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Report on Advance Instrumentation (Geol.


Submitted to: Dr. Samina Siddiqui Submitted by: Ghazi Mustafa (MS Geology)

National Centre for Excellence in Geology University of Peshawar

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1.1 Introduction
The advanced instrumentation is a course offered to MS/M.Phill students to get them a better understanding of the laboratories and the equipments used in them. This practice helps students to familiarize themselves with the working knowledge of the instruments so it can help them in future research work. The various laboratories at the NCEG include i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. viii. Geotechnical laboratory Geochemistry laboratory Geophysics laboratory Thin section cutting and polishing laboratory GIS laboratory Paleoclimatology laboratory Petroleum Geology laboratory Geodesy laboratory

1.2 Geotechnical Laboratory

1.2.1 Equipments
This includes Rammers Containers CBR testing machine Hydrometer Compression testing machine Los Angeles machine Oven Balances Sieve shaker and sieves Casagrande's apparatus Shrinkage limit apparatus Standard proctor model

1.2.2 Tests Performed

Four tests were performed which were Sieve Analysis, Moisture content, Abrasion test, California bearing ratio (CBR) test. Sieve Analysis

Sieve analysis is a method used to determine the grain size distribution of soils. Sieves are made of woven wires with square openings. As the sieve number increases the size of the openings decreases. Sieve analysis does not provide information as to shape of particles.

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Equipment Sieves, a bottom pan, and a cover. Usually Sieve numbers 4, 10, 20, 40, 60, 140, and 200 are generally used for most standard sieve analysis work. A balance sensitive up to 0.1 g. Mortar and rubber-tipped pestle. Oven. Mechanical sieve shaker

Procedure 1. First of all I collected a representative oven dry soil sample. Samples having largest particles of the size of No. 4 sieve openings (4.75 mm) was about 500 grams. For soils having largest particles of size greater than 4.75 mm, larger weights are needed. 2. Then I broke the soil sample into individual particles using a mortar and a rubber-tipped pestle. The idea was to break up the soil into individual particles, not to break the particles themselves. 3. After that I determined the mass of the sample accurately to 0.1 g (W). 4. I prepared a stack of sieves. A sieve with larger openings is placed above a sieve with smaller openings. The sieve at the bottom should be No. 200. A bottom pan was placed under sieve No. 200. The sieves that are generally used in a stack are Nos. 4, 10,20,40,60, 140, and 200; however, more sieves can be placed in between. 5. Then we I poured the soil prepared in step 2 into the stack of sieves from the top. 6. I placed the cover on the top of the stack of sieves. 7. I ran the stack of sieves through a sieve shaker for about 10 to 15 minutes. 8. Then I stopped the sieve shaker and removed the stack of sieves. 9. I weighed the amount of soil retained on each sieve and the bottom pan. 10. If a considerable amount of soil with silty and clayey fractions is retained on the No. 200 sieve, it has to be washed. Washing is done by taking the No. 200 sieve with the soil retained on it and pouring water through the sieve from a tap in the laboratory. Calculation 1. First calculate the percent of soil retained on the nth sieve (counting from the top)

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2. Calculate the cumulative percent of soil retained on the nth sieve

3. Calculate the cumulative percent passing through the nth sieve Moisture content by dry method

Moisture content is defined as

Equipment 1. Moisture can(s). 2. Oven with temperature control. For drying, the temperature of oven is generally kept between 105C to 110C. 3. Balance. The balance has a readability of 0.01 g for specimens having amass of 200 g or less. Procedure 1. First of all I determined the mass (g) of the empty moisture can plus its cap (W1), and also recorded the number. 2. Then I placed a sample of representative moist soil in the can. I closed the can with its cap to avoid loss of moisture. 3. After wards I determine the combined mass (g) of the closed can and moist soil (W2). 4. I removed the cap from the top of the can and placed it on the bottom of the can. 5. Then I put the can (in step 4) in the oven to dry the soil to a constant weight. In most cases, 24 hours of drying is enough. 6. 7. In the end, I determined the combined mass (g) of the dry soil sample plus the can and its cap (W3). Calculation 1. Calculate the mass of moisture = W2 - W3 2. Calculate the mass of dry soil = W3 W1 3. Calculate the water content

___________________________________Report on Advance Instrumentation Abrasion Test
This test is performed to find the strength of aggregates (hard rocks) used as construction material. The Los Angeles Abrasion test (LA) is used for this purpose. Equipment Los Angeles machine, Sieves, balance, steel balls, scoop, sample trays, oven, and wire brush. Procedure 1. First I placed the test specimen and abrasive charge in the Los Angeles Abrasive Testing Machine and closed the opening with the dust-tight cover. 2. Then I started the testing machine and allowed it to operate for the required number of revolutions. 3. When the testing machine had completed rotating the required number of revolutions, I removed the cover and carefully emptied the entire contents into a pan. 4. I removed the abrasive charge from the pan. Then I separated the test specimen on the 4.75-mm sieve. After that I sieved the passing 4.75 mm material on the 1.70 mm sieve. I combined the material retained on the 4.75 and 1.70-mm sieves. I Weighed and recorded these values to the nearest 1 g. 5. If the mass of material retained on the 1.70 mm sieve was determined after 100 revolutions, return the entire test specimen, including the material passing the 1.70 mm sieve, to testing machine. Close the opening in the testing machine and operate for the required number of additional revolutions, then repeat Step 3 and 4 above. Calculation Calculate the "Percent Wear" to the nearest % using the following equation: Percent Wear = [(A - B)/A)] x 100 Where: A = Mass of original test specimen, to the nearest 1 g B = Mass retained on the 1.70mm sieve after the specified number of revolutions, to the nearest 1g

___________________________________Report on Advance Instrumentation CBR Test (California bearing Ratio)
This test is done for classifying the suitability of a soil for use in construction. Equipment Mould, Spacer disk, CBR testing machine, filter paper, surcharge weight, oven and balance. Procedure This test is done in three different moulds. Soil is compacted in three layers and no of blows is different for each layer in each mould. After the certain processes sample is kept in compaction machine and applied load not greater than 4.5kg. Penetration reading is taken with corresponding load reading and recorded on data sheet. Six moisture samples is taken. Calculation Following is calculated from observations: Wet Density, Dry Density, M.C and CBR. CBR= test unit stress/ standard unit stress x100 %.

1.3 Thin section cutting and polishing laboratory

The students are taught to make thin sections which are used for the petrographic study of rocks. Equipments a) Rock cutting machines b) Grinding and lapping machines c) Vacuum impregnation unit d) Hot plate e) Trim machine Procedure 1) First I cut the rock slab. 2) Then I marked the slab and cut the chip. 3) After that I labelled one side of the chip, and impregnated the other side with CD epoxy. 4) I hand grinded the chip first with 400 grit, then with 1000 grit. 5) I frost the glass slide. 6) I washed the chip and slide. 7) Then I cemented the chip to the slide using A-B epoxy. 8) I trimmed off the excess epoxy, and labelled the section. 9) I trimmed off the chip using the chip trim saw. 10) Then I grinded the section on the thin section machine. 11) I wash the section. 12) Then I surface impregnate the section using C-D epoxy. 13) I then hand grinded the section using 600 grit. 6

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14) I finished hand grinding using 1000 grit (or finer). 15) I trimmed off excess epoxy from around the section. 16) I wash the section again. 17) Then I put on the coverslip. 18) I removed excess balsam with a razor blade, and then acetone. 19) I labelled the section and it last it was ready.