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UNIVERSITY OF CAPE TOWN

DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICAL SCIENCES


STA2020F
TEST 2
Hannah Gerber
Time: 1 hour 30 minutes
Internal examiner(s):
19 April 2010
Total marks: 50
Date:
Total number of questions: 3
Total number of pages: 17
Instructions: Answer all questions in the answer book(s) provided. The appropriate tables
and formulae have been provided.
Question 1

[28]

In order to study the effects of two types of promotional expenditures on the sales of a line of
beauty products, sixteen locations were used to gather information about media advertising
expenditures (in thousands of rands)
, point-of-sale expenditures (in thousands of rands)
as well as sales volume in (in ten thousands of rands)
during the test period.
df

SS

MS

Significance F

Regression

17312.85

8656.425

46.65212

1.17E-06

Residual

13

2412.185

185.5527

Total

15

19725.03

Table 1.1: ANOVA table

Coefficients

Standard
Error

t Stat

P-value

Intercept

44.17563

15.02855

2.939447

0.011503

Media expenditure (in R1000)

2.941814

0.3113

9.450085

3.45E-07

Point-of-sale expenditure (in R1000)

0.086895

0.311971

0.278537

0.784982

Table 1.2: Regression coefficients summary output


a) State the model that was fitted based on the data provided.
(1)
b) Comment on the validity of the model. Perform the appropriate test to justify your
answer.
(4)
c) Compute and interpret the multiple coefficient of determination.
(2)
d) Compute the adjusted multiple coefficient of determination and justify why this
measure is needed in addition to the multiple coefficient of determination.
(3)
e) Calculate and interpret the multiple correlation coefficient.
(2)
f) Test if the point-of-sale expenditure coefficient is significant at the 5% level of
significance, using a confidence interval.
(7)
g) Interpret the media expenditure coefficient estimate.
(2)

For media expenditure of R50 000 and point-of-sale expenditure of R40 000, the output in
table 1.2 was obtained.
Predicted value

194.7421

Prediction Interval
Lower limit

162.9391

Upper limit

226.5451

Interval Estimate of Expected Value


Lower limit

182.6831

Upper limit

206.8011

Table 1.3: Interval estimates


h) Interpret both confidence intervals.

(5)

When performing a residual analysis, the following plot was obtained:

Residuals

Media expenditure (in R1000) Residual Plot


30
25
20
15
10
5
0
-5 15
-10
-15
-20
-25

25

35

45

55

65

Media expenditure (in R1000)

Graph 1.1: Media expenditure residual plot


i) State any concerns that may be raised by this plot and state how one could attempt to
rectify.
(2)

Question 2

[13]

To determine what factors affect absenteeism, 100 companies were ask to provide
information about the average number of days absent, per employee
, the average
employee wage
, the percentage part-time employees
, the percentage of unionised
employees
, the availability of shift work
and the union-management relationship
. Variables
and
were defined as indicator variables. For the variable related to
shift work two levels were specified, whether or not shift work was available. Shift work not
available was coded as the reference/base case. If the union-management relationship was
good, the variable was coded 1 and 0 otherwise. The output obtained from Excel is given in
table 2.1.

Intercept
Wage
Percentage part time employees
Percentage unionised employees
Availability of shift work
Union-management relationship

Coefficients
10.26479
-0.0002
-0.10687
0.059854
1.561942
-2.63665

Standard
Error
1.17237
3.57E-05
0.029492
0.012403
0.502656
0.492175

t Stat
8.755593
-5.69052
-3.62367
4.825578
3.107379
-5.35713

Table 2.1: Regression coefficient summary


a) Perform the appropriate hypothesis test, using critical values at the 1% level of
significance, to determine if the percentage part time employees parameter is
significant.
(4)
b) Define the indicator variable associate with the availability of shift work parameter.
(1)
c) Interpret the union-management relationship coefficient.
(2)
d) If the researchers wanted to include an interaction term between the percentage
unionised members and the union-management relationship, how would they
incorporate this variable into the model and how could they determine if it was
significant or not?
(3)

A residual vs. predicted value plot for the fitted model is given in graph 3.1.
Residual vs. predicted value
10
8

Residuals

6
4
2
0
-2 0

10

12

14

-4
-6

Predicted values

Graph 2.1: Residual vs. predicted value plot


e) Relating to the satisfaction of the assumptions underlying the regression analysis, are
any concerns raised when considering graph 2.1? Justify your answer.
(3)

Question 3

[9]

A product needs to undergo a fermentation process that takes a few days to complete. To
determine the amount of the product (in litres) that will be produced
, a multiple
regression model is fitted using the concentration of saccharide used
, as a percentage,
the number of hours before fermentation ceases
and the temperature range during
fermentation
. When the regression analysis was run on the data obtained from 23
batches, the output in table 3.1 was obtained.

Coefficients

Standard
Error

t Stat

P-value

Intercept

162.8759

25.77565

6.318983

4.59E-06

Concentration of saccharide (percentage)


Number of hours before fermentation
ceases
Temperature range during fermentation (in
degrees C)

-1.21032

0.301452

-4.01497

0.00074

-0.66591

0.820997

-0.81109

0.427356

-8.61303

12.24125

-0.70361

0.490211

Table 3.1: Regression coefficients summary output

a) If backward stepwise regression was used with


variable to remove, if applicable. Justify your answer.

, identify the appropriate


(5)

Normal probability plot


20

Expected normal value

15

-20

10
5
0
-15

-10

-5

-5 0

10

15

20

-10
-15
-20

Residuals

Graph 3.1: Normal probability plot


b) Based on the normal probability plot, would you have any concerns regarding
normality? Justify your answer.
(2)
c) When performing a chi-square test a test statistic value of 2.6633 was obtained with a
corresponding -value of 0.1027. State the hypothesis tested in this instance as well
as the conclusion drawn.
(2)
THE END

FORMULAE: MULTIPLE REGRESSION


Multiple regression model (for the sake of defining

Parameter estimate:
Residual:
Variance of regression coefficient estimate:
Mean squared error:
Sum of squares:

Multiple coefficient of determination:


Adjusted multiple coefficient of determination:
Test statistics:

Confidence intervals:

and ):

TABLES
STANDARD NORMAL DISTRIBUTION: Areas under the standard normal curve between

z
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.1
1.2
1.3
1.4
1.5
1.6
1.7
1.8
1.9
2.0
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6
2.7
2.8
2.9
3.0
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
4.0

0.00
0.0000
0.0398
0.0793
0.1179
0.1554
0.1915
0.2257
0.2580
0.2881
0.3159
0.3413
0.3643
0.3849
0.4032
0.4192
0.4332
0.4452
0.4554
0.4641
0.4713
0.4772
0.4821
0.4861
0.4893
0.49180
0.49379
0.49534
0.49653
0.49744
0.49813
0.49865
0.49903
0.49931
0.49952
0.49966
0.49977
0.49984
0.49989
0.49993
0.49995
0.49997

0.01
0.0040
0.0438
0.0832
0.1217
0.1591
0.1950
0.2291
0.2611
0.2910
0.3186
0.3438
0.3665
0.3869
0.4049
0.4207
0.4345
0.4463
0.4564
0.4649
0.4719
0.4778
0.4826
0.4864
0.4896
0.49202
0.49396
0.49547
0.49664
0.49752
0.49819
0.49869
0.49906
0.49934
0.49953
0.49968
0.49978
0.49985
0.49990
0.49993
0.49995
0.49997

0.02
0.0080
0.0478
0.0871
0.1255
0.1628
0.1985
0.2324
0.2642
0.2939
0.3212
0.3461
0.3686
0.3888
0.4066
0.4222
0.4357
0.4474
0.4573
0.4656
0.4726
0.4783
0.4830
0.4868
0.4898
0.49224
0.49413
0.49560
0.49674
0.49760
0.49825
0.49874
0.49910
0.49936
0.49955
0.49969
0.49978
0.49985
0.49990
0.49993
0.49996
0.49997

0.03
0.0120
0.0517
0.0910
0.1293
0.1664
0.2019
0.2357
0.2673
0.2967
0.3238
0.3485
0.3708
0.3907
0.4082
0.4236
0.4370
0.4484
0.4582
0.4664
0.4732
0.4788
0.4834
0.4871
0.4901
0.49245
0.49430
0.49573
0.49683
0.49767
0.49831
0.49878
0.49913
0.49938
0.49957
0.49970
0.49979
0.49986
0.49990
0.49994
0.49996
0.49997

0.04
0.0160
0.0557
0.0948
0.1331
0.1700
0.2054
0.2389
0.2704
0.2995
0.3264
0.3508
0.3729
0.3925
0.4099
0.4251
0.4382
0.4495
0.4591
0.4671
0.4738
0.4793
0.4838
0.4875
0.4904
0.49266
0.49446
0.49585
0.49693
0.49774
0.49836
0.49882
0.49916
0.49940
0.49958
0.49971
0.49980
0.49986
0.49991
0.49994
0.49996
0.49997

0.05
0.0199
0.0596
0.0987
0.1368
0.1736
0.2088
0.2422
0.2734
0.3023
0.3289
0.3531
0.3749
0.3944
0.4115
0.4265
0.4394
0.4505
0.4599
0.4678
0.4744
0.4798
0.4842
0.4878
0.4906
0.49286
0.49461
0.49598
0.49702
0.49781
0.49841
0.49886
0.49918
0.49942
0.49960
0.49972
0.49981
0.49987
0.49991
0.49994
0.49996
0.49997

0.06
0.0239
0.0636
0.1026
0.1406
0.1772
0.2123
0.2454
0.2764
0.3051
0.3315
0.3554
0.3770
0.3962
0.4131
0.4279
0.4406
0.4515
0.4608
0.4686
0.4750
0.4803
0.4846
0.4881
0.4909
0.49305
0.49477
0.49609
0.49711
0.49788
0.49846
0.49889
0.49921
0.49944
0.49961
0.49973
0.49981
0.49987
0.49992
0.49994
0.49996
0.49998

0.07
0.0279
0.0675
0.1064
0.1443
0.1808
0.2157
0.2486
0.2794
0.3078
0.3340
0.3577
0.3790
0.3980
0.4147
0.4292
0.4418
0.4525
0.4616
0.4693
0.4756
0.4808
0.4850
0.4884
0.4911
0.49324
0.49492
0.49621
0.49720
0.49795
0.49851
0.49893
0.49924
0.49946
0.49962
0.49974
0.49982
0.49988
0.49992
0.49995
0.49996
0.49998

0.08
0.0319
0.0714
0.1103
0.1480
0.1844
0.2190
0.2517
0.2823
0.3106
0.3365
0.3599
0.3810
0.3997
0.4162
0.4306
0.4429
0.4535
0.4625
0.4699
0.4761
0.4812
0.4854
0.4887
0.4913
0.49343
0.49506
0.49632
0.49728
0.49801
0.49856
0.49896
0.49926
0.49948
0.49964
0.49975
0.49983
0.49988
0.49992
0.49995
0.49997
0.49998

and , i.e.

0.09
0.0359
0.0753
0.1141
0.1517
0.1879
0.2224
0.2549
0.2852
0.3133
0.3389
0.3621
0.3830
0.4015
0.4177
0.4319
0.4441
0.4545
0.4633
0.4706
0.4767
0.4817
0.4857
0.4890
0.4916
0.49361
0.49520
0.49643
0.49736
0.49807
0.49861
0.49900
0.49929
0.49950
0.49965
0.49976
0.49983
0.49989
0.49992
0.49995
0.49997
0.49998

t-DISTRIBUTION: One sided critical values, i.e. the value of


of freedom.

n
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200
z

0.4
0.325
0.289
0.277
0.271
0.267
0.265
0.263
0.262
0.261
0.260
0.260
0.259
0.259
0.258
0.258
0.258
0.257
0.257
0.257
0.257
0.257
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.256
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.255
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.254
0.253

0.3
0.727
0.617
0.584
0.569
0.559
0.553
0.549
0.546
0.543
0.542
0.540
0.539
0.538
0.537
0.536
0.535
0.534
0.534
0.533
0.533
0.532
0.532
0.532
0.531
0.531
0.531
0.531
0.530
0.530
0.530
0.530
0.530
0.530
0.529
0.529
0.529
0.529
0.529
0.529
0.529
0.528
0.528
0.527
0.527
0.526
0.526
0.526
0.526
0.526
0.526
0.525
0.525
0.525
0.524

0.2
1.376
1.061
0.978
0.941
0.920
0.906
0.896
0.889
0.883
0.879
0.876
0.873
0.870
0.868
0.866
0.865
0.863
0.862
0.861
0.860
0.859
0.858
0.858
0.857
0.856
0.856
0.855
0.855
0.854
0.854
0.853
0.853
0.853
0.852
0.852
0.852
0.851
0.851
0.851
0.851
0.850
0.849
0.848
0.847
0.846
0.846
0.845
0.845
0.845
0.844
0.844
0.844
0.843
0.842

0.1
3.078
1.886
1.638
1.533
1.476
1.440
1.415
1.397
1.383
1.372
1.363
1.356
1.350
1.345
1.341
1.337
1.333
1.330
1.328
1.325
1.323
1.321
1.319
1.318
1.316
1.315
1.314
1.313
1.311
1.310
1.309
1.309
1.308
1.307
1.306
1.306
1.305
1.304
1.304
1.303
1.301
1.299
1.296
1.294
1.292
1.291
1.290
1.289
1.289
1.288
1.287
1.286
1.286
1.282

0.05
6.314
2.920
2.353
2.132
2.015
1.943
1.895
1.860
1.833
1.812
1.796
1.782
1.771
1.761
1.753
1.746
1.740
1.734
1.729
1.725
1.721
1.717
1.714
1.711
1.708
1.706
1.703
1.701
1.699
1.697
1.696
1.694
1.692
1.691
1.690
1.688
1.687
1.686
1.685
1.684
1.679
1.676
1.671
1.667
1.664
1.662
1.660
1.659
1.658
1.656
1.654
1.653
1.653
1.645

such that

Probability Level P
0.025
0.01
12.706 31.821
4.303
6.965
3.182
4.541
2.776
3.747
2.571
3.365
2.447
3.143
2.365
2.998
2.306
2.896
2.262
2.821
2.228
2.764
2.201
2.718
2.179
2.681
2.160
2.650
2.145
2.624
2.131
2.602
2.120
2.583
2.110
2.567
2.101
2.552
2.093
2.539
2.086
2.528
2.080
2.518
2.074
2.508
2.069
2.500
2.064
2.492
2.060
2.485
2.056
2.479
2.052
2.473
2.048
2.467
2.045
2.462
2.042
2.457
2.040
2.453
2.037
2.449
2.035
2.445
2.032
2.441
2.030
2.438
2.028
2.434
2.026
2.431
2.024
2.429
2.023
2.426
2.021
2.423
2.014
2.412
2.009
2.403
2.000
2.390
1.994
2.381
1.990
2.374
1.987
2.368
1.984
2.364
1.982
2.361
1.980
2.358
1.977
2.353
1.975
2.350
1.973
2.347
1.972
2.345
1.960
2.326

, where

0.005
63.657
9.925
5.841
4.604
4.032
3.707
3.499
3.355
3.250
3.169
3.106
3.055
3.012
2.977
2.947
2.921
2.898
2.878
2.861
2.845
2.831
2.819
2.807
2.797
2.787
2.779
2.771
2.763
2.756
2.750
2.744
2.738
2.733
2.728
2.724
2.719
2.715
2.712
2.708
2.704
2.690
2.678
2.660
2.648
2.639
2.632
2.626
2.621
2.617
2.611
2.607
2.603
2.601
2.576

0.0025
127.321
14.089
7.453
5.598
4.773
4.317
4.029
3.833
3.690
3.581
3.497
3.428
3.372
3.326
3.286
3.252
3.222
3.197
3.174
3.153
3.135
3.119
3.104
3.091
3.078
3.067
3.057
3.047
3.038
3.030
3.022
3.015
3.008
3.002
2.996
2.990
2.985
2.980
2.976
2.971
2.952
2.937
2.915
2.899
2.887
2.878
2.871
2.865
2.860
2.852
2.846
2.842
2.839
2.807

is the degrees

0.001
318.309
22.327
10.215
7.173
5.893
5.208
4.785
4.501
4.297
4.144
4.025
3.930
3.852
3.787
3.733
3.686
3.646
3.610
3.579
3.552
3.527
3.505
3.485
3.467
3.450
3.435
3.421
3.408
3.396
3.385
3.375
3.365
3.356
3.348
3.340
3.333
3.326
3.319
3.313
3.307
3.281
3.261
3.232
3.211
3.195
3.183
3.174
3.166
3.160
3.149
3.142
3.136
3.131
3.090

0.0005
636.619
31.599
12.924
8.610
6.869
5.959
5.408
5.041
4.781
4.587
4.437
4.318
4.221
4.140
4.073
4.015
3.965
3.922
3.883
3.850
3.819
3.792
3.768
3.745
3.725
3.707
3.690
3.674
3.659
3.646
3.633
3.622
3.611
3.601
3.591
3.582
3.574
3.566
3.558
3.551
3.520
3.496
3.460
3.435
3.416
3.402
3.390
3.381
3.373
3.361
3.352
3.345
3.340
3.291

CHI-SQUARED DISTRIBUTION: One sided critical values, i.e. the value of


is the degrees of freedom, for
.

df
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

0.4
0.708
1.833
2.946
4.045
5.132
6.211
7.283
8.351
9.414
10.473
11.530
12.584
13.636
14.685
15.733
16.780
17.824
18.868
19.910
20.951
21.991
23.031
24.069
25.106
26.143
27.179
28.214
29.249
30.283
31.316
32.349
33.381
34.413
35.444
36.475
37.505
38.535
39.564
40.593
41.622
46.761
51.892
62.135
72.358
82.566
92.761
102.946
113.121
123.289
143.604
163.898
184.173
204.434

0.3
1.074
2.408
3.665
4.878
6.064
7.231
8.383
9.524
10.656
11.781
12.899
14.011
15.119
16.222
17.322
18.418
19.511
20.601
21.689
22.775
23.858
24.939
26.018
27.096
28.172
29.246
30.319
31.391
32.461
33.530
34.598
35.665
36.731
37.795
38.859
39.922
40.984
42.045
43.105
44.165
49.452
54.723
65.227
75.689
86.120
96.524
106.906
117.269
127.616
148.269
168.876
189.446
209.985

0.2
1.642
3.219
4.642
5.989
7.289
8.558
9.803
11.030
12.242
13.442
14.631
15.812
16.985
18.151
19.311
20.465
21.615
22.760
23.900
25.038
26.171
27.301
28.429
29.553
30.675
31.795
32.912
34.027
35.139
36.250
37.359
38.466
39.572
40.676
41.778
42.879
43.978
45.076
46.173
47.269
52.729
58.164
68.972
79.715
90.405
101.054
111.667
122.250
132.806
153.854
174.828
195.743
216.609

0.1
2.706
4.605
6.251
7.779
9.236
10.645
12.017
13.362
14.684
15.987
17.275
18.549
19.812
21.064
22.307
23.542
24.769
25.989
27.204
28.412
29.615
30.813
32.007
33.196
34.382
35.563
36.741
37.916
39.087
40.256
41.422
42.585
43.745
44.903
46.059
47.212
48.363
49.513
50.660
51.805
57.505
63.167
74.397
85.527
96.578
107.565
118.498
129.385
140.233
161.827
183.311
204.704
226.021

Probability level
0.05
0.025
0.01
3.841
5.024
6.635
5.991
7.378
9.210
7.815
9.348
11.345
9.488
11.143
13.277
11.070
12.833
15.086
12.592
14.449
16.812
14.067
16.013
18.475
15.507
17.535
20.090
16.919
19.023
21.666
18.307
20.483
23.209
19.675
21.920
24.725
21.026
23.337
26.217
22.362
24.736
27.688
23.685
26.119
29.141
24.996
27.488
30.578
26.296
28.845
32.000
27.587
30.191
33.409
28.869
31.526
34.805
30.144
32.852
36.191
31.410
34.170
37.566
32.671
35.479
38.932
33.924
36.781
40.289
35.172
38.076
41.638
36.415
39.364
42.980
37.652
40.646
44.314
38.885
41.923
45.642
40.113
43.195
46.963
41.337
44.461
48.278
42.557
45.722
49.588
43.773
46.979
50.892
44.985
48.232
52.191
46.194
49.480
53.486
47.400
50.725
54.776
48.602
51.966
56.061
49.802
53.203
57.342
50.998
54.437
58.619
52.192
55.668
59.893
53.384
56.896
61.162
54.572
58.120
62.428
55.758
59.342
63.691
61.656
65.410
69.957
67.505
71.420
76.154
79.082
83.298
88.379
90.531
95.023 100.425
101.879 106.629 112.329
113.145 118.136 124.116
124.342 129.561 135.807
135.480 140.917 147.414
146.567 152.211 158.950
168.613 174.648 181.840
190.516 196.915 204.530
212.304 219.044 227.056
233.994 241.058 249.445

such that

0.005
7.879
10.597
12.838
14.860
16.750
18.548
20.278
21.955
23.589
25.188
26.757
28.300
29.819
31.319
32.801
34.267
35.718
37.156
38.582
39.997
41.401
42.796
44.181
45.559
46.928
48.290
49.645
50.993
52.336
53.672
55.003
56.328
57.648
58.964
60.275
61.581
62.883
64.181
65.476
66.766
73.166
79.490
91.952
104.215
116.321
128.299
140.169
151.948
163.648
186.847
209.824
232.620
255.264

0.0025
9.141
11.983
14.320
16.424
18.386
20.249
22.040
23.774
25.462
27.112
28.729
30.318
31.883
33.426
34.950
36.456
37.946
39.422
40.885
42.336
43.775
45.204
46.623
48.034
49.435
50.829
52.215
53.594
54.967
56.332
57.692
59.046
60.395
61.738
63.076
64.410
65.739
67.063
68.383
69.699
76.223
82.664
95.344
107.808
120.102
132.256
144.293
156.230
168.082
191.566
214.809
237.855
260.735

where

0.001
10.828
13.816
16.266
18.467
20.515
22.458
24.322
26.124
27.877
29.588
31.264
32.909
34.528
36.123
37.697
39.252
40.790
42.312
43.820
45.315
46.797
48.268
49.728
51.179
52.620
54.052
55.476
56.892
58.301
59.703
61.098
62.487
63.870
65.247
66.619
67.985
69.346
70.703
72.055
73.402
80.077
86.661
99.607
112.317
124.839
137.208
149.449
161.581
173.617
197.451
221.019
244.370
267.541

0.0005
12.116
15.202
17.730
19.997
22.105
24.103
26.018
27.868
29.666
31.420
33.137
34.821
36.478
38.109
39.719
41.308
42.879
44.434
45.973
47.498
49.011
50.511
52.000
53.479
54.947
56.407
57.858
59.300
60.735
62.162
63.582
64.995
66.403
67.803
69.199
70.588
71.972
73.351
74.725
76.095
82.876
89.561
102.695
115.578
128.261
140.782
153.167
165.435
177.603
201.683
225.481
249.048
272.423

5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION, i.e. the value of


denominator degrees of freedom respectively

DEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

1
161.4
18.51
10.13
7.71
6.61
5.99
5.59
5.32
5.12
4.96
4.84
4.75
4.67
4.60
4.54
4.49
4.45
4.41
4.38
4.35
4.32
4.30
4.28
4.26
4.24
4.23
4.21
4.20
4.18
4.17
4.16
4.15
4.14
4.13
4.12
4.11
4.11
4.10
4.09
4.08
4.06
4.03
4.00
3.98
3.96
3.95
3.94
3.93
3.92
3.91
3.90
3.89
3.89

2
199.5
19.00
9.55
6.94
5.79
5.14
4.74
4.46
4.26
4.10
3.98
3.89
3.81
3.74
3.68
3.63
3.59
3.55
3.52
3.49
3.47
3.44
3.42
3.40
3.39
3.37
3.35
3.34
3.33
3.32
3.30
3.29
3.28
3.28
3.27
3.26
3.25
3.24
3.24
3.23
3.20
3.18
3.15
3.13
3.11
3.10
3.09
3.08
3.07
3.06
3.05
3.05
3.04

3
215.7
19.16
9.28
6.59
5.41
4.76
4.35
4.07
3.86
3.71
3.59
3.49
3.41
3.34
3.29
3.24
3.20
3.16
3.13
3.10
3.07
3.05
3.03
3.01
2.99
2.98
2.96
2.95
2.93
2.92
2.91
2.90
2.89
2.88
2.87
2.87
2.86
2.85
2.85
2.84
2.81
2.79
2.76
2.74
2.72
2.71
2.70
2.69
2.68
2.67
2.66
2.65
2.65

4
224.6
19.25
9.12
6.39
5.19
4.53
4.12
3.84
3.63
3.48
3.36
3.26
3.18
3.11
3.06
3.01
2.96
2.93
2.90
2.87
2.84
2.82
2.80
2.78
2.76
2.74
2.73
2.71
2.70
2.69
2.68
2.67
2.66
2.65
2.64
2.63
2.63
2.62
2.61
2.61
2.58
2.56
2.53
2.50
2.49
2.47
2.46
2.45
2.45
2.44
2.43
2.42
2.42

5
230.2
19.30
9.01
6.26
5.05
4.39
3.97
3.69
3.48
3.33
3.20
3.11
3.03
2.96
2.90
2.85
2.81
2.77
2.74
2.71
2.68
2.66
2.64
2.62
2.60
2.59
2.57
2.56
2.55
2.53
2.52
2.51
2.50
2.49
2.49
2.48
2.47
2.46
2.46
2.45
2.42
2.40
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.32
2.31
2.30
2.29
2.28
2.27
2.26
2.26

where NUM and DEN are the numerator and

NUM (degrees of freedom)


6
7
8
9
234.0 236.8 238.9 240.5
19.33 19.35 19.37 19.38
8.94
8.89
8.85
8.81
6.16
6.09
6.04
6.00
4.95
4.88
4.82
4.77
4.28
4.21
4.15
4.10
3.87
3.79
3.73
3.68
3.58
3.50
3.44
3.39
3.37
3.29
3.23
3.18
3.22
3.14
3.07
3.02
3.09
3.01
2.95
2.90
3.00
2.91
2.85
2.80
2.92
2.83
2.77
2.71
2.85
2.76
2.70
2.65
2.79
2.71
2.64
2.59
2.74
2.66
2.59
2.54
2.70
2.61
2.55
2.49
2.66
2.58
2.51
2.46
2.63
2.54
2.48
2.42
2.60
2.51
2.45
2.39
2.57
2.49
2.42
2.37
2.55
2.46
2.40
2.34
2.53
2.44
2.37
2.32
2.51
2.42
2.36
2.30
2.49
2.40
2.34
2.28
2.47
2.39
2.32
2.27
2.46
2.37
2.31
2.25
2.45
2.36
2.29
2.24
2.43
2.35
2.28
2.22
2.42
2.33
2.27
2.21
2.41
2.32
2.25
2.20
2.40
2.31
2.24
2.19
2.39
2.30
2.23
2.18
2.38
2.29
2.23
2.17
2.37
2.29
2.22
2.16
2.36
2.28
2.21
2.15
2.36
2.27
2.20
2.14
2.35
2.26
2.19
2.14
2.34
2.26
2.19
2.13
2.34
2.25
2.18
2.12
2.31
2.22
2.15
2.10
2.29
2.20
2.13
2.07
2.25
2.17
2.10
2.04
2.23
2.14
2.07
2.02
2.21
2.13
2.06
2.00
2.20
2.11
2.04
1.99
2.19
2.10
2.03
1.97
2.18
2.09
2.02
1.97
2.18
2.09
2.02
1.96
2.16
2.08
2.01
1.95
2.16
2.07
2.00
1.94
2.15
2.06
1.99
1.93
2.14
2.06
1.98
1.93

10

10
241.9
19.40
8.79
5.96
4.74
4.06
3.64
3.35
3.14
2.98
2.85
2.75
2.67
2.60
2.54
2.49
2.45
2.41
2.38
2.35
2.32
2.30
2.27
2.25
2.24
2.22
2.20
2.19
2.18
2.16
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.11
2.10
2.09
2.08
2.08
2.05
2.03
1.99
1.97
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.88

11
243.0
19.40
8.76
5.94
4.70
4.03
3.60
3.31
3.10
2.94
2.82
2.72
2.63
2.57
2.51
2.46
2.41
2.37
2.34
2.31
2.28
2.26
2.24
2.22
2.20
2.18
2.17
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.11
2.10
2.09
2.08
2.07
2.07
2.06
2.05
2.04
2.04
2.01
1.99
1.95
1.93
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.87
1.86
1.85
1.84
1.84

12
243.9
19.41
8.74
5.91
4.68
4.00
3.57
3.28
3.07
2.91
2.79
2.69
2.60
2.53
2.48
2.42
2.38
2.34
2.31
2.28
2.25
2.23
2.20
2.18
2.16
2.15
2.13
2.12
2.10
2.09
2.08
2.07
2.06
2.05
2.04
2.03
2.02
2.02
2.01
2.00
1.97
1.95
1.92
1.89
1.88
1.86
1.85
1.84
1.83
1.82
1.81
1.81
1.80

13
244.7
19.42
8.73
5.89
4.66
3.98
3.55
3.26
3.05
2.89
2.76
2.66
2.58
2.51
2.45
2.40
2.35
2.31
2.28
2.25
2.22
2.20
2.18
2.15
2.14
2.12
2.10
2.09
2.08
2.06
2.05
2.04
2.03
2.02
2.01
2.00
2.00
1.99
1.98
1.97
1.94
1.92
1.89
1.86
1.84
1.83
1.82
1.81
1.80
1.79
1.78
1.77
1.77

14
245.4
19.42
8.71
5.87
4.64
3.96
3.53
3.24
3.03
2.86
2.74
2.64
2.55
2.48
2.42
2.37
2.33
2.29
2.26
2.22
2.20
2.17
2.15
2.13
2.11
2.09
2.08
2.06
2.05
2.04
2.03
2.01
2.00
1.99
1.99
1.98
1.97
1.96
1.95
1.95
1.92
1.89
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.80
1.79
1.78
1.78
1.76
1.75
1.75
1.74

5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION (continued)

DEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

15
245.9
19.43
8.70
5.86
4.62
3.94
3.51
3.22
3.01
2.85
2.72
2.62
2.53
2.46
2.40
2.35
2.31
2.27
2.23
2.20
2.18
2.15
2.13
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.06
2.04
2.03
2.01
2.00
1.99
1.98
1.97
1.96
1.95
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.89
1.87
1.84
1.81
1.79
1.78
1.77
1.76
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.72
1.72

16
246.5
19.43
8.69
5.84
4.60
3.92
3.49
3.20
2.99
2.83
2.70
2.60
2.51
2.44
2.38
2.33
2.29
2.25
2.21
2.18
2.16
2.13
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.05
2.04
2.02
2.01
1.99
1.98
1.97
1.96
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.87
1.85
1.82
1.79
1.77
1.76
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.72
1.71
1.70
1.69

17
246.9
19.44
8.68
5.83
4.59
3.91
3.48
3.19
2.97
2.81
2.69
2.58
2.50
2.43
2.37
2.32
2.27
2.23
2.20
2.17
2.14
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.02
2.00
1.99
1.98
1.96
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.89
1.86
1.83
1.80
1.77
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.72
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.68
1.67

18
247.3
19.44
8.67
5.82
4.58
3.90
3.47
3.17
2.96
2.80
2.67
2.57
2.48
2.41
2.35
2.30
2.26
2.22
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.10
2.08
2.05
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.99
1.97
1.96
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.88
1.87
1.84
1.81
1.78
1.75
1.73
1.72
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.68
1.67
1.66
1.66

19
247.7
19.44
8.67
5.81
4.57
3.88
3.46
3.16
2.95
2.79
2.66
2.56
2.47
2.40
2.34
2.29
2.24
2.20
2.17
2.14
2.11
2.08
2.06
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.99
1.97
1.96
1.95
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.88
1.87
1.86
1.85
1.82
1.80
1.76
1.74
1.72
1.70
1.69
1.68
1.67
1.66
1.65
1.64
1.64

NUM (degrees of freedom)


20
22
24
27
248.0 248.6 249.1 249.6
19.45 19.45 19.45 19.46
8.66
8.65
8.64
8.63
5.80
5.79
5.77
5.76
4.56
4.54
4.53
4.51
3.87
3.86
3.84
3.82
3.44
3.43
3.41
3.39
3.15
3.13
3.12
3.10
2.94
2.92
2.90
2.88
2.77
2.75
2.74
2.72
2.65
2.63
2.61
2.59
2.54
2.52
2.51
2.48
2.46
2.44
2.42
2.40
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.33
2.31
2.29
2.27
2.28
2.25
2.24
2.21
2.23
2.21
2.19
2.17
2.19
2.17
2.15
2.13
2.16
2.13
2.11
2.09
2.12
2.10
2.08
2.06
2.10
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.00
2.05
2.02
2.01
1.98
2.03
2.00
1.98
1.96
2.01
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.99
1.97
1.95
1.92
1.97
1.95
1.93
1.90
1.96
1.93
1.91
1.89
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.93
1.91
1.89
1.86
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.85
1.91
1.88
1.86
1.84
1.90
1.87
1.85
1.83
1.89
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.88
1.85
1.83
1.81
1.87
1.85
1.82
1.80
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.79
1.85
1.83
1.81
1.78
1.85
1.82
1.80
1.77
1.84
1.81
1.79
1.77
1.81
1.78
1.76
1.73
1.78
1.76
1.74
1.71
1.75
1.72
1.70
1.67
1.72
1.70
1.67
1.65
1.70
1.68
1.65
1.63
1.69
1.66
1.64
1.61
1.68
1.65
1.63
1.60
1.67
1.64
1.62
1.59
1.66
1.63
1.61
1.58
1.65
1.62
1.60
1.57
1.64
1.61
1.59
1.56
1.63
1.60
1.58
1.55
1.62
1.60
1.57
1.54

11

30
250.1
19.46
8.62
5.75
4.50
3.81
3.38
3.08
2.86
2.70
2.57
2.47
2.38
2.31
2.25
2.19
2.15
2.11
2.07
2.04
2.01
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.87
1.85
1.84
1.83
1.82
1.81
1.80
1.79
1.78
1.77
1.76
1.75
1.74
1.71
1.69
1.65
1.62
1.60
1.59
1.57
1.56
1.55
1.54
1.53
1.52
1.52

40
251.1
19.47
8.59
5.72
4.46
3.77
3.34
3.04
2.83
2.66
2.53
2.43
2.34
2.27
2.20
2.15
2.10
2.06
2.03
1.99
1.96
1.94
1.91
1.89
1.87
1.85
1.84
1.82
1.81
1.79
1.78
1.77
1.76
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.72
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.66
1.63
1.59
1.57
1.54
1.53
1.52
1.50
1.50
1.48
1.47
1.46
1.46

60
252.2
19.48
8.57
5.69
4.43
3.74
3.30
3.01
2.79
2.62
2.49
2.38
2.30
2.22
2.16
2.11
2.06
2.02
1.98
1.95
1.92
1.89
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.80
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.68
1.67
1.66
1.65
1.65
1.64
1.60
1.58
1.53
1.50
1.48
1.46
1.45
1.44
1.43
1.41
1.40
1.39
1.39

100
253.0
19.49
8.55
5.66
4.41
3.71
3.27
2.97
2.76
2.59
2.46
2.35
2.26
2.19
2.12
2.07
2.02
1.98
1.94
1.91
1.88
1.85
1.82
1.80
1.78
1.76
1.74
1.73
1.71
1.70
1.68
1.67
1.66
1.65
1.63
1.62
1.62
1.61
1.60
1.59
1.55
1.52
1.48
1.45
1.43
1.41
1.39
1.38
1.37
1.35
1.34
1.33
1.32

200
253.7
19.49
8.54
5.65
4.39
3.69
3.25
2.95
2.73
2.56
2.43
2.32
2.23
2.16
2.10
2.04
1.99
1.95
1.91
1.88
1.84
1.82
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.73
1.71
1.69
1.67
1.66
1.65
1.63
1.62
1.61
1.60
1.59
1.58
1.57
1.56
1.55
1.51
1.48
1.44
1.40
1.38
1.36
1.34
1.33
1.32
1.30
1.28
1.27
1.26

2.5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION, i.e. the value of


denominator degrees of freedom respectively

DEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

1
647.8
38.51
17.44
12.22
10.01
8.81
8.07
7.57
7.21
6.94
6.72
6.55
6.41
6.30
6.20
6.12
6.04
5.98
5.92
5.87
5.83
5.79
5.75
5.72
5.69
5.66
5.63
5.61
5.59
5.57
5.55
5.53
5.51
5.50
5.48
5.47
5.46
5.45
5.43
5.42
5.38
5.34
5.29
5.25
5.22
5.20
5.18
5.16
5.15
5.13
5.12
5.11
5.10

2
799.5
39.00
16.04
10.65
8.43
7.26
6.54
6.06
5.71
5.46
5.26
5.10
4.97
4.86
4.77
4.69
4.62
4.56
4.51
4.46
4.42
4.38
4.35
4.32
4.29
4.27
4.24
4.22
4.20
4.18
4.16
4.15
4.13
4.12
4.11
4.09
4.08
4.07
4.06
4.05
4.01
3.97
3.93
3.89
3.86
3.84
3.83
3.82
3.80
3.79
3.78
3.77
3.76

3
864.2
39.17
15.44
9.98
7.76
6.60
5.89
5.42
5.08
4.83
4.63
4.47
4.35
4.24
4.15
4.08
4.01
3.95
3.90
3.86
3.82
3.78
3.75
3.72
3.69
3.67
3.65
3.63
3.61
3.59
3.57
3.56
3.54
3.53
3.52
3.50
3.49
3.48
3.47
3.46
3.42
3.39
3.34
3.31
3.28
3.26
3.25
3.24
3.23
3.21
3.20
3.19
3.18

4
899.6
39.25
15.10
9.60
7.39
6.23
5.52
5.05
4.72
4.47
4.28
4.12
4.00
3.89
3.80
3.73
3.66
3.61
3.56
3.51
3.48
3.44
3.41
3.38
3.35
3.33
3.31
3.29
3.27
3.25
3.23
3.22
3.20
3.19
3.18
3.17
3.16
3.15
3.14
3.13
3.09
3.05
3.01
2.97
2.95
2.93
2.92
2.90
2.89
2.88
2.87
2.86
2.85

5
921.8
39.30
14.88
9.36
7.15
5.99
5.29
4.82
4.48
4.24
4.04
3.89
3.77
3.66
3.58
3.50
3.44
3.38
3.33
3.29
3.25
3.22
3.18
3.15
3.13
3.10
3.08
3.06
3.04
3.03
3.01
3.00
2.98
2.97
2.96
2.94
2.93
2.92
2.91
2.90
2.86
2.83
2.79
2.75
2.73
2.71
2.70
2.68
2.67
2.66
2.65
2.64
2.63

where NUM and DEN are the numerator and

NUM (degrees of freedom)


6
7
8
9
937.1 948.2 956.7 963.3
39.33 39.36 39.37 39.39
14.73 14.62 14.54 14.47
9.20
9.07
8.98
8.90
6.98
6.85
6.76
6.68
5.82
5.70
5.60
5.52
5.12
4.99
4.90
4.82
4.65
4.53
4.43
4.36
4.32
4.20
4.10
4.03
4.07
3.95
3.85
3.78
3.88
3.76
3.66
3.59
3.73
3.61
3.51
3.44
3.60
3.48
3.39
3.31
3.50
3.38
3.29
3.21
3.41
3.29
3.20
3.12
3.34
3.22
3.12
3.05
3.28
3.16
3.06
2.98
3.22
3.10
3.01
2.93
3.17
3.05
2.96
2.88
3.13
3.01
2.91
2.84
3.09
2.97
2.87
2.80
3.05
2.93
2.84
2.76
3.02
2.90
2.81
2.73
2.99
2.87
2.78
2.70
2.97
2.85
2.75
2.68
2.94
2.82
2.73
2.65
2.92
2.80
2.71
2.63
2.90
2.78
2.69
2.61
2.88
2.76
2.67
2.59
2.87
2.75
2.65
2.57
2.85
2.73
2.64
2.56
2.84
2.71
2.62
2.54
2.82
2.70
2.61
2.53
2.81
2.69
2.59
2.52
2.80
2.68
2.58
2.50
2.78
2.66
2.57
2.49
2.77
2.65
2.56
2.48
2.76
2.64
2.55
2.47
2.75
2.63
2.54
2.46
2.74
2.62
2.53
2.45
2.70
2.58
2.49
2.41
2.67
2.55
2.46
2.38
2.63
2.51
2.41
2.33
2.59
2.47
2.38
2.30
2.57
2.45
2.35
2.28
2.55
2.43
2.34
2.26
2.54
2.42
2.32
2.24
2.53
2.40
2.31
2.23
2.52
2.39
2.30
2.22
2.50
2.38
2.28
2.21
2.49
2.37
2.27
2.19
2.48
2.36
2.26
2.19
2.47
2.35
2.26
2.18

12

10
968.6
39.40
14.42
8.84
6.62
5.46
4.76
4.30
3.96
3.72
3.53
3.37
3.25
3.15
3.06
2.99
2.92
2.87
2.82
2.77
2.73
2.70
2.67
2.64
2.61
2.59
2.57
2.55
2.53
2.51
2.50
2.48
2.47
2.45
2.44
2.43
2.42
2.41
2.40
2.39
2.35
2.32
2.27
2.24
2.21
2.19
2.18
2.17
2.16
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11

11
973.0
39.41
14.37
8.79
6.57
5.41
4.71
4.24
3.91
3.66
3.47
3.32
3.20
3.09
3.01
2.93
2.87
2.81
2.76
2.72
2.68
2.65
2.62
2.59
2.56
2.54
2.51
2.49
2.48
2.46
2.44
2.43
2.41
2.40
2.39
2.37
2.36
2.35
2.34
2.33
2.29
2.26
2.22
2.18
2.16
2.14
2.12
2.11
2.10
2.09
2.07
2.07
2.06

12
976.7
39.41
14.34
8.75
6.52
5.37
4.67
4.20
3.87
3.62
3.43
3.28
3.15
3.05
2.96
2.89
2.82
2.77
2.72
2.68
2.64
2.60
2.57
2.54
2.51
2.49
2.47
2.45
2.43
2.41
2.40
2.38
2.37
2.35
2.34
2.33
2.32
2.31
2.30
2.29
2.25
2.22
2.17
2.14
2.11
2.09
2.08
2.07
2.05
2.04
2.03
2.02
2.01

13
979.8
39.42
14.30
8.71
6.49
5.33
4.63
4.16
3.83
3.58
3.39
3.24
3.12
3.01
2.92
2.85
2.79
2.73
2.68
2.64
2.60
2.56
2.53
2.50
2.48
2.45
2.43
2.41
2.39
2.37
2.36
2.34
2.33
2.31
2.30
2.29
2.28
2.27
2.26
2.25
2.21
2.18
2.13
2.10
2.07
2.05
2.04
2.02
2.01
2.00
1.99
1.98
1.97

14
982.5
39.43
14.28
8.68
6.46
5.30
4.60
4.13
3.80
3.55
3.36
3.21
3.08
2.98
2.89
2.82
2.75
2.70
2.65
2.60
2.56
2.53
2.50
2.47
2.44
2.42
2.39
2.37
2.36
2.34
2.32
2.31
2.29
2.28
2.27
2.25
2.24
2.23
2.22
2.21
2.17
2.14
2.09
2.06
2.03
2.02
2.00
1.99
1.98
1.96
1.95
1.94
1.93

2.5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION (continued)

DEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

15
984.9
39.43
14.25
8.66
6.43
5.27
4.57
4.10
3.77
3.52
3.33
3.18
3.05
2.95
2.86
2.79
2.72
2.67
2.62
2.57
2.53
2.50
2.47
2.44
2.41
2.39
2.36
2.34
2.32
2.31
2.29
2.28
2.26
2.25
2.23
2.22
2.21
2.20
2.19
2.18
2.14
2.11
2.06
2.03
2.00
1.98
1.97
1.96
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90

16
986.9
39.44
14.23
8.63
6.40
5.24
4.54
4.08
3.74
3.50
3.30
3.15
3.03
2.92
2.84
2.76
2.70
2.64
2.59
2.55
2.51
2.47
2.44
2.41
2.38
2.36
2.34
2.32
2.30
2.28
2.26
2.25
2.23
2.22
2.21
2.20
2.18
2.17
2.16
2.15
2.11
2.08
2.03
2.00
1.97
1.95
1.94
1.93
1.92
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.87

17
988.7
39.44
14.21
8.61
6.38
5.22
4.52
4.05
3.72
3.47
3.28
3.13
3.00
2.90
2.81
2.74
2.67
2.62
2.57
2.52
2.48
2.45
2.42
2.39
2.36
2.34
2.31
2.29
2.27
2.26
2.24
2.22
2.21
2.20
2.18
2.17
2.16
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.09
2.06
2.01
1.97
1.95
1.93
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.87
1.86
1.85
1.84

18
990.3
39.44
14.20
8.59
6.36
5.20
4.50
4.03
3.70
3.45
3.26
3.11
2.98
2.88
2.79
2.72
2.65
2.60
2.55
2.50
2.46
2.43
2.39
2.36
2.34
2.31
2.29
2.27
2.25
2.23
2.22
2.20
2.19
2.17
2.16
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.07
2.03
1.98
1.95
1.92
1.91
1.89
1.88
1.87
1.85
1.84
1.83
1.82

19
991.8
39.45
14.18
8.58
6.34
5.18
4.48
4.02
3.68
3.44
3.24
3.09
2.96
2.86
2.77
2.70
2.63
2.58
2.53
2.48
2.44
2.41
2.37
2.35
2.32
2.29
2.27
2.25
2.23
2.21
2.20
2.18
2.17
2.15
2.14
2.13
2.12
2.11
2.10
2.09
2.04
2.01
1.96
1.93
1.90
1.88
1.87
1.86
1.84
1.83
1.82
1.81
1.80

NUM (degrees of freedom)


20
22
24
27
30
993.1 995.4 997.2 999.6 1001.4
39.45 39.45 39.46 39.46 39.46
14.17 14.14 14.12 14.10 14.08
8.56
8.53
8.51
8.48
8.46
6.33
6.30
6.28
6.25
6.23
5.17
5.14
5.12
5.09
5.07
4.47
4.44
4.41
4.39
4.36
4.00
3.97
3.95
3.92
3.89
3.67
3.64
3.61
3.58
3.56
3.42
3.39
3.37
3.34
3.31
3.23
3.20
3.17
3.14
3.12
3.07
3.04
3.02
2.99
2.96
2.95
2.92
2.89
2.86
2.84
2.84
2.81
2.79
2.76
2.73
2.76
2.73
2.70
2.67
2.64
2.68
2.65
2.63
2.59
2.57
2.62
2.59
2.56
2.53
2.50
2.56
2.53
2.50
2.47
2.44
2.51
2.48
2.45
2.42
2.39
2.46
2.43
2.41
2.38
2.35
2.42
2.39
2.37
2.33
2.31
2.39
2.36
2.33
2.30
2.27
2.36
2.33
2.30
2.27
2.24
2.33
2.30
2.27
2.24
2.21
2.30
2.27
2.24
2.21
2.18
2.28
2.24
2.22
2.18
2.16
2.25
2.22
2.19
2.16
2.13
2.23
2.20
2.17
2.14
2.11
2.21
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.09
2.20
2.16
2.14
2.10
2.07
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.08
2.06
2.16
2.13
2.10
2.07
2.04
2.15
2.12
2.09
2.05
2.03
2.13
2.10
2.07
2.04
2.01
2.12
2.09
2.06
2.03
2.00
2.11
2.08
2.05
2.01
1.99
2.10
2.07
2.04
2.00
1.97
2.09
2.05
2.03
1.99
1.96
2.08
2.04
2.02
1.98
1.95
2.07
2.03
2.01
1.97
1.94
2.03
1.99
1.96
1.93
1.90
1.99
1.96
1.93
1.90
1.87
1.94
1.91
1.88
1.85
1.82
1.91
1.88
1.85
1.81
1.78
1.88
1.85
1.82
1.78
1.75
1.86
1.83
1.80
1.76
1.73
1.85
1.81
1.78
1.75
1.71
1.84
1.80
1.77
1.73
1.70
1.82
1.79
1.76
1.72
1.69
1.81
1.77
1.74
1.70
1.67
1.80
1.76
1.73
1.69
1.66
1.79
1.75
1.72
1.68
1.65
1.78
1.74
1.71
1.67
1.64

13

40
1005.6
39.47
14.04
8.41
6.18
5.01
4.31
3.84
3.51
3.26
3.06
2.91
2.78
2.67
2.59
2.51
2.44
2.38
2.33
2.29
2.25
2.21
2.18
2.15
2.12
2.09
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.01
1.99
1.98
1.96
1.95
1.93
1.92
1.91
1.90
1.89
1.88
1.83
1.80
1.74
1.71
1.68
1.66
1.64
1.63
1.61
1.60
1.58
1.57
1.56

60
1009.8
39.48
13.99
8.36
6.12
4.96
4.25
3.78
3.45
3.20
3.00
2.85
2.72
2.61
2.52
2.45
2.38
2.32
2.27
2.22
2.18
2.14
2.11
2.08
2.05
2.03
2.00
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.92
1.91
1.89
1.88
1.86
1.85
1.84
1.82
1.81
1.80
1.76
1.72
1.67
1.63
1.60
1.58
1.56
1.54
1.53
1.51
1.50
1.48
1.47

100
1013.2
39.49
13.96
8.32
6.08
4.92
4.21
3.74
3.40
3.15
2.96
2.80
2.67
2.56
2.47
2.40
2.33
2.27
2.22
2.17
2.13
2.09
2.06
2.02
2.00
1.97
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.86
1.85
1.83
1.82
1.80
1.79
1.77
1.76
1.75
1.74
1.69
1.66
1.60
1.56
1.53
1.50
1.48
1.47
1.45
1.43
1.42
1.40
1.39

200
1015.7
39.49
13.93
8.29
6.05
4.88
4.18
3.70
3.37
3.12
2.92
2.76
2.63
2.53
2.44
2.36
2.29
2.23
2.18
2.13
2.09
2.05
2.01
1.98
1.95
1.92
1.90
1.88
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.80
1.78
1.77
1.75
1.74
1.73
1.71
1.70
1.69
1.64
1.60
1.54
1.50
1.47
1.44
1.42
1.40
1.39
1.36
1.35
1.33
1.32

1% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION, i.e. the value of


denominator degrees of freedom respectively

DEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

1
4052
98.50
34.12
21.20
16.26
13.75
12.25
11.26
10.56
10.04
9.65
9.33
9.07
8.86
8.68
8.53
8.40
8.29
8.18
8.10
8.02
7.95
7.88
7.82
7.77
7.72
7.68
7.64
7.60
7.56
7.53
7.50
7.47
7.44
7.42
7.40
7.37
7.35
7.33
7.31
7.23
7.17
7.08
7.01
6.96
6.93
6.90
6.87
6.85
6.82
6.80
6.78
6.76

2
4999
99.00
30.82
18.00
13.27
10.92
9.55
8.65
8.02
7.56
7.21
6.93
6.70
6.51
6.36
6.23
6.11
6.01
5.93
5.85
5.78
5.72
5.66
5.61
5.57
5.53
5.49
5.45
5.42
5.39
5.36
5.34
5.31
5.29
5.27
5.25
5.23
5.21
5.19
5.18
5.11
5.06
4.98
4.92
4.88
4.85
4.82
4.80
4.79
4.76
4.74
4.73
4.71

3
5403
99.17
29.46
16.69
12.06
9.78
8.45
7.59
6.99
6.55
6.22
5.95
5.74
5.56
5.42
5.29
5.18
5.09
5.01
4.94
4.87
4.82
4.76
4.72
4.68
4.64
4.60
4.57
4.54
4.51
4.48
4.46
4.44
4.42
4.40
4.38
4.36
4.34
4.33
4.31
4.25
4.20
4.13
4.07
4.04
4.01
3.98
3.96
3.95
3.92
3.91
3.89
3.88

4
5625
99.25
28.71
15.98
11.39
9.15
7.85
7.01
6.42
5.99
5.67
5.41
5.21
5.04
4.89
4.77
4.67
4.58
4.50
4.43
4.37
4.31
4.26
4.22
4.18
4.14
4.11
4.07
4.04
4.02
3.99
3.97
3.95
3.93
3.91
3.89
3.87
3.86
3.84
3.83
3.77
3.72
3.65
3.60
3.56
3.53
3.51
3.49
3.48
3.46
3.44
3.43
3.41

5
5764
99.30
28.24
15.52
10.97
8.75
7.46
6.63
6.06
5.64
5.32
5.06
4.86
4.69
4.56
4.44
4.34
4.25
4.17
4.10
4.04
3.99
3.94
3.90
3.85
3.82
3.78
3.75
3.73
3.70
3.67
3.65
3.63
3.61
3.59
3.57
3.56
3.54
3.53
3.51
3.45
3.41
3.34
3.29
3.26
3.23
3.21
3.19
3.17
3.15
3.13
3.12
3.11

where NUM and DEN are the numerator and

NUM (degrees of freedom)


6
7
8
9
5859 5928 5981 6022
99.33 99.36 99.37 99.39
27.91 27.67 27.49 27.35
15.21 14.98 14.80 14.66
10.67 10.46 10.29 10.16
8.47
8.26
8.10
7.98
7.19
6.99
6.84
6.72
6.37
6.18
6.03
5.91
5.80
5.61
5.47
5.35
5.39
5.20
5.06
4.94
5.07
4.89
4.74
4.63
4.82
4.64
4.50
4.39
4.62
4.44
4.30
4.19
4.46
4.28
4.14
4.03
4.32
4.14
4.00
3.89
4.20
4.03
3.89
3.78
4.10
3.93
3.79
3.68
4.01
3.84
3.71
3.60
3.94
3.77
3.63
3.52
3.87
3.70
3.56
3.46
3.81
3.64
3.51
3.40
3.76
3.59
3.45
3.35
3.71
3.54
3.41
3.30
3.67
3.50
3.36
3.26
3.63
3.46
3.32
3.22
3.59
3.42
3.29
3.18
3.56
3.39
3.26
3.15
3.53
3.36
3.23
3.12
3.50
3.33
3.20
3.09
3.47
3.30
3.17
3.07
3.45
3.28
3.15
3.04
3.43
3.26
3.13
3.02
3.41
3.24
3.11
3.00
3.39
3.22
3.09
2.98
3.37
3.20
3.07
2.96
3.35
3.18
3.05
2.95
3.33
3.17
3.04
2.93
3.32
3.15
3.02
2.92
3.30
3.14
3.01
2.90
3.29
3.12
2.99
2.89
3.23
3.07
2.94
2.83
3.19
3.02
2.89
2.78
3.12
2.95
2.82
2.72
3.07
2.91
2.78
2.67
3.04
2.87
2.74
2.64
3.01
2.84
2.72
2.61
2.99
2.82
2.69
2.59
2.97
2.81
2.68
2.57
2.96
2.79
2.66
2.56
2.93
2.77
2.64
2.54
2.92
2.75
2.62
2.52
2.90
2.74
2.61
2.51
2.89
2.73
2.60
2.50

14

10
6056
99.40
27.23
14.55
10.05
7.87
6.62
5.81
5.26
4.85
4.54
4.30
4.10
3.94
3.80
3.69
3.59
3.51
3.43
3.37
3.31
3.26
3.21
3.17
3.13
3.09
3.06
3.03
3.00
2.98
2.96
2.93
2.91
2.89
2.88
2.86
2.84
2.83
2.81
2.80
2.74
2.70
2.63
2.59
2.55
2.52
2.50
2.49
2.47
2.45
2.43
2.42
2.41

11
6083
99.41
27.13
14.45
9.96
7.79
6.54
5.73
5.18
4.77
4.46
4.22
4.02
3.86
3.73
3.62
3.52
3.43
3.36
3.29
3.24
3.18
3.14
3.09
3.06
3.02
2.99
2.96
2.93
2.91
2.88
2.86
2.84
2.82
2.80
2.79
2.77
2.75
2.74
2.73
2.67
2.63
2.56
2.51
2.48
2.45
2.43
2.41
2.40
2.38
2.36
2.35
2.34

12
6106
99.42
27.05
14.37
9.89
7.72
6.47
5.67
5.11
4.71
4.40
4.16
3.96
3.80
3.67
3.55
3.46
3.37
3.30
3.23
3.17
3.12
3.07
3.03
2.99
2.96
2.93
2.90
2.87
2.84
2.82
2.80
2.78
2.76
2.74
2.72
2.71
2.69
2.68
2.66
2.61
2.56
2.50
2.45
2.42
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.34
2.31
2.30
2.28
2.27

13
6126
99.42
26.98
14.31
9.82
7.66
6.41
5.61
5.05
4.65
4.34
4.10
3.91
3.75
3.61
3.50
3.40
3.32
3.24
3.18
3.12
3.07
3.02
2.98
2.94
2.90
2.87
2.84
2.81
2.79
2.77
2.74
2.72
2.70
2.69
2.67
2.65
2.64
2.62
2.61
2.55
2.51
2.44
2.40
2.36
2.33
2.31
2.30
2.28
2.26
2.24
2.23
2.22

14
6143
99.43
26.92
14.25
9.77
7.60
6.36
5.56
5.01
4.60
4.29
4.05
3.86
3.70
3.56
3.45
3.35
3.27
3.19
3.13
3.07
3.02
2.97
2.93
2.89
2.86
2.82
2.79
2.77
2.74
2.72
2.70
2.68
2.66
2.64
2.62
2.61
2.59
2.58
2.56
2.51
2.46
2.39
2.35
2.31
2.29
2.27
2.25
2.23
2.21
2.20
2.18
2.17

1% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION (continued)

DEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

15
6157
99.43
26.87
14.20
9.72
7.56
6.31
5.52
4.96
4.56
4.25
4.01
3.82
3.66
3.52
3.41
3.31
3.23
3.15
3.09
3.03
2.98
2.93
2.89
2.85
2.81
2.78
2.75
2.73
2.70
2.68
2.65
2.63
2.61
2.60
2.58
2.56
2.55
2.54
2.52
2.46
2.42
2.35
2.31
2.27
2.24
2.22
2.21
2.19
2.17
2.15
2.14
2.13

16
6170
99.44
26.83
14.15
9.68
7.52
6.28
5.48
4.92
4.52
4.21
3.97
3.78
3.62
3.49
3.37
3.27
3.19
3.12
3.05
2.99
2.94
2.89
2.85
2.81
2.78
2.75
2.72
2.69
2.66
2.64
2.62
2.60
2.58
2.56
2.54
2.53
2.51
2.50
2.48
2.43
2.38
2.31
2.27
2.23
2.21
2.19
2.17
2.15
2.13
2.11
2.10
2.09

17
6181
99.44
26.79
14.11
9.64
7.48
6.24
5.44
4.89
4.49
4.18
3.94
3.75
3.59
3.45
3.34
3.24
3.16
3.08
3.02
2.96
2.91
2.86
2.82
2.78
2.75
2.71
2.68
2.66
2.63
2.61
2.58
2.56
2.54
2.53
2.51
2.49
2.48
2.46
2.45
2.39
2.35
2.28
2.23
2.20
2.17
2.15
2.13
2.12
2.10
2.08
2.07
2.06

18
6191
99.44
26.75
14.08
9.61
7.45
6.21
5.41
4.86
4.46
4.15
3.91
3.72
3.56
3.42
3.31
3.21
3.13
3.05
2.99
2.93
2.88
2.83
2.79
2.75
2.72
2.68
2.65
2.63
2.60
2.58
2.55
2.53
2.51
2.50
2.48
2.46
2.45
2.43
2.42
2.36
2.32
2.25
2.20
2.17
2.14
2.12
2.10
2.09
2.07
2.05
2.04
2.03

19
6201
99.45
26.72
14.05
9.58
7.42
6.18
5.38
4.83
4.43
4.12
3.88
3.69
3.53
3.40
3.28
3.19
3.10
3.03
2.96
2.90
2.85
2.80
2.76
2.72
2.69
2.66
2.63
2.60
2.57
2.55
2.53
2.51
2.49
2.47
2.45
2.44
2.42
2.41
2.39
2.34
2.29
2.22
2.18
2.14
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.06
2.04
2.02
2.01
2.00

NUM (degrees of freedom)


20
22
24
27
6209 6223 6235 6249
99.45 99.45 99.46 99.46
26.69 26.64 26.60 26.55
14.02 13.97 13.93 13.88
9.55
9.51
9.47
9.42
7.40
7.35
7.31
7.27
6.16
6.11
6.07
6.03
5.36
5.32
5.28
5.23
4.81
4.77
4.73
4.68
4.41
4.36
4.33
4.28
4.10
4.06
4.02
3.98
3.86
3.82
3.78
3.74
3.66
3.62
3.59
3.54
3.51
3.46
3.43
3.38
3.37
3.33
3.29
3.25
3.26
3.22
3.18
3.14
3.16
3.12
3.08
3.04
3.08
3.03
3.00
2.95
3.00
2.96
2.92
2.88
2.94
2.90
2.86
2.81
2.88
2.84
2.80
2.76
2.83
2.78
2.75
2.70
2.78
2.74
2.70
2.66
2.74
2.70
2.66
2.61
2.70
2.66
2.62
2.58
2.66
2.62
2.58
2.54
2.63
2.59
2.55
2.51
2.60
2.56
2.52
2.48
2.57
2.53
2.49
2.45
2.55
2.51
2.47
2.42
2.52
2.48
2.45
2.40
2.50
2.46
2.42
2.38
2.48
2.44
2.40
2.36
2.46
2.42
2.38
2.34
2.44
2.40
2.36
2.32
2.43
2.38
2.35
2.30
2.41
2.37
2.33
2.28
2.40
2.35
2.32
2.27
2.38
2.34
2.30
2.26
2.37
2.33
2.29
2.24
2.31
2.27
2.23
2.18
2.27
2.22
2.18
2.14
2.20
2.15
2.12
2.07
2.15
2.11
2.07
2.02
2.12
2.07
2.03
1.98
2.09
2.04
2.00
1.96
2.07
2.02
1.98
1.93
2.05
2.00
1.96
1.92
2.03
1.99
1.95
1.90
2.01
1.97
1.93
1.88
1.99
1.95
1.91
1.86
1.98
1.94
1.90
1.85
1.97
1.93
1.89
1.84

15

30
6261
99.47
26.50
13.84
9.38
7.23
5.99
5.20
4.65
4.25
3.94
3.70
3.51
3.35
3.21
3.10
3.00
2.92
2.84
2.78
2.72
2.67
2.62
2.58
2.54
2.50
2.47
2.44
2.41
2.39
2.36
2.34
2.32
2.30
2.28
2.26
2.25
2.23
2.22
2.20
2.14
2.10
2.03
1.98
1.94
1.92
1.89
1.88
1.86
1.84
1.82
1.81
1.79

40
6287
99.47
26.41
13.75
9.29
7.14
5.91
5.12
4.57
4.17
3.86
3.62
3.43
3.27
3.13
3.02
2.92
2.84
2.76
2.69
2.64
2.58
2.54
2.49
2.45
2.42
2.38
2.35
2.33
2.30
2.27
2.25
2.23
2.21
2.19
2.18
2.16
2.14
2.13
2.11
2.05
2.01
1.94
1.89
1.85
1.82
1.80
1.78
1.76
1.74
1.72
1.71
1.69

60
6313
99.48
26.32
13.65
9.20
7.06
5.82
5.03
4.48
4.08
3.78
3.54
3.34
3.18
3.05
2.93
2.83
2.75
2.67
2.61
2.55
2.50
2.45
2.40
2.36
2.33
2.29
2.26
2.23
2.21
2.18
2.16
2.14
2.12
2.10
2.08
2.06
2.05
2.03
2.02
1.96
1.91
1.84
1.78
1.75
1.72
1.69
1.67
1.66
1.63
1.61
1.60
1.58

100
6334
99.49
26.24
13.58
9.13
6.99
5.75
4.96
4.41
4.01
3.71
3.47
3.27
3.11
2.98
2.86
2.76
2.68
2.60
2.54
2.48
2.42
2.37
2.33
2.29
2.25
2.22
2.19
2.16
2.13
2.11
2.08
2.06
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.98
1.97
1.95
1.94
1.88
1.82
1.75
1.70
1.65
1.62
1.60
1.58
1.56
1.53
1.51
1.49
1.48

200
6350
99.49
26.18
13.52
9.08
6.93
5.70
4.91
4.36
3.96
3.66
3.41
3.22
3.06
2.92
2.81
2.71
2.62
2.55
2.48
2.42
2.36
2.32
2.27
2.23
2.19
2.16
2.13
2.10
2.07
2.04
2.02
2.00
1.98
1.96
1.94
1.92
1.90
1.89
1.87
1.81
1.76
1.68
1.62
1.58
1.55
1.52
1.50
1.48
1.45
1.42
1.41
1.39

0.5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION, i.e. the value of


denominator degrees of freedom respectively

DEN
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

1
16211
198.50
55.55
31.33
22.78
18.63
16.24
14.69
13.61
12.83
12.23
11.75
11.37
11.06
10.80
10.58
10.38
10.22
10.07
9.94
9.83
9.73
9.63
9.55
9.48
9.41
9.34
9.28
9.23
9.18
9.13
9.09
9.05
9.01
8.98
8.94
8.91
8.88
8.85
8.83
8.71
8.63
8.49
8.40
8.33
8.28
8.24
8.21
8.18
8.14
8.10
8.08
8.06

2
19999
199.00
49.80
26.28
18.31
14.54
12.40
11.04
10.11
9.43
8.91
8.51
8.19
7.92
7.70
7.51
7.35
7.21
7.09
6.99
6.89
6.81
6.73
6.66
6.60
6.54
6.49
6.44
6.40
6.35
6.32
6.28
6.25
6.22
6.19
6.16
6.13
6.11
6.09
6.07
5.97
5.90
5.79
5.72
5.67
5.62
5.59
5.56
5.54
5.50
5.48
5.46
5.44

3
21615
199.17
47.47
24.26
16.53
12.92
10.88
9.60
8.72
8.08
7.60
7.23
6.93
6.68
6.48
6.30
6.16
6.03
5.92
5.82
5.73
5.65
5.58
5.52
5.46
5.41
5.36
5.32
5.28
5.24
5.20
5.17
5.14
5.11
5.09
5.06
5.04
5.02
5.00
4.98
4.89
4.83
4.73
4.66
4.61
4.57
4.54
4.52
4.50
4.47
4.44
4.42
4.41

4
22500
199.25
46.19
23.15
15.56
12.03
10.05
8.81
7.96
7.34
6.88
6.52
6.23
6.00
5.80
5.64
5.50
5.37
5.27
5.17
5.09
5.02
4.95
4.89
4.84
4.79
4.74
4.70
4.66
4.62
4.59
4.56
4.53
4.50
4.48
4.46
4.43
4.41
4.39
4.37
4.29
4.23
4.14
4.08
4.03
3.99
3.96
3.94
3.92
3.89
3.87
3.85
3.84

5
23056
199.30
45.39
22.46
14.94
11.46
9.52
8.30
7.47
6.87
6.42
6.07
5.79
5.56
5.37
5.21
5.07
4.96
4.85
4.76
4.68
4.61
4.54
4.49
4.43
4.38
4.34
4.30
4.26
4.23
4.20
4.17
4.14
4.11
4.09
4.06
4.04
4.02
4.00
3.99
3.91
3.85
3.76
3.70
3.65
3.62
3.59
3.57
3.55
3.52
3.50
3.48
3.47

where NUM and DEN are the numerator and

NUM (degrees of freedom)


6
7
8
9
23437 23715 23925 24091
199.33 199.36 199.37 199.39
44.84
44.43
44.13
43.88
21.97
21.62
21.35
21.14
14.51
14.20
13.96
13.77
11.07
10.79
10.57
10.39
9.16
8.89
8.68
8.51
7.95
7.69
7.50
7.34
7.13
6.88
6.69
6.54
6.54
6.30
6.12
5.97
6.10
5.86
5.68
5.54
5.76
5.52
5.35
5.20
5.48
5.25
5.08
4.94
5.26
5.03
4.86
4.72
5.07
4.85
4.67
4.54
4.91
4.69
4.52
4.38
4.78
4.56
4.39
4.25
4.66
4.44
4.28
4.14
4.56
4.34
4.18
4.04
4.47
4.26
4.09
3.96
4.39
4.18
4.01
3.88
4.32
4.11
3.94
3.81
4.26
4.05
3.88
3.75
4.20
3.99
3.83
3.69
4.15
3.94
3.78
3.64
4.10
3.89
3.73
3.60
4.06
3.85
3.69
3.56
4.02
3.81
3.65
3.52
3.98
3.77
3.61
3.48
3.95
3.74
3.58
3.45
3.92
3.71
3.55
3.42
3.89
3.68
3.52
3.39
3.86
3.66
3.49
3.37
3.84
3.63
3.47
3.34
3.81
3.61
3.45
3.32
3.79
3.58
3.42
3.30
3.77
3.56
3.40
3.28
3.75
3.54
3.39
3.26
3.73
3.53
3.37
3.24
3.71
3.51
3.35
3.22
3.64
3.43
3.28
3.15
3.58
3.38
3.22
3.09
3.49
3.29
3.13
3.01
3.43
3.23
3.08
2.95
3.39
3.19
3.03
2.91
3.35
3.15
3.00
2.87
3.33
3.13
2.97
2.85
3.30
3.11
2.95
2.83
3.28
3.09
2.93
2.81
3.26
3.06
2.91
2.78
3.24
3.04
2.88
2.76
3.22
3.02
2.87
2.74
3.21
3.01
2.86
2.73

16

10
24224
199.40
43.69
20.97
13.62
10.25
8.38
7.21
6.42
5.85
5.42
5.09
4.82
4.60
4.42
4.27
4.14
4.03
3.93
3.85
3.77
3.70
3.64
3.59
3.54
3.49
3.45
3.41
3.38
3.34
3.31
3.29
3.26
3.24
3.21
3.19
3.17
3.15
3.13
3.12
3.04
2.99
2.90
2.85
2.80
2.77
2.74
2.72
2.71
2.68
2.66
2.64
2.63

11
24334
199.41
43.52
20.82
13.49
10.13
8.27
7.10
6.31
5.75
5.32
4.99
4.72
4.51
4.33
4.18
4.05
3.94
3.84
3.76
3.68
3.61
3.55
3.50
3.45
3.40
3.36
3.32
3.29
3.25
3.22
3.20
3.17
3.15
3.12
3.10
3.08
3.06
3.05
3.03
2.96
2.90
2.82
2.76
2.72
2.68
2.66
2.64
2.62
2.59
2.57
2.56
2.54

12
24426
199.42
43.39
20.70
13.38
10.03
8.18
7.01
6.23
5.66
5.24
4.91
4.64
4.43
4.25
4.10
3.97
3.86
3.76
3.68
3.60
3.54
3.47
3.42
3.37
3.33
3.28
3.25
3.21
3.18
3.15
3.12
3.09
3.07
3.05
3.03
3.01
2.99
2.97
2.95
2.88
2.82
2.74
2.68
2.64
2.61
2.58
2.56
2.54
2.52
2.50
2.48
2.47

13
24505
199.42
43.27
20.60
13.29
9.95
8.10
6.94
6.15
5.59
5.16
4.84
4.57
4.36
4.18
4.03
3.90
3.79
3.70
3.61
3.54
3.47
3.41
3.35
3.30
3.26
3.22
3.18
3.15
3.11
3.08
3.06
3.03
3.01
2.98
2.96
2.94
2.92
2.90
2.89
2.82
2.76
2.68
2.62
2.58
2.54
2.52
2.50
2.48
2.45
2.43
2.42
2.40

14
24572
199.43
43.17
20.51
13.21
9.88
8.03
6.87
6.09
5.53
5.10
4.77
4.51
4.30
4.12
3.97
3.84
3.73
3.64
3.55
3.48
3.41
3.35
3.30
3.25
3.20
3.16
3.12
3.09
3.06
3.03
3.00
2.97
2.95
2.93
2.90
2.88
2.87
2.85
2.83
2.76
2.70
2.62
2.56
2.52
2.49
2.46
2.44
2.42
2.40
2.38
2.36
2.35

0.5% critical values for the F-DISTRIBUTION (continued)

DEM
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
45
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
140
160
180
200

15
24630
199.43
43.08
20.44
13.15
9.81
7.97
6.81
6.03
5.47
5.05
4.72
4.46
4.25
4.07
3.92
3.79
3.68
3.59
3.50
3.43
3.36
3.30
3.25
3.20
3.15
3.11
3.07
3.04
3.01
2.98
2.95
2.92
2.90
2.88
2.85
2.83
2.82
2.80
2.78
2.71
2.65
2.57
2.51
2.47
2.44
2.41
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.31
2.30

16
24681
199.44
43.01
20.37
13.09
9.76
7.91
6.76
5.98
5.42
5.00
4.67
4.41
4.20
4.02
3.87
3.75
3.64
3.54
3.46
3.38
3.31
3.25
3.20
3.15
3.11
3.07
3.03
2.99
2.96
2.93
2.90
2.88
2.85
2.83
2.81
2.79
2.77
2.75
2.74
2.66
2.61
2.53
2.47
2.43
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.30
2.28
2.26
2.25

17
24727
199.44
42.94
20.31
13.03
9.71
7.87
6.72
5.94
5.38
4.96
4.63
4.37
4.16
3.98
3.83
3.71
3.60
3.50
3.42
3.34
3.27
3.21
3.16
3.11
3.07
3.03
2.99
2.95
2.92
2.89
2.86
2.84
2.81
2.79
2.77
2.75
2.73
2.71
2.70
2.62
2.57
2.49
2.43
2.39
2.35
2.33
2.31
2.29
2.26
2.24
2.22
2.21

18
24767
199.44
42.88
20.26
12.98
9.66
7.83
6.68
5.90
5.34
4.92
4.59
4.33
4.12
3.95
3.80
3.67
3.56
3.46
3.38
3.31
3.24
3.18
3.12
3.08
3.03
2.99
2.95
2.92
2.89
2.86
2.83
2.80
2.78
2.76
2.73
2.71
2.70
2.68
2.66
2.59
2.53
2.45
2.39
2.35
2.32
2.29
2.27
2.25
2.22
2.20
2.19
2.18

19
24803
199.45
42.83
20.21
12.94
9.62
7.79
6.64
5.86
5.31
4.89
4.56
4.30
4.09
3.91
3.76
3.64
3.53
3.43
3.35
3.27
3.21
3.15
3.09
3.04
3.00
2.96
2.92
2.88
2.85
2.82
2.80
2.77
2.75
2.72
2.70
2.68
2.66
2.64
2.63
2.56
2.50
2.42
2.36
2.32
2.28
2.26
2.24
2.22
2.19
2.17
2.15
2.14

NUM (degrees of freedom)


20
22
24
27
24836 24892 24940 24997
199.45 199.45 199.46 199.46
42.78
42.69
42.62
42.54
20.17
20.09
20.03
19.95
12.90
12.84
12.78
12.71
9.59
9.53
9.47
9.41
7.75
7.69
7.64
7.58
6.61
6.55
6.50
6.44
5.83
5.78
5.73
5.67
5.27
5.22
5.17
5.12
4.86
4.80
4.76
4.70
4.53
4.48
4.43
4.38
4.27
4.22
4.17
4.12
4.06
4.01
3.96
3.91
3.88
3.83
3.79
3.73
3.73
3.68
3.64
3.58
3.61
3.56
3.51
3.46
3.50
3.45
3.40
3.35
3.40
3.35
3.31
3.25
3.32
3.27
3.22
3.17
3.24
3.19
3.15
3.09
3.18
3.12
3.08
3.03
3.12
3.06
3.02
2.97
3.06
3.01
2.97
2.91
3.01
2.96
2.92
2.86
2.97
2.92
2.87
2.82
2.93
2.88
2.83
2.78
2.89
2.84
2.79
2.74
2.86
2.80
2.76
2.70
2.82
2.77
2.73
2.67
2.79
2.74
2.70
2.64
2.77
2.71
2.67
2.61
2.74
2.69
2.64
2.59
2.72
2.66
2.62
2.56
2.69
2.64
2.60
2.54
2.67
2.62
2.58
2.52
2.65
2.60
2.56
2.50
2.63
2.58
2.54
2.48
2.62
2.56
2.52
2.46
2.60
2.55
2.50
2.45
2.53
2.47
2.43
2.37
2.47
2.42
2.37
2.32
2.39
2.33
2.29
2.23
2.33
2.28
2.23
2.17
2.29
2.23
2.19
2.13
2.25
2.20
2.15
2.10
2.23
2.17
2.13
2.07
2.21
2.15
2.11
2.05
2.19
2.13
2.09
2.03
2.16
2.11
2.06
2.00
2.14
2.09
2.04
1.98
2.12
2.07
2.02
1.97
2.11
2.06
2.01
1.95

17

30
25044
199.47
42.47
19.89
12.66
9.36
7.53
6.40
5.62
5.07
4.65
4.33
4.07
3.86
3.69
3.54
3.41
3.30
3.21
3.12
3.05
2.98
2.92
2.87
2.82
2.77
2.73
2.69
2.66
2.63
2.60
2.57
2.54
2.52
2.50
2.48
2.46
2.44
2.42
2.40
2.33
2.27
2.19
2.13
2.08
2.05
2.02
2.00
1.98
1.96
1.93
1.92
1.91

40
25148
199.47
42.31
19.75
12.53
9.24
7.42
6.29
5.52
4.97
4.55
4.23
3.97
3.76
3.58
3.44
3.31
3.20
3.11
3.02
2.95
2.88
2.82
2.77
2.72
2.67
2.63
2.59
2.56
2.52
2.49
2.47
2.44
2.42
2.39
2.37
2.35
2.33
2.31
2.30
2.22
2.16
2.08
2.02
1.97
1.94
1.91
1.89
1.87
1.84
1.82
1.80
1.79

60
25253
199.48
42.15
19.61
12.40
9.12
7.31
6.18
5.41
4.86
4.45
4.12
3.87
3.66
3.48
3.33
3.21
3.10
3.00
2.92
2.84
2.77
2.71
2.66
2.61
2.56
2.52
2.48
2.45
2.42
2.38
2.36
2.33
2.30
2.28
2.26
2.24
2.22
2.20
2.18
2.11
2.05
1.96
1.90
1.85
1.82
1.79
1.77
1.75
1.72
1.69
1.68
1.66

100
25337
199.49
42.02
19.50
12.30
9.03
7.22
6.09
5.32
4.77
4.36
4.04
3.78
3.57
3.39
3.25
3.12
3.01
2.91
2.83
2.75
2.69
2.62
2.57
2.52
2.47
2.43
2.39
2.36
2.32
2.29
2.26
2.24
2.21
2.19
2.17
2.14
2.12
2.11
2.09
2.01
1.95
1.86
1.80
1.75
1.71
1.68
1.66
1.64
1.60
1.58
1.56
1.54

200
25401
199.49
41.93
19.41
12.22
8.95
7.15
6.02
5.26
4.71
4.29
3.97
3.71
3.50
3.33
3.18
3.05
2.94
2.85
2.76
2.68
2.62
2.56
2.50
2.45
2.40
2.36
2.32
2.29
2.25
2.22
2.19
2.16
2.14
2.11
2.09
2.07
2.05
2.03
2.01
1.93
1.87
1.78
1.71
1.66
1.62
1.59
1.56
1.54
1.51
1.48
1.46
1.44