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Acidic Soil Acidic soil is used for gardening throughout landscape which has a pH level below 7.

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Aggregate Aggregates are defined as crushed stone, rockery or rocks which are used in concrete mixtures to give a textured appearance. Back to Top

Alkaline Soil This type of soil has a pH level above the 7.0 mark which makes it dry and plants are hard to grow in this particular soil. Back to Top

Alternate An Alternate is leaves, buds or shoots that occur at the node of the plant. Back to Top

Annual Plants Annual plants are types of flowering plants or shrubs which only grow for a year. They will bloom completely and die out in the winter time or once the bloom of flowers is over. Back to Top

Aquatic Animals Aquatic animals are marine animals which are used as pets in residential ponds. Common animals include: goldfish, koi fish, turtles, crabs etc Back to Top

Aquatic Plants Aquatic plants are marine plants which grow extremely well in fresh water. They are used on ponds to add a touch of greenery. There are very many different types of them available. Back to Top

Arbor An Arbor is a piece of framework that is designed to provide shade or a sitting area in the garden. They are usually made from wood or lattice, which also serves as a structure for climbing vines and other plants. Back to Top


An arcade is the word used to describe a line of arches in a garden setting. Arcades are often a straight line, perhaps lining a walkway, formed by trees or other plants. Back to Top

Baluster A Baluster is one of a series of short posts that provide support to and from a Balustrade. Back to Top

Balustrade A Balustrade is the border of a staircase, or the surroundings of a porch or decking. Back to Top

Base Material Base material is used before pavers are being laid. It is a mixture which generally comprises of crushed stones and rocks and pavers are laid directly onto the base material. The materials need to be compacted before pavers are laid. Back to Top

Bedding Sand Bedding sand is generally used as a base material when delicate pavers are laid. The sand surfaces allow the pavers to be free and level. Back to Top

Belvedere A Belvedere is an architectural structure, such as a gallery or a gazebo. They are often situated in a landscape so as to command a good view of the surroundings. Back to Top

Biennial Plant Biennial plants are a type of plant which grows well for a year without flowering. In its second year of growth it begins to flower and bloom around spring time before dying off in its 3 rd year of growth. Back to Top

Bleeding Bleeding is a term used to describe the oozing of sap through a cut. Back to Top

Branch Collar

The thick ring that forms at the bottom of a branch is called a branch collar. Back to Top

Bud A bud is a shoot which comes off a plant, flower, shrub or tree which contains a flowering shoot. The bud will generally open up during spring time and produce a beautiful flower. Cabinet A Cabinet in landscaping terms is a hedged enclosure at the end of a walkway. Back to Top

Canker Canker is a fungal disease that affects the shoots of plants. Back to Top

Capital A Capitol is a carved or molded decorative head/piece to a column or pilaster. Back to Top

Cascade A fall or trickle of water arranged in a succession of stages, which forms a water feature. Back to Top

Clay Clay is generally found beneath the soil in most gardens. Clay is a muddy like material which is very thick in texture. Back to Top

Compaction Compaction is the process of inducing close packing of solid particles such as soil, sand, or aggregate. Back to Top

Compost Compost is a rich, nutrient filled soil that is formed by decaying organic matter. Compost is used as an additive to gardens and lawns to enrich the quality of the existing soil. Back to Top

Concept Lines Visible or invisible lines that define spaces in the landscape or divide areas.

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Concept Plans Concept Plans are the initial drawings of how the spaces in the landscape will appear. Back to Top

Concrete Pavers These are commonly used as hardscapes throughout landscaping. They are available in a wide variety of colors, shapes and sizes to suit any particular pattern and style. They are the most inexpensive paving material. Back to Top

Corner Plantings Any planting group that occupies a corner location. Back to Top

Cross-pollination Cross-pollination is a process where pollen from the flower of one plant fertilizes the flower of another plant. Back to Top

Curbing This is generally used around the edging of garden beds and landscaping. It creates a barrier between gardens and hardscapes. For example: it will help contain soil from traveling through to driveways. Concrete is a curbing material used commonly in the landscaping industry. Back to Top

Deciduous Tree This is a type of tree or shrub which will shed its leaves and some branches during the foliage and fall seasons. Back to Top

Decking This is an addition to a residential home or pool area. It is raised up off ground level and creates the perfect setting in the landscaping. Timber and imitation timbers are commonly used to build decks. Back to Top

Defoliation Defoliation generally occurs during foliage where the plants, trees or shrubs lose all of their leaves and prepare for the winter frost. Back to Top

Do-It-Yourself Do-it-yourself is also known as DIY is a homeowners or handy person willing to give a landscaping or gardening project a go themselves without the hiring of a professional. Back to Top

Dormancy The temporary cession of growth during winter seasons Back to Top

Draft Designs Draft Designs are the preliminary designs consisting of key plants, hardscape features as well as concept lines and spaces. Back to Top

Drainage Drainage in landscaping helps to keep the gardens free from flooding and over watering. Proper drainage helps to have a successful landscaped garden and watering system. It will also prevent wastage. Back to Top

Drip Irrigation This is a type of irrigation system which is installed directly near the roots of all garden plants. The irrigation will slowly release water to the roots of the plants in small doses. Edge Paver An Edge Paver is made with a straight side or it is cut straight to be placed against an edge restraint. Back to Top

Edge Restraint A type of edging material that contains the sand and pavers so they do not move and lose their interlocked position. Back to Top

Edging Edging is commonly referred to in landscaping as a type of border for garden beds and paved surfaces. Edging helps to keep paved surfaces clean and free of debris, dirt and leaves. Back to Top


Erosion is a natural weathering process. It is described as the soil particles being moved and shifted by wind, water and rainfall. Back to Top

Erosion Control Erosion control is a method used to prevent erosion from occurring in the landscaping. Back to Top

Erosion Control Product Erosion control products are used to prevent and contain erosion. Common products used nowadays include: gabion baskets, retaining walls, erosion control blankets. Back to Top

Espalier A row of fruit trees trained on a framework of lines and stakes to form a hedge. Back to Top

Evergreen Evergreen is defined as a plant which generally stays green and leafy all year round. Back to Top

Environmentally Sound An environmentally sound landscape does not harm the environment, soil, water, and air. They are less dependent on pesticides, fertilizers, and water. Back to Top

Fence Fences are used in landscaping to create privacy and boundary lines between properties and also to enhance the look of the property. Many different materials can be used such as: wood, iron, aluminum and vinyl. Back to Top

Fence Gate A fence gate is installed onto a fence which allows homeowners and guests to access the property via a car or by foot. Fence gates also provide greater protection from unwanted guests. Back to Top


Fertilizer is commonly used in landscaping to encourage growth for trees, flowers, shrubs and plants. It is generally done a couple of times a year and there are very many different types of fertilizers which are designed to suit different types of plants. Back to Top

Filters Filters are used in swimming pools and ponds to help keep the water in these landscaping features clean and healthy. Large and small filters operate to remove bacteria and germs from the water. Back to Top

Flowers Flowers are defined as a plant which blooms through a certain time of the year or all year round depending. Flowers generally bloom in the spring time and there is a wide variety of flower species which can be used to beautify landscaped gardens. Back to Top

Fountain A fountain is a landscaping feature which is generally described as an object which flows water from top to bottom. Fountains act as focal points throughout landscaping and can help to beautify and create serene sounds around homes and commercial properties. Back to Top

Foliage Is the term used to describe leaves on a plant or of many plants Back to Top

Frost line Is the top layer of soil in the landscaping which freezes during the winter time. Back to Top

Fruit Trees Is a type of tree which produces fruit seasonally. Garden A garden is a space of the landscaping which is filled with flowers, trees, plants and shrubs. Back to Top

Garden Bed A garden bed is raised off the ground slightly by a retaining wall and edging. It is filled with soil and planted trees, flowers and shrubs to create an individual garden area in landscaping. Back to Top

Garden Hose A garden hose is a type of landscaping equipment which helps to water landscaping by hand. Back to Top

Garden Furniture Garden furniture is used in landscaping to provide a peaceful space to sit back and relax. Commonly known garden furniture items are chairs, tables and benches. Back to Top

Garden Ornaments Garden ornaments include: gnomes, statues, pots and urns. They are used to create individuality in the garden area. Back to Top

Geogrids Geogrids can be two dimensional or three dimensional. This geogrid material is generally placed between the soil and the base to reduce rutting and provide stability under loads for cohesionless soils. Back to Top

Geotextiles Geotextile is usually made from woven or non-woven fabrics made from plastic fibers. It is used for separation, reinforcement, or drainage between pavement layers. Back to Top

Ground Cover Plants which grow horizontally on the ground are known as Ground Cover. This is the best solution for shady and high traffic areas Back to Top

Hardscape Hardscaping is described as paved or concrete areas of the landscaping or any other hard surface. Back to Top

Hedges Hedges are referred to as plants which can be hedged to create a shape or style in the landscaping. They are generally used as privacy walls in landscaping. Back to Top

Herbaceous Plants which are soft in tissue compared to woody and hardy types of plants. Back to Top

Herbicides Is a type of pesticide which is used to prevent pest infestation on fruit trees and plants. Back to Top

Herringbone Pattern Herringbone patterns can be 45 or 90 depending on the orientation of the joints with respect to the direction of the traffic. Back to Top

Hybrid A Hybrid is a plant that is result of crossing two different plant species. Back to Top

Hydro Seeding Hydro seeding is the process of planting seeds on farm and rural properties which is conducted by heavy machinery which scatters the seeds from the machine evenly. ICPI The Interlocking Concrete Paver Institute is recognized as a leading contributor for establishing paver industry standards. Back to Top

Impervious Soil that has become tightly packed because of extensive compaction, either during construction or due to foot traffic. Back to Top

Impervious Cover Surfaces that do not allow water to infiltrate into the soil. Such as: pavements, roofs, sidewalks, driveways. Back to Top

Insecticide An insecticide is a pesticide solution that kills all insect types that may cause horrendous problems and damages in ornamental gardens, vegetable gardens, fruit trees and livestock. Back to Top

Interlock Interlock is the word used to describe the frictional forces between paving units that prevent them from moving horizontally or vertically in relation to each other. Also, Interlock is defined as the inability of a concrete paver to move independently of its neighbors. This type of friction enables load transfer among the paving units. Back to Top

Irrigation Irrigation helps to keep gardens watered regularly without over using water supply. Irrigation is also used to help save and recycle water on residential and commercial properties. Back to Top

Irrigation Drainage Irrigation drainage is underlying in the landscaping and useful when recycling water and prevents runoff and flooding issues. Back to Top

Island Bed Flower beds that are set apart from the landscape surrounding them. Back to Top

Joints Joints are a paving term used to describe the open space between 2 pavers. Sand fills in the joints between pavers upon completion. Back to Top

Joint Filling Sand Sand used to fill the joints between pavers. Back to Top

Joint Sand Gap The vertical distance between the bottom of the chamfer of a paver and the top of the sand in the joint. Back to Top

Joint Sand Stabilizer A type of liquid penetrating or dry mix applied that provide early stabilization of joint sand, reduces its permeability, sand loss and helps prevent weeds. Back to Top

Joint Sand Sand swept into the openings between the pavers. Back to Top

Joint or Joint Spacing The distance between the sides of the pavers not including the spacers that is typically filled with joint sand. Back to Top

Key Plants Key Plants is a landscaping term which is used to describe important and key plants which will dominate the landscaping and become focal points throughout it. Landscape Architect This is a person who has studied the field of landscaping and can draw up scaled plans of designs for residential, commercial and public landscaping for a fee. Back to Top

Landscape Designer This is a person who is creative and can completely design landscaping gardens for new homes, renovations or any type of landscaping project. Back to Top

Landscaping Elements When landscaping is being designed there are 5 major elements which need to be considered for the overall look and appearance. These elements include: Line, Texture, Balance, Form and Shape Back to Top

Landscaping Fabric Landscaping fabric is a type of geo-textile which is commonly used for erosion measures and sometimes underlay for garden beds, ponds and water features. Back to Top

Landscape Lighting Landscape lighting is a type of outdoor lighting which is used to beautify landscaping at night time and to help homeowners be safe when moving around a property at night time, offering great night vision. Back to Top

Landscape Maintenance This is defined as maintaining and looking after the complete landscape from mowing lawns to cleaning pools and pruning gardens, also helps to maintain a healthy fresh looking landscape.

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Landscape Ornaments These are objects which can be implemented in to the garden or landscape design. Examples are: statues, sundials, gnomes, wind chimes etc Back to Top

Landscape Presentation This means the overall appearance of the landscaping and what it looks like in scale. Back to Top

Landscape Software This is a type of software which allows home landscaping to be modified to what it could look like, gives homeowners good opportunity to try different landscaping designs and ideas. Back to Top

Landscape Tools A wide variety of gardening tools which should be kept in a gardening shed. Examples are: pruning tools, lawn equipment, protective gear etc. Back to Top

Landscaping The outdoor area of a residential or commercial property which features hardscaping and softscaping. Back to Top

Lawn The ground surface of outdoor areas which is also referred to as turf or grass. Back to Top

Lawn Equipment Machines and tools which are used to maintain the lawn regularly. Examples are: lawn mower, edger and lawn clippers. Back to Top

Leaves Are generally of a green color and are found on trees, plants, shrubs and flowers. Most leaves are lost during the fall due to the foliage season. Maintainability

This is the process of trying to make every individual segment of a landscape as easy to care for as possible. A maintainable landscape requires less labor, fewer supplies, and is less expensive to care for. Back to Top

Masonry Hardscape materials ranging from pavers to retaining wall blocks. Back to Top

Mortar A mixture of fine cements and aggregates which is used as an adhesive for pavers and retaining walls. Back to Top

Mortar Sand Sand used in mortar. Back to Top

Mosaics Pavers used to create pictorial maps, murals, or geometric patterns. Back to Top

Mulch Is nutrients and minerals which are used to help grow plants, trees and shrubs healthily as it encourages growth patterns and behaviors. Back to Top

Natural Stone Pavers Are quarried all over the world to produce fine naturally formed pavers which offer unique and individual characteristics which can not be matched by man made materials. Back to Top

Node The Node is the point on the stem from which leaves, shoots or flowers stem from. Back to Top

Optimum Moisture Content The water content at which a soil can be compacted to a maximum dry unit weight by a given compacting effort. Back to Top

Organic Impurities Organic Impurities can be peat, roots, topsoil or decomposing materials in soil, sand or aggregate. Back to Top

Organic Matter A household mix of food, dead leaves and decomposed plants and trees which are used to offer soil and plants nutrients and to encourage growth naturally. Back to Top

Organic Soil Is a type of soil which contains no harsh chemicals and mainly vegetative compounds. Back to Top

Ornament Architectural decoration such as urns, statuary, and friezes which ornament a landscape. Back to Top

Outdoor Furniture Is used throughout landscaping to provide a space to relax and sit down and enjoy your own privacy in the landscaped area. Common examples are: tables, chairs, benches and umbrellas. Back to Top

Outdoor Lighting Used to make outdoor areas safe at night. Night vision is improved with lighting and helps to enhance the surround landscape. Patio An outdoor area which can be an addition to the home or built free standing. It is generally known as a quiet area where guests can be entertained or can sit back by the pool side. Patios can be hardscaped and feature many ornaments. Back to Top

Pavers Single blocks of either concrete, brick or stone used to produce hardscape areas in various patterns. Back to Top

Perennial This is a type of plant which the flowers return after the fall season and also after a year of being planted. Back to Top

Pergola Is a under cover area outside the home which is used for entertaining guests and relaxing. Pergolas can be an addition to the home or built free standing. Back to Top

Pesticides Pesticides are a chemical used to control pests such as insects and common plant bugs to prevent them from attacking plants, flowers and trees. Back to Top

Pest Management Pest management is the common practice of control pests in the landscaping with the use of chemicals and planting strategies. Back to Top

Plant Care Is the common practice of maintaining and looking after plants by watering, fertilizing and mulching regularly to help encourage healthy growth. Back to Top

Pond Is a type of landscaping water feature which can be situated in the garden. Filled with animals and plants, it creates harmony and serenity. Back to Top

Pots Are a garden ornaments which are made from various materials. They can carry and grow plants, flowers and trees. Back to Top

Pruning Pruning is conducted on plants, flowers and trees by using garden equipment to remove all dead and dying leaves and branches to keep the plants healthy and it also encourages growth on fruit trees and flowering plants. Back to Top

Pumps Pumps are used in pools, ponds, fountains and other landscaping water features to keep the water moving and to stay clean and clear.

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Quincunx Quincunx is an arrangement of five objects, usually trees, with one at each corner of a rectangle and one at the center. Back to Top

Quoin A Quoin is one of a series of stones laid at the exterior corners and angles of a building and consisting of contrasting material to that of the wall. Back to Top

Retaining Walls Are used as features in landscaping and commonly used as erosion control methods. Single units of masonry are stacked together to create a retaining wall of any size. Back to Top

Retention Pond A Retention Pond is a body of water that collects runoff and stays full permanently. Excess runoff is released into a storm sewer or watercourse. Back to Top

Root Pruning Root pruning is the removal of dead plant or shrub roots which are keeping only part of the plant from not growing properly. Back to Top

Rotunda A Rotunda is any circular or domed building. They are often used in landscaping to create a shaded area suitable for rest and relaxation. Back to Top

Running Bond Course A paver course where lengths abut against the edge restraint. Also known as a "sailor course." Back to Top

Running or Stretcher Bond A laying pattern for pavers, with continuous joint lines in one direction and four pavers are staggered from one row to the next.

Sandy Soil Sandy soil is a soil which has a very high content of sand. This soil is very coarse and harsh for plants and trees to grow in and generally found in urban areas. Back to Top

Screen Plantings Screen plantings are used to crate privacy around the home and landscaping. Back to Top

Shrubs Shrubs are multi-stemmed plants. Some flower, others are evergreens. There is a wide variety of shrub species used in landscaping. Back to Top

Softscape Softscape is defined as all plants, flowers and trees used in landscaping. Back to Top

Soil Soil is found in landscaping and used for planting trees, flowers and shrubs. Soil has a pH level of 5.5 which is normal. Soil can be affected by erosion and needs to be well watered and maintained. Back to Top

Soil Stabilizer Soil stabilizer is a product which is used to help keep the pH level of the soil low and regular for healthy plant growth. Back to Top

Specialty Lighting Specialty lighting is used in landscaping to create night vision in landscaping. Colored lighting also helps to enhance features throughout the landscaping. Back to Top

Sprinkler System Sprinkler systems are used on large or small properties to help keep landscaping well maintained. Back to Top


Is used to hold trees which are top heavy and falling down because of their weight. Back to Top

Swimming Pool Swimming pools are installed into backyards to create a relaxing place for all the family to enjoy. Back to Top

Tetrastyle An architectural unit consisting of four columns. Back to Top

Terracing Terracing is the term given to the process of building walls to hold the soil in place on a sloped landscape. Back to Top

Texture The Texture of a plant describes its coarseness or fineness. Texture should be one of the first design considerations when placing plants in a landscaped area. Back to Top

Theatre Tiers or terraces in a hillside that resembles the concave formation of seats in a theatre. Back to Top

Tonsure The shaping of evergreens by clipping. Back to Top

Topsoil Surface soil, usually containing organic matter. Back to Top

Topiary Is defined as plants and shrubs, which can be cut to shape, sizes and designs which are unique and individual. Topiary creates character in landscaping dramatically. Unity Unity is the term used to describe how well the entire design of the landscape comes together. Every element of the landscape should complement one another; not compete for attention.

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Urns Is a type of garden ornament which is used for decorative purposes in the landscaping. They are made of masonry materials and can be used to house plants. Back to Top

Variegated Leaves Are types of leaves which have different patterns and colors throughout them. Back to Top

Variety In landscaping terms, Variety refers to the mixing up of form, texture and color combinations in a landscape in order to create interest without sacrificing the simplicity of the design. Back to Top

Vegetable Garden A vegetable garden is filled with herbs, vegetables and fruits which are home grown and cared for by homeowners. Back to Top

Vista A wide viewpoint into the countryside. Waterfall Waterfalls are water features which are predominately used throughout landscaping to create harmony and serenity with the use of water. Waterfalls can be man made or purchased from local garden centres. Back to Top

Water Drainage Water drainage is important on properties to prevent flooding in the landscaping and runoff to other areas surrounding the property. Back to Top

Water Feature A Water Feature is the term used to refer to ponds, waterfalls and fountains in a landscaped setting. Back to Top

Water Tank

Is an item which is used to collect and store rainfall. The water is recycled and used throughout the landscaping to help keep gardens watered. Back to Top

Water Treatment Is the practice of treating water on the property which is contaminated by algae and bacteria. Chemicals are generally used. Back to Top

Xeriscape Is a term used to describe landscaping designs and measures which are only suitable for drought tolerant areas and areas which are under conservation management plans. Back to Top

Zoning Zoning in landscaping terms is when different paver colors, textures, shapes, laying patterns, and surface elevations are used to delineate pedestrian and vehicular areas or districts.