-av-ich'. Tz-maj. -h-ich'. (#he "orm tzmaj is a contraction o" ta smaj9) *ne must :ee! in mind that the absolutive !re"i es are vo-els$ i- in the "irst !erson% and a- in the second !erson9 In =inacantec #zotzil% a "irst or second !erson ob0ect is mar:ed -ith absolutive !re"i es (and not -ith su""i es) in the !er"ective and im!er"ective "orms% e ce!t -hen the sub0ect o" the verb is in the second !erson9 (Since the er(ative !re"i o" the second !erson is a- or av-% !re"i in( another vo-el -ould result in an unacce!table vo-el cluster9) #hese !rece!ts can be clari"ied -ith the "ollo-in( e am!les$ Ta x-a-j-maj. Ta x-a-k-il. Ta x-a-s-maj. Ta x-a-y-il. Ta x-i-s-maj. Ta x-i-y-il. I hit 3ou9 I see 3ou9 He hits 3ou9 He sees 3ou9 He hits me9 He sees me9

In all o" these cases% the ob0ect o" the verb is re"lected in absolutive !re"i es9 Ho-ever% com!are the "ollo-in( "orms$ Ta x-a-maj-on. Ta xa-av-il-on. Rou hit me9 Rou see me9

#hus% accordin( to the above4"ormulated rules% the !er"ective "orms are the "ollo-in($ 9-j-maj. 9-k-il. 3-a-j-maj. 3-a-k-il. 3-i-s-maj. 3-i-y-il. 3-a-s-maj. 3-a-y-il. -maj. v-il. I hit him9 I sa- him9 I hit 3ou9 I sa- 3ou9 He hit me9 He sa- me9 He hit 3ou9 He sa- 3ou9 Rou hit him9 Rou sa- him9

-maj-on. v-il-on.

Rou hit me9 Rou sa- me9

,ote that the !er"ective !re"i i- disa!!ears be"ore the er(ative a-9? Given the multi!licit3 o" "orms% students should remember that the sub0ect o" a transitive verbs is indicated b3 an er(ative !re"i (o" the same "orm as a !ossessive !re"i )% -hile the direct ob0ect o" a transitive verb is indicated b3 an absolutive a""i (-hether !re"i or su""i )9 Someone -ho alread3 :no-s ho- to s!ea: #zotzil should ta:e note o" the re(ular s3stem that underlies the actual "orms9 & verb alone% -hose a""i es contain the stam! o" its sub0ect and ob0ect% can stand alone as an entire sentence9 -hajmaj. 3iyil. I am (oin( to hit 3ou9 He sa- me9

#he -ord 'oy% -hich -e alread3 :no- si(nals e istence% also occurs -ith verbs o" e !licit as!ect9 #he -ord 'oy in the "ollo-in( e am!les e !resses an occasional or habital action9 '0y xbat. '0y chbat. '0y ibat. '0y batem. +i 'oy xaman 'ixim. +i 'oy aman 'ixim. '0y kiloj li mar e. He (oes once in a -hile9 #here;s the !ossbilit3 that he;ll (o9 He has (one9 #here have been ocasions -hen he -ent9 Do 3ou t3!icall3 bu3 cornF Have 3ou ever bou(ht cornF Have 3ou had the o!!ortunit3 to see the sea9

3.1 Transiti"e 5er. Roots

+i chati' bek'et2 +i chave' vaj2 +ill 3ou eat (in other -ords$ do 3ou -ant) meatF +ill 3ou eat tortillasF

#here are various #zotzil verbs that are translated b3 the En(lish -ord 6eat96 #he use o" a !articular "orm de!ends on the t3!e o" "ood that is bein( eaten% !articularl3 accordin( to its consistenc39 For e am!le% -ve' is a!!lied to tortillas% bread% and !astries9 #he verb -ti' is a!!lied to meat% beans% chiles% and tomatos9

Ta jlo' lo'bol. +i chalo' batz'i lo'bol2

I am (oin( to eat "ruit9 Do 3ou -ant to eat bananasF -lo'% 6eat ("ruit% etc9)6

#he verb -lo' is used -ith smooth "oods% such as "ruits and ve(etables9 #he derived -ord% lo'bol% is the (eneric name "or "ruit9 #hus% "or e am!le% batz'i lo'bol 6true "ruit6 means 6banana96 In the same -a3 ti'bol means 6meat96 -hak jk'ux manya chenek'. I -ant to eat nuts9 manya chenk'% 6nuts6 chenek'% 6beans6 -k'ux% 6crunch% che-6

#he verb -k'ux is used -ith hard "oods% that is% -ith "oods that are crunched or che-ed9 'au(hlin (?@AB$ 2]]) notes that the -ord k'uxbol means either 63east "or "ermentin( su(ar cane li<uor6 or 6someone -ho% accordin( to common belie"% is sacri"iced "or the construction o" brid(es or electrical !lants96 3avote/ mi chalek' 'o 'atz'am2 Do 3ou -ant to eat (lic:) salt -ith 3our tortillasF 'atz'am% 6salt6 Do 3ou -ant to drin: co""eeF Do 3ou have somethin( to drin:F -lek'% 6lic:% eat (salt)6 -uch'% 6drin:% have6 -'uch'bol-il% 6drin: (alcoholic)6 #he root ve' is !eculiar% considerin( that it is used as both a transitive verb (-ith the meanin( 6to eat tortillas% bread% etc96) and an intransitive verb (-ith the (eneral meanin( 6eatin(6)9 +i lave' xa2 3ive' xa. :'usi alajes2 9jve' kaxlan vaj. Have 3ou eaten alread3F I ate alread39 +hat did 3ou eatF I ate bread (transitive)9 kaxlan vaj% 6bread (literall3$ hon:3 bread)6 -lajes% 6to "inish% to consume6

+i chavuch' kajve2 +i 'oy avuch'bol2

From the (eneral verb ve'- one can "orm the noun ve'el 6"ood%6 -hich has the !ossessed "orms GaH4GeH9 '0y ve'el sk"enta nupunel. #here is "ood "or the -eddin(9 3i'e ja' ave'el t'ul. Here is 3our rabbit "ood9 Ta jk'an jset' ve'lil. I -ant some "ood9 Tzk'an sve'lilal xa li vaj e. #he tortillas lac: somethin(9 & verb root "re<uentl3 !roduces t-o verb stems$ one transitive and one intransitive9 #he stem ve' is anomalous5 -ith both uses% transitive and intransitive% the sub0ect o" the verb remains the same$ it is the !erson or the animal that eats somethin(9 -hve' li $un e. Tzve' vaj li $un e. John eats9 John eats tortillas9

*n the other hand% it is more common "or the (rammatical sub0ect o" an intransitive stem to corres!ond to the ob0ect o" a transitive verb root derived "rom the same stem9 .onsider the e am!le o" laj- 6to "inish6 (intransitive) and -lajes 6to "inish6 (intransitive)9 #he su""i -es !roduces causative verb roots (transitive) "rom intransitive verbs9 9laj li vaj e. 1o;on i0la0es li va0 e9 9k'ak' li jna e. 9sk'ak'es jan li $un e. 9yul ta jjol k'usi li sbi e. 9jyules ta jjol k'usi li sbi e. #he tortillas are "inished9 I "inished the tortillas9 +y house burne& &o"n. John burned do-n m3 house9 His name !o!!ed into mind9 I remembered his name9

In these e am!les% the sub0ect o" an intransitive verb comes to be the ob0ect o" a corres!ondin( causative verb% -hich additionall3 re<uires an a(ent9 #he situation can be dia(rammed as "ollo-s$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE 7an3 o" the intransitive verbs that -e have alread3 encountered also "unction as transitive stems (causative) -ithout an3 additional su""i 9 9jam li na e. 9sjam li na e. 9chap li 'ikatzil e. #he door o!ened9 He o!ened the door9 #he load is !re!ared9 Intransitive 1erb% jam#ransitive 1erb% -jam Intransitive 1erb% chap-

9jchap li kikatz e.

I !re!ared m3 load9

#ransitive 1erb% -chap

+e can re!resent verbs o" this t3!e -ithout a h3!hen% to indicate that the3 can be either intransitive or transitive -ith a causative meanin(9 *" the verbs that -e have alread3 encountered% both o" the "ollo-in( are o" the same t3!e$ mak% 6close6 k'as% 6brea:% t-ist6 #here are other verbs that sho- the same !attern% but -hich have an additional causative "orm% -ith an e !licit su""i % -es9 9tup' li k'ok' e. 9jtup' li k'ok' e. #he "ire e tin(uished9 I e tin(uished the "ire9

+e can re!resent these verbs -ith !arentheses$ tup'(es)% 6to e tin(uish6 lik(es)% 6to rise% (et u!6 ch'ay(es)% 6to lose% thro- out6 toy(es)% 6to rise% to elevate6 #here are also verbs that can be either transitive or intransitive% -ith di""erent% but related% meanin(s9 -hinop li' to e. Ta jnop bu chibat. I;m accustomed to this !lace9 I;m thin:in( o" -here I;ll (o9 I;m decidin( -here I;ll (o9 nop-% 6to be accustomed to6 -nop% 6to thin:% a!!oint% decide6 From the intransitive verb nop- a causative stem is derived -ith -es9 -hisnopes li' to e. !e is )oin) to )et me use& to bein) here. #he "ollo-in( e am!les are similar$ 9skuch li 'ikatzil e. 9kuch li vayel e. He carried the load9 He tolerated dream9 -kuch% 6to carr36

kuch-% 6to bear or tolerate2 to be bearable or tolerableD 9spas li yakil vo' e. He bre-ed the chicha9 9pas li yakil vo' e. #he chica is bre-in(9 -pas% 6to ma:e% "abricate% do6 pas-% 6to "erment% bre-6 #he use o" these roots as intransitive verbs has been called the middle4voice% because the (rammatical sub0ect o" the verb is the semantic !atient% and because there is no s!eci"ic a(ent9 (In #zeltal% the intransitive "orm (enerall3 carries a middle -h-% and the transitive "rom does not$ #zeltal -mak 6to close somethin(6 and mahk- 6to close96) Here -e can note that various com!ound nouns derive "rom transitive verbs -ith their ob0ects9 In combination -ith the a(entive !re"i j-% these com!ounds denote social entities9 jmakbe% 6hi(h-a3man% cuttthroat6 j'ak'chamel% 6-itch6 jk'ux'ak'al% 6charcoal4eater6 j- mak -be j- 'ak' -chamel j- k'ux -'ak'al <one "ho closes the roa&< 6one -ho (ives illness6 6one -ho eats charcoal6

&s sho-n b3 the translation "or jk'ux'ak'al/ there are similar compoun&s in En)lish/ (or example# bankrobber/ <one "ho robs banks/< or home"recker/ <one "ho "recks homes--in other "or&s/ an a&ultress.< There are other types o( systematic relations bet"een transitive an& intransitive verbs. Eor example/ pairs o( verbs are &erive& (rom nominal roots by means o( the su((ixes -8j *-8n. +u jk'an xik'opoj. +u jk'an jk'opon li kajnil e. Ta jk'an chivula'aj. Ta jk'an chajvula'an. :'u yu'un tol cha'elk'aj2 :'u yu'un chavelk'an tak'in2 I don;t -ant to tal:9 I don;t -ant to tal: to m3 -i"e9 I -ant to (o visitin(9 I -ant to visit 3ou9 +h3 do 3ou steal so muchF +h3 do 3ou steal mone3F 'elek'-il% 6stolen (oods6 'elk'aj-% 6to steal6 -elk'an% 6to steal (somethin()6 k'op% 6-ord% tal:6

k'opoj-% 6to tal:% to chat6 -k'opon% 6to tal: to (someone)6 jvula'al% 6visitor6 vula'aj-% 6to (o visitin(6 -vula'an% 6to visit (someone)6 9n these examples/ the relationship bet"een the intransitive an& the transitive verb resembles the relationship bet"een ve'- an& -ve'# the )rammatical subject is constant (correspon&in) to the a)ent)/ but the transitive verb reAuires an explicit object. 97;E'T D9 F' + !E'E nother similar pair is# tz'ibaj-/ <to "rite/ to kno" ho" to "rite/< an& -tz'iba <to "rite/ to inscribe (somethin)).< 8erbs &erive& (rom the a&jective k'ixin <hot/< also have characteristics similar to those alrea&y mentione&. !o"ever/ the relationship bet"een the intransitive an& the transitive verb is o( the mi&&le-voice*caustive sort. +i chak'ixna lavoteF 9k'ixnaj xa. &re 3ou (oin( to -arm u! 3our tortillasF #he3;re alread3 -arm9 k'ixnaj-% 6to be -arm6 -k'ixna% 6to -arm (somethin()6

-ausative an& intransitive verbs can also be (orme& by means o( other lexical recourses "e have alrea&y encountere&. <9nchoative< verbs/ "hich &enote the be)innin) o( some state/ are (orme& (rom a&jectives "ith the su((ix -ub (or -ib a(ter syllables "ith u an& "ith a (e" more roots). 9nchoative verbs are o( course intransitive. tz j(al)% 6red6 tzajub-% 6to (et red6 lek(il)% 6(ood6 lekub-% 6to (et better6 k'un(il)% 6smooth6 k'unib-% 6to become smooth6 muk'(ta)% 6bi(6 muk'ib% 6to (et bi((er6 '9pon to'ox pero lilekub xa.

I -as sic:% but I;m better

alread39 +i chk'unib to li balamile/ toj Is the land (oin( to (et an3


smoother% because it;s !rett3 rou(h9

-ausative (orms (transitive) are (orme& (rom these verbs by means o( the su((ix -tas. Ta jmuk'ibtas li jna e. I am (oin( to add on to m3

house9 -hapok/ chavach'ubtas li karo Rou are (oin( to -ash it% 3ou e. 'ach'% 6ne-6 'ach'ub-% 6to re0uvenate6 -'ach'ubtas% 6to renovate6 -pok% 6-ash6 are (oin( to renovate the car9

0ther a&jectives pro&uce inchoative (orms "ith -aj (in some cases -ij)/ an& (inally pro&uce causatives "ith the a&&itional su((ix -es. 9bik'taj xa li 'abtel e. 5ero ta to xabik'tajes mas. 9'ipaj li 'unen e. 5ero te nan much'u iyipajes. +u xtakij li jk'u' e. 1echuke/ chatakijes ta k'ok. 'ip% 6sic:6 'ipaj-% 6to (et sic:6 -ipajes% 6to ma:e (someone) sic:6 takin% 6dr36 takij-% 6to dr36 -takijes% 6to dr3 (somethin()6 bik'it(al)% 6small6 bik'taj-% 6to (et smaller6 -bik'tajes% 6to ma:e (somethin() smaller6 (0ne can see that the "or& bik'taj- &emonstrates the very common pattern# the vo"el o( a "or&'s secon& syllable &isappears "ith the a&&ition o( a su((ix.) #he -or: has diminished9 Cut 3ou are (oin( to reduce it even more9 #he bo3 has (ot sic:9 Cut !erha!s someone made him sic:9 73 clothin( isn;t dr39 Rou should dr3 it b3 the "ire9 yechuke% 6it should be6

;imilarly/ the <positional< roots provi&e intransitive an& transitive verbs/ "hich respectively &enote <to be in such a position (or some (orm)< an& <to put in such a position (or (orm).< (9n other "or&s/ the pairs are o( the mi&&le-voice*causative type.) Ce alrea&y kno" about cases o( positional roots playin) the role o( numeral classi(ier. Eor example/ the classi(ier -vo'/ "hich is use& to count people/ &erives (rom the positional root ,v '/ (rom "hich one also (orms verb stems. -hva'i li na e. Ta jva'an li na e. #he house is (oin( to be raised9 I am (oin( to raise the house9 -vo'% numeral classi"ier$ 6!erson% bi!ed% standin(6 va'i-% 6to be standin(% to stand u!6 -va'an% 6to raise% to ma:e stand 4u xu' xkoti li karo e2 :otano te yo' e. u!6 +here can the car be !ar:edF Par: it there9 -kot% numeral classi"ier$ 6"our4 le((ed thin(% animal% "urniture% etc96 nother "or& that "e alrea&y kno" &erives (rom the positional root lak <boilin)<# -hlaki xa lakajve e. 1our co((ee is boilin). +i ta jlakan to yan2 ;houl& 9 boil more (co((ee)2 Erom positional roots o( the (orm -8-/ one (orms intransitive verbs o( the (orm -8-i-/ "hich mean# <to be in the position/ (orm/ or state o( GE933 97 T!E 43 7:H.< Transitive stems take the (orm --8-> they mean# <to put in such a position/ etc.< &jectives take the (orm -8--8l ("ith the su((ix -8l repeatin) the vo"el o( the root). 8a'alon. :otol li karo e. 3akal xa li vo' e. I am standin(9 #he car is (!ar:ed) in its !lace9 #he -ater is boilin(9

0n the other han&/ there are other numeral classi(iers that are not &erive& (rom positional roots/ but/ conversely/ are &erive& (rom verbs. Eor example/ the classi(ier -p'is <measure/ )lass< &erives (rom the transitive stem -p'is <to measure.< 5'iso cha'-p'is pox. %avo li si' e@ %avem xa li si' e. 9kom ta cha'-jov. 7easure out t-o shots o" li<uorQ .ho! the "ire-oodQ #he -ood is alread3 cho!!ed5 it is in t-o !arts9 jav% 6to cho! in hal"6 -jov% numeral classi"ier$ 6hal"% !art6 %av is one o( those stems that &oes &ouble-&uty as both an intransitive (jav-) an& a transitive stem (-jav). 9t is o(ten the case that a positional or verbal root "ith the hypothetical vo"el classi(iers "ith o. j v/ <to chop in t"o< jav-/ <to break in t"o< -jav/ <to chop (somethin)) in t"o< jov/ numeral classi(er# <part< v '/ <stan&in)/ bi&epal< va'i-/ <to be stan&in)< -va'an/ <to make (somethin) or someone) stan&< -vo'/ numeral classi(ier# <person< This is an opportune time to consi&er another class o( transitive verbs/ &erive& (orm a noun root "ith the su((ix -in. These stems/ "hich are calle& <usitatives/< a)ain sho" the intimate connection bet"een the mechanism (or )rammatical possession (represente& by the system o( possessive pre(ixes) an& the er)ative system (or markin) the a)ent in transitive verbs (by means o( the same pre(ixes). %a' jk'u li' e. :u'un li k'u'ul li' e. 9jk'u'in (li k'u'ul) le' e. #hat is m3 clothin(9 #he clothin( is mine9 I -ore that (clothin() there9 k'u'-ul% 6clothin(6 in mi&&le position "ill (orm verb stems "ith a an& numeral

-k'u'in% 6to ta:e !ossession o" (somethin()% to use %a' jkumpareot. 3aj jkumpareinot. 3ajkumparein. (somethin() as clothin(6 Rou are m3 com!adre9 I;m done -ith 3ou as m3 com!adre9 I made 3ou m3 com!adre9 kumpare-il% 6com!adre6

The (orm lajkumparein can be analyze& in the (ollo"in) "ay# l4 Per"ective a4 2nd Person *b0ect 04 ?st Person &(ent :um!are com!adre 4in /sitative Su""i

+i ja' avantz li +aruch e2 9s +ary your lover2 +i ja' avantzin li +aruch e2 9s it +ary that you've taken as a lover2 'antz-il/ <lover< -antzin/ <to make a lover o( (someone)< !ere "e can see that the su((ix -in/ startin) (rom a possessible noun/ creates a transitive stem that has the (ollo"in) meanin)# <to cause the object to enter into the state o( bein) possesse& by the a)ent.< 0r/ in the case o( the noun 7 in the verb &erive& (rom the (orm -7-in/ it means# <to cause the object to be the a)ent's 7.< Cith the relational noun 'u'un-il one (orms a verb "ith the )eneral meanin)# -'u'unin <possessor/ to take possession o( (somethin)/ someone)<# :u'un li 'osil e. 9ku'unin li 'osil li' e. #his land is mine9 I made this land mine9

The relational noun 'u'un-il can be thou)ht o( as a noun "ithout any semantic content/ "ith the expection o( its usa)e as a syntactic vehicle (or some possessive pre(ix. EAually/ the verb -u'unin is a <&ummy verb/< a pseu&o-verb that provi&es a syntactic hook on "hich to han) an er)ative pre(ix.

'2& 9ord 3rder: Negati"e and Interrogati"e +or)s

5reviously/ 9 explaine& that the or&inary constituent or&er o( a transitive sentences "as the (ollo"in)# 1(erb) ? isma0 %ohn hit his brother. 9n this case/ it is the a)entive subject as (inal constituent "hich )ives the verb its er)ative pre(ix.GIH Ce have alrea&y seen that only the subject can be (ronte& in transitive sentences "ith both object an& subject in thir& person. 9smaj sbankil li $un e. ' li $un e/ ismaj sbankil. John hit his brother9 John% he hit his brother9 *(b0ect) 2 sban:il S(ub0ect) J li Uune

4ut "e also kno" that interro)ative pronouns are al"ays (ronte& (an& that this (rontin) occurs be(ore subject (rontin)). Eor example/ i( "e "ant to (orm a Auestion about the subject o( a transitive sentence/ "e can ima)ine an un&erylin) (orm o( the sentence like the one in the (ollo"in) &ia)ram# 9smil 1 5etul * 2 S

The (ollo"in) (orm results (rom this un&erylin) sentence# 4uch'u ismil li 5etul e2 +ho :illed PeterF

4ut i( "e (orm a Auestion about the object/ as in the (ollo"in) &ia)ram# 9smil 1 2 * 5etul S

the same sentence results/ but "ith a &i((erent meanin). 4uch'u ismil li 5etul e2 +ho did Peter :illF

9t is possible to (ront the (inal noun o( both sentences/ in "hich case/ the (ronte& noun "oul& be the object in the (irst an& the subject in the secon&. ' li 5etul e/ buch'u ismil2 Peter% -ho :illed himF *r$ Peter% -ho did he :illF The same ambi)uity results (rom emphatic (orms "ith ja'/ because the scope o( ja' can be either o( the nouns in the sentence. -onsi&er/ (or example/ the (ollo"in) &ia)rams# 97;E'T D9 F' + !E'E [Original had arrow pointing to John in both cases. I assume this was an error.] ;imilarly/ a ne)ative sentence "ith ma'uk is (orme& in the (ollo"in) manner# +a'uk $un ti ismil li ' ntune. This sentence is ambi)uous. 9t can mean# <9t "asn't %ohn "ho kille& ntonio< or <9t "asn't %ohn "ho ntonio kille&.< 4ut this ambi)uity &isappears "hen one o( the constituents is a pronoun o( the (irst or secon& person. 9n this case/ the verbal a((ixes clari(y its meanin). +u vo'onikon ijmil li ' ntune. I -asn;t the one -ho :illed &ntonio9 +u vo'onikon lismil li ' ntun. It -asn;t me -ho &ntonio :illed9 s "e have seen/ it is possible to ne)ate (or Auestion) not only the subject or the object/ but also other constituents in these sentences. +i te ismil sbankil ta na2 +u teyuk ismil. +i ta 'ek'el ismil sbankil2 +u ta 'ek'eluk. +as it in the house that he :illed his brotherF +as it -ith a hatchet that he :illed his brotherF ,o% it -asn;t -ith a hatchet9

The or&inary ne)ative (orms o( transitive verbs are eAuivalent to the ne)ative (orms o( intransitive verbs. There is a <volitional< ne)ative (orm "ith mu 6 7E=T' 3 ;5E-T.

+u jk'an. +u xak' vaj. +u xismaj.

I don;t -ant it9 Don;t (ive tortillas9 Don;t hit me9

There are also (orms "ith muk' (bu). +uk' bu ta jk'an tak'in. +uk' sk'anoj yabtel. +uk' bu lakil. +uk' chisk'opon. I -on;t -ant (i9e9% -on;t as: "or) an3 mone39 He hasn;t as:ed "or -or:9 I didn;t see 3ou9 He -on;t tal: to me9

'2' :7itransiti"e: Constructions

There are also verbs that are calle& <&ative< or <&itransitive< because they )enerally reAuire not only a subject an& an object/ but also an a&&itional &ative noun# an <in&irect< object. 9n Tzotzil/ an in&irect object can accompany a verb only i( the &irect object (<the patient<) is a thir& person noun an& not a (irst or secon& person pronoun. The in&irect object/ the &ative noun/ )enerally &enotes a person or an animal (in other "or&s/ animate thin)s)/ an& ans"ers the Auestion# <Cho receive& it2 Cho "as it )iven to2< prototypical example o( a &itransitive verb is -ak' <to )ive.< 97;E'T D9 F' + !E'E To in&icate the presence o( an in&irect object/ the su((ix -be is a&&e& to a verb. 9t is the in&irect object (an& not the &irect object) "hich en)en&ers the absolutive a((ix. 9n other "or&s/ the absolutive a((ix on the verb is a re(lection o( the &ative constituent. The &irect object/ a noun/ is not marke& on the verb "hatsoever. The (inal e o( the su((ix -be &isappears be(ore the absolutive su((ix -on. -havak'bon tak'in. 97;E'T D9 F' + !E'E 0nly the su((ix -be in&icates that the absolutive a((ix correspon&s to the &ative constituent/ the in&irect object/ an& not the patient. 9 "ill )ive other examples. 1ou "ill )ive me money.

:'usi layalbe2 +u k'usi liyalbe. +i chamanbon cha'-p'ej lo'bol2 +u xu' xajmanbe/ ch'abal stojol. -hajsa'be jset'uk vo'. +u p"ersauk. ' li $un e/ liyak'be xa vo'.

Chat &i& he tell you2 !e &i&n't tell me a thin). -al/ <say/ tell< +ill 3ou bu3 me t-o "ruitsF I can;t bu3 3ou an3% (because) I don;t have the mone3 (literall3$ the !rice)9 I -ill "ind 3ou some -ater9 It isn;t necessar39 John alread3 (ave me some9

The relationship bet"een a (simple) transitive sentence an& its correspon&in) &itransitive sentence can be represente& in the (ollo"in) &ia)ram. 97;E'T D9 F' + !E'E 9mperative sentences are also (orme& "ith &itransitive constituents. The e o( the &ative su((ix -be &isappears be(ore the -o o( the imperative. ' k'bo te' un. Give him -oodQ (In other -ords$ Smac: him -ith a -honbon lapixol che'e. ' lbon jp'eluk rason. ' lbon k'usi xi. stic:Q) Sell me 3our hatQ -chon/ <to sell< Give me a -ord o" 6reason6 (that is% advice)9 #ell me -hat he said9 chi-% 6to sa36

There are three Tzotzil verbs that can be translate& as <to say< an& each has &i((erent syntactic an& semantic characteristics. The verb -al is use& to report in&irect conversations. Cith the &ative su((ix -be/ it inclu&es the listener o( the conversation as an in&irect object o( the verb. Thus/ there are t"o stems# -al <to say/< -albe <tell.< The intransitive verb chi- is use& to i&enti(y the speaker "hen a &irect conversation is reporte& verbatim. The transitive verb -ut is use& to report &irect conversations> ho"ever/ it reAuires a &irect object as a noun to &enote the listener. -onsi&er the (ollo"in) hypothetical conversation.

$un# -hibat ta jna. 4u chabat2 -hep# 8o'one chikom. :'u chba apas ta ana e2 $un# -hba jve' kot. 9n the context o( this conversation/ 9 "ill present some sentences in "hich the &i((erent Tzotzil verbs that mean <to say< are use&# ' li $un e/ iyalbe li -hepe ti John told Jose!h that he -as

ja' chbat ta sna. (oin( to return to his house9 ' li $une/ isjak'be li -hep e bu John as:ed Jose!h -here he chbat li stuk e. ;&ntun$ $un/ k'usi layalbe li -hep e2 Uun$ <-hikom/< xi. ;&ntun$ :'usi avalbe2 Uun$ <-hba jve' kot/< xkut komel. <:'usi chba apas/< xiyut. -as (oin(9 -jak'% 6to as:% re<uest6 John% -hat did .he! tell 3ouF 6I;m sta3in(%6 he said9 &nd -hat did 3ou tell himF 6I am (oin( to eat tortillas%6 I told him9 6+hat are 3ou (oin( to doF6 he said to me9

The verb chi- is some"hat irre)ular# it also occurs "ith neutral aspect. lso/ the thir& person (orm is xi (an& not the expecte& ,,,xchi). $ichi. $achi. $i. I sa3 (o"ten$ I sa3 to m3sel")9 Rou sa39 He sa3s9

n in&irect conversation is sometimes reporte& by means o( the particle la/ "hich si)ni(ies that the in(ormation came (rom someone else (that is/ hearsay). %ayib 'ora chtal2 Ta la xtal ta chib 'ora. +i jk'ulej mi ch'abal stak'in. %k'ulej la. +i lek li k'in e2 %i' la. +uk' xi'ay. +i ch'abtej li $un e2 <-hi'abtej/< xi. 1u'un la +hen is he comin(F He is comin( at t-o (so the3 sa3)9 Is he rich% or does he have no mone3F (#he3 sa3) he;s rich9 +as the !art3 (oodF So the3 sa35 I -asn;t there9 +ill John -or:F 6I;m (oin( to -or:%6 he said9


Cecause he is (oin( to -or: (the3 sa3)9

The majority o( Tzotzil-speakers care(ully &istin)uish bet"een those propositions that are hearsay an& those that are not. Jinacantecos use the "or& xi in or&er to )ive verbal instructions/ on etiAuette an& proper speech. :olaval/ xi. Timi ijnup ta be/ k'usi chkalbe2 <-hibat/< xi. Rou should sa3$ 6#han: 3ou96 I" I see him on the street% -hat do I sa3 to himF Sa3 to him$ 6I;m (oin(96

The verb -ut means# <to say/ to tell/ to scol&.< 9t is also use& to say <to be in a relationship "ith someone.< :'usi chavut li $un e2 +hat do 3ou sa3 to JohnF (In other -ords$ -hat is 3our %a' skrem yitz'in jtot> ja' jbankil ya'el. relationshi! -ith JohnF) He is the son o" m3 "ather;s little brother5 he seems li:e m3 older brother9 ya'el% 6it seems% it loo:s li:e6 Don;t scold meQ

+u xavuton@

7e)ative imperatives are (orme& "ith the ne)ative particle mu plus the neutral aspect o( the secon& person. 0(ten/ one a&&s the &esi&erative particle me/ "hich expresses &esire. +u me xabat@ +u me xamil@ +u xavak'be@ +u me xavalbon k'usi xi@ Don;t (o !leaseQ Don;t :ill himQ Don;t (ive it to himQ Don;t tell me -hat he saidQ

:'usi xi is eAuivalent to k'uxi/ a compoun& that also means <"hat/ ho"2< This also serves as a )reetin). +i chabat2 %a' ti k'uxi li yan e. &re 3ou (oin(F It de!ends -hat the others sa39

:'uxi. +u k'uxi. :'uxi ibat 'o li k'op e2

+hat;s u!F ,othin(9 (In"ormal Greetin() Ho- did thin(s (oF

9n <Auasi-subjunctive< constructions/ the verb -ak' <to )ive< "ith the &ative su((ix -be also plays a role relate& to the usa)e o( the imperative 'ak'o. ' k'o sk'el k'in@ ' k'bo sk'el k'in@ 'et him see the !art3Q Sho- him the !art3Q

The same construction occurs "ith non-imperative sentences. 3iyak'be kil li sna e. !e sho"e& me his house. (3iterally# !e )ave me that 9 "oul& see his house.) 4atz'i lek li jchob e> chakak'be 73 corn"ield is (ood5 I -ill avil. :iloj xa. ' vak'bon kil volje. sho- it to 3ou9 I sa- it alread39 Rou sho-ed it to me 3esterda39 The (ollo"in) construction is very similar. ' lbo ya'i k'uxi li moletik e. +u to bu avalbon ka'i. -hakalbe ava'i tana. #ell him -hat the elders said9 Rou still haven;t told me9 I -ill tell 3ou later9

9t is very important to note that the in&irect object o( the (irst verb correspon&s to the subject o( the secon& verb/ that is to say/ the verb that is in the <Auasi-subjunctive< (orm. These constructions "ill receive more &etaile& consi&eration in section K.L. Due to its very )eneral meanin)/ the &ative (orm -ak'be <)ive (to someone)< appears in many common expressions. 9( the name o( a "eapon (unctions as the object/ this verb means <attack ("ith a "eapon).< 9( the instrument is not speci(ie& -ak'be means <to have sexual relations "ith someone.< 9kak' machita. 9kak'be machita li chon e. 3ek ikak'be. I attac:ed -ith m3 machete9 ('iterall3$ I (ave m3 machete9) I attac:ed (literall3$ (ave it to) the sna:e -ith m3 machete9 I (ave it to her (ood ("or

e am!le% a beatin(% ra!e% etc9)9

3.8 Passi"e$ 6Antipassi"e$6 9iddle75oice$ and Pseudo7Passi"e

+e have alread3 seen that man3 transitive verbs also a!!ear as intransitive verbs -ithout under(oin( an3 sort o" stem chan(e9 Ta jmak li na e. -hmak li na e. I -ill close the door9 #he door -ill close9

#he intransitive use here is called middle4voice% in order to indicate that the (rammatical sub0ect o" the verb is the semantic 6!atient6 o" the action (the !erson or the thin( that under(oes the action) and that there is no active a(ent9 'i:e other intransitive verbs% the middle4voice can occur -ith !hrases -ith ta or 'o % -hich indicates instrument9 ' li nae/ imak ta 'ik'. ' li nae/ imak 'o li $un e. #he door closed "rom the -ind9 #he door -as closed b3 John9

(+ith 6-as closed b3 John6 -e do not mean that John activel3 closed the door% but rather that in some -a3 the door closed because o" him$ i"% "or e am!le% he "ell a(ainst the door or his bod3 -as bloc:in( it9) #hus% there is no middle4voice usa(e o" verbs that semanticall3 need an a(ent9 For e am!le% the same transitive verb -mak can have the meanin( 6to be en(a(ed96 ' li $un e/ ismak xa yajnil. 4uch'u ismak2 9smak stzeb li mol 5etul e. John is alread3 en(a(ed9 +ho is he en(a(ed toF He !ro!osed to the dau(hter o" old man Peter9 Cut one cannot sa3$ ,,,9mak stzeb li mol 5etul e.

*r% at least% this sentence doesn;t mean 6*ld man Peter;s dau(hter (ot en(a(ed6 but rather 6*ld man Peter;s dau(hter is consti!ated96 #he middle4voice strictl3 lac:s an a(ent9 #zotzil has a true !assive voice% -ith both a semantic and s3ntactic "unction9 +e have alread3 seen the conversational need "or a !assive "orm9 Here -e -ill a(ain consider a transitive sentence -hose sub0ect and ob0ect are both in the third !erson9 9smil $un li 5etul e. Peter :illed John9

In conversation% nouns are o"ten omitted9 &s a result% a sentence li:e the "ollo-in( is !ossible$ 9smil li ' ntun e. Cut -hat -ould this sentence meanF #here are t-o !ossibilities$ either 6&ntun :illed him (someone s!eci"ic)6 or 6He (another !erson) :illed &ntun96 #o clari"3 the situation% -e need a !assive "orm (6+ho -as :illedF6) or an 6anti4!assive6 "orm (6+ho did the :illin(F6)9 #zotzil has both9 #he !assive "orm is a trans"ormation o" the transitive sentence9 +e -ill be(in -ith a sentence o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ 1erb ? *b0ect 2 Sub0ect J

IFrom this sentence% -e "orm the "ollo-in( se<uence$ 1erb L -eN-at ? taN-u'un L Sub0ect (*!tional) *b0ect J 2

In other -ords% the verb unites -ith a !assive su""i (-e or -at) and the a(ent o" the ori(inal sentence combines -ith a !hrase -ith ta or -u'un9 #he resultin( sentence is% su!er"iciall3% intransitive9 #he ob0ect o" the transitive sentence is no- the sub0ect o" the !assive sentence5 conse<uentl3% the ob0ect en(enders the absolutive a""i -ith the !assive verb9 9smil $un li 5etul e. 9mile (yu'un 5etul) li $un e. Peter :illed John9 John -as :illed (b3 Peter)9

3ismaj jyakubel. 3imaje ta*yu'un jyakubel. chuk ta te' li ka' e. 9chuke (avu'un) ta te' li ka' e. -hajk'el tana. -hak'ele (ku'un) tana.

& drun: hit me9 I -as hit b3 a drun:9 Rou tie the horse u! to the tree9 #he horse -as tied u! to the tree (b3 3ou)9 I -ill see 3ou later9 Rou;ll be seen (b3 me) later9

In the !assive sentences% the constituent -ith -u'un (-hich denotes the a(ent) is o!tional9 -hi'ik'e ta chib 'ora tana. 4u lak'oponat2 9muk'ibtasat li na e. 9k'ak'esat li chobtik e. +uk' ik'ak' stuk. I -ill be carried at t-o9 +here -ill 3ou be s!o:en toF #he house -as enlar(ed9 #he corn"ield -as burned b3 someone9 It didn;t burn b3 itsel"9 In (eneral% the di""erence bet-een the t-o !assive su""i es is due to dialectal di""erences% althou(h the su""i -at is used more -ith multis3llabic and derived stems -hile the su""i -e is used -ith monos3llabic stems9 Passive ditransitive verbs are also "ormed9 #he !rocess is the same% e ce!t that onl3 the su""i -at is used a"ter the dative su""i -be% -hich reduces to -b-9 -hayalbe bu chbat. -ha'albat bu chbat. +u k'usi liyak'be. +u k'usi li'ak'bat. 9jmanbe lo'bol li $un e. 9manbat lo'bol (ku'un) li $un e. He -ill tell 3ou -here he;s (oin(9 Rou -ill be told -here he;s (oin(9 He didn;t (ive me an3thin(9 I -asn;t (iven an3thin(9 I bou(ht "ruits "or John9 John -as bou(ht "ruits (b3 me)9

Dative and !assive sentences are "ormed -ith all their verbal as!ects and tenses9 I -ill (ive e am!les o" the "orms in -hat "ollo-s9 Im!er"ective$

Ta jmanbe 'ixim li jme' e. -hismanbe 'ixim. -hmane li 'ixim e. -himanbat 'ixim. Per"ective$ 9jmanbe 'ixim li jme' e. 3ismanbe 'ixim. 9mane li 'ixim e. 3imanbat 'ixim. ,eutral$

I -ill bu3 corn "or m3 mother9 She -ill bu3 me corn9 #he corn -ill be bou(ht9 I -ill be bou(ht corn9

I bou(ht corn "or m3 mother9 He bou(ht me corn9 #he corn -as bou(ht (i9e9% -as sold)9 I -as bou(ht corn9

+u xajmanbe 'ixim. I -on;t bu3 3ou corn9 +u xismanbe 'ixim. He -on;t bu3 me corn9 +u xmane li 'ixim e. #he corn -on;t be bou(ht9 +u xamanbat 'ixim. Rou -on;t be bou(ht corn9 ,ote that the sentence -hasmanbe 'ixim. has t-o inter!retations% accordin( to the meanin( o" the dative9 It can mean$ He is (oin( to bu3 corn "or 3ou9 or$ He is (oin( to bu3 3our corn9 He is (oin( to bu3 corn "rom 3ou9 Stative$ %manojbe 'ixim li jme' e. ;manojbon 'ixim. +anbil li 'ixim e. +anbilon 'ixim. I have bou(ht corn "or m3 mother9 He has bou(ht corn "or me9 #he corn -as bou(ht9 #he corn -as bou(ht "or me9 (In other -ords$ I am in the state o" havin( received corn

that the3 bou(ht me9) *ne can see that the stative !assive "orms use a s!ecial su""i $ -bil9 #his su""i trans"orms a transitive verb into a -ord that bears a resemblance to the !assive !artici!le in En(lish9 manbil% 6!urchased6 'ak'bil% 6(iven6 k'oponbil% 6s!o:en6 makbil% 6closed6 +ords -ith -bil are trul3 verbs9 Furthermore% the3 are !assive "orms9 In other -ords% the3 have a semantic !attient as their (rammatical sub0ect9 #he3 also su!!ose the idea o" an a(ent% -ho caused or realized the action9 #hus% there is a contrast bet-een the "ollo-in( sentences$ +akbil li na e. #he door -as closed (and some uns!eci"ied !erson did +akem li na e. it)9 #he door closed (and it closed b3 itsel"% or b3 an inactive +akal li na e. event% b3 somethin( inactive)9 #he door is closed (in this condition% -ithout re"erence to the action that caused the state)9 #he sentence -ith -bil is !assive9 #he sentence -ith -em uses the stative "orm o" the intransitive verb (middle4voice) mak-9 #he last sentence uses the derived ad0ective makal 6closed96 &lso note that the su""i -bil is used to (ive stative as!ect in the !assive voice to transitive as -ell as ditransitive (dative) verbs9 1ak'oj tak'in li $un e. ' k'bil li tak'in e. yak'oj 1erb 'ak'-bil John has donated mone39 #he mone3 -as donated9 tak'in *b0ect li tak'in e

li $un e &(ent

Passive Su""i :ak'ojbe tak'in li $un e. I have (iven mone3 to John9 ' k'bil tak'in li $un e. John -as (iven mone39 kak'oj-be tak'in $un 1erb *b0ect Dative 'ak'-bil tak'in li $un e (Passive and Dative Su""i )

(vo'on) &(ent

It is note-orth3 that -hen a ditransitive sentences is !assivized% the (rammatical sub0ect o" the !assive sentence corres!onds to the dative constituent9 (#he ob0ect o" the ditransitive verb% -hich should be a noun% a!!ears to be incor!orated into the verb% or remains s3ntacticall3 inactive9) 1ak'ojbon cha'-kot kaxlan li $un e. ' k'bilon cha'-kot kaxlan (yu'un li $un e). -hayak'be jtob pexu. John (ave me t-o chic:ens9 #-o chic:ens -ere (iven to me (b3 John)9 He is (oin( to (ive 3ou t-ent3

!esos9 -ha'ak'bat jtob pexu li vo'ot e. Rou -ere (iven t-ent3 !esos9 In these !assive sentences% the sub0ect o" the verb44the noun that en(enders absolutive a""i es44is the indirect ob0ect (dative noun) o" the active sentence9 I alread3 e !lained that the "unction o" the !assive is to resolve the ambi(uit3 o" transitive sentences -hose sub0ect and ob0ect are both in the third !erson9 ,ote that a ditransitive sentence can sho- the same ambi(uit3 (bet-een a(ent and !atient) as a transitive sentence9 #he -ord order is the "ollo-in($ 9yak'be 1erb tak'in *b0ect $un Dative li ' ntun e. Sub0ect

IFrom this sentence onl3 the sub0ect can be "ronted9 ' li ntun e/ iyak'be tak'in li $un e. &s "or &nthon3% he (ave mone3 to John9

Cut -hen a constituent is omitted (-hen it is im!licit in the discourse)% the sentence that results is ambi(uous9

9yak'be tak'in li $un e.

John (ave the mone3 to him9 *r$ He (another !erson) (ave the mone3 to John9

Similarl3% the <uestion$ 4uch'u iyak'be tak'in2 means either 6+ho did he (ive mone3F6 or 6+ho (ave him mone3F6 & !assive "orm o" these sentence does not su""er "rom the same ambi(uit39 4uch'u i'ak'bat tak'in2 9'akbat tak'in li $un e. +ho -as (iven mone3F John -as (iven the mone39

#he s3ntactic "unction o" the !assive is derived "rom -ord order in the transitive sentence$ the ob0ect !recedes the sub0ect% and cannot be "ronted "reel39 In that case% i" it is necessar3 to s!ea: o" the ob0ect as the (ocus o" the sentence% one must chan(e the structure o" the sentence to allo- "or the ob0ect to be "ronted9 :'usi ispas li $un e2 ' li $un e/ ismaj li 5etul e. ' li ntun e/ che'e2 ' li ' ntun e/ imaje 'uk. +hat did John doF &s "or John% he hit Peter9 &nd -hat about &ntunF He -as hit too9

In the last e am!le% not usin( the !assive "orm -ould !roduce a sentence -ith a di""erent meanin(9 ' li ntun e/ ismaj 'uk. &s "or &nthon3% he hit him (Peter) too9 In other conte ts% it is also necessar3 to "ocus attention on the sub0ect o" a transitive sentence9 For e am!le% in constructions that are called topic chains% onl3 one noun !la3s the central !art in a se<uence o" clauses% in -hich the noun can be either a(ent or ob0ect9 ' li $un e/ imuy ta te' ismil li mut e. I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE Timi ch'abtej li $un e/ chich' I" John -or:s% he -ill receive John climbed u! a tree and :illed the bird9

'ep tak'in. I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE

lots o" mone39

Cut i" the to!ic o" a chain "unctions as the ob0ect o" some constituent clause% one must trans"orm that clause so that the theme remains as the (rammatical sub0ect9 Ima(ine a to!ic chain com!osed o" the "ollo-in( sentences$ 9bat ta %obel li 5etul e. 9smaj 5etul li $un e. Peter -ent to San .ristZbal9 John hit Peter9

#hese sentence cannot be combined in the "ollo-in( -a3$ ' li 5etul e/ ibat ta %obel/ ismaj li $un e. #he last sentence means 6Peter -ent to San .ristZbal and hit John96 In contrast% one must !assivize the transitive sentence% in order to !roduce a chain ade<uate "or the #zotzil structure9 ' li 5etul e/ ibat ta %obel/ imaje yu'un li $un e. Peter -ent to San .ristZbal and -as hit b3 John9

&lso com!are the "ollo-in( e am!les$ Timi ch'abtej li 5etul e/ chich' I" Peter -or:s% he is (oin( to 'ep tak'in. Timi ch'abtej li 5etul e/ ch'ak'bat 'ep tak'in yu'un li $un e. Timi ch'abtej li 5etul e/ chak'be 'ep tak'in li $un e. receive a lot o" mone39 I" Peter -or:s% he is (oin( to be (iven a lot o" mone3 b3 John9 I" Peter -or:s% he is (oin( to (ive a lot o" mone3 to John9

#he neeed "or these construction is less obvious -hen there are ob0ects or sub0ects o" the "irst or second !erson% because a""i es to(ether -ith the verb clari"ies the meanin(9 #hus% "or e am!les% the t-o "ollo-in( sentences are !ossible and e<uivalent9 Timi chikom ta na/ chi'ak'bat 'utel yu'un jtot.

Timi chikom ta na/ chiyak'be 'utel li jtot e.

I" I remain in the house% m3 "ather -ill scold me9

&lso com!are the "ollo-in( sentences$ Timi chkom ta na li $un e/ chmaje ku'un. Timi chkom ta na li $un e/ ta jmaj. I" Johns sta3s home% I -ill hit him9

#he theme o" a such a to!ic chain can "unction as the a(ent o" one clause and the !atient o" another9 ' li $un e/ iyak'be vaj li 'antze/ &s "or John% he (ave tortillas i'ak'bat lo'bol stuk. to the -oman and -as (iven "ruits9 8o'ot e/ amaj li 'unen e/ lamaje &s "or 3ou% 3ou hit the child atuk. and 3ou 3oursel" -ere hit9

#here are still more s!ecialized !assive "orms9 & middle4voice construction uses a verb stem (o"ten a sim!le root)% -ithout an3 a""i ation% and a "orm o" chi- 6to sa36 in order to sa3 6immediatel3% at once somethin( ha!!ened99996 #he construction ta:es both transitive and intransitive verbs9 4at xi ta 'ora. ;olel 'och xi ta yav. Tik' xi ta vorxa. 8a' xichi ta 'ora. He -ent ri(ht a-a39 He -ent into his !lace ri(ht a-a39 It -ent into the ba(9 tik'% 6to insert% !ut in6 Immediatel3 I stood u!9 ('au(hlin ?@AB$ ??^) ,v '% !ositional root$ Tzak xi k'alal yut. 6standin(6 #he3 nabbed him immediatel3 to stic: him in (0ail% that is)9 +ith au iliar3 verbs% there is a s!ecial !assive "orm that uses the su""i -el9 #he "orms -ith au iliaries are some-hat semanticall3 !eculiar9 .onsider the "ollo-in( e am!les$

:om smil kaxlan li $un e. ' li $un e/ kom smil li kaxlan John remained to :ill his e. 9kom smilel (yu'un $un) li kaxlan e. chic:en9 #he chic:en remained to be :illed (b3 John)9

In the last e am!le it is clear that the chic:en and John both sta3% but onl3 the sub0ect is necessar3 in the construction9 #he a(ent can be im!licit9 .onsider the "ollo-in( chains$ ' li $un e/ muk' ijatav/ ikom &s "or John% he didn;t "lee5 he

smil li kaxlan e. remained to :ill the chic:en9 ' li kaxlan e/ muk' ijatav/ ikom &s "or the chic:en% he didn;t smilel (yu'un li $un e). "lee5 it remained and -as :illed (b3 John)9 In these e am!les% the se<uence o" clauses maintains onl3 one noun as the central theme% and the s3ntactic "orm o" each clause re"lects it9 #hese !assive "orms are constructed in t-o -a3s9 First% the (rammatical sub0ect can be mar:ed in the verb (-hich re<uires the su""i -el) -ith 6!ossessive6 !re"i es% or -ith absolutive su""i es9 Second% the verb also receives the !re"i s-9 9kom smilel. 9kom jmilel. 9kom smilelon. 9kom amilel. 9kom smilelot. He remained to be :illed9 I remained to be :illed9 Rou remained to be :illed9

#o translate these "orms ade<uatel3 is "airl3 di""icult9 #he3 corres!ond to inde"inite "orms in En(lish9 9'ay smilelon. Someone -ent to :ill me9

It is evident that the lo(ical su""i o" the au iliar3 verbs in these constructions is the a(ent% and not the !atient (the (rammatical sub0ect o" the com!le verb)% althou(h the a(ent does not e !licitl3 a!!ear in the sentence9 -h'ech' yik'elot. Someone -ill !ass b3 to !ic: 3ou u!9

#his construction is a mechanism "or em!hasizin( the verb;s ob0ect (-hich becomes the (rammatical sub0ect o" the !assive sentence) -hile at the same time de4em!hasizin( the a(ent% -hich is re!resented indirectl39 Cut in the last e am!le it is obvious that the (rammatical sub0ect (second !erson% the !erson -ho -ill be !ic:ed u!) cannot be the same !erson -ho -ill do the !ic:in( u!9 In other -ords$ the lo(ical sub0ect o" the verb ech'- is not identical to the (rammatical sub0ect (in this !assive construction% the lo(ical ob0ect) o" the verb -ik'el9 .onsider the "ollo-in( sentence$ -h'ech' avich' 'ik'el. Someone -ill !ass b3 to !ic: 3ou u!9 #he (rammatical sub0ect o" the com!le verb ch'ech' avich' is obviousl3 second !erson$ it corres!onds to the !erson -ho -ill be !ic:ed u!9 Cut it should be e<uall3 obvious that this !erson cannot be the same !erson -ho is (oin( to !ass b39 Related to these observations is the "act that these "orms are onl3 !ossible -hen the a(ent o" the underl3in( transitive sentence is in the third !erson (in other -ords% a noun)9 4a smajon li $un e. 4a smajelon. John -ent to hit me9 Someone -ent to hit me9

I" the a(ent o" the action is e !licit% and% more im!ortantl3% i" it is a !ronoun o" the "irst or second !erson% this t3!e o" !assive construction is not !ossible9 ' li kaxlan e/ muk' ijatav/ ikom/ ijmil. & sentence such as$ 9kom smilel ku'un. means 6it remained to be :illed on account o" me% due to me44but I -as not the one -ho :illed it96 In other -ords$ 6I arran(ed "or someone to sta3 in order to be :illed96 Some =inacantecos use !assive "orms -ith au iliaries o" this t3!e% -hich -e -ill loo: at later in Section @9B9 #hese have the "ollo-in( "orm$ #he chic:en didn;t esca!e5 it sta3ed5 I :illed it9

I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #here are nominal uses o" these verb "orms -ith -el -hich !reserve their !assive meanin(9 +ith the e !ression laj- ta $44-hich means% 6su""er "rom999%6 6be in0ured b3999%6 or 6end "rom999644-e have seen nouns that denote concrete thin(s9 9laj ta vo'. 9laj ta machita. -hilaj ta ton. He (ot soa:ed -ith -ater9 He (ot cut -ith the machete9 I;m (oin( to (et hit -ith a roc:9 In these e !ressions% !assive verbal nouns -ith -el also can occur -ith ta as their ob0ect9 9laj ta 'utel. 3ilaj ta majel. Timi chibate/ chilaj ta milel. 3ajem ta ti'el li chij e. He -as scolded9 I su""er "rom a beatin(9 I" I (o% I -ill su""er "rom a beatin(9 #he shee! su""ered "rom a bite9

In the "ollo-in( e am!les% verbal nouns -ith -el "unction as ob0ects o" the !re!osition ta9 3ek ta pasel li vaj e. 8okol ta 'ch'el li pox e. %al ta k'elel li k'in e. #ortillas are eas3 to ma:e9 'i<uor is hard to drin:9 vokol% 6hard6 It;s hard to see all o" the !art39

In the "ollo-in( e am!les% ho-ever% nouns -ith -el "unction as direct ob0ects o" transitive verbs9 9jta majel/ ja' iyak' majel li kajnil e. -hich' k'elel li jchamel e. +u sk'an k'oponel li mol e. I received a thrashin(5 m3 -i"e (ave it to me9 -ta% 6to "ind6 #he sic: one is (oin( to receive a loo:9 #he old man doesn;t -ant to be s!o:en to9 +ith -el% verbal nouns can be !roduced "rom ditransitive verbs9 #he resultin( nouns retain the dative su""i -b- be"ore the su""i -el9

9kak'be tak'in li krem e. 9'ak'bat tak'in li krem e. 9kom yak'bel tak'in li krem e.

I (ave the mone3 to the bo39 #he bo3 -as (iven mone3 (b3 !eo!le uns!eci"ied)9 #he3 (some uns!eci"ied !eo!le) remained in order to

(ive mone3 to the bo39 Tzk'an 'ak'bel tak'in li krem e. #he bo3 -ants his mone3 returned9 (In oher -ords$ He still has not been (iven the mone39) #here is another construction in -hich verbal nouns -ith -el "unction as the ob0ect o" ta% -ith some verb or intransitive !redicate9 Here the (rammatical sub0ect o" the sentence;s main verb corres!onds to the lo(ical ob0ect o" the underl3in( verb "rom -hich the noun is derived9 9laj li $un e. 9maje li $un e. 9laj ta majel li $un e. I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE Tzotz li vob e. -htij li vobe. 7usic is di""icult9 7usic is !la3in(9 tij% 6to !la3 (middle4voice or transitive)6 I7usic is di""icult to !la39 John -as hurt9 John -as hit9 (*r$ #he3 hit John9) John -as hurt b3 the blo-s9

Tzotz ta tijel li vob e.

& di""erent structure a!!ears to underl3 these com!le sentences -hose main verbs are transitive and -hose ob0ects are verbal nouns -ith -el9 -hamalaat li mol e. li mole/ tzk'an malael. #he old man is a-aited9 -mala% 6to -ait6 &s "or the old man% he -ants to be -aited "or9 I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE

#he last sentence% as -ell as the "ollo-in(% a!!ears to come "rom a sin(le underl3in( structure$ Tzk'an ti chmalaat li mol e. It;s -anted that the old man is a-aited9 In this "orm% it is a!!arent that the ob0ect o" the verb tzk'an is an entire sentence% introduced b3 the !article ti9 1erbal nouns -ith -el also receive 6!ossessive6 !re"i es9 Just as nouns -ith -el have a !assive meanin(% their (rammatical 6!ossessors6 corres!ond to the lo(ical ob0ect (or the indirect ob0ect% i" the verb carries the dative su""i -b-)9 9laj jmaj li 'ixim e. 9laj smajel li 'ixim e. I "inished beatin( the corn9 #he beatin( o" the corn "inished9 (In this e am!le one can see the connection bet-een the use o" a deverbal "orm -ith -el as a !assive "orm o" the verb -ith an au iliar3 and its use as a verbal noun9)9 For e am!le% com!are the "ollo-in( "orms$ 9laj smajel li $un e. 9laj ta majel li $un e. John;s beatin( is "inished9 John died "rom a beatin(9

#he verbal noun -ith !ossessive !re"i es occurs -ith an ob0ect (in other -ords% -ith a (rammatical !ossessor) in the third !erson9 +u jna' smajel 'ixim. I don;t :no- ho- to beat the corn9 +i xana' stijel 'arpa2 +i xana' xatij 'arpa2 Do 3ou :no- ho- to !la3 the G;ar!aHF #he underl3in( "orm o" the last sentence a!!ears to be the "ollo-in($ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #his structure is trans"ormed into the "ollo-in($

+u jna' jmaj 'ixim.

I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #here are no !ossessed "orms o" these verbal nouns -ith -el that also incor!orate the dative su""i -b-9 *ne can sa3% "or e am!le% 7u ana; ava:;be ta:;in la:rem e9 Rou don;t :no- ho- to (ive mone3 to 3our son9

Cut the "ollo-in( sentence does not e ist$ ,,,+u xana' yak'bel tak'in lakrem e. Similarl3% there does not seem to be deverbal nouns -ith -el -hose !ossessors are in the "irst or second !erson (althou(h ver3 similar "orms occur -ith au iliar3 verbs)9 3ek yo'on li maestro e> mu sna' smajel 'unen. 3ek yo'on li mol e/ mu sna' xasmaj. #he teacher has a (ood heart5 he doesn;t :no- ho- to hit children9 #he old man is (ood5 he doesn;t :no- ho- to hit 3ou9

Ho-ever% it is not !ossible to sa3 the "ollo-in($ ,,,+u sna' amajel. Rou don;t :no- 3our hittin(9

#here is also a structural and semantic contrast bet-een the "ollo-in( sentences$ 8okol ta milel li chitom e. 8okol smilel li chitom e. 8okol chmile li chitom e. Pi(s are di""icult to :ill9 Tillin( !i(s is di""icult9 Pi(s are :illed onl3 -ith di""icult39 &s a "inal e am!le o" deverbal nouns -ith -el% I -ill (ive the "ollo-in( e am!les$ 9jta majel li vo'on e. 9jta ta majel li tz'i' e. +i avich' k'oponel2 I "ound m3sel" bein( hit9 I mana(ed to hit the do(9 Did the3 tal: to 3ouF ('iterall3$ Did 3ou receive +uk' lista ta k'oponel. s!eechF) #he3 never "ound me9

#he use o" deverbal nouns in -el is -ell develo!ed in #zotzil9 #he constructions -ith these "orms sho- a 6<uasi4!assive6 <ualit39 In other -ords% the3 are active "orms (in that the3 contain active transitive verbs) but their (rammatical sub0ects are the lo(ical ob0ects o" the deverbal nouns9 Sentence o" the "orm 9jta ta majel. are not !assive but rather e am!les o" a construction -ith 6double verb96 9jta li tz'i' e. 9jmaj li tz'i' e. 9jta ta majel li tz'i' e. I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE .om!are the "ollo-in( sentences$ 9kak' ta meltzanel li kora e. 9kak' li kora e. 9smeltzan li kora e. I le"t m3 -atch to be "i ed9 I le"t m3 -atch9 Someone "i ed m3 -atch9 I "ound the do(9 I hit the do(9 I mana(ed to hit the do(9

In these e am!les% the t-o verbs (the main verb and the nominalized verb) have the same ob0ect$ kora% 6m3 -atch%6 or tz'i' 6do(96 C3 combinin( the t-o clauses% the construction -ith the deverbal noun e !resses a causal connection bet-een the t-o events9 & !assive sentence can clari"3 the meanin( o" an ambi(uous transitive sentence b3 identi"3in( the !atient o" the action9 4uch'u ismil li $un e2 +ho :illed JohnF *r$ +ho did

John :illF 4uch'u imile (yu'un li $un e)2 +ho -as :illed b3 JohnF +hen the sub0ect and the ob0ect are both in the third !erson% a sentence in #zotzil can also be trans"ormed into an 6anti4!assive96 (#he term 6anti4!assive6 -as "irst introduced b3 7ichael Silverstein -::::/9) & !assive sentence is intransitive and has as its sur"ace sub0ect the ob0ect o" its transitive counter!art9 #he so4called 6anti4!assive6 is also an

intransitive verb% but it does not contain an ob0ect as its main constituent and it has the same a(ent as its transitive counter!art9 (I re!eat that the anti4!assive "orm is onl3 !ossible in #zotzil -hen both the sub0ect and the ob0ect are in the third !erson (in other -ords% -hen the3 are both nouns)9 *nl3 in such circumstances -ill the transitive sentence be ambi(uous9) & "e- e am!les -ill ma:e these !rece!ts clear9

9smil $un li 5etul e. Peter :illed John9

9mile (yu'un 5etul) li $un e. John -as :illed (b3 Peter)9

S(ntactic Anti<&a%%i)e
5etul imilon (li $un e). It -as Peter -ho :illed (John)9

LeEical Anti<&a%%i)e
9milvan li 5etul e. Peter did the :illin(9

&nother anti4!assive "orm is derived "rom a transitive stem and the su""i -van9 #he result o" this derivation is an intransitive stem -ith the (eneral meanin( and use o" the s3ntactic anti4!assive9 -himilvan. 9chukvan li $un e. I am (oin( to :ill (someone)9 John loc:ed (someone) u!9

I" a transitive stem -$ combines -ith the su""i -van% it "orms an intransitive stem% $van-% -hich means 6$ to !eo!le (or to animals)96 #hus% verbs derived -ith -van are not (eneral anti!assives5 because the ommitted ob0ect must !ertain to !eo!le% the meanin( o" the verb is limited9 -mil% 6:ill6 milvan-% 6to murder% :ill (!eo!le)6 -chuk% 6to tie u!6 chukvan-% 6to 0ail% to tie u! (!eo!le)6 -chon% 6sell6 chonvan-% 6to be-itch !eo!le% to sell !eo!le;s souls6

-jim% 6to turn6 jimvan-% 6to ma:e !eo!le dizz36 #ransitive verbs -hose ob0ects are not human (enerall3 do not have "orms -ith the su""i -van9 Sentences containin( anti!assive verbs -ith -van are also ver3 use"ul "or resolvin( the !otential ambi(uit3 o" transitive sentences9 9yut li $un e. +uch'u i'utvan2 +i ja' i'utvan li $un e/ mi ja' iyich' 'utel2 John scolded him9 *r$ Someone scolded John9 +ho did he scoldF +as it John -ho did the scoldin( or -as it John -ho

-as scoldedF %a' i'utvan li $un e> ja' i'utat li It -as John -ho did the skrem e. scoldin(5 his son -as scolded9

#here are also -van verbs based on transitive verbs -hose ordinar3 meanin( does not involve human ob0ects9 #he meanin( o" the derived verb de!ends u!on s!ecial customs or belie"s9 ;olel i'ich'van tajmek li 'abtel #he -or: (a reli(ious dut3) e. 0ust "inished (someone;s) resources9 -'ich'% 6to receive6 (& reli(ious car(o re<uires e traordinar3 e !enses "or a =inacanteco9) -h'uch'van ta mukul li krem 'une. #he bo3 !romised in secret (to (ive his sister;s hand in marria(e)9 -'uch'% 6to drin:% to ta:e6 #he verb 'uch'van- means 6to !romise one;s hand in marria(e (to someone)6 b3 acce!tin( and drin:in( a (i"t o" li<uor44literall3$ 6to drin: to someone96 So "ar -e have seen various :ind o" verbs (or sentences)$ ?9 Intransitive (,eutral$ Sub0ect M Patient)

9cham li mut e. 9k'ot li 'ikatzil e.

#he bird died9 #he load arrived9

29 Intransitive (&ctive$ Sub0ect M &(ent) 9'abtej li $un e. John -or:ed9 -hanav (D ta 6 x 6 xanav) li #he horse -al:s9 ka' e. J9 #ransitive 9jmaj li 'ixim e. -hisk'opon li $un e. I hus:ed the corn9 John s!o:e to me9

K9 7iddle4voice (Sub0ect M Patient% no &(ent) 9mak li na e. #he door closed9 9vok' li nen e. #he -indobro:e9 B9 Dative 3iyalbe k'usi sbi. He (ave me his name9 -hakak'be vo'. I -ill (ive 3ou -ater9 #he di""erent !assive% anti!assive% etc9 constructions come "rom transitive sentences b3 means o" various !rocesses o" derivation and trans"ormation9 Celo- -e -ill anal3ze transitive constructions (-ith ob0ects and a(entive sub0ects) based on intransitive sentences9 9meltzaj li karo e. 9jmeltzan li karo e. #he car -as "i ed9 I "i ed the car9 meltzaj- 6to be "i ed6 -meltzan% 6to "i 6 I mana(ed to "i the car9 Rou are (oin( to die9 John is (oin( to :ill 3ou9 John is ca!able o" :illin( 3ou9 #he atole -ill not run out9 Rou aren;t (oin( to "inish o"" the atole9 Rou can;t "inish the atole9

nen% 6(lass6

vok'% 6to brea:% to bust6

9meltzaj ku'un li karo e. -hacham. -hasmil li $un e. -hacham yu'un li $un e. +u xlaj li 'ul e. +u xalajes li 'ul e. +u xlaj avu'un li 'ul e.

& verb that is neutral or in middle4voice% combined -ith an a(ent re!resented b3 -u'un !lus a 6!ossessive6 !re"i % denotes !ossibilit3 or ca!acit39 #he lo(ical ob0ect remains as the (rammatical sub0ect o" the verb (-hich is su!er"iciall3 intransitive)9 #he entire construction is related to other causative constructions9 #he a(ent can be <uestioned or "ronted9 +i chk'ot yu'un +aruch li si'e2 Is 7ar3 ca!able o" carr3in( Toj 'ol. 4uch'u chk'ot yu'un li si' e2 ' li +aruch e/ chk'ot yu'un li si' e. the "ire-oodF It;s !rett3 heav39 +ho is ca!able o" carr3in( the "ire-oodF 7ar3% she can carr3 the "ire-ood9

#ransitive verbs that carr3 causative su""i es ("or e am!le% the su""i -es) lose them in this construction -ith -u'un9 +u xa bu jmuk'ibtas li jna e. I am not (oin( to add on to m3

house9 +u xa xmuk'ib ku'un li jna e. I can;t add on to m3 house9 +i ch'ach'ubtas skaro2 Is he (oin( to "i u! his carF +i ch'ach'ub yu'un li skaro e2 Is he ca!able o" "i in( u! his 9sva'an na li jva'anejna. ' li na e/ iva'i yu'un li jva'anejna e. carF #he mason built his house9 #he mason mana(ed to build his house9 j-va'an-ej-na% 6mason (house4 builder)6 7an3 e !ressions use this construction9 +u xkuch ku'un li 'abtel e. I can;t bear the -or:9 ('iterall3$ I can;t carr3 the +i xu' avu'un xanbal2 -or:9) .an 3ou -al:F .an 3ou endure the tri!F yu'-% 6be able to% to be held6 #his construction is not used -ith verbs o" the second t3!e44that is% -ith (active) intransitive verbs9 #hese verbs do not have a causative "orm% because the sub0ect o" an

active verb is the a(ent and not (or not onl3) the !atient o" the action9 *n the other hand% in this 6!otential6 construction -ith -u'un% the (rammatical sub0ect o" the verb (-hich is su!er"iciall3 intransitive) should be the lo(ical !atient o" the action9 #hus% the "irst sentence o" the second !air is !ermissible% but the second is not$ +u x'ok' ku'un li 'ama e. ,,,+u x'ok' ku'un li 'unen e. I can;t ma:e the "lute sound9 I can;t ma:e the child cr39 ok'- 6to cr3% to ma:e noise6

#his construction does not communicate onl3 !ossibilit3 or ca!acit35 it also !ermits a di""erence o" !ers!ective9 & transitive sentence% such as the "ollo-in(% !resents the a(ent as active and res!onsible "or his action9 +u jman li chenek' e. I don;t -ant to bu3 beans9

*n the other hand% a sentence -ith the construction in -u'un re!resents the sub0ect as i"% in some sense% it -ere not active and res!onsible44or at least e""ective44in the situation denoted9 Toj toyol li chenek' e> mu xman ku'un. Ceans are ver3 e !ensive5 I can;t bu3 them9

Here% the (rammatical structure su((ests that due to a characteristic o" the beans% I can;t bu3 them9 (.om!are the En(lish e !ression% 6#hese beans -on;t sell96) &lso% it is !ossible to com!letel3 trans"orm the ordinar3 transitivit3 o" a verb li:e -man 6to bu396 +hen used transitivel3% this verb has the !erson -ho !urchases somethin( as its sub0ect% and the thin( !urchased as its ob0ect9 +hen used -ith the -u'un construction% the a(ent is re!resented (b3 means o" a !hrase -ith-u'un) as an indirect !artici!ant in the !urchase o" somethin(9 Cut it is !ossible to trans"orm the verb -man into a middle4voice stem% -here the (rammatical sub0ect (a !osition ordinaril3 reserved "or the lo(ical !atient o" the verb) is the !erson -ho ma:es the !urchase and the a(ent (introduced b3 the !article 'o) corres!onds to -hat is !urchased9 ' li chenek' e/ toj toyol> mu ximanotik 'o. Ceans are ver3 e !ensive5 -e can;t bu3 them9 ('iterall3$ +e don;t bu3 ourselves -ith them9)

(#he su""i -otik is the absolutive "orm o" the "irst !erson !lural inclusive9 #he "orm chi-man-otik is su!er"iciall3 intransitive5 the !re"i -i- !lus the su""i -otik means that the (rammatical sub0ect o" the e !ression is the !ronoun vo'otik 6all o" us96 See Section @9?9) #he last e am!le re!resents a com!lete inversion o" the ordinar3 situation% to achieve a chan(e o" !ers!ective% "ocusin( on the characteristics o" the beans and the resultin( inca!acit3 im!osed on the !eo!le -ho -ant to bu3 beans9

3.10 T#e 6Fa"ored6 T:ot:il 2onstruction

+e have seen that #zotzil ma:es (ood use o" (rammatical !ossession9 Possessive !re"i es can indicate a -ide variet3 o" relations bet-een the 6!ossessed6 noun and the 6!ossessor%6 but the s3ntactic "orm remains the same9 Possessive Pre"i L ,oun ? Possessor 2

+e can revie- a "e- uses o" this !ossessive construction$ ?) *rdinar3 Possession$ sna li $un e jka' 2) Inalienable Possession ak'ob 3our hand sjol li na e the 6head6 o" the house (in other -ords$ the roo") J) Cene"active Posession yalak'il chobtik the chic:ens that eat the corn yichil li kalto the chile that is in the broth 'ich% 6chile6 K) 6&ttributive6 Posession yach'il jpixol yepal vinik B) 1erbal Possession the ne-ness o" m3 hat the (rou! o" men John;s house m3 horse

ayulel slikel li k'op e smajel li 'ixim e smanbel pox li 'unen e

3our arrival the be(innin( o" the dis!ute the hus:in( o" the corn the !urchase o" medicine "or the child

In each e am!le% the relationshi! bet-een !ossessor and !ossessed is di""erent9 #zotzil a!!ears to !re"er sentences and constructions -hich !ermit a !ossessed noun to be "ollo-ed b3 its (rammatical !ossessor% and also e !loit the relationshi! bet-een the t-o9 Such a !attern or 6!re"erence6 is called an ob0ective in other lin(uistic realms% in other -ords% a !attern that a lan(ua(e;s (rammar tries to "ollo-9 #his !attern is made obvious in -hat I call the 6"avored6 construction o" #zotzil9 Ta xkik' li tzeb e. I am (oin( to marr3 the (irl9 -ik'% 6to ta:e% to carr3 (!eo!le)% to call6 I am (oin( to marr3 the dau(hter o" Ci( John9 I am (oin( to marr3 3our dau(hter9 I am (oin( to bu3 corn9 I am (oin( to bu3 the bo3;s corn9 I am (oin( to bu3 3our corn (that is% "or or "rom 3ou9) #hese dative sentences% -ith the su""i -be% treat !ossessors o" the direct ob0ect as indirect ob0ects (as dative constituents)9 ,ote that the -ord order is correct "rom t-o !oints o" vie-$ the structure o" dative sentences and the structure o" !ossessive !hrases9 -hkak'be ? 1erb I -ill (ive corn to Ci( John9 I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he En(lish translation o" this t3!e o" sentence does not ade<uatel3 conve3 the com!lete meanin( in #zotzil9 'ixim 2 *b0ect li mol $un e J Dative

Ta xkik'be stzeb li mol $un e. -hakik'be latzeb e. Ta jman li 'ixim e. Ta jmanbe yixim li krem e. -hajmanbe avixim.

Ta jsa'be yav li karo e. 3isk'anbe jtak'in.

I am (oin( to "ind a !lace "or m3 car9 He -anted me m3 mone39

#he (rammar su((ests that -hat ha!!ens to m3 !ossessions also ha!!ens to me9 I have called this construction 6the "avored construction6 because #zotziles seem to use dative sentences o" this t3!e ever3 time that the ob0ect o" a transitive verb is !ossesed% and also -hen the indirect ob0ect (dative) cannot be inter!reted as the !ossessor o" a direct ob0ect9 #hus% it is !re"erable to sa3$ 3ixch'aybe jtak'in li $un e. and not sim!l3$ 9xch'ay jtak'in li $un e. John lost m3 mone39 John lost me m3 mone39

&lso it is common "or !eo!le to sa3$ 9jmanbe yixim li $un e. rather than$ 9jmanbe 'ixim li $un e. I bou(ht John corn9 I bou(ht John his corn9

& sentence such as 9jmanbe yixim means somethin( li:e$ 6I bou(ht him corn so that it -ould be his96 *r better said$ 6I bou(ht him his corn96 In an3 case% =inacantecos sho- a notable !re"erence "or the indirect ob0ect to be the !osessor o" the direct ob0ect in dative sentences9 I" the direct ob0ect o" a transitive verb is a com!le !ossessed noun% in other -ords% a se<uence o" !ossessors% then the last !ossessor is available as the dative constituent9 st'ul li krem e st'ul akrem (li vo'ot e) the bo3;s rabbit 3our bo3;s rabbit

Ta jmil li t'ul e. I am (oin( to :ill the rabbit9 Ta jmilbe st'ul li krem e. I am (oin( to :ill the bo3;s rabbit9 Ta jmilbe st'ul lakrem e.

-hajmilbe st'ul lakrem e.

I am (oin( to :ill 3our bo3;s rabbit9

(It is !ossible% but uncommon% "or someone to sa3$ Ta jmil st'ul lakrem e. I am (oin( to :ill 3our bo3;s rabbit9 #hese e am!les su((est a structure o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE ' li $un e/ ismil st'ul li jkrem e. *ne o" these !ossessors is elevated to the !osition o" indirect ob0ect% (eneratin( the dative su""i -be and an absolutive a""i on the verb9 #hus% the "avored construction comes "rom the "ollo-in( "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE or "rom the "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE ,ote that these sentences contrast -ith another sentence that is trul3 ditransitive% -ith a le(itimate indirect ob0ect9 #hus% it is !ossible to sa3$ ' li $un e/ iyak'be jtob pexu li John (ave t-ent3 !esos to m3 jkrem e. Cut it is not !ossible to sa3$ ,,,' li $un e/ liyak'be jtob pexu li jkrem e. #he sentence above has the "ollo-in( "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE Since there is alread3 a dative constituent in this structure% it is not !ossible to elevate the !osessor to the dative !osition9 son9 John :illed m3 son;s rabbit9

#he 6"avored6 construction mana(es to maintain the !ossessed noun in its correct order (,oun L Possessor)9 &t the same time% this construction "ills all the constituents o" the sentenence% dividin( the !ossessed noun and the !ossessor bet-een t-o di""erent "unctions9 In a sentence li:e the "ollo-in($ 9smilbe st'ul li krem e. He :illed the bo3;s rabbit9

the !hrase st'ul li kreme has the "orm o" a !ossessed noun% -hich means 6the bo3;s rabbit96 Cut st'ul is the direct ob0ect o" the verb% and li kreme is the su!er"icial indirect ob0ect9 #he use o" the verb -ak' 6to (ive6 -ith an ob0ect to(ether -ith an entire sentence illustrates a similar !rocess9 ' li $un e/ liyak'be kil li ch'ivit John sho-ed me the mar:et9 e. ('iterall3$ John (ave me that I see the mar:et9) #his sentence a!!ears to have the "ollo-in( lo(ical structure$ John (ave$ I sa- the mar:et9 -ith t-o constituent sentences$ ' li $une/ iyak'# ikil li ch'ivit e (vo'on) #his is sho-n dia(ramaticall3 belo-$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE IFrom this structure the sub0ect o" the subordinate sentence (vo'on% 6I6) is elevated to the !osition o" dative constituent in the su!erordinate sentence% resultin( in the mar:in( o" the dative su""i -be and the absolutive !re"i -i- on the verb9 I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE & similar anal3sis e !lains sentences li:e the "ollo-in($ -hakalbe ava'i. I am (oin( to tell 3ou (so that

3ou understand)9 #he ditransitive "orms o" these sentences are other s3m!toms o" #zotzil;s s3ntactic ob0ective9 #he3 are instances o" the 6"avored6 construction% "orms that are !re"erred% thou(h not obli(ator39 -hkal ava'i. -hakalbe ava'i. -hkak' avil. -hakak'be avil.

I am (oin( to sa3 it to 3ou9 I am (oin( to sho- it to 3ou9

#here are also sentences -ith <uasi4sub0unctive ob0ects that sho- the same !attern9 -hajmanbe bek'et ati'. +anbon junuk kilo jti' che'e. I am (oin( to bu3 3ou meat so 3ou can eat it9 Cu3 me a :ilo "or me to eat9

In these e am!les there are t-o constituents$ a sentence o" the "orm Ta jman bek'et. I -ill bu3 meat9

and another sentence% -hich modi"ies the noun bek'et 6meat%6 o" the "orm$ -hati' li bek'et e. #hus% -e have$ Ta jman bek'et (so that) chati' bek'et. -hich !roduces the "orm$ Ta jman bek'et (---) (ch)ati' (---). omittin( the second bek'et9 In dia(ram "orm% this sentence -ould be re!resented as "ollo-s$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he subordinate sentence contracts% omittin( the ob0ect bek'et since it is identical to the ob0ect o" the su!erordinate sentence9 #hus% the "ollo-in( "orm is obtained$ Rou eat the meat99

I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE In this situation it is !ossible to "orm the 6"avored6 construction b3 elevatin( the sub0ect o" the subordinate sentence to dative !osition in the su!erordinate sentence9 I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE I" the ob0ect o" a transitive verb is a 6!ossession6 o" the verb;s sub0ect% a transitive sentence that ad0ust to the ordinar3 structure mana(es to accom!lish the 6ob0ective6 o" the lin(uistic structure9 It maintains the !ossessed noun and the !ossessor in the correct order9 9smaj sbankil li $un e. 9jchon jna (li vo'on e). Tzk'opon sbol li krem e. sbankil li $un e jna (vo'on) sbol li krem e John his his (o-n) brother9 I sold m3 (o-n) house9 #he bo3 is tal:in( to his brother4in4la-9 John;s brother m3 house the bo3;s brother4in4la-

Ho-ever% i" the a(ent o" the verb is !ossessed b3 the ob0ect o" the same verb% the ordinar3 structure o" the sentence contradicts the structure o" (that is% the -ord order in) the !ossessed !hrase9 For e am!le% in order to sa3 6John :illed his -i"e%6 -e can use the re(ular -ord order9 yajnil li $un e 9smil yajnil li $un e. John;s -i"e John :illed his -i"e9

Cut% in order to sa3 6John;s -i"e :illed him%6 -e cannot use a sentence o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ ,,,9smil $un li yajnil e. #his sentence is% at the ver3 least% con"usin($ it a!!ears to con"use the relation bet-een John and his -i"e9 &lso% it obscure -ho does the :illin( and -ho is :illed9GJH &"ter reor(anizin( this sentence to maintain the correct order "or the !ossessed noun in relation to its !ossessor% it is necessar3 to use a !assive "orm9

yajnil li $un e 9mile yu'un yajnil li $un e.

John;s -i"e John -as :illed b3 his (o-n) -i"e9 (*r$ Someone -as :illed b3 John;s -i"e9)

&lso% in order to sa3 6John;s -i"e :illed John;s son6 -e have to "i the -ord order in order to establish the !ossessive relation% as -ell as the the relation bet-een a(ent and !atient9 9milbat skrem li $un e. John;s son -as :illed9 ' li $un e/ imilbat skrem yu'un John -as :illed b3 his "riend9 yamiko. Here -e "ind the 6"avored6 construction in a !assive "orm9 #he "rontin( o" li $un e and the ordinar3 !resum!tion o" (rammatical structure su((est the inter!retation that John is the 6!ossessor6 o" the dead son as -ell as the "riend -ho is the :iller9 #he 6anti4!assive6 -ith the su""i -on is also used in constructions o" this t3!e9 Remember that the transitive sentence is the !er"ect vehicle "or a !ro!osition li:e the "ollo-in($ 9smil yajnil li $un e. John :illed his -i"e9GKH

In this sentence% the ob0ect is the 6!ossession6 o" the sub0ect9 #o e !ress the converse situation re<uires a chan(e o" the verb in order to s!eci"3 an action done b3 the one !ossessed to the !ossessor9 9mile yu'un yajnil li $un e. John -as :illed b3 his -i"e9 #he "ollo-in( sentences (all anti4!assive) have the same meanin($ a9 9milon yajnil li $un e. John;s -i"e :illed him9 b9 1ajnil imilon li $un e. It -as his -i"e that :illed John9 c9 ' li $un e/ imilon yajnil. John;s -i"e :illed him9 In these sentences it is the verb;s "orm (i9e9% anti!assive -ith -on) and not -ord order that determines meanin(9 #he !ossessive !re"i combined -ith -ajnil sho-s that it is bein( treated as a !ossessed noun$ yajnil li $un e9 &nd it is this noun that acts as sub0ect o" the anti4!assive verb9 (,ote that e am!le (c) is a variation u!on sentence (a)% the onl3 di""erence bein( that it has the last constituent "ronted9) Sentence (b) is the anti4!assive

"orm -ith the sub0ect in initial !osition% -ithout a !ause% and -ith an ob0ect a"ter the verb9 #hese are com!le ities I still do not understand ver3 -ell9

3.11 Pseudo75er.s
+e alread3 :no- about the -ord -chi'uk 6-ith6 in sentences li:e the "ollo-in($ 3ibat ta %obel jchi'uk kamiko. I -ent to San .ristZbal -ith +uch'u cha'abtej achi'uk2 m3 "riend9 +ho are 3ou (oin( to -or: -ithF *ne can see that the -ord -chi'uk (-hich is obviousl3 related to the verb -chi'un 6to accom!an36) has a (rammatical !ossessor9 It also a!!ears to have an 6ob0ect6 (the !erson or thin( that accom!anies the !ossessor o" -chi'uk)9 #his is -h3 -chi'uk% -hich does not combine -ith verbal !re"i es o" tense and as!ect% nevertheless has certain verbal characteristics% -hich can be seen in the "ollo-in( sentences$ %a' jchi'uk li $un e. %a' jchi'ukot. %a' achi'ukon tal. I am -ith John9 I am -ith 3ou9 Rou -ere -ith me (-hen 3ou came)9 #he -ord -chi'uk combines -ith 6a(ent6 and 6!atient6 and also -ith a directional verb9 It is also !ossible to add the dative su""i -be to -chi'uk% -ith the e !ected meanin(9 %a' jchi'ukbe sbol li $un e. %a' jchi'uk-b-ot lakreme. I -as -ith John;s brother4in4 la-9 I am -ith 3our son9

#he -ord -chi'uk in the sense o" 6-ith6 is similar to a transitive verb that does not ta:e verbal a""i es o" tense or as!ect9 --hi'uk is also used (as a t3!e o" !re!osition) to indicate the ob0ect or lo(ical a(ent o" an intransitive verb9 In this usa(e% -chi'uk does not acce!t absolutive a""i es% onl3 !ossessive !re"i es9 8o'ot ta xi' 'o li 'unen e. Ta xi' xchi'uk vo'ot li 'unen e. #he bo3 is a"raid o" 3ou9 -haxi' ta bolom li vo'ot e. -haxi' achi'uk bolom li vo'ot e. Rou -ere scared o" the ti(er9

-hinupun jchi'uk stzeb li mol $un e.

I am (oin( to (et married to the son o" old man John9 nupun- 6to (et married6

(intransitive) 9ssa' k'op xchi'uk li slak'-na e. He loo:ed "or dis!ute -ith his nei(hbor9 -lak'-na% 6nei(hbor6 #he last e am!le illustrates the use o" -chi'uk to introduce a nominal constituent (-hich is not an indirect or dative ob0ect) to a sentence that alread3 has a (rammatical ob0ect9 #he relational noun -u'un also has verbal characteristics9 'au(hlin (?@AB$A?) (ives the "ollo-in( e am!le$ 9lok' ku'unbe komel yot. I mana(ed to ma:e his tortillas9 Here the construction -ith -u'un% -hich e !resses !osibilit3% combines -ith a directional verb (komel% 6remainin(6) and -ith the dative su""i -be9 *ne can also sa3$ 9meltzaj yu'unbot ana li j'alvanil. #he mason mana(ed to ma:e 3our house9

In these e am!les% -e can see datives sentences that have been trans"ormed into the middle4voice "orm b3 means o" -u'un9 Cut the dative su""i is retained% althou(h it is im!ossible "or them to combine -ith the verb% -hich is intransitive9 9jlok'esbe yot. 9lok' ku'un li yot e. I too: (in other -ords$ made) his tortillas9 I mana(ed to ma:e his tortillas9 9Ori'inal mi%%in' %omethin' hereA; +ith the "avored construction% this sentence ac<uires the "ollo-in( "orm$ 9lok' ku'unbe yot. #he other e am!le has a similar ori(in$

' li j'alvanil e/ ismeltzan lana #he mason made 3our house9 e. 3asmeltzanbe lana e. ("avored !e ma&e you your house. transitive construction) ' lana e/ imeltzaj yu'un #he mason mana(ed to ma:e

j'alvanil. (middle4voice "orm) 3our house9 9meltzaj yu'unbot lana e. #he same relation holds bet-een the t-o "ollo-in( sentences$ -hakuchbon kikatz. -hkuch avu'unbon kikatz. Rou carr3 m3 load9 Rou can carr3 m3 load9

#he su""i -bil creates "rom a transitive verb (-ith or -ithout the dative su""i -be) the 6stative6 !assive "orm$ ;k'elojon sjunul k'ak'al. :'elbilon sjunul k'ak'al. ;majojbon jkrem. +ajbilon jkrem. #he3 have -atched me all da39 I have been -atch at all da39 #he3 have hit m3 child9 73 child has been hit9

#he su""i -bil also a!!ears -ith other -ords that are not transitive verbs9 &n e am!le% some-hat rare% is the intransitive verb xi'- 6to be a"raid96 +e have alread3 seen ho- an instrument or a(ent is e !ressed -ith this verb9 3ixi' ta vo'. +u xixi' 'o li vo'ot e. I -as "ri(htened b3 the -ater9 I;m not "ri(htened b3 3ou9

Cut the verb also has a ver3 s!ecialized transitive use -ith the su""i -be% -hich can be seen in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ :'u yu'un chixi'2 +u k'usi chajxi'be. 9jatav li jmakbe 'une> ja' laxi'be lamachita e. +h3 -ould I be a"raidF Rou don;t have an3thin( I should be a"raid o"F #he cuttthroat "led% because 3our machete scared him9

(Here the "orm chaxi'be can be anal3zed as ch-a-x-xi'-be9) +i chaxi'bon li jpistola li'e2 &re 3ou a"raid o" this !istol

hereF #here is also the "orm xi'bil 6"ri(henin(%6 an anomalous "orm -ith an intransitive verb9 $i'bilon tajmek. ;olel xi'em ku'un skotol krixchano. I am "ri(htenin(9 Ever3one is a"raid o" me9

+e -ill end this com!le section -ith a !seudo4verbal e !ression that utilizes the -ord 'o'on-il 6heart6 as the basis "or a variet3 o" idiomatic e !ressions9 3ek yo'on. %un yo'on. 4ik'it yo'on. :'un yo'on. Tzotz yo'on. 9laj yo'on. 9ch'ay yo'on.

He is ha!!39 He is thin:4s:inned9 (*r$ He is co-ardl39) He is co-ardl39 He is stoic9 He "or(ave9 ('iterall3$ His heart "inished9) He is distracted9

#here is also the e !ression k'ak'al 'o'on-il 6an(er% env36 (literall3$ 6heat o" the heart6)9 #he com!ound "unctions as a com!le !ossessed noun% -ith !ossessive !re"i es9 9yak' sk'ak'al ko'on. Ta stz'ik sk'ak'al yo'on. It an(ered me9 ('iterall3$ It (ave me a hot heart9) He endured his an(er9

#he "irst element o" the combine also combines -ith absolutive su""i es in order to "orm stative sentences9 Rou are ver3 an(r3 -ith me ;k'ak'alon avo'on tajmek/ pero (literall3$ I am the heat o" 3our k'usi jmul2 heart)% but -hat "ault o" mine is thatF 1u'nan sk'ak'alot yo'on/ ja' mu Perha!s he is an(r3 -ith 3ou% xask'opon. because he isn;t tal:in( to 3ou9

Cut there a!!ears to be a verbal "orm -ith the su""i -bil% -hich means 6to be envied% to be the ob0ect o" an(er96

:'ak'al-'o'onbilon tajmek/ muk' Peo!le are an(r3 -ith me% much'u chisk'opon. :'ak'al-'o'onbil ti jk'ulej e. because no one -ill tal: to me9 He is envied because he is rich9 It seems li:el3 to me that this "orm -ith -bil derives "rom a verb -k'ak'al-'o'onin (-in bein( the usitative su""i ) -ith the h3!othetical meanin( such as$ 6to consider to be the cause o" an(er% to be an(r3 because o"% to env396 *ne also sa3s$ :'ak'al-'o'oninbilon/ kapanbilon. #he3 env3 me5 the3 are an(r3 -ithme9 kap-% 6to be an(r36 -kapan% 6to an(er6

Chapter ine: CompleE Form%

+e have alread3 seen all the basic -ord classes in #zotzil9 Ever3 sentence has a !redicate (-hich is either stative or verbal) -ith absolutive a""i es that cross4inde a noun$ the sub0ect9 #ransitive and ditransitive sentences also have nouns that en(ender er(ative !re"i es on the verb% as -ell as other o!tional constituents$ o" time% !lace% manner% mode% etc9 In this cha!ter -e -ill consider a "e- more s!ecialized "orms o" #zotzil !redicates9

8.1 T#e Plural

#zotzil is not es!eciall3 "uss3 -hen it comes to !luralit39 7an3 !hrases -ithout an3 si(n o" !luralit3 can communicate a !lural meanin(9 .htal Ee! vini:9 7an3 !eo!le are comin(9

.hib !e u i0to09 E&li mol e% Eo3 s:aE9

I !aid t-o !esos9 #he old man has a horseNhorses9

#zotzil avoids the use o" !lural "orms i" the !lural meanin( can be derived "rom conte t9 &lso% even -hen the !lural su""i a!!ears% it is <uite common "or it to a!!ear onl3 once in a sentence9 .hbat ta snai:9 #he3 are (oin( to their houses9

7i chaman aloEboli:F &re 3ou (oin( to bu3 "ruitsF Here the !lural su""i 4i: onl3 a!!ears -ith the !ossessed nouns$ s4na4i: 6their houses6 and a4loEbol4i: 63our "ruits96 Cut the verbs% re(ardless o" their transitivit3 or intransitivit3% do not have !lural su""i es% althou(h the3 clearl3 have !lural meanin(s9 #his is the most common !attern$ the !lural su""i combines -ith the !ossessed noun in order to indicate the !luralit3 o" the !ossessor and to avoid havin( a !lural su""i on the verb9 7i chabati:F 7i chabat ta anai:F &re 3ou (oin(F &re 3ou (u3s (oin( to 3our housesF

It is im!ortant to note that in these e am!les that it is the !luralit3 o" the verb;s sub0ect (and o" the noun;s !ossessor)% and not the !luralit3 o" the noun itsel"% that is bein( e !ressed9 #he3 are (oin( P'/R&' .hbat P'/R&' to their houses9 P'/R&' ta snai:9

Here% the noun;s !ossessor 6house6 is !lural$ thus% the -ord snai: can mean 6their house6 or 6their houses96 &ccordin( to conte t% the meanin( can be "airl3 ambi(uous9 7i ta :aro italF Ital ta 3o:i:9 Catz;i 0:;ule0 li mol Uun chiEu: s:rem9 JaE Eo3 s:aEi:9 Did the3 (o b3 carF #he3 -ent b3 "oot9 John and his son are ver3 rich9 #he3 have a horseNhorses9

In the last e am!le% the noun s:aEi: 6their horse (or$ horses)6 determines the !lural "orm o" the verb;s En(lish translation$ #he3 have a horse9 ('iterall3$ #heir horse e ists9) #he !lural "orms o" the second and third !erson% -ith transitive verbs and -ith !ossessed nouns% em!lo3 the su""i 4i:9 Rou are (oin( to 3our house(s)9 #he3 are (oin( to hisNtheir house(s)9 Rou (u3s are (on( to bu3 meat9 #he3 are (on( to bu3 meat9 Did 3ou (u3s come b3 "ootF Did the3 come b3 "ootF

.hbat ta anai:9 .hbat ta snai:9 .hamani: be:;et9 #a smani: be:;et9 7i latal ta avo:i:F 7i ital ta 3o:i:F

#zotzil distin(uishes bet-een t-o "orms o" the "irst !erson !lural$ the 6inclusive%6 -hich includes both the !erson -ho is s!ea:in( and the !erson -ho is listenin( (63ou and I6) and the 6e clusive%6 -hich includes the s!ea:er and another !erson% but e cludes the listener9 Inclusive$ 7i Eo3 0ta:;inti:F .h;abal 0ta:;inti:9 Pero Eo3 0:aEti:9 7i ta 0manti: be:;et9 7u uE 0manti: be:;et% 3uEun ch;abal 0ta:;inti:9 Do -e have mone3F +e have none9 Cut -e have a horseNhorses9 +ill -e bu3 meatF +e can;t bu3 meat because -e don;t have mone39

#he er(ative and !ossessive su""i o" the inclusive !lural "orm is 4ti:9 #he e clusive !lural "orm is redu!licated$ 4ti:Wti:9 (,ote the accent9) E clusive$ 7i Eo3 ata:;ini:F .h;abal 0ta:;intiWti:9 7i chava:;bon ata:;in voEot9 7i chamani: be:;etF Rou 3ou (u3s have mone3F +e have none9 Rou don;t -ant to (ive me 3our mone3F &re 3ou (u3s (oin( to bu3

7u:; bu 0manti:Wti: be:;et5 mano voEot9 7i avuch;i: !o F I:uch;ti:Wti: cheEe9 I:uch;ti: ta 0:olti:9

meatF +e are not (oni( to bu3 mean5 3ou bu3 it9 Did 3ou (u3s drin: su(arcane li<uorF +ell% 3es -e did9 'et;s drin: (3ou included)9

#he !lural "orms o" :otol 6all6 are more common than the sin(ular "orms9 0:otolti: 0:otolti:Wti: a:otoli: s:otoli: all o" us (-ith 3ou) all o" us (-ithout 3ou) all o" 3ou all o" them

+e can list the er(ative and !ossessive a""i es in a tabular "orm% as belo-9 S!ea:er 3es 3es 3es no no no no Hearer no no 3es 3es 3es no no Plural no 3es 3es no 3es no 3es Pre"i 04 N :4 04 N :4 04 N :4 a4 N av4 a4 N av4 s4 N 34 s4 N 34 Su""i I 4ti:Wti: 4ti: 3ou 4i: he N she 4i: #ranslation someone else and I (but not 3ou) 3ou and I (and !erha!s others) 3ou (u3s the3

*ther dialects o" #zotzil sho- the same distinctions% althou(h each dialect has various variations% !rimaril3 in the 6e clusive6 "irst !erson !lural9 For e am!le% someone "rom =inacantan mi(h sa3$ 0nati: 0nati:Wti: 6our house6 (inclusive) 6our house (not 3ours)6 (e clusive)

-hereas someone "rom .hamula -ould sa3$ 0nati: 0na:uti: 6our house6 (inclusive) 6our house6 (e clusive)

#he absolutive a""i es maintain the same !erson and number distinctions nevertheless9 E&li Uune chiEu: 3a0nil% mi Ei!i:F EI!i: cheEe9 EI! s:otoli:9 7i tzotz avoEoni:% mi iEemo u:F 7i liEot eF 'iEon e9 7i liEo u: eF 'iEoti:Wti: e9 .h;abal 0ta:;inti:% ch;abal :osilti:% solel !obreoti:% meEonoti: ta 0:otolti:9 7i Eantzoti: mi vini:oti:F

&re John and his -i"e sic:F Res% the3 are9 #he3 are all sic:9 &re 3our hearts stron( or are 3ou a"raidF &re 3ou hereF I am here9 &re 3ou (u3s hereF +e (e cl9) are here9 +e don;t have mone3% -e don;t have land9 +e are !oor% -e are all or!hans (inclusive)9 &re -e men or -omenF

Intransitive verbs re<uire nominal !re"i es and su""i es in order to indicate !luralit39 E&li Uun e% chiEu: 3a0nil% mi chtali: aF Ja3ib Eora chi:o:;oti: Eo:;obF

&re John and his -i"e comin(F &t -hat time are -e leavin(

tomorro-F .hilo:;oti: ta chib Eora chiEu: EolEol9 +e are leavin( at t-o thirt39 Cu laEa3i: vol0eF +e -ere 3ou (u3s 3esterda3F 'iEa3ti:oti: ta :;in9 +e -ent to a !art3 (e clusive)9 T;usi a!asi: ta :;inF +hat did 3ou (u3s do at the !art3F 'iEa:;ota0oti:oti:9 +e (e cl9) danced9 Ea:;ota0%6dance6 +e can summarize the absolutive a""i es in the "ollo-in( tabular "orm$ S!ea:er 3es 3es 3es no no no Hearer no no 3es 3es 3es no Plural no 3es 3es no 3es no Su""i 4on 4oti:Wti: 4oti: 4ot 4o u: 4b Pre"i 4Su""i i4 i4 4oti:Wti: i4 4oti: a4 a4 4o u: b4 #ranslation I someone else and I (but not 3ou) 3ou and I (and !erha!s others) 3ou 3ou (u3s





b4 4i:


.ombin( er(ative !lural a""i es -ith absolutive !lural a""i es !roduces ver3 com!le "orms9 Sur"ace constrainsts restrict the occurence o" !lural su""i es9 For e am!le% the se<uence i:i: is im!ossible% resultin( in ambi(uous verbs9 I am (oin( to see 3ou (u3s9 Rou (u3s are (oin( to see me9 Rou (u3s are (oin( to see them9 *r$ Rou (u3s are #he3 hit me9 I hit them9 +e (e cl9) hit them9 +e are (oin( to hit 3ou (sin(9 or !l9) #he3 are (oin( to hit 3ou9 He is (oin( to hit 3ou (u3s9 #he3 are (oin( to hit 3ou (u3s9 HeNsheNthe3 isNare comin( to see 3ou (u3s9 HeNshe came to tal: -ith us9 HeNshe came to (ive 3ou (u3s 3our mone39 #he3 came to (ive 3ou (u3s 3our mone39 HeNthe3 told us (e cl9) a -ord9 (oin( to see them9

.ha:ili:9 .havili:on9

.havili:9 'isma0i:9 I0ma0(i:)9 I0ma0ti:oti:9 .ha0ma0ti:oti:9 .hasma0i:9

.htal s:;elo u:9 E& s:;o!onoti:9 #al 3a:;bo u: ata:;ini:9

'i3alboti:oti: 0!;elu: :;o!9

#he !revious "orms% as -ell as man3 others% do e ist and do occur in everda3 s!eech9 Cut in (eneral it is !ossible to avoid the e !licit use o" so man3 !lural a""i es% that is% i" the conte t !revents ambi(uit3 or con"usion9

7i uE ibatoti:oti: ta sna li Uun eF UuE abati: li voEo u: aEa% !ero chasma0i:9 #imi chabat ta :;in li voEot e% Ee! nan chanu! 03a:ubel9 .hasma0i: nan9

.an -e (e cl9) (o to John;s houseF Indeed% 3ou can (o% but he -ill hit 3ou (!l9)9 I" 3ou (o to the !art3% 3ou ma3 run into man3 drun:s9 Perha!s the3 -ill hit 3ou9

#he verb chasma0i:% in these e am!les% has t-o meanin(s% accordin( to the sub0ects and com!lements9 GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he "orm -ith t-o e !licit !lural su""i es% OOOchasma0i:i:% does not e ist9 *ne sees that !ersonal 6!ronouns6 are strictl3 related to the absolutive su""i es9 #he "orms are$ voEon voEot voEoti: voEoti:Wti: voEo u: I 3ou -e (3ou and I) -e (not 3ou) 3ou (u3s

(#hird !erson "orms do not e ist9) #he "ollo-in( dia(ram describres the !ronominal s3stem9 GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he onl3 distinction that is not e !ressed in the !ronominal s3stem is the -ea: contrast bet-een the sin(ular and the !lural o" the third !erson$ that is to sa3% bet-een sin(ular and !lural nouns9 Ja3ib Eora chabati: li voEo u: &t -hat time are 3ou (u3s eF 1oEon chibat ta 0un Eora9 JaE nan chbat ta chib Eora li Uun e% li Petul e9 #a chib Eora chbati:9 (oin(F I;m (oin( at one9 Perha!s John and Pedro are (oin( at t-o9 &t t-o the3 are (oin(9

#he last t-o sentences contain !lural sub0ects% but onl3 in the latter is there an e !licit !lural su"i 9 #he intransitive verb bat 6to (o6 is irre(ular$ the "orm -ith voEoti: 6-e (inclusive) is chibati: (and not OOOchibatoti:)9 Ho-ever% the e clusive "orm is re(ular$ +e (but not 3ou) -ill (o in a little bit9

.hibatoti:Wti: tana9

#he im!erative o" the "irst !erson !lural is irre(ular$ Cati:Q 'et;s (oQ

8.2 Pluralit4 of *ouns

#zotzil also si(nals the !luralit3 o" nouns some-hat in"ormall39 +e alread3 :no- the su""i 4ti: (or 4alti:)% -hich is used to denote an e tension o" somethin(9 tonti: 6roc:3 !lace6 ton% 6roc:6 chobti:% 6corn"ield6 chob% 6corn (o" someone)6 teEti:% 6"orest6 te% 6tree% -ood6 Eu:;umali:% 6e tension o" river6 Gs!ellin(H Eu:;um% 6river6 nichimalti:% 6e !anse o" cultivated "lores6 nichim% 6"lo-er6 #hese "orms -ith 4ti: are not !ossessible9 #he ordinar3 !lural o" un!ossessed nouns is "ormed -ith the su""i 4eti:9 na% 6house6 naeti:% 6houses6 vini:% 6man6 vini:eti:% 6men6 Eantz% 6-oman6 Eantzeti:% 6-omen6 :aro% 6car% truc:6 :aroeti:% 6cars6 *nl3 one irre(ular "orm is :no-n$

:rem% 6bo36 :remoti:% 6bo3s6? ,ouns -ith !lural !ossessive a""i es can be either !lural or si(ular% accordin( to conte t9 .hbat ta snai:9 #his sentence means 6#he3 are (oin( to his house6 or 6#he3 are (oin( to their houses%6 accordin( to the (rou! re"erred to b3 6the3%6 the sub0ect o" the sentence9 #he !lural meanin(% in this construction% is distributive$ ever3 !erson has his o-n house9 Do 3ou (u3s have machetes% do 3ou have ri"lesF tu:;% 6ri"le6

7i Eo amachitai:% mi Eo atu:;i:F

In this sentence% the meanin( is a(ain distributive$ 6Ever3 one o" 3ou has his o-n machete% his o-n ri"leF6 In order to e !ress a !luralit3 o" !ossessed ob0ects% there is a su""i % 4ta:% -ith a collective meanin(9 I:;a:; snata:9 EI! ch;amalta:9 His houses burned do-n9 His children are sic:9

#he su""i 4ta:% to(ether -ith a !ossessive !re"i % indicates that a "e- thin(s are all !ossessed b3 the same !ossessor9 Culavitz;inta: eF .h;abal :itz;in9 T;a0omal Eo3 chEa4voE 0ban:il9 +here are 3our childrenF I don;t have a little brother9 I onl3 have t-o Iolder brothers9

(,ote that in the last sentence the noun 0ban:il does not carr3 an e !licit !lural su""i 9) It is !ossible to combine the collective su""i 4ta: -ith !lural !ossessive a""i es9 #hus% one hears the "ollo-in( e !ression$ 0chiEilta:ti: com!anions

-hich can be anal3zed in the "ollo-in( manner$ GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE

#he results is the e !ression$ 6our com!anions (-hich -e share in common)96 +ith the -ords tot 6"ather6 and meE 6mother6 there are derived "orms that serve as terms o" res!ect9 #oti: Uun9 7eEti: Uun:aE9 7ister John9 7rs9 GUun:aH

#hese -ords a!!ear to be derived "rom 04tot4ti: 6our "ather6 and "rom 04meE4ti: 6our mother65 the "orms -ith !re"i es denote de"inite !eo!le% as :inshi! terms9 *ur "ather ("or e am!le% our (rand"ather) is sic:9 It de!ends on -hat our ((rand)mother sa3s9

EI! li 0toti: e9 JaE ti :;u i li 0meEti: e9 #here is also an archaic su""i o" collective !luralit3% 4ab% -hich in the s!eech o" =inacantecos onl3 sho-s u! in ritual !hrases9 3alab% snich;nab

his sons (in other -ords$ Gla novia 3 el novioH) 4&l% 6son (o" a -oman)6 4nich;(o)n% 6son (o" a man)6

(#hese nouns have more ordinaril3 "orms based on the "ollo-in( radicals$ Eol4ol% and nich;on4il9) Predicate ad0ectives have !lural "orms -ith the remainin( stative verbs9 EE! 0tz;uno0 nichim9 Catz;i le:i:9 7i Ei!o u: toF 7u ibatoti:Wti:% bi:;itoti:Wti: to9 I have seeded man3 "lo-ers9 #he3 are ver3 (ood9 &re 3ou (u3s still sic:F +e;re not (oin( to (o (because) -e;re still little9

#he ad0ectives "ormed "rom a !ositional root !lus the su""i 41l alternates bet-een the !lural "orms -ith 41l4i: (in other -ords$ -ith the !lural su""i 4i:) and a s!ecial "orm -ith 4a0ti:9

1aEaloti:9 1aEali: li 0saE:;o!eti:9 1aEa0ti: li Eo3eti: e9 7i cha!alo u: aF E&li :aEeti: e% cha!ali: a9 JaE noEo li nichimeti: e% mu to bu cha!a0ti:9

+e are standin(9 #he liti(ants are standin( #he G!ostesH are standin(9 &re 3ou (u3s read3 3etF #he horses are alread3 read3F *nl3 the "lo-ers are still not 3et read39

Forms -ith 41l4i: are !redicated o" animate thin(s and thin(s that due to their !o-er"ul !ro!erties achieve the !osition o" bein( indicated b3 a !ositional root9 *n the other hand% the use o" the "orms -ith 4a0ti: su((ests that somethin( is in a !assive !osition as a result o" some e ternal action9 (& similar relationshi! a!!ears to be hold bet-een sin(ular ad0ectives% based on !ositional roots% -hich have the "orm .1.1l and the "orm .1.4.1. (redu!licated)9 In attributive !osition% a0dectives do not (enerall3 carr3 !lural a""i es9 T;elo li sa:il naeti: e9 Ich;a3 :i:;al !i olta:9 'oo: at the -hite houses9 73 blac: hats -ere lost9

Cut some ad0ecties have <uasi4!lural "orms basd on the su""i 4i:% in attributive !osition9 E*3 mu:;ti: ton9 7a:a bi:;iti: teE ta0 to e9 #here are hu(e roc:s9 #here are onl3 little trees over there9

Furthermore% redu!licated ad0ectives% -ith the su""i 4ti:% are not !lural% but rather diminuitive9 7u:;mu:;ti: li ton e9 'e:le:ti: noEo li :abtel e9 #he roc: is some-hat lar(e9 73 -or: is onl3 a little (ood9

#he !lural "orms o" 4:otol 6all6 in the second or third !erson ver3 o"ten omit e !licit !lural a""i es in the sentence;s verb9 7i chabat a:otoli:F Cati: 0:olti: chEe9 Ilo:; Eech;el s:otoli:9 7i ilo:;i: a9 &re all o" 3ou (oin(F 'et;s (o (all o" us)9 &ll o" them le"t9 Did the3 leave alread3F

In those conte ts% the verb -ithout a !lural su""i can be considered a shortened "orm% indeterminate -ith res!ect to the !luralit3 o" the sub0ect9 *n the other hand% verbs -ith sub0ects in the "irst !erson should be more e !licit9 .hisut a li voEon e9 .ha0chiEin9 7i chisutoti: I am returnin( alread39 I -ill accom!an3 3ou9 +ill -e

0chaE4vaEalti:F return to(etherF Cati: 0:otolti:9 'et;s (o (all o" us)9 1oEot cha:om9 .hisutoti:Wti: Rou sta39 +e (e cl9) -e -ill ta 0:otolti:Wti:9 return9

&lso% ta:e note o" the "act that !lural a""i es are used -ith numeral classi"ier e !ressions9 I:om chaE4vaEali:9 7i chaEabte0 avo 4 vaEali:F 'iEi!a0oti: 0a3vaEalti: e9 GM 040a34vaEal4ti:H #a Eo 0mil chan4:ot :ala:;% !ero i0atav chan4 :otoli:9 I -as (oin( to :ill m3 "our chic:ens% but the3 all ran a-a39 #hose t-o remained9 &ll three (o" 3ou) are (oin( to -or:F /s% as man3 as -e are% are sic:9

8.3 Reflexi"e and Reciprocal 5er.s

E&li Uun e% isma0 John hit his "riend9 3ami:o9 E&li Uun e% isma0 sba9 John hit himsel"9 T;elo l ava0nil e 3uEun 'oo: a"ter 3our -i"e% Ei!9 T;elo aba% 3uEun Ei!ot9 Jutu: mu 0mil ta !o li 0bol e9 Jutu: mu 0mil 0ba ta !o 9 because she;s sic:9 'oo: a"ter 3oursel"% because 3ou;re sic:9 GPor !ocoH I didn;t :ill m3 brother4in4la- "or GPor !ocoH I didn;t :ill m3sel" -ith Gel tra(oH9 GdarleH the su(arcane li<uor9

I" the sub0ect and the ob0ect o" a transitive verb are identical4that is to sa3% i" the action o" the verb is re"le ive (someone does somethin( to himsel")4the !osition o" the ob0ect is occu!ied b3 the a!!ro!riate !ossessed "orm o" 4ba9 (#he literal meanin( o" the -ord 4ba is 6"ace69) #he use o" 4ba corres!onds to the use o" the En(lish -ord sel"9 Isma0 sba9 He hit himsel"9

#he !ossessed "orm o" 4ba directl3 "ollo-s the verb% unless a !article intervenes9 T;elo me aba9 Isna:; a sta:;in% isna:; a sba9 Please loo: a"ter 3oursel"9 He alread3 hid his mone3 and he alread3 hid himsel"9

Sentences -ith a !lural "orm o" 4ba as their ob0ect o"ten have a reci!rocal meanin(9 #a ch;a: sba li be e9 #a ch;a: sbai:9 Istza: sba li ba: e9 Istza: sbai: li 03a:ubeleti: e9 #he road divides9 4ch;a:% 6se!arate% divide6 #he3 se!arated% the3 divorced one another9 #he bone mended9 #he drun:s Gse a(arraronH each other9

In these sentences the sub0ect do somethin( reci!rocall3% to each other% to one another9 #he3 ar(ue amonst themselves to much9 4ut% 6to sa3% scold6 Perha!s the3 are (oin( to 0ail each other9 4chu:% 6to 0ail6 #he3 are (oin( to ta:e turns doin( the -or:9 40el% 6to chan(e% var36

#ol ut sbai:9

#a nan chu: sbai:9

#z0el sbai: ta Eabtel9

Sometimes% onl3 conte t distin(uishes bet-een the reci!rocal and the re"le ive meanin(% Gor as a <uestion o" em!hasis9H #e s:;el sbai:9 #he3 are (oin( to loo: a"ter each other9 *r$ #he3 are (oin( to loo: a"ter themselves9 (In conversation% the

im!lication here is% 6'et them ta:e care o" themselves9 It;s no business o" #a 0tzob 0bati: ta 0un Eora9 ours96) +e are (oin( to meet at one9 4tzob% 6to (ather6 GSe e !usieron (ustedes) a la ver(cenza9H (In other -ords$ Gse e !usieronH 3oursel"% Go unos a otrosH9) 4a:% 6(ive6 :;e lal% 6shame6 In the last e am!le% the re"le ive verb -ith 4ba as its ob0ect combines -ith other nouns introduced b3 ta9 It is evident that a re"le ive verb is essentiall3 intransitive% because the !osition o" the ob0ect is occu!ied b3 the a!!ro!riate "orm o" 4ba9 Some other lo(ical or underl3in( ob0ect should be e !ressed b3 means o" a relational !hrase -ith ta or 4chiEu:9 Isten sba ta 3a:ubel9 He too: to drin:in(9 4ten% 6to thro-6 3a:ubel% 6drun:enness6 Don;t leave the road9 4i:ta% 6abandon% renounce6 anbal% 60ourne3% tri!6

&va:; abai: ta :;e lal9

7u avi:ta aba ta anbal9

R9 79 'au(hlin (?@AB$ 2BB% 2^K) (ives other illustrative e am!les9 He -anted to have had se ual relations -ith a (irl9 4nochan% 6to "ollo- closel36 He denounced himsel" -ith res!ect to his (uilt -ith the (irl% althou(h she Is!a:;an sba ta mulil chiEu: 0un tzeb% didn;t -ant it9 (In other -ords% he Ea:;o mi mu :;an e9 "alsel3 con"essed his (uilt "or the (irl;s !re(nanc3% althou(h she didn;t -ant itNhim9) 4!a:;an% 6to denounce "alsel36 mul4il% 6crime% (uilt6

Rech isnochan sba ta 0un tzeb9

7an3 e !ressions% -hich have the literal "orm o" a re"le ive verb -hose sub0ect is a !ossessed noun% "unction as intransitive verbs% -hose lo(ical sub0ect is indicated b3 means o" 6!ossessive6 a""i es 0oined to the (rammatical sub0ect I -as Gso"ocadoH9 ('iterall3$ 73 heart Gse ta!WH9) He stumbled9 ('iterall3$ His "oot Gse amarrWH9) It seems that our blood (in other -ords$ our !ulse) Gse Stzob sba 0ch;ich;elti: 3aEel9 0untaH (in other -ords$ Gdisminu3aH)9 (In other -ords$ +e are ver3 -ea:9) ('au(hlin ?@AB$@K) Here #zotzil sentences o" the "orm$ Re"le ive 1erb L Cod3 Part (L Possessor) is translated b3 S!anish sentences o" the "orm$ Intransitive 1erb L Sub0ect

Isma: sba :oEon9 I chu: sba 3o:9

#he sub0ect o" the translation corres!onds to the !ossessor o" the #zotzil sentences9 #here are also e !ressions that are re"le ive in "orm but lac: a re"le ive meanin(9 In man3 cases% these re"le ive "orms !rovide intransitive uses o" transitive verb stems9 #a 0:olta 0ba9 I3i:ta sba9 #e chamala aba9 I am (oin( to hel!9 4:olta% 6to liberate% hel! (someone)6 He renounced (somethin()% Gse desanimWH% Gse retirWH9 +ait there9 (In other -ords$ +aitQ)

In other cases% sentences -ith re"le ive verbs can contain e !licit ob0ects% althou(h the re"le ive !rnoun 4ba a!!ears to occu!3 the !osition o" (rammatical ob0ect9 Cen tz;iE chaEi sba9 He "eels (ood about himsel"% he "eels ver3 "erocious9 ('iterall3$ He "eels li:e

a do(9) 4aEi% 6to "eel% to hear6 I -ill have a curin( ceremon3 "or .h:al 0ba vo:ol9 m3sel"9 ('iterall3$ I -ill sa3 somethin( di""icult to m3sel"9) He !retends to be (ood% but he is ver3 bad9 4chaEle% 6to be able to do% to act as i"% to !retend to be6 #he e !licit ob0ect can be an entire sentence9 Is0am sba ti Eo3 smul9 7u sva an sba ch;un mantal9 He admitted that he -as (uilt39 40am% 6to o!en6 G,o consiste en obedecer9H 4va an% 6GcalmarH6 4ch;un mantal% 6to obe36

'e: vini: chaEle sba% !ero !u:u09

7u s:;an al sba ti 0aE 3a:;o0 sta:;in9 He doesn;t -ant to admit that he has (iven the mone39 #his t3!e o" re"le ive verb also acce!ts ob0ects in a !assive "orm% -ith a sub0unctive su""i 9 I3a:; sba Eilu:9 He sho-ed himsel"9 ('iterall3$ He (ave (in order) to be seen9) He le"t messa(e that he -as said% so as to be understood% that he -as (oin( "ar a-a39) In these sentences% as in the !revious e am!le% mu sva an sba ch;un mantal% there is a relationshi! o" conse<uence bet-een the t-o constituent clauses9

I3al sba EaE3u: :omel ti chbat ta (oin( "ar a-a39 ('iterall3$ He nom9

+e -ill "ind more e am!les o" this structure later in section @9B9

Coth transitive and intransitive verb stems are "ormed "rom di""erent t3!es o" roots9 For e am!le% "rom the !ositional root chot 6seated%6 the transitive stem 4chotan 6to seat6 and the intransitive stem choti4 6to be seated6 are "ormed9 I am (oin( to !ut a lar(e #a 0chotan 0un lona ta 0na9 .hichoti ta 0na9 burla! ba( (sa3% o" corn) in m3 house9 I am seated in m3 house9

&lso% there is a re"le ive "orm% based on 4chotan% that has a some-hat more active meanin( than the intransitive "orm9 I am (oin( to seat m3sel" in #a 0chotan 0ba ta 0na9 m3 house (and not move an inch "rom there)9 Similarl3% it is !ossible to sa3$ .hva i li :aE e9 #zva an sba li :aE e9 #he horse is calmin( do-n9 #he horse is obe3in( N is becomin( docile9

#he root va means 6calm% (entle% tame% docile96 #he intransitive verb -ith the su""i 4i denotes the state o" calmness9 #he re"le ive verb -ith 4an denotes the result o" the action o" calmin( onesel"$ an action that !resu!!oses the animac3 and active !artici!ation o" the sub0ect9 #here are also some transitive roots% such as ch;a3 6to lose%6 that !roduce intransitive and re"le ive "orms9 For e am!le% I ch;a3 sta:;in9 Ich;a39 I ch;a3 sba9 He (ave !ardon9 GSe e traviW% se malo(rWH9 GSe "u(WH% he hid himsel"5 he "ailed5 he lost ho!e9

Similarl3% the root 4su0 6to hurr36 e hibits transitive% intransitive% and re"le ive "orms% each o" -hich has the sim!le root as its verb stem9 Isu0 (M i4s4su0) s:aE9 He hurried his horse9

(#ransitive) Isu0 tal9 Su0em tal9 Isu0 sba tal9 It returned in a hurr39 (Intransitive) He made haste in returnin(9 (Re"le ive M &ctive)

& common im!erative "orm uses the re"le ive (and not the intransitive)9 Su0(o) abaQ .om!are the "ollo-in( "orms$ 4cha! (transitive) cha!4 (intransitive) 4chab 4ba (re"le ive) I0cha! li :i:atze e9 Icha! li Ei:atzil e9 I0cha! 0ba9 Icha! li ch;o0on e9 I cha! sba li chon e9 to !re!are to be !re!ared to !re!are onesel" I !re!ared m3 load9 #he load is !re!ared9 I !re!ared m3sel"9 #he ro!e is rolled u!9 #he vi!er coiled u!9 Hurr3 u!Q

#he transitive "orm o" a root is o"ten used to e !ress an intransitive idea -hen there is no intransitive verb stem derived "rom that root9 For e am!le% the transitive verb 4:a! 6to mi 6 is homo!hon3ous -ith the intransitive verb root :a!4 6to (et an(r396 #he re"le ive "orm% 4:a! 4ba e !resses the intransitive meanin( o" 6to (et mi ed u!% to be mi ed6 and not 0ust the strictl3 re"le ive meanin(9 Is:a! sba li Ei im e9 #a s:a! sba ta chobti: li teE Eune9 #he corn is mi ed u!9 #he tree is mi ed u! -ith the corn"ield9 (In other -ords$ It can;t be seen throu(h the corn"ield9) Finall3% -ith verb roots that have both transitive and intransitive "orms% the re"le ive "orm o"ten has an e tended or s!ecialized meanin(% and not sim!l3 a literal re"le ive meanin(9 #a 0:;o!on li Uun e9 .hi:;o!o0 0chiEu: li Uun e9 #a 0:;o!on 0ba 0chiEu: li Uun e9 I tal:in( to John9 I;m chattin( -ith John9 John and I% -e;re tal:in(9

*r$ I a(ree -ith John9 *r$ I;m (oin( to discuss somethin( -ith John9 I li"ted the corn9 *r$ I raised the !rice o" corn9 #he corn raised9 *r$ #he !rice o" corn -ent u!9 He (re- rebellious% !roud% disobedient9 He de!osited his mone3 in the ban:9 He stuc: his nose in the ar(ument9 4ti:;% 6to insert% to !ut in6

#a 0to3 li Ei im e9 Ito3 li Ei im e9 Isto3 sba9 Isti:; sta:;in ta ban:o9 Isti:; sba ta :;o!9

#here is a limited number o" e !ressions -ith a <uasi4re"le ive or reci!rocal "orm that come "rom ad0ectives or !ossessed nouns9 #hese e !ressions serve as the !redicates o" sentences -ith the "ollo-in( "orm$ GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH but the sub0ect is mar:ed not -ith an absolutive a""i on the !redicate% but rather -ith a !ossessive !re"i on the -ord 4ba% -hich "orms !art o" the com!le !redicate9 #ol Eabol aba9 Rou su""er so much9 Solel Eabol 0ba% mu :;usi iveE I;m su""erin( terribl3% because I have Eo9 'e:le: sba li tzeb e9 RuEvan le:le: aba anaEF Ran sba :oEon 3uEun Ei! li nothin( to eat9 #he (irl is !rett39 Do 3ou thin: 3ou;re !rett3F4because 3ou;re not9 (scold) I am u!set (literall3$ m3 heart is bad)

0ch;amal e9 because m3 dau(hter is sic:9 Ran sba ch:aEi ti tol chislaban I "eel bad because the3 ma:e "un o" :ri chano9 me a lot9

(#he e !ression 3an sba a!!ears to be "i ed% -ith the (eneral meanin( 6bad96) Plural !ossessors% li:e ad0ectives% can modi"3 the -ord 4ba9 E&bol sbai:9 'e:le: avunen ba% EutzEutz avunen ba9 #he3 are su""erin(9 Rou are !rett39 ('iterall3$ Rour little !erson is !rett3% (ood)9

+ith relational nouns% such as :inshi! terms% a construction -ith 4ba e !resses a reci!rocal relationshi! bet-een the sub0ects o" the sentences9 E&li Uun e% 0aE 3itz;in li Petul e9 E&li Petul e% 0aE sban:il li Uun e9 E&li Uun e% li Petul e% sban:il 3itz;in sbai:9 Catz;i le: 3ami:o sbai:9 'e: 3ami:o sba chiEu: ta0 e9 John and Peter are brothers9 #he3 are (ood "riends9 He;s ver3 "riendl3 -ith that one9 John is Peter;s 3oun(er brother9 Peter is John;s older brother9

#his construction sho-s the intimate relationshi! bet-een !ossessive !re"i es and er(ative !re"i es o" transitive verbs$ !ossessed nouns and transitive verbs occur -ith 4ba in structures -ith a re"le iveNreci!rocal meanin(9 Re"le ive verbs (ive rise to re"le ive nouns% o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ 1erb (L Su""i ) L bail For e am!le% one sa3s$ I3ut sbai:9 7u 0:;an na:a Eut4bail9 #zma0 sbai: li 03a:ubeleti:9 E*3 ma04bail9 #he3 "ou(ht9 I don;t -ant a dis!ute9 #he drun:s are (oin( to "i(ht9 #here is a "i(ht9

&lso% com!ound nounds are "ormed -ith the su""i 4ob% -ith the meanin($ 6!lace% time% or instrument "orV69 For e am!le% Ei:taob4bail bo0ob4bail tzobob4bail the end o" the "i(ht 4i:ta% 6to (ive u!% to renounce6 -ea!on "or stabbin( 4bo0% 6to stab6 meetin( !lace 4tzob% 6to (ather% to meet6

#hese nouns are obviousl3 related to the re"le ive or reci!rocal verbs "rom -hich the3 derive9 #here are also a(entive nouns% o" the "ollo-in( "orm$

04:oltaob4ba(il) 04to34bail

hel!er arro(ant or rebellious !erson

#he reci!rocal construction also occurs -ith ob0ects or dative constituents9 In other -ords% re"le ive sentences are "ormed "rom verbs -hich contains the dative su""i 4be9 E&li Uun e% i3a:;be matanal li

John (ave a (i"t to GPetronaH9 PetuE e9 E&li Uun e% li PetuE e% i3a:;be John and GPetronaH (ave (i"ts to each sbai: matanal9 other9 E&li 0:a lan e% i chi:;be sna li #he ladino burned the Gmil!eroH;s 0chaba0om e9 house9 S:ronta sbai:% 3ech;o i chi:;be #he3 are enemies% and "or that reasons sbai: snai:9 Istz;otbe sbai: s:;obi:9 the3 burned each other;s houses9 GEl uno al otro se torcieron los brazos9H

,ote that the order o" the constituents alters in the reci!rocal construction$ the !ossessed "orm o" 4ba directl3 "ollo-s the verb% althou(h in the non4reci!rocal sentences% the indirect ob0ect (the dative constituent) "ollo-s the direct ob0ect9 /nli:e the recir!rocal construction% the use o" the re"le ive constructions a!!ears to be im!ossible -ith an indirect ob0ect9 For e am!le% one cannot sa3$ OOOIsbo0be sba 3o:9 but instead should sa3$ He stabbed himsel" in the "oot92

Isbo0 sba ta 3o:9

*r$ Isbo0 3o: stu:9

8.' T#e Imperati"e and t#e Su./uncti"e

'o:;an tz;iEQ 7u3an ta 0ol4naQ 1eEani: meQ E*chan talelQ E&bte0an voEotQ Ceat it% do(Q .limb u! on the roo"Q Please% eatQ .ome inQ Rou% -or:Q

#he im!erative "or intransitive verbs% in the second !erson (6Rou% do somethin(Q% Rou (u3s% do somethin(Q6) is "ormed b3 means o" the su""i 4an% -ith a verb stem% !lus the su""i 4i: in the case o" a !lural im!erative9 #he !article me sometimes combines -ith

the im!erative in order to (ive a more in"ormal meanin($ 6!leaseV6 etc9 #he !article me also "unctions in the "ormation o" ne(ative im!erative (-hich use the ne(ative !article mu and neutral as!ect o" the second !erson)9 7u me abatQ 7u aEabte0Q Don;t (o% !leaseQ Don;t -or:Q

#he im!erative "orm o" an intransitive verb is derived "rom an underl3in( sentence o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ 1erb *b0ect Sub0ect (voEot% 63ou6)

For e am!le% "rom the sentence$ .haman li Ei im e9 the im!erative is "ormed$ 7an4o li Ei im eQ Cu3 the cornQ Rou are (oin( to bu3 corn9

#he im!erative o" a transitive verb has an ob0ect% that is to sa3% the thin( that receive or under(oes the action desi(nated b3 the verb9 I" the ob0ect o" the im!erative is in the third !erson (as% "or e am!le% an inanimate thin()% the im!erative is "ormed -ith the su""i 4o on the verb9 7ano li Ei im eQ 7ilo li va:a eQ T;o!ono li Uun eQ Cu3 the cornQ Till the co-Q #al: to JohnQ

In (eneral% the !luralit3 o" a sub0ect or ob0ect is indicated b3 !lural a""i es on other constituents% and not on the verb9 7eltzano achobti:Q T;elo l ach;amalta: eQ GHa(anH 3our corn"ieldsQ #a:e care o" 3our :idsQ

I" the ob0ect o" the im!erative is in the "irst !erson (6Do somethin( to me% to us96) the im!erative is "ormed -ith the verb !lural an absolutive su""i that corres!onds to the ob0ect$ 4on5 4oti:Wti: 7ilon% timi chamilon e9

Till me% i" 3ou;re (oin( to :ill

me9 ,e(ative im!eratives o" transitive verbs also are "ormed b3 means o" neutral as!ect (o"ten -ith the !article me)9 7u me a:;elonQ 7u avat avoEonQ 7u ava:;Q Don;t loo: at meQ Don;t -orr3Q ('iterall3$ Don;t count 3our heartQ) 4at% 6to count% to calculate6 Don;t (ive itQ

#here are also im!erative "orms o" ditransitive sentences$ E&:;bo sta:;inQ Give him his mone3Q Do me the "avor o" bu3in( me meatQ Here the im!erative is o" the "orm$ 1erb L b L o9 #he e o" the dative su""i 4be is ommitted be"ore the im!erative su""i 4o9 Im!erative "orms also occur -ith au iliar3 verbs9 Ca veEani: cheEeQ Ca :;elo l ana eQ 'o:; :;o!onolQ Go eatQ Go see 3our houseQ 'eave and tal: -ith himQ ('iterall3$ Enter and (ive him 3our handQ) Enter and (reet him (in other -ords% bobe"ore an elder)Q &lso% there are re"le ive and reci!rocal im!eratives9 T;elo me abaQ E&:;bo abai: matanalQ T;o!ono abai:Q #a:e care o" 3oursel"Q Give each other (i"tsQ #al: to 3ourselvesQ

7anbon me tal 0un :ilo be:;etQ (and brin(in( bac:) a :ilo o"

E*ch nu!bo s:;obQ

#o "orm an im!erative to e !ress a re"le ive action re<uires a construction that is not re"le ive9 For e am!le% one sa3s$ 7ilbon :uch;Q Till me m3 G!io0oHQ

Cut one cannot sa3$ OOO7ilbot avuch;Q OOO7ilbo aba avuch;Q Instead% one sa3s$ 7ilo atu: l avuch; eQ Till 3our G!io0oH 3oursel"Q

#he "ollo-in( e !ressions also have a ne(ative "orm$ 7u me a:;o!on abai:Q 7u me aso:bon :oraQ Don;t tal: to 3ourselvesQ Don;t ruin m3 -atchQ 4so:% 6to ruin% brea:6 Eora% 6-atch% hour% luc:6

In order to summarize the (eneral "orm o" im!eratives% consider "irst an intransitive sentence9 1erb Sub0ect (M voEot% 63ou6) From this sentence% one "orms an im!erative o" the "orm$ 1erb L 4an -here the su""i 4an cannot be consdered a modi"ied "orm o" the second !erson absolutive su""i 9 +ith a transitive sentnece o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ 1erb G L 4beH *b0ect GDativeH Sub0ect (M voEot% 63ou6)

the ob0ect (or the dative constituent) en(enders an absolutive a""i in the im!erative9 *n the other hand% the sub0ect is si(nalled -ith the su""i 4o onl3 i" there is no absolutive su""i 9 the ne(ative im!erative% -hether the verb is transitive or intransitive% is "ormed -ithout an3 chan(e in the "orm o" the verb% usin( the ne(ative !article mu and neutral tenseNas!ect9 #here are also im!erative in other !erson cate(ories$ "irst !erson !lural (6'et;s do somethin(Q6) and the third !erson (6+ould that he do somethin(Q6)9 #hese "orms in #zotzil "ollo- a similar !attern9 Im!erative o" intransitive verbs are "ormed -ith a s!ecial a""i % that -e can call 6sub0unctive%6 !lus an ordinar3 absolutive a""i 9 &nd

im!erative o" transitive verbs are "ormed b3 omittin( the as!ectual mar:ers% -hile maintanin( the er(ative and absolutive a""i es9 'o:;4(i):4oti: cheEe9 1eE4(i):4oti: cheEe9 Tich;ti: Eech;el a09 Jma0ti: a li Ei im e9 'et;s (o% then9 'et;s (o eat alread39 'et;s brin( the tortillas9 G#rillemosH the corn9

Here the -ord veEi:oti: can be anal3zed as$ Stem veE% 6 to eat6 L 4i:4 Sub0unctive In"i 4oti:% 6us6 L &bsolutive Su""i

*"ten the i o" the in"i 4i:4 is ommitted$ veE:oti:% le:;:oti:% etc9 #here is an irre(ular ime!rative -ith the verb bat4 6to (o6$ bati: 6let;s (oQ6 'et;s (o to the mar:et% let;s (o eatQ 'et;s (et to -or:% then9

Cati: a ta ch;ivit% ba veE:oti:Q E*ch Eabte0:oti: cheEe9

It is !ossible to combine the im!erative "orm o" an intransitive verb -ith an au iliar3 verb% -ithout a tenseNas!ect a""i % as in the !revious e am!les9 (&s -e -ill see shortl3% an intransitive verb -ith an au iliar3 al-a3s has sub0uncitive in"lection9) Ca Eabte0anQ Tom va3i:oti: cheEeQ Go -or:Q 'et;s sta3 and slee!Q

#he im!erative o" the "irst !erson !lural% -ith transitive verbs% has an er(ative !re"i and an absolutive a""i % but omits the as!ectual !re"i 9 +e;re (oin( to bu3 corn9 (declarative) 'et;s bu3 cornQ (im!erative% sub0unctive) +e;re (oin( to loo: "or a !lace "or his corn"ield9 'et;s loo: "or a !lace "or his corn"ield9

#a 0manti: Ei im9 Jmanti: Ei im9 #a 0saEbeti: 3av chob9 JsaEbeti: 3av chob9

#he so4called im!erative o" the third !erson "ollo-s the same !attern9 #hese "orms occur -ith or -ithout the -ord Ea:;o (literall3$ 6(3ou) (ive thatV6) in a construction that is similar to the construction in En(lish that (oes$ 6let is ha!!en thatV% let himNherV6 (E&:;o) veEu:9 'o:;u: ta Eora9 E&:;o sma09 E&:;o 3a:;be Ears3al9 'et himNher eat9 'et him (o9 'et him hit it9 'et him -hi! him9 Ears3al% 6-hi!6

#his construction is also !ossible -ith !assive "orms$ E&:;o ma0eu:9 E&:;o Ea:;batu:9 'et him be hit9 'et him be (iven it9

#he su""i 4u: in these -ords re!resents the "orm o" the sub0uncitve mar:er that occurs in "inal !osition% in other -ords% -hen there is no absolutive su""i 9 #hus% the last e am!le can be anal3zed as "ollo-s$

.hava:;be ta:;in li Uun e9 E&:;bo ta:;in li Uun e9 .hEa:;bat ta:;in li Uun e9

Rou (ive mone3 to John9 Give mone3 to John9 #he mone3 is (iven to John9 (In other -ords$ John has

received the mone39) E&:;o Ea:;batu: ta:;in li Uun e9 'et;s John receive the mone39 #his construction en(enders the ommission o" the as!ectual !re"i in transitive verbs9 In other -ords% the verb combines onl3 -ith the er(ative !re"i % -hich re!resents the sub0ect% and an absolutive su""i % -hich re!resents the ob0ect9 (In that conte t% the absolutive !re"i es are not used9) 'et him hit me5 I;m not a"raid o" him9 'et them scold him9 +hat business o" mine is itF 'et him tell 3ou9

E&:;o sma0on% mu i iE Eo9 E&:;o 3ut sbai:% :;u 0:-enta Eo9 E&:;o 3albot9

#he same "orm can e !ress an 6im!erative6 o" the "irst !erson sin(ular9

E&:;o 0ch;a3 ta 0mo09

Cetter that I lose it once9 ('au(hlin% ?@AB$K])

#hese "orms o" the verb are called 6sub0unctive6 because the3 si(ni"3 action or states that the s!ea:er desires% !ro!oses% or doubts9 #he im!erative "orms are% in realit3% sub0unctive "orms (as in S!anish)% indicators that the s!ea:ers desires the action o" another !erson (t3!icall3 the listener)9 Even ad0ectives can occur -ith sub0unctive in"lection9 .hotolot ta ila9 .hotlan ta ila9 E&:;o chotlu: ta ila9 1aElan9 1aEli:oti: a9 Rou are seated in the chair9 #a:e a seat9 'et him ta:e a seat9 Stand u!9 +e are standin( u! alread39

From the !oisition root chot 6seated6 the ad0ective chotol is "ormed5 the second vo-el is lost be"ore the sub0unctive "ormative 4i:4 or 4u:9 #he same !rocess motivates the sub0unctive "orms o" vaEal ("rom the root vaE 6standin(% bi!edal6)9 #he desiderative meanin( is clearl3 notable in the construction Ea:;o L Sentence9 +e have alread3 seen a "e- construction in -hich the sub0unctive "orms a!!ear9 .ha: bati:on tana9 .ha: 0atavan 3aEel9 .ha: stiE be:;et9 .ha: :a:;be !oraso9 I -ant to (o9 Rou -ant to "lee9 0atav4 6to "lee6 He -ants to eat meat9 I -ould li:e to (ive 3ou a blo-9 !oraso% 6G(ol!de% !orrazoH6

#he !article cha: e !resses a desire or !ositive sentiment% and re<uries% in this construction% a verbal com!lement -ith sub0unctive in"lection9 +ith intransitive verbs the sub0unctive has the "ollo-in( "orm$ Intransitive 1erb L Sub0unctive In"i L &bsolutive Su""i +ith transitive verbs% the sub0unctive "orm has the "orm$ Er(ative Pre"i L #ransitive 1erb L &bsolutive Su""i (#his "orm does not include tenseNas!ect !re"i es9)

*ne can distin(uish bet-een t-o di""erent meanin(s o" a sentence -ith cha:9 .ha: 3ulu:9 *r$ .ha: 3ulu: (e)% le:9 .ha: 3ulu: e% uE ibati:9 I" he arrives% it -ill be (ood9 'et him arrive% so that -e can (o9 He -ants to arrive (here)9

#he verbal com!lement carries the sub0unctive a""i (4i:4 or 4u:) i" it is intransitive% or occurs -ithout an as!ectual or tense !re"i i" it is transitive9 *"ten% a "orm o" the transitive verb 4aEi3 6to "eel6 occurs as an additional ob0ect9 .ha: 0tiE :aEi be:;et9 .ha: batan avaEi9 I "eel the desire to eat meat9 Rou "eel the desire to (o9

#he desire to do somethin( can be e !ressed -ith cha:% -ith the a!!ro!riate "orm o" 4aEi3% or -ith both constructions9 .ha: bati:on ta Jobel9 .hibat :aEi ta Jobel9 .ha: bati:on :aEi ta Jobel9 .ha: 0loE loEbol9 #a 0loE :aEi loEbol9 .ha: 0loE :aEi loEbol9 I -ant to (o to San .ristWbal9

I -ant to eat "ruit9

#here are other e !ressions that also re<uire sub0unctive com!lements9 In (eneral% these si(ni"3 some t3!e o" desire or !ositive antici!ation9 I -ould li:e to -or: in the road9 Tilu: :oEon Eabte0:on ta be9 ('iterall3$ 73 heart sees that I -or: in the road9) I -ould li:e to loo: "or a curer ("or me)9 Rou -ould li:e to arrive in the evenin( (literall3$ -hen Gse !oneH the sun)9 I a-ait his arrival9

Tilu: :oEon 0saE :a0Eilol9 Rilu: avoEon :;otan ta mal :;a:;al9 #a 0mala 3ulu:9 #a 0mala chul9

#he last sentence denotes a more neutral sense o" -aitin($ 6I a-ait his arrival96 #he use o" the sub0unctive su((ests the "ollo-in( meanin($ 6I a-ait his arrive% and I ho!e that he arrives (soon)% (but I don;t :no- i" he;s (oin( to arrive)96 &lso note that the e !ression :ilu: :oEon contains the sub0unctive su""i 4u: -ith the verb :4il 6I see%6 -hich (ives the e !ression the meanin( 6I GvieraH m3 heartV6 this use is related to the use o" the sub0unctive in"lection in conditional sentences that -e -ill see later9 #here are also e !ressions o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ He -ants to (o9 ('iterall3$ RoEonu: chbat9 +ould that his heart had the desire to (o9) #he better :no-n conte t in -hich these sub0unctive "orms occur -e have alread3 described in .ha!ter _% -hen s!ea:in( o" the 6<uasi4sub0unctive6 and o" its use in constructions -ith au iliar3 verbs9 +e have alread3 seen that the !re"i o" as!ectNtense combines directl3 -ith the au iliar3% thereb3 leavin( in evidence the transitive verb -ithout an as!ectual !re"i 9 .haman :antela9 .hba aman :antela9 Rou are bu3in( candles9 Rou are (oin( to bu3 candles9

Cut intransitive verbs also occur -ith au iliaries5 and in that conte t% the as!ectual !re"i combines -ith the au iliar3% and the intransitive stem re<uires a sub0unctive a""i % "ollo-ed b3 the absolutive su""i 9 .haEabte09 .hba Eabte0an9 .hiveE9 .hEoch veEi:on9 Iva39 I3ul va3u:9 Rou -or:9 Rou are (oin( to -or:9 I eat9 He (oes in to eat9 He -ent to slee!9 He arrived to slee!9

#he meanin( o" this construction is understood as 6<uasi4sub0unctive%6 e !ressin( the end o" ob0ect o" the movement denoted b3 the au iliar3 verb$ 6enter to do somethin(% (o -ith the G"inH o"V6 etc9 &(ain% this demonstrates the "unctional correlation bet-een transitive verbs -ithout as!ectual mar:in( and intransitive verbs -ith a sub0unctive "ormative to(ether -ith the absolutive a""i 9

,ote that the su""i 4an% -hich a!!ears in im!eratives and au iliar3 verbs etc9% can be thou(ht o" as an alternative "orm (su!!letive) o" the se<uence 4i:4ot (sub0unctive L second !erson absolutive)9 .hba va3an9 .hba va3i:ot9 Rou are (oin( to slee!9

(#he second "orm is !ossible% but uncommon in the s!eech o" =inacantecos9) Celo-% I -ill !resent the "orms o" an intransitive verb in combination -ith an au iliar3 verb9 Tom va3i:on9 Tom va3an N :om va3i:ot9 Tom va3u:9 Tom va3i:oti:9 Tom va3ani: N :om va3i:o u:9 Tom va3i:u:9 I staed to slee!9 Rou sta3ed to slee!9 He sta3ed to slee!9 +e sta3ed to slee! (inclusive)9 Rou (u3s sta3ed to slee!9 #he3 sta3ed to slee!9

It is also !ossible to combine an au iliar3 verb -ith the !assive "orm o" a transitive verb9 #he se<uence o" a""i es and stem is the "ollo-in($ &s!ect L &u 9 #rans9 1erb L Passive L Sub0ect L &bsolutive .onsider% "or e am!le% the "ollo-in( sentences$ E&li Uun e% isma0 li Petul e9 John hit Peter9 E&li Uun e% :om sma0 li Petul John sta3ed to hit Peter9 e9 E&li Petul e% ima0e9 Peter -as hit9 E&li Petul e% :om ma0eu: Peter sta3ed to be hit9 (Mma04e4u:4])9 (.om!are the "ollo-in( sentence% -hich has a "orm -e have alrea3 discussed$ I:om sma0el li Petul e9 (Someone) sta3ed to hit Peter9

Sentence o" this t3!e are more common used to describe situations -here the a(ent or sub0ect o" the action is inde"inite or un:no-n9)

In other conte ts% -hich -e have alread3 seen% the sub0unctive in"lection occurs -ith verbs o" !erce!tion$ 4il 6to see%6 and 4aEi3 6to "eel% hear96 #hese verbs "unction as the com!lements o" other verbs% meanin( the end or the intentional result o" an action9 'oo: (in order to see) the sna:e9 'isten (in order to hear) -hat he;s sa3in(9

T;elo avil li chon e9 E&Ei3o avaEi :;u al9

In its reduced "orm% these constructions "unction as conventional commands$ :;elavi 6'oo:Q6 and EaEi3avaEi% 6'istenQ6 #he "irst verb o" the com!ound can be im!erative or declarative9 He is ver3 bad5 tal: to him and see9 I am (oin( to sho- 3ou (literall3$ (ive that 3ou see)

Pu:u0 leEe% :;o!ono avaEi39

.h:a:; avil li 0chob e9

m3 corn"ield9 .h:a:;be 3il :;u Eelan li Eabtel I am (oin( to sho- him -hat e9 -or: is li:e9

&lso% the roots 4il and 4aEi3 can "unction as intransitives5 in that construction% -ith sub0unctive su""i es% these ver(s have a 6!assive6 meanin(9 I am (oin( to sho- the roc:9 .h:a:; Eilu: li ton e9 ('iterall3$ I am (oin( to (ive the roc: to be seen9) He -ent to reveal his crime9 Ca 3al EaE3u: :;u smul9 ('iterall3$ He -ent to s!ea: in order that his crime be understood9) #hese sentences have the "ollo-in( structure$ GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH In other -ords% the subordinate sentence% i" it is in isolated !osition% -ill !roduce the "ollo-in( !assive sentence$

.hEile li ton e9

#he road is seen9

#he !resent "orm is !roduced b3 omittin( the as!ectual !re"i % b3 addin( the sub0unctive su""i 4u:9 (.h:a:;) ilu: li ton e9 Similarl3% the "ollo-in( sentences re!resent alternate !ossiblities "or e !ressin( a sin(le situation9 #a 0:;an Ea:;o !;oli:u: li :ala:; e9 #a 0:;an ta !;oli: li :ala:; e9 #a 0:;an Ea:;o Eabte0an9 #a 0:;an (ti) chaEabte09

I -ant m3 chic:ens to multi!l39 !;ol4% 6to multi!l36 I -ant 3ou to -or:9

In the "irst sentence o" each !air% the ob0ect o" the verb 4:;an 6to -ant6 is "ormed "rom Ea:;o -hose literal translation -ould be 6that6% addin( the sub0unctive to e !ress the s!ea:er;s desire9 In the second sentence o" each !air% the com!lement is the ordinar3 "orm o" the verb (-ith or -ithout the con0unction ti 6that6)9 #z:;an Ea:;o 3ich; balamil li 3itz;in e9 He -ants his little brother to receive the land9

,ote that construction -ith the -ord Ea:;o is necessar3 -hen the sub0ect o" the verb 4:;an and the sub0ect o" the com!lement are non4core"erential third !erson nouns9 .ontrast% "or e am!le% the last sentences -ith those belo-$ He -ants to receive the land

#z:;an chich; li balamil e9

(himsel")9 #z:;an chich; balamil li 3itz;in His little brother -ants to e9 receive the land9

(+e -ill consider the details in the "ollo-in( section9) Celo-% I -ill (ive a revie- o" the 6<uasi4sub0unctive6 "orms o" transitive and intransitive verbs9 I1 Eabte04:4on #1 04ma0L&CS Sub0ect ?a !ers9

Eabte04an Eabte04u: Eabte04:4oti: Eabte04F4oti:Wti: Eabte04an4i: Eabte04:4o u: Eabte04i:4u:

a4ma0L&CS s4ma0L&CS 04ma04ti:L&CS 04ma04ti:Wti:L&CS a4ma04i:L&CS s4ma04i:L&CS

2a !ers9 Ja !ers9 voEoti: voEoti:Wti: voEo u: the3% etc9

,ote that in the s!each o" =inacantecos the e clusive "orm does not include the sub0unctive in"i 9 1erbs li:e the "ollo-in( are "ormed in the "ollo-in( -a3$ .hEoch Eabte0i:u:9 .hEoch sma0i:on9 Ilo:; s:;elot9 Ilo:; Eabte0u:9 'a0 a Eabte0oti:Wti:9 #he3 entered -or:9 #he3 entered to hit me9 He le"t to see 3ou9 He le"t to -or:9 +e (e clusive) -ill "inish -or:in(9

+e have seen that #zotzil im!eratives are% in realit3% sub0unctive "orms o" the second !erson (or the "irst !erson !lural% etc9)9 #here are t-o irre(ular im!eratives9 Cati:Q 'aE me9 'et;s (oQ .ome hereQ

#he re(ular im!erative o" tal4 6to come6 -ould be OOOtalan9 #his im!erative "orm is non4e istent and has been su!!lanted b3 the -ord laE9 In im!erative conte ts% laE also a!!ears in !lace o" the au iliar3 tal9 Rou are comin( to see the mar:et9 .ome see the mar:et9

.htal a:;el li ch;ivit e9 'aE :;elo li ch;ivit e9

Cut laE onl3 "unctions as an im!erative5 in other sub0unctive conte ts% the "orm talan is used9 .ha: talan ta Eanil9 .ome soonQ

#here are also im!eratives -ith a ver3 "ormal tone (!ossibl3 archaic)% -hich are "ormed -ith the intransitive root la04 6to "inish96

Cat4la04an cheEe9 'o:;la0an9 7eltza0u:4la0an9 EIch;4la0an9

Go% then9 'eave9 'et it be "i ed9 Receive it9

I do not :no- i" this !attern is !roductive9 ,ote that the courteous -a3 to ma:e the toast is$ Tich;ban9 -ith the res!onse$ EIch;o9 Receive it9 I receive it "or 3ou9

(In the s!eech o" .hamulans% the "ormula is$ #a me :ich;9 I receive it9

-ith the desiderative !article me9) #he -ord :ich;ban ma3 be anal3zable as a sub0unctive "orm o" the "ollo-in( construction$ .ha:ich;be9 I ta:e it "romN"or 3ou9

Earlier (in .ha!ter B)% -e sa- that the !article mu occurs -ith the su""i 4u: or an in"i 4i:4 that -e :no- reco(nize9 7u Eanti:on9 7u tzebi:ot9 7u le:u: leEe9 I am not a -oman9 Rou are not a (irl9 #hat is not (ood9

#he "orm o" ne(ative !redicates obviousl3 is related to that o" the sub0unctive9 #he ne(ative "ormative is identical to the sub0unctive "ormative$ 4i:4N4u:9 ,ote that it is !ossible to ne(ate a stative verb -ith the !article mu (and it is not necessar3 to use mu:; bu) i" the ne(ative a""i Gse ha 0untadoH9 7u:; bu 0ma0o0ot9 7u la bu 0ma0o0ot9 7u 0ma0o0i:ot9 I haven;t hit 3ou (and I :no- it)9 I haven;t hit 3ou (the3 tell me)9 I" someone has hit 3ou% it -asn;t me9 *r$ I" I hit someone% it -asn;t 3ou9

7u voEoni:on 0ma0o0ot9 7u:; bu batemon9 7u batemi:on9

I -asn;t the one -ho hit 3ou9 I have (one (in other -ords$ I;m still here)9 I;m not the one -ho -ent (it -as someone else)9

&lso note the relationshi! bet-een im!eratives and verbs -ith mu L neutral as!ect9 Catan me9 7u me abat9 (E&:;o) batu:9 7u me bat9 .hibatNcha: bati:on9 7u ibat9 Go9 Don;t (o9 'et him (o9 Don;t let him (o9 I;m (oin(9 I -ant to (o9 I;m not (oin(9 I don;t -ant to (o9

#he relationshi! bet-een the sub0unctive and the ne(ative% -hich Gse e !oneH in the coincidence o" "orms% can be seen more clearl3 in conditional sentences% that is% in sentences o" the "orm$ (a) I" somethin( ha!!ens% another thin(s ha!!ens9 or$ (b) I" somethin( had ha!!ened% somethin( else -ould have ha!!ened9 Sentences o" the "irst t3!e are "ormed% in #zotzil% -ith the con0unction timi 6i"69 (,ote that the !article mi si(nals% at once% Ginterro(aciWn 3 alternaciWnH9) #imi Ei!ot to e% uE a:om9 #imi chaEi!a0 ta be e% I" 3ou are still sic:% 3ou can sta39 I" 3ou (et sic: on the road% 3ou -ill

chacham9 die9 #imi avich; li ta:;in e% mas le: I" 3ou receive mone3% it;s best to hide chana:;9 it9

(#he clause introduced b3 timi ends -ith the enclitic 4e9) In these sentences% one ima(ines a !ossible or !robable situation$ 3ou;re !robabl3 still sic:5 its !ossible that 3ou;ll (et sic: on the road5 one ho!es that 3ou;ll receive mone3% etc9 #he second clause in each sentence desi(nates the conse<uence o" the situation denoted b3 the "irst conditional clause9

#here is another construction Gli(adaH -ith this one% "ormed -ith Ea:;o miV 6althou(h96 E&:;o mi cha0atav e% chasma0 (Eono ) li &lthou(h 3ou;re "leein(% John -ill hit Uun e9 E&:;o mi 3al s:;o! li Ea0valil e% chasloElo9 3ou9 &lthou(h the o-ner (ave 3ou his -ord% he -ill deceive 3ou9 4loElo% 6to deceive% de"raud6

*n the other hand% sentences o" t3!e (b)% -hich are "ormed -ith the con0unction Eati 6i" such4and4such had ha!!enedV6 e !ress the result o" a h3!othetical situation that% in actualit3% did not occur or has not occured9 E&ti Ei!i:ot N Ei!an to e% te3ot ta I" 3ou -ere still sic:% 3ou -ould still ana9 be in 3our house9 E&ti Ei!a0i:ot N Ei!a0an ta be e% I" 3ou had (otten sic: on the road% 3ou lacham a9 -ould have died9 E&ti avich;u: li ta:;in e% ana:; I" 3ou had received the mone3% 3ou a9 -ould have hidden it alread39

In these sentences the h3!othetical% but not realized% situation re<uires a sub0uncitveNne(ative "ormative that e !resses its irrealit39 #here is considerable variation amon( =inacantecos -ith res!ect to the a!!ro!riate "orms% but in (eneral the3 "ollo- the "ollo-in( !attern$ Eati V Intransitive 1erb L Sub0unctive L &bsolutive V e% *r$ EatiV Er(ative Pre"i L #ransitive 1erb L Sub0ect L &bsolutive V e% .onsider the "ollo-in( e am!les$ Intransitive$ 'ibat vol0e9 E&ti bati:on vol0e% chi:;ot a lavi e9 'amile9 E&ti milean e% ch;abalot9 I -ent 3esterda39 I" I had (one 3esterda3% I -ould have arrived toda39 He has died9 (!assive "orm) I" 3ou had died% toda3 3ou

-ould not e ist9 (,ote$ mil4e4an4e M :ill L !assive L sub0unctive second !erson L enclitic9) .hEa:bat 0un tzeb9 E&ti Ea:;batu: 0un tzeb e% ta i:;9 #ransitive$ .ha0mil9 E&ti 0mili:ot e% ch;abalot a9 I0mil li Uun e9 E&ti 0milu: li Uun e% ch;abal a9 &la0es avabtel vol0e9 E&ti ala0esu: avabtel vol0e e% chabat a lavi e9 'islaban li Uun e9 E&ti slabani:on li Uun e% i0chu: a9 I -ill :ill 3ou9 I" I had :illed 3ou% 3ou -ould not e ist9 I :illed John9 I" I had :illed John% he -ould not e ist9 Rou "inished 3our -or: 3esterda39 I" 3ou had "inished 3our -or: 3esterda3% 3ou -ould (o toda39 John made "un o" me9 I" John had moc:ed me% I -ould have !ut him in 0ail9 & (irl -as (iven to him9 I" he had been (iven a (irl% he -ould have married her9

#he variation bet-een the !ossible "orms is illustrated b3 the "ollo-in( !air$ E&ti :ili:ot N la:ilu: vol0e e% la0:;o!on Eo 9 I" I had seen 3ou 3esterda3% I -ould have s!o:en -ith 3ou9

In revie-$ these "orms re<uire a sub0unctive "ormative a"ter the verbal stem$ be"ore the absolutive su""i % or in the "inal !osition i" there is no absolutive su""i 9 #he -ord 3echu:% "ormed "rom 3ech 6thus% in this -a3%6 !lus the sub0unctive su""i % can substitute "or a conditional clause (-ith Eati)9 In this usa(e% 3echu: means$ 6i" it -ere the case that% i" thin(s -ere as the3 should beV6 Rou should (o (but 3ou;re not (oin( to)9 I" it -ere as it should be% I -ould not as: rent "or his land9 4lo:; 6rent6 (noun)

(E&ti) 3echu: e% voEot chabat9 7u s:;anbe slo:; 3osil ti 3echu: e9

*ther nouns and ad0ectives combine -ith 4u: -ith simlar meanin(s9 &ll 3ou lac: is mone39 ('iterall3$ It E*3u: noEo ata:;in s:;an9 -ants 3our mone3 to e ist% nothin( more9) It -ould be better i" he -ould hush u!9

7as le: ti ch;abalu: 3e9 E*3u: Eono mas voEne9

('iterall3$ V i" he didn;t have a mouth9) avalbon e% lital I" 3ou had told me% I -ould have come a -hile a(o9

#he sub0unctive su""i 4u: also combines -ith interro(ative and demonstrative -ords in order to (ive an inde"inite meanin(9 Cu ta 0che!an li Ei im eF Cu3u:9 T;usi chala0esF T;usu: noEo 9 'avi Ei!ot e% much;u chtal chabiotF 7uch;u:9 7i chibati: Eo:;obF #e3u:9 +here should I !ut the cornF +herever9 +hat do 3ou -ant to eatF +hatever9 Since 3ou;re sic:%-ho should come to care "or 3ouF +hoever9 &re -e (oin( tomorro-F +henever9

#hese inde"inite -ords !rovide another conte t "or the use o" sub0unctive verbs% Ga "in deH e !ressin( !ossibilit3 or inde"inite desire9 I" 3ou have mone3% 3ou can (o -herever 3ou -ant9 I" 3ou had mone3% 3ou could (o -herever 3ou -ant9 &n3 !erson can come9 &lthou(h 3ou;re tired% "inish 3our -or:Q Ei!% 6(rave% hard6 +ho should I tal: toF JohnF 'et it be him9 &lthou(h it;s onl3 an hour% he can;t -or:9

7i Eo3 ata:;in% bu3u: batan9 E*3u: ata:;in% bu3u: batan9 7uch;u: talu:Nmuch;u: uE tal9 EI!u: noEo lubanNEa:;o mi alub4 la0eso l avabtel e9 7uch;u 0unu:al ta 0:;o!onF 7i 0aE li Uun eF JaEu:9 E&:;o mi 0unu: noEo Eora% mu uE 3uEun abtel9

Finall3% there is a -ord manchu: -hich a!!ears to contain the sub0unctive su""i 4u:% althou(h its ori(in remains obscure9 #he meanin( o" manchu: a!!ears to be related to that o" other sub0unctiveNne(ative constructions9 It -ould be (ood i" it -eren;t rainin(9 I" it -eren;t "or 3our teasin( me% 3our moc:in( me% I -ould (o9 *r$ &lthou(h 3ou scold me% althou(h 3ou moc: me% I am (oin( to (o9 It doesn;t matter that I;m tired% 7anchu: lubemon% chibat9 I al-a3s (o9 *r$ I -ould (o i" I -eren;t tired9 ('au(hlin% ?@AB$22@) #he com!le it3 o" the use o" the 4i:4N4u: a""i includes the im!eratives% the 6<uasi4 sub0unc^tive6 ide"inites% ne(atives% and unreal conditions9 #he meanin( common amon( these uses a!!ears to im!licate an uncertain% un:no-n% unreal% or inde"inite character$ -hat the lin(uist &9 +ierzbic:a calls the 6i(norative96 GRe"erenceF

7anchu: li voE e% le:9

7anch0u: mi chavuton e% manchu: mi chalabanon e% chibat9

8., 2omplex Structures

I:aEi ti labat e9 I:aEi ti chabat e9 7u 0naE mi tz:;an9 Jamal i3al ti Eo3 smul9 7i mu:; avil mi te3F Isno! ta s0ol ti uE bat9 .hi iE Eo ti chibat ta nom9 I heard that 3ou le"t9 I heard that 3ou -ere (oin( to (o9 I don;t :no- i" he -ants to9 He said "ran:l3 that he -as to blame9 Rou didn;t see i" he -as thereF He decided that he could (o9 I am a"raid o" (oin( "ar a-a39

Some #zotzil verbs% -hich e !ress actions such as sa3in(% hearin(% understandin(% :no-in(% as:in(% etc9% acce!t entire clauses as com!lements9 In (eneral% these com!lements be(in -ith the !article ti% -hich corres!onds to the En(lish com!lementizer that9 7i avaEi ti i0atav li Eantz eF Did 3ou hear that the -oman

ran a-a3F +e can re!resent this sentence in the "ollo-in( -a3$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #his com!le structure also occurs -ith the !article mi (-hich -e reco(nize as the interro(ative !article) in !lace o" ti9 Did 3ou hear -hether the -oman "ledF I never heard -hether she "led9

7i avaEi mi i0atav li Eantz eF 7u:; i:aEi mi i0atav e9

#he use o" ti in these constructions im!lies certaint3 about -hat is denoted b3 the subordinate clause% -hile the use o" mi indicates uncertaint39 He -ill sa3 honestl3 that he is (uilt39 He -ill sa3 honestl3 -hether he is (uilt39

(a) (b)

Jamal chal ti Eo3 smul9 Jamal chal mi Eo3 smul9

In sentence (a)% the sub0ect -ill admit that he has committed a crime9 In sentence (b)% -e do not assume that he is (uilt3% but -e do e !ect the sub0ect to admit -hether or not he has committed the crime9 ,ote that certain verbs% due to their meanin(% re<uire mi or ti to introduce a com!lement clause% and the t-o !articles cannot be "reel3 substituted9 For e am!le% the verb 4ch;un 6to believe6 (-hich can also mean 6to obe36) re<uires com!lements -ith ti% -hile the verb 40a:; 6to as:6 re<uires com!lements -ith mi9 7u 0ch;un ti chabat e9 Ca s0a:; mi Eo3 Ei im9 I don;t believe that 3ou;ll (o9 He -ent to as: -hether there -as corn9

Here -e see the !article ti introducin( an assertion (althou(h the sentence ne(ates it) and the !article mi introducin( a <uestion$ a !ro!osition -hich can be <uestioned9 7u snaE ti ila0 ta va:a li chob e9 He doesn;t :no- that some co-s dama(ed his corn"ield9

(Cut the corn"ield reall3 -as dama(ed% althou(h he doesn;t :no- it9) 7u sna mi ila0 ta va:a li chob e9 He doesn;t :no- i"V

In the second sentence% there are t-o !ossible inter!retations% illustrated b3 the "ollo-in( e am!les$ (a) +e have heard that a co- destro3ed various corn"ields near his% but he does not :no- i" his has also been dama(ed9 (b) +e :no- that a co- has dama(ed his corn"ield% but he doesn;t :no-9 In realit3% he does not have an3 idea G-hetherH his corn"ield has been ruined9 In these sentences% the transitive verb re<uires a direct ob0ect that can be a subordinate clause% introduced b3 ti or mi9 .om!lements o" these verbs can be ordinar3 nouns9 I:aEi loEil9 7u 0naE :asti3a9 .hal mantal9 I heard a rumor9 He doesn;t :no- S!anish9 He (ave the orders9

&lso% the ob0ect o" a verb such as 4al or 4aEi can be a com!le combination o" noun and subordinate clause9 I heard a rumor that the o-ner had died9 He tells us -here -e can -or:9

I:aEi loEil ti icham li Ea0valil e9 .hal mantal ti bu uE iEabte0oti:9

#here are also verbs or constructions that do not acce!t ordinar3 ob0ect (nouns)% but nevertheless ta:e com!lement clauses9 He "elt that he -ould soon die9 I3aEi sba ti cham a e9 ('iterall3$ He "elt himsel" that he -ould die9) I0am 3e ta vo:ol ti 0aE stamo0 li He con"essed under duress that ta:;in e9 he -as the one -ho had ta:en the mone39 ('iterall3$ He o!ened his mouth -ith di""icult3% he -ho had ta:en

the mone39) #here are also man3 occasions -hen the !article ti or mi does not a!!ear% or seems to be o!tional9 I sa3 (in other -ords$ it seems to me) (that) he isn;t comin(9 I thou(ht (-ron(l3) that 3ou had alread3 heard9 4aEu:% 6to thin: -ron(l3

.h:al voEon e% mu tal9 (U):aEu: labat a e9

#he use here o" 4al 6to sa36 !lus a com!lement -ithout the introducin( !article di""ers sli(htl3 "rom the use o" the ver3 same verb -ith ti com!lements9 I3al ti chbat e9 .hal li stu: e% chbat9 .h:al voEon e% mu bat9 He said that 3ou -ere (oin(9 &ccordin( to -hat he sa3s% he is (oin(9 Cut I thin: that he -on;t to (o9

#he use o" the -ord ch:al 6I sa36 constitutes a 6!er"ormative6 act o" s!eech% -ith the e""ect o" announin( an o!inion$ 6+hat I sa3 isV Entire clauses% introduced b3 ti or -ithout an3 such !article% can also serve as the (rammatical sub0ect o" some verbs9 7u atun9 7u tun ti chabat e9 #zta:; chalo:;be 3osil9 7u sta:; (ti) cha0atav (e)9 Rou;re no (ood9 It;s no (ood that 3ou;re (oin(9 It;s (oodN!ossible that 3ou;re rentin( him the land9 It;s not (ood that 3ou;re "leein(9

In these cases% there is a!!arentl3 a structure o" the "ollo-in( "orm$

#he subordinate clause in this construction can be transitive9 It;s not !ossible "or me to tal: to 3ou9

7u sta:; cha0:;o!on9

I" the clause that "unctions as (rammatical sub0ect is in the !assive "orm% ho-ever% the structure chan(es as a result9 7u ata:; :;o!onel9 It isn;t !ossible to tal: to 3ou9

+e can re!resent these t-o sentences b3 means o" a dia(ram9 #he "irst a!!ears to have the "ollo-in( structure$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE #he verb 4ta:; is "ormall3 transitiv% and means 6to ans-er96 & sentence li:e the one above thus means somethin( li:e 6G,o sirve (contesta)H that U%6 -here U re!resents the subordinate clause9 In the second e am!le% the (rammatical sub0ect is a !assive sentence o" the "ollo-in( sort$ .ha:;o!onat9 Rou are bein( s!o:en to9

& h3!othetical structure o" the "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE !roduces another structure o" the "ollo-in( "orm$ I,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE -here the lo(ical ob0ect o" the subordinate clause !roduces the er(ative !re"i o" the verb 4ta:; (in other -ords% it acts as the verb;s (rammatical sub0ect)9 .lauses introduced b3 ti also e !ress the cause o" or the motive "or an action9 +e have seen the -ord 3uEun 6because6 used to e !ress the cause o" somethin(9 He is sad (literall3$ his heart is bad) because 3ou;re (oin(9

.ho!ol 3oEon 3uEun chabat9

#he causal relation also can be e !ressed in the "ollo-in( manner (-ith ti or li)$ He is sad5 it;s that (in other -ords$ because) 3ou;re (oin(9

.ho!ol 3oEon% 0a tiNli chabat e9

*r% -ith the relational !article Eo% one can sa3$

.ho!ol El 3oEon ti chabat e9

He is sad as a result o" 3our leavin(9

*ne can see the contrast bet-een these t-o construction4that is% the one usin( an e !lanation and the other e !ressin( a cause4in the "ollo-in( conte t$ In the road he -as a"raid% because he;s still 3oun(9 He -as a"raid that he he didn;t have a com!anion9 GFind translation that better ca!tures contrastQH It -ould be stran(e to sa3$ He -as a"raid that he -as still 3oun(9

#a iE ta be% 0aE tiNli bi:;it to e9 #a iE Eo ti ch;abal chiEil e9

OOO#a iE Eo ti bi:;it to e9

*ne can see that the "ollo-in( sentences are directl3 related$ +ill it rainF ('iterall3$ Is -ater comin(F) He is as:in( -hether it -ill rain9

7i chtal voEF #a s0a:; mi chtal voE9

In a similar -a3% other t3!es o" <uestions seem to serve as the ob0ects o" certain verbs9 +ho is (oin( to San .ristWbalF I don;t :no- -ho is (oin(9 +hat did the !resident sa3F Did 3ou hear -hat he saidF +here -ill -e meet9 'et;s thin: about -here -e;ll meet9

7uch;u chbat ta JobelF 7u 0naE much;u chbat9 T;usi i3al li !reserente eF 7i avaEi :;usi i3alF Cu ta 0tzob 0bati:F #a 0no!ti: bu ta 0tzob 0bati:9

.om!lements o" this sort% introduced b3 the !article ti% mean somethin( de"inite% as in the "ollo-in( e am!les$ Is!as mantal ti much;u uE bat9 He (ave the order sa3in( -ho can (o9

He decided (literall3$ he thou(ht in his Isno! ta s0ol ti bu ta s!as chob9 7u ch;un ti :;u 3e!al ch:;anbat multa9 He doesn;t believe ho- much o" a "ine the3 -ant9 GStructures that o"ten a!!ear to be interro(ative sentences also a!!ear in relative clauses9H Ital li vini: e9 7uch;u vini:F Ital li much;u iEi!a0 ta be e9 7i 0aE li Eo3 s:aE eF #he man came9 +hich (literall3$ -ho) manF #he man -ho (ot sic: on the road came9 Is he the one -ho has a horseFJ head) -here he -as (oin( to ma:e his corn"ield9

In relative clauses% the article li (or ti) !recedes an entire clause% o!tionall3 usin( the interro(ative (M relative) !ronoun to "orm a com!le noun that denotes$ 6the !erson -hoV6 #he same !ossibilit3 e ists -ith :;usi 6-hat% -hichV6$ T;elo :;usi i0ta9 T;usi ataF I0ta li :;usi ach;a3 vol0e e9 7i 0aE li i0ch;a3 ta ch;ivit eF See -hat I "ound9 +hat did 3ou "indF I "ound -hat 3ou lost 3esterda39 +as it -hat I lost in the mar:etF

+ith the !article bu 6-here6 it is necessar3 to add the s!ecial !article 3oE to a relative clause9 Cu laEa3F #e liEa3 3oE (bu) ta chon +here -ere 3ouF I -as there -here the3 sell

loEbol9 "ruits9 7i 0aE li 3oE (bu) (Eo3) ch;ivit +as it -here there;s the eF mar:etF

& similar structure -ith relative clauses e !resses the tense o" an action or the !eriod durin( -hich an action occurs9 In the s!eech o" =inacantecos% there are t-o !articles that introduce such tem!oral clauses$ :;al(al) and 3o:;al9

T;usi Eora icham li Uun eF JaE Eo icham :;alal N 3o:;al iEa3an ch;amal9 7i 0aE Eo :;alal iEa3an li :;o Petul eF

+hen did John dieF He died -hen his child -as born9 +as it -hen little Peter -as bornF

#his :ind o" relative clauses can also combine directl3 -ith the nouns that the3 modi"3% sometimes -ithout an3 :ind o" !ronoun or con0unction9 #here;s a man5 he -ent to =inacantan9 E*3 0un vini:% ibat ta Jte:lum9 (In other -ords$ #here -as a man -ho 7u :o0ti:in li vini: (ti much;u) ibat ta Jte:lum9 E*3 0un EuloE% batem ta !in:a% 0aE imilvan9 JaE imilvan li EuloE (ti) batem -ent to =inacantan9) I don;t :no- the man -ho -ent to =inacantan9 #here -as a .hamulan -ho -ent to the "arm5 he -as the one -ho :illed someone9 It -as the .hamulan -ho -ent to the

ta !in:a9 "arm that :illed someone9 E&li EuloE (ti) batem ta !in:a e% #he .hamulan -ho -ent to the "arm% 0aE ismil li Ea0valil e9 he :illed the mason9

Cut% in (eneral% the relative clause be(ins -ith ti or -ith a relative !ronoun9 I0ch;a3 ta:;in vol0e9 Cu i:om li ta:;in ti i0ch;a3 vol0e eF E&li Uun e% ista li ta:;in ti i0ch;a3 vol0e e9 Isna:; sba ta na li 0Eele:; e9 Cu 0unu:alF #e isna:; sba ta na 3oE (bu) ava:; avi im e9 Ichu: li mol Ua! e9 7uch;u mol Ua!F JaE ichu: li mol Ua! ti (much;u) ichi:;bat sna e9 I lost mone3 3esterda39 +here is the mone3 that I lost 3esterda3F John "ound the mone3 that I lost 3esterda39 #he thie" hid in a house9 +hichF He hid there in the house -here 3ou !ut the corn9 *ld man Sebastian has been 0ailed9 +hich old man SebastianF #he old man Sebastian -hose house burned do-n9

& com!le noun that has a relative clause has the "orm

GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HERE -here the subordinate clause contains the noun U9 It is also necessar3 "or the constituent U in the relative clause to occu!3 a !osition "rom -hich it can be "ronted9 Isman Ei im li :rem e9 E&li :rem e% isman li Ei im e9 I:il li :rem ti isman li Ei im e9 &ma0 li :rem e9 E&li :rem e% ama09 I:il li :rem ti ama0 e9 I0atav s:rem li mol e9 E&li mol e% i0atav s:rem9 I:il li mol ti i0atav s:rem e9 Cut it is not !ossible to sa3$ OOOI:il li Eizim ti isman li :rem e9 to e !ress the idea that$ 6I sa- the corn that the bo3 bou(ht96 From the sentence Isman Ei im li :rem e9 #he bo3 bou(ht corn9 #he bo3 bou(ht corn9 &s "or the bo3% he bou(ht corn9 I sa- the bo3 -ho bou(ht corn9 Rou hit the bo39 #he bo3% 3ou hit him9 I sa- the bo3 3ou hit9 #he son o" the old man "led9 #he old man4his son "led9 I sa- the old man -hose son "led9

onl3 the constituent li :rem e can be "ronted9 #he ob0ect% Ei im% can be "ronted onl3 i" the sentence has a !assive "orm9 Imane (3uEun :rem) li Ei im e9 #he corn -as bou(ht (b3 the bo3)9 E&li Ei im e% imane (3uEun li :rem e)9 I0la0es li Ei im ti imane 3uEun li I "inished o"" the corn (that -as) :rem e9 bou(ht b3 the bo39

Here one sees the strict relationshi! bet-een the "ormulation o" a relative clause and the !osition in the clause o" the noun that "orms the base o" the com!le noun !hrase9 #he in"ormation transmitted b3 a relative clause can also be e !ressed b3 a se<uence o" sentences or clauses9 E&ta0 Ua! e% ichi:;bat sna e% 0aE G& ese vie0ito Sebastian le

ichu:9 E&li na 3oE ava:; avi im e% te isna:; sba li 0Eele:; e9

<uemW su casa5 "ue dl <uien se encarcelW9H #he house -here 3ou !ut 3our corn4the thie" hid himsel" there9

In the last section -e sa- constructions that used Ea:;o !lus a sub0unctive verb to e !ress a desire or intention9 +e -ill no- consider this t3!e o" com!lement in more detail9 #a 0:;an voE9 #a 0:;an ch:uch; voE9 #a 0:;an (ti) chavuch; voE9 #a 0:;an Ea:;o avuch; voE9 I -ant -ater9 I -ant to drin: -ater9 I -ant 3ou to drin: -ater9

.om!le sentences o" this t3!e reduce ambi(uit3% usin( verbal a""i es that clari"3 -ho -ants someone else to do somethin(9 #a 0:;an (ti) cha!;oli:9 #a 0:;an Ea:;o !;olan9 #a 0:;an (ti) !;i0on N chi!;i0ub9

I -ant 3ou (u3s to multi!l39 I -ant to be read39 !;i0% 6read3% intelli(ent6 !;i0ub4% 6(et read36 I -ant the bo3 to (o9

#a 0:;an (ti) chbat li :rem e9 #a 0:;an Ea:;o batu: li :rem e9

,ote that% i" the sub0ect o" the verb 4:;an 6to -ant6 is identical to the sub0ect o" the com!lement clause;s verb (that is% i" the t-o nouns are co4re"erential)% then the construction -ith Ea:;o is im!ossible9 .ha:;an chachan li :asti3a e9 Rou -ant to learn S!anish9 .ha:;an (ti) ta 0chan li :asti3a e9 .ha:;an Ea:;o 0chan li :asti3a e9

Rou -ant me to learn S!anish9

+hen the !rota(onists o" the t-o clauses o" a com!le sentence are nouns% the di""erence bet-een the t-o constructions becomes ver3 im!ortant9 (a) E&li Uun e% tz:;an chchan li John -ants to learn S!anish9

:asti3a e9 (b) E&li Uun e% tz:;an Ea:;o chan John -ants Pedro to learn :asti3a (li Petul e)9 S!anish9 (c) E&li Uun e% tz:;an ti 0aE chchan John -ants it to be Pedro -ho :asti3a (li Petul e)9 learns S!anish9

In e am!le (a)% John -ants to learn S!anish himsel"% -hile in e am!les (b) and (c)% John -ants someone else ("or e am!le% Pedro) to learn S!anish9 #he same structural restriction a!!lies to sentences -ith intransitive com!lements9 He -ants to -or: (literall3$ his heart thin:s that it -or:s)9 He -anted to remain9 ('au(hlin ?@AB$ 2BA)

#zno! 3oEon chEabte09 Isno!ilan ch!a09

In these sentences% the sub0ect o" the "irst verb (transitive) is identical to the sub0ect o" the second verb (intransitive)9 Here the com!lement clause directl3 "ollo-s the "irst verb% -ithout the !article ti% and -ithout the construction -ith Ea:;o L sub0unctive9 *n the other hand% i" the t-o sub0ects are di""erent% a more com!le structure is used9 #he di""erence !resents itsel" in the "ollo-in( e am!les% in ne(ative "orms$ 7u 0:;an 0man chene:;9 7u 0:;an ti chaman chene:;9 7u s:;an bat9 7u s:;an ti chbat9 I don;t -ant to bu3 beans9 I don;t -ant 3ou to bu3 beans9 I don;t -ant to (o9 He doesn;t -ant him to (o9

#he construction -ith 4a:; L com!lement clause does not !ermit the identi"ication o" the sub0ect o" 4a:; and the com!lement sub0ect9 7u a:; lo:;i:on9 7u a:; lo:;u:9 7u lo:;9 He -on;t let me leave9 He -on;t let him leave9 He -on;t leave% he doesn;t -ant to leave% he -on;t let himsel" leave9 +e can conclude this section -ith a "e- "inal notes on those structures that e !ress the motive or intention o" somethin(% as -ell as the result or conse<uence o" an action9 +e have alread3 seen the !article Eo% throu(h -hich t-o related sentences are connected9

Isman Easaluna li Uun e% cha:;inta Eo chob9 John bou(ht a hoe% -ith -hich he is (oin( to clean his corn"ield9

E&li Pavlu e% iEatin ta Eu:;um ta Pablo bathed in the river in Hot Eolon Eosil% 0aE iEi!a0 Eo ta si:4 .ountr3% and that;s -h3 he (ot sic: :;o:9 -ith malaria9

#he !article 3oE !lus Eo introduces clauses that re!resent e !licit motive or intention9 #he old -oman hit her dau(hter4in4 la- -ith a stic:% so that the dau(hter4 in4la- -ould -or: more9

E&li meEel e% i3a:;be teE li 3alib e% 3oE chEbate0 Eo mas9 E&li Uun e% isaE 3a0nil 3oE Eo tzmeltzanbat 3ot9

#he -ord tzmeltzanbat can be anal3zed in the "ollo-in( manner$ tz4meltzan4b4at Im!er"ect4ma:e4Dative4Passive #he sub0ect o" this verb% John% is identical to the sub0ect o" the verb isaE o" the "irst clause9 GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH #he meanin( o" the sentence is best e !ressed throu(h the "ollo-in( translation$ 6John loo:s "or a -i"e% in order that she;ll ma:e his tortillas96 In this sentence% John is the to!ic o" t-o clauses% and it is in"erred that his -i"e is the one -ho is (oin( to ma:e the tortillas9 #he !article 3oE combines -ith to in order to introduce clauses -ith the meanin( 6nothat6 or 6-hile96 #a 0chon :i im 3oE to to3ol I am (oin( to sell m3 corn -hile the

sto0ol9 !rice is hi(h9 Ca s:;o!on sto0balal 3oE to mu ,o- that he still hasn;t (one to the

bat ta !in:a9

"arm% he -ent to tal: -ith his -or:er9 GbadQH

,ote the se<uence o" clauses in the last e am!le$ GI,SER# DI&GR&7 HEREH #he ob0ect o" the hi(her clause is identical to the sub0ect (or the !rinci!al theme) o" the lo-er clause9 In #zotzil% as in S!anish% a chain o" sentences o"ten ta:es a sin(le theme or a sin(le !erson as its to!ic9 E&li Uun e% isut ta Eolon Eosil% John returned to Hot .ountr3% entered iEoch ta sna % mi la0 veEu: e% iva3 to Eora9 his house% and% a"ter he had eaten% sle!t9

Since #zotzil !ermits the omission or elli!sis o" im!licit nouns (and o" 6!ronouns6 o" the "irst and second !erson)% it is necessar3 to :no- the structural im!lications o" these chains o" clauses9 T;usi s!as li Uun eF .hva39 +hat is John doin(F He;s slee!in(9

In (eneral% -hen there is a !ronoun o" the "irst or second !erson% mar:ed b3 a""i es ad0oined to the verb o" the sentence% there is no ambi(uit3 as to -ho does -hat to -hom9 Ho-ever% the order o" constituents and the "orm o" the verb can var3 some-hat9 E&li Uun e% ilo:; ta sna9 JaE Eo &s "or John% he le"t his house% and (at i0ma09 Ilo:; ta sna li Uun e% 0aE Eo i0ma09 Ilo:; ta sna li Uun e% 0aE Eo lisma09 'isma0 li Uun e% 0aE Eo liEanila0 Eech;el9 I0ma0 li Uun e% 0aE Eo liEanila0 Eech;el9 I0ma0 li Uun e% 0aE Eo iEanila0 that moment) I hit him9 John le"t his house% and (at that moment) I hit him9 John le"t his house and hit me9 John hit me and I ran9 I hit John and (I) ran9

I hit John and he ran9 Eech;el9 'isma0 li Uun e% 0aE Eo iEanila0 John hit me and (he) ran9

Eech;el9 *n the other hand% i" the !rota(onists are all in the third !erson (i" the3 are nouns) the verbal a""i es cannot de"initivel3 clari"3 the (rammatical relations9 In such cases% #zotzil uses various devices to indenti"3 the !rinci!al theme o" a sentence9 Isma0 s:aE li Uun e9 Isma0 Petul li Uun e9 John hit his horse9 John hit Peter9

*ne device brin(s the theme% -hich should be the a(ent o" the action% to the initial !osition o" the sentence9 E&li Uun e% isma0 li Petul e9 &s "or John% he hit Peter9

*nce indenti"ied% a noun remains as the theme until another theme is established9 E&li Uun e% isma0 li Petul e% 0aE &s "or John% he hit Peter and later ran Eo i0atav9 o""9

#o sa3 that Peter "led a"ter bein( hit b3 John% one must chan(e the "ocus o" the sentence9 E&li Petule% ima0e 3uEun li Uune% 0aE Eo i0atav9 &s "or Peter% he -as hit b3 John% and later "led9

It is not necessar3 to "ront the theme o" the se<uence o" sentences in ever3 case9 For e am!le% one must inter!ret the "ollo-in( sentence as a descri!tion o" John;s death% and not his horse;s9 Isma0 s:aE li Uun e% 0aE Eo icham9 John hit his horse% and later (he% John) died9

In order to sa3 that the horse died% there are various alternatives9 Isma0 s:aE li Uun e% 0aE Eo icham li :aE Eune9 E&ta0 s:aE li Uun e% ima0e 3uEun 3a0val% 0aE Eo icham9 a0val4il% 6o-ner6 Similarl3% note the contrast bet-een the "ollo-in( sentences$

Ilo:; ta sna% 0aE Eo is:;o!on li

He le"t his house% and later s!o:e to

Uun e9 John (s!ea:in( o" another !erson)9 Ilo:; ta sna% 0aE Eo i:;o!onat li John le"t his house% and later someone Uun e9 It is also !ossible to sa3$ E&li Uun e% ilo:; ta sna% 0aE Eo John le"t his house% and later s!o:e to lis:;o!on9 me9 E&li Uun e% ilo:; ta sna% 0aE Eo John le"t his house% and later I s!o:e to i0:;o!on9 him9 s!o:e to him9

Ho-ever% it a!!ears im!ossible% or at least stran(e% to sa3$ OOOE&li Uun e% ilo:; ta sna% 0aE Eo is:;o!on9 because the ob0ect o" 4:;o!on does not a!!ear% and the sentence remains incom!lete9 +e can !rovide the theme o" the thematic chain% Uun 6John%6 as the sub0ect o" 4:;o!on9 Cut the ob0ect% the !erson John s!o:e to% is un:no-n9 I,SER# DI&GR&7S HERE #he theme o" a sentence is introduced in those !ositions -hich are available% althou(h it is not a basic constituent9 For e am!le% in the "ollo-in( e am!les% the theme is understood as the !ossessor o" a !ossessed noun that "unctions as the sub0ect o" the !rinci!al verb% or as the ob0ect o" a locative !hrase -ith ta9 E&li Uun e% ichi:;bat sna% icham s:aE9 E&li Uun e% iEoch va:a ta chob9 &s "or John% the3 burned his house and his horse died9 &s "or John% a co- entered his corn"ield9

Cut i" the other constituents o" a sentence are !ossible candidates "or bein( the sentence;s theme% the situation becomes com!licated9 &s "or John% a co- entered his corn"ield% and as a result John (ot mad9 Peter entered his (o-n) house9

E&li Uun e% iEoch va:a ta chob% 0aE iEilin Eo9 E&li Petul e% iEoch ta sna9

E&li Petul e% iEoch ta sna li Uun e9 E&li Petul e% iEoch ta sna li Uun e% 0aE iEilin Eo9

&s "or Peter% he entered John;s house9 &s "or Peter% he entered John;s house% and as a result% Peter (and not John) (ot mad9

*nce introduced into a se<uence o" clauses% the theme remains the "ocus until another theme is e !licitl3 introduced9 E&li Petul e% iEoch ta sna li Uun &s "or Peter% he entered John;s house% e% 0aE iEilin Eo li Uun e9 and as a result John (ot an(r39

#he same chan(e o" "ocus can be created b3 a more radical trans"ormation o" the sentence structure9 E&li Uun e% te ta sna iEoch li Petul e% 0aE iEilin Eo9


#he !ra(matic structure o" #zotzil discourse deserves more in4de!th discussion9

Chapter 3
3 In other dialects o" #zotzil !ersonal names carr3 (ender !re"i es$ j- "or men and x- "or -omen9 #hus% in the .hamulan dialect$

li j5etul e 6Peter6 li x+al e 67aria6

0 Phrases that indicate e istence -ith locative com!lements -ith ta can have an inde"inite% or% better said% (eneral sense9 For e am!le%

`0y chon ta te`tik. can have t-o meanin(s$ either 6#here are animals in the "orest (some !articular "orest)6 or 6#here are animals in the "orest ((enerall34s!ea:in()96 #he (eneral sense is% obviousl3% less common in s!eech9

Chapter 4
3 *ther #zotzil4s!ea:ers maintain the !ossibilt3 o" all these sentences% as e<uivalents o" one another$ Te kajnil ta 7abenchauk. Te ta 7abenchauk li kajnil e. Te li kajnil ta 7abenchauk. +y "i(e is in 7abenchauk. Cut onl3 the second sentence seems com!letel3 normal or correct in =inacantec #zotzil9

Chapter !
3 In the s!eech o" certain =inacentecos% one hears locative sentences -ithout the element te% -ith !redicates o" the "orm ta $$ Ta %obel li k'in e. #he !art3 is in San .ristobal9 Ta be li $un e. John is on the road (i9e9% John is travellin()9 #he ma imal "orm44that is% the one -ith te44a!!ears to be the !re"erred "orm9 0 I am not sure i" there is some di""erence bet-een the second <uestion and the "ollo-in(% -hich is e !licitl3 e istential% and contains the attributive "orm o" the ad0ective tzotz (tzatzal)$ +i `oy xa tzatzal vo` ta `olon `osil2 Is there alread3 stron( rain in the lo-landsF Coth sentences are !ossible9 F #he "ollo-in( sentence is !ossible% but indicates e istence and not a s!eci"ic <ualit3$

%?ilol ?onox ?oy bu lek e. #here are al-a3s (ood curers9 1 *n occasion one hears sentences li:e %a? vo?on. %a? li vo?on e. It;s me9 #hese a!!ear to be e tensions o" the !attern -ith nouns% -hich use the !ronouns in an anala(ous "ashion% -ithout re"erence to their historical roots9 6 *ne also hears sentences li:e ? li vo?on e/ kremon to. &s "or me% I am still a bo39 -ith the enclicit and the !ause% but -ithout the article9

Chapter &
3 It is note-orth3 that the -ord -koj does not "unction as an ordinar3 noun% but onl3 b3 itsel" in 6bene"active6 or instrumental constituents9 In order to sa3 6I am at "ault% I am (uilt3%6 one uses the -ord mul-il 6crime% blame% (uilt96 For e am!le$ ?0y jmul9 I am (uilt39 *n the other hand% the -ord :-enta as an ordinar3 noun% sometimes !ossessed% means 6debt96 9laj li j"enta e. 73 debt is "inished9 0 #he e !ression mu jayuk means 6too much% so much that there -as no end to it96 +i ilaj li ?abtel e2 Is the -or: "inished 3etF 4atz'i mu jayuk. It;s over-helmin(9 (In other -ords% it never ends)9 F It is !ossible that the restrictions on the !ossessed "orms o" some nouns is motivated b3 the desire to avoid homo!honous -ord9 For e am!le% the root M?ok% 6turtle6 does not occur -ith !ossessive !re"i es% but onl3 -ith "orms o" ?u?un-il9 %a? ku?un li ?ok le?e. #hat turtle is mine9

#hus% a !ossessed "orm o" 6turtle6 is not con"used -ith a "orm o" the inalienabl3 !ossessed noun ?ok-ol% 6"oot96 %a? kok le?e. #hat is m3 "oot9

Chapter '
3 In other dialects o" #zotzil% the absolutive su""i es are used to mar: the ob0ects o" transitive verbs% -hile the absolutive !re"i es are reserved to indicate the sub0ects o" intransitive verbs9 It is also ver3 common to "orm !er"ective as!ect b3 means o" the verb la04 6to "inish% to end%6 usin( it as an au iliar39 #hus% the !er"ective "orms in .hamulan #zotzil are the "ollo-in($ la0ma0 I hit him9 la0:il I sa- him9 la0ma0ot I hit 3ou9 la0:ilot I sa- 3ou9 lasma0on He hit me9 la03ilon He sa- me9 lasma0ot He hit 3ou9 la03ilot He sa- 3ou9 lama0on Rou hit me9 lavilon Rou sa- me9 lama0 Rou hit him9 lavil Rou sa- him9 *ne can see that these "orms var3 onl3 sli(htl3 "rom the "orms -ith au iliaries$ "or e am!le% the "inal j o" laj disa!!ears in a "e- cases9 Similar "orms occur in =inacantec #zotzil$ la0 0ma0 I "inished hittin( him9 la0 0ma0ot I "inished hittin( 3ou9 la0 sma0on He "inished hittin( me9 la0 sma0ot He "inished hittin( 3ou9 la0 ama0on Rou "inished hittin( me9 la0 ama0 Rou "inished hittin( him9 #he meanin( o" the !er"ective "orms in the .hamulan dialect ma3 be clearer in li(ht o" these e<uivalent "orms9 0 ,ote that in a nominal sentence in -hich the !redicate is a !ossessed noun% the constituent order is di""erent9 ,oun Possessor Sub0ect ? 2 J sban:il A&ntun li Uune9 John is &ndre-;s older brother9 Here% it is the second constituent44that is% the !ossessor44-hich en(enders the !ossessive !re"i 9 F *ne can sa3$

9smil $un yajnil li 5etul e. Peter;s -i"e :illed John9 because the a(ent is Peter;s -i"e and not John;s9 1 #his sentence is% a"ter all% ambi(uous9 It can also mean$ 6John;s -i"e :illed someone6 or 6Someone :illed John;s -i"e96

Chapter (
3 #he "orm kremotik can also mean 6-e are bo3s96 9tal li kremotik e. #he bo3s arrived9 Tzeboxuk pero kremotik. Rou are (irls% but -e are bo3s9 0 #he re"le iveNreci!rocal construction -ith -ba should not be con"used -ith the use o" the -ord -ba% -ith the !ossessive !re"i s-% menain( 6the "irst96 sba yajnil his "irst -i"e sba jch'amal m3 "irst child #here is !ossibilit3 "or some con"usion% en(endered b3 this construction9 9smaj li sba yajnil e. He hit his "irst -i"e9 9smaj sba li yajnil e. His -i"e hit hersel"9 9smilbe sba xch'amal. Hei :illed his0 "irst son9 9smil xch'amal stuk. He i:illed his o-n son9 F #a:e note o" the "ollo-in( sentence$ +i vo`ot ti `ip atot e2 &re 3ou the one -hose "ather is sic:F ('iterall3$ &re 3ou% -ho 3our "ather is sic:F) It is !ossible to "ormulate a relative clause based on a noun that "unctions as !ossessor9