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isIlh dksyk&dksdk dksyk dk lp

liuksa ds lkSnkxj

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ys[kd dh vksj ls
isIlh&dksyk vkSj dksdk&dksyk ds BaMs mRiknksa ds f[kykQ vktknh cpkvks vkanksyu dkQh yEcs le; ls
iwjs nsk esa tu&tkx`fr dk vfHk;ku pyk jgk gSA vkanksyu ds dk;ZdrkZ xko&xko vkSj kgj&kgj esa
tkdj bu BaMs is;ksa ls gksus okys kkjhfjd uqdlkuksa ds ckjs esa yksxksa dks crkrs jgrs gSaA blds lkFk&lkFk
Ldwy&dkystksa esa tkdj fo|kfFkZ;ksa ls Hkh bl lEcU/k esa ckras djrs jgrs gaSA bu lcdk izfrlkn dkQh
vPNk fudyrk gSA dHkh&dHkh rks fo|kFkhZ vklkuh ls le> ysrs gaS fd bu BaMs is;ksa ls fdruk [krjk
gksrk gSA ysfdu dHkh&dHkh lc dqN le>us ds ckn Hkh fo|kFkhZ bu ckrksa dks Lohdkj ugha djrsA
tc vkanksyu bu lokyksa dks yksxksa ds chp esa mBkrk Fkk rc yksx bldks xEHkhjrk ls ugha
ysrs Fks ysfdu fiNys fnuksa fnYyh dh laLFkk ^lasVj QkWj lkbUl ,UM ,UokW;jesUV^ us tc khry is;ksa esa
[krjukd jklk;fud inkFkksZa dh feykoV dh iqf"V dh rks iwjs nsk ds lkeus bu BaMs is;ksa dh vlfy;r
[kqydj lkeus vkbZA laln esa Hkh bl loky ij dkQh gaxkek gqvk vkSj laln dh dWUVhu essa BaMs is;
feyuk can gks x;sA BaMs is;ksa esa [krjukd jklk;fud inkFkksZa dh feykoV dks ysdj kjn iokj dh
v/;{krk esa ,d la;q lalnh; lfefr dk xBu fd;k x;k ftldh fjiksVZ vHkh gky esa ljdkj ds
lkeus j[kh x;h gSA bl fjiksVZ esa lfefr us ljdkj ls ekx dh gS fd og bu BaMs is;ksa ds ckjs esa
xEHkhjrk ls lksps vkSj yksxksa ds LokLF; ds lkFk f[kykoM+ uk djsA
ysfdu gekjh ljdkjs va/kh vkSj fcdk gSaA bruk lc gksus ds ckn Hkh uk rks ljdkj us
isIlh&dksyk vkSj dksdk&dksyk ds foKkiuksa ij jksd yxkbZ gS vkSj uk gh muds f[kykQ dksbZ dne
mBk;k gSA blls ;g lkQ irk pyrk gS fd gekjh ljdkjsa bu dEifu;ksa ds lkeus fdruh ckSuh gSaA tc
ls lfefr dh ;g fjiksVZ lkeus vkbZ gS rc ls esjs eu esa blds f[kykQ dqN uk dqN fy[kus dk fopkj
vkrk jgk gSA vkanksyu dh Hkh ;g bPNk jgh gS fd bu dEifu;ksa dh vlfy;r yksxksa ds lkeus vk,A
vkanksyu ds ofj"B lkFkh Jh jktho HkkbZ vkSj vU; dk;ZdrkZvksa ds lg;ksx ls ;g iqfLrdk fudyuk
laHko gqbZA bl iqfLrdk dks cukus esa jktsUnz nkjk dh fdrkc ^n fj;y isIlh n fj;y LVksjh^ us dkQh
enn dh gSA vU; fjiksVksZa ls Hkh dkQh enn yh xbZ gSA
vkkk gS ikBdksa dks ;g fdrkc t:j ialn vk,xh vkSj ftl mn~ ns; ds fy, ;g fdrkc
fy[kh xbZ gS og mn~ns; t:j iwjk gksxkA
fouhr vxzoky] t;k vxzoky vgenkckn

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izLrkouk
5 vxLr 2003 dks Hkkjr ds lHkh Vh- oh- pSuyksa ,oa lekpkj i=ksa esa isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk
ds ckjs esa ,d Hk;adj lR; mn~?kkfVr gqvkA fnYyh dh ,d oSKkfud laLFkk lsUVj Qkj lk;ul ,.M
,uok;jesaUV dh ,d [kksth jiV esa crk;k x;k fd isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds lHkh BaMs is;kasa esa vR;Ur
tgjhys ,oa [krjukd dhVukkd jlk;u feys gq;s gSaA miZ;qDr laLFkk dh iz;ksxkkyk esa isIlh ,oa
dksdk&dksyk ds 12 uewuksa dh tkap dh x;hA blesa ik;k x;k fd bu lHkh uewukas esa cgqr vf/kd ek=k esa
jklk;fud dhVukkd tSls Dyksjksik;jhQkl] eSykfFk;ku] Mh- Mh- Vh-] fyUMsu vkfn feys gq;s gSaA ;s lHkh
dhVukkd kjhj ds fy;s vR;Ur gh gkfudkjd gksrs gSaA bu dhVukkdksa dk kjhj ds LokLFk; ij cgqr
gh [kjkc vlj gksrk gSA bu dhVukkdksa dk yhoj] fdMuh] kjhj ds izfrjks/kd ra=] iztuu ra=] raf=dk
ra=] olu ra= vkfn ij cgqr cqjk vlj gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy;s fyUMsu uked dhVukkd ls kjhj
esa dSUlj gksrk gS rFkk kjhj dh lHkh xzafFk;ksa dkss Hkkjh uqdlku igqprk gSA fyUMsu dhVukkd dh 40
feyhxzke ek=k fdlh Hkh efgyk ;k iq#k dh iztuu {kerk dks lekIr dj nsrh gSA bl fyUMsu ls yhoj
dk dSUlj rFkk fdMuh dk dSUlj Hkh gksrk gSA kjhj ds n; dks jDr nsus okyh ufy;ksa dks Hkh fyUMsu
{kfrxzLr dj nsrk gSA blh rjg Mh- Mh- Vh- uke dk jklk;fud dhVukkd iq#kksa ds oh;Z esa kqk.kqvksa
dh la[;k dks cgqr de dj nsrk gS rFkk L=h;ksa esa o{k dSUlj dks iSnk djrk gSA Dyksjksik;jhQkWl
ukedk tgjhyk dhVukkd euq; ds raf=dk ra= dks uV dj ldrk gS rFkk fnekxh fodkl dks jksd
nsrk gSA bl tgjhys dhVukkd ls euq; kjhj esa ekalisfk;k vR;Ur detksj gks tkrh gSA eSykfFk;ku
uke ds jklk;fud tgj ls tUetkr kkjhfjd fodykaxrk vkrh gS rFkk kjhj ds fdlh Hkh fgLls esa
i{kk?kkr gks ldrk gSA 6 vxLr 2003 dks bl fok; ij yksdlHkk esa dkQh gaxkek gqvkA yksdlHkk ds
vusd lnL;ksa us ljdkj ls ekax dh fd bl fok; ij LiVhdj.k ns vkSj iwjs nsk dks crk;s fd lp D;k
gS\
ljdkj dh vksj ls tokc nsrs gq;s LokLFk; ,oa ifjokj dY;k.k ea=h lqkek LojkT; us yksdlHkk es a
dgk fd tYnh gh ljdkj bl fok; ij tkap djk;sxhA blh rjg 21 vxLr 2003 dks jkT;lHkk esa Hkh
cgl gq;hA ogka Hkh eU=h egksn;k us blh rjg dk vkoklu fn;kA vUr esa yksdlHkk v/;{k ds funsZk
ij la;qDr lalnh; lfefr x+Bu djus dk QSlyk fd;k x;kA ;g la;qDr lalnh; lfefr isIlh&dksd esa
feys gq;s dhVukkd jlk;uksa dh tkap djus ds fy;s cukus dk r; fd;k x;kA bl rjg 22 vxLr
2003 dks ljdkj }kjk isIlh&dksdk dksyk dh tkap ds fy;s la;qDr lalnh; lfefr ds xBu dh
vf/klwpuk tkjh dh x;hA bl lalnh; lfefr esa 10 lkaln yksdlHkk ls ,oa 5 lkaln jkT;lHkk ls fy;s
x;sA lfefr dk v/;{k kjn iokj dks cuk;k x;kA lfefr esa yksdlHkk ls vuar dqekj] Mk- lq/kk ;kno]
jesk psUuhFkyk] vorkj flag HkM+kuk] ds- ;sjUuuk;Mq] bZ- vgen] jathr dqekj ikatk] vf[kysk ;kno vkSj
vkfuy clq dks fy;k x;kA blh rjg lfefr esa jkT;lHkk ls ,l- ,l- vgywokfy;k] i`Fohjkt pOgk.k]
lat; fu:ie] izsepUn xqIrk] izkkar pVZth dks fy;k x;kA lfefr dks ;g tkap djus dh ftEesnkjh nh
x;h fd isIlh dksdk&dksyk ds tks Hkh czkaM Hkkjr esa fcd jgs gSa muesa jklk;fud dhVukkd gSa ;k ugha \

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lkFk gh lkFk lfefr dks ;g Hkh ftEesnkjh nh x;h fd og ljdkj dks BaMs is;ksa dh xq.koRrk cuk;s j[kus
ds fy;s Hkh lq>ko nsA bl lfefr ds fy;s Mk- ,l- ds- [kUuk] Mk- ,u- ih- vfXugks=h] Mk- th- R;kxjktu
dks fokskK ds :i esa fu;qDr fd;k x;kA bl lfefr us 4 Qjojh 2004 dks viuh fjiksVZ laLkn ds
lkeus isk dhA bl fjiksVZ dks cukus esa la;qDr lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus dbZ ea=ky; isk gq;sA nsk ds
dbZ fokskK ,oa laLFkkvksa dh vksj ls Hkh lfefr dks dkQh tkudkfj;ka nh x;haA
lsUVj Qkj lk;Ul ,.M ,uok;jesUV }kjk ebZ 2003 esa isIlh ,oa dksdk dksyk ds lHkh czkaMksa dh
tkap dh x;hA ftleas ik;k x;k fd ;wjksih; ekudksa dh rqyuk esa Hkkjrh; isIlh ,oa dksd esa 21 xquk
vf/kd fyUMsu [krjukd jklk;fud dhVukkd] 42 xquk vf/kd Mh- Mh- Vh-] 72 xquk vf/kd
Dyksjksik;jhQkWl] 196 xquk vf/kd eSykfFk;ku mifLFkr gSA lh- ,l- bZ- laLFkk dh iz;ksxkkyk esa vesfjdk
ls yk;s gq;s isIlh ,oa dksdkdksyk ds lHkh czkUM+ksa dh Hkh tkap dh x;hA ysfdu bu vejhdh uewuksa es
dqN Hkh jklk;fud dhVukkd ugha ik;s x;sA
lh- ,l- bZ- dh fjiksVZ ds ckn Hkkjr ljdkj us vU; ljdkjh iz;ksxkkykvksa dks Hkh isIlh ,oa dksdk
dksyk dh tkap ds fy;s dgkA eSljw dh izfl) iz;ksxkkyk lsUVy QwM VsDuksyksth fjlpZ bULVhL;wV vkSj
dydRrk dh iz;ksxkkyk lsUVy QwM yscksjsVjh us Hkh isIlh dksyk ,oa dksdk dksyk ds uewuksa dh tkap dhA
lh- ,Q- Vh- vkj- vkbZ- eSljw dh fjiksVZ esa Hkh crk;k x;k fd isIlh ,oa dksdkdksyk ds uewuksa esa
Dyksjksik;jhQkWl] eSykfFk;ku] Mh- Mh- Vh- ,oa fyUMsu tSls [krjukd dhVukkd jlk;u ekStwn gSaA blh
rjg dydRrk dh iz;ksxkkyk lsUVy QwM yscksjsVjh }kjk dh x;h tkap esa Hkh ;g ik;k x;k fd isIlh
,oa dksdk dksyk esa jklk;fud dhVukkd mifLFkr gSaA fnYyh ds dsUnzh; iznwk.k fu;a=.k cksMZ dh
iz;ksxkkyk esa Hkh isIlh ,oa dksdk dksyk ds uewuksa dh tkap dh x;hA blesa Hkh ik;k x;k fd isIlh ,oa
dksdk dksyk esa jklk;fud dhVukkd eSykfFk;ku] Mh- Mh- Vh-] fyUMsu rFkk Dyksjksik;jh QkWl ekStwn gSaA
blh rjg dsjy ljdkj us Hkh caxykSj ds Jhjke vkS|ksfxd kks/k dsUnz esa isIlh&dksd dh tkap djk;h]
mlesa Hkh ik;k x;k fd isIlh&dksd esa jklk;fud dhVukkd gSaA mM+hlk ljdkj us tkap djk;h vkSj
mlesa Hkh dhVukkd isIlh&dksd esa feys ik;s x;sA ftruh Hkh iz;ksxkkykvksa esa isIlh&dksd ds ckjs esa
tkap dh x;h] os lHkh iz;ksxkkyk;sa vR;Ur gh izfrfBr gS vkSj vUrjjkVh; Lrj dh ekuh tkrh gSaA
yxHkx 6 ekg dh tkap&ij[k vkSj nLrkosth lcwrksa dk v/;;u] foysk.k djus ds ckn la;qDr
lalnh; lfefr us viuh tkap jiV laln ds lkeus ,oa nsk ds lkeus izLrqr dhA bl fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj
isIlh ,oa dksdk dksyk ds lHkh czkUM+ksa esa [krjukd jklk;fud dhVukkd eSykfFk;ku] Mh- Mh- Vh-] fyUMsu
,oa Dyksjksik;jhQkWl] ;wjksih; ekun.M+ksa dh rqyuk esa cgqr vf/kd ek=k esa gSaA la;qDr lalnh; lfefr dk
;g fudkZ mu lHkh iz;ksxkkykvksa dh fjiksVZ ij vk/kkfjr gS] ftuesa isIlh&dksd ds uewuksa dh tkap dh
x;h FkhA
lalnh; lfefr ds vkdM+ksa ds vuqlkj BaMs is;kas dk iwjh nqfu;k esa izf r O;fDr izfrokZ miHkksx 67-5
yhVj gSA lu~ 2001 esa iwjh nqfu;k esa 412 vjc yhVj BaMs is;ksa lkV fMaDl dh fch gq;hA mRrjh
vejhdk esa lcls vf/kd lkV fMaDl BaMs is; dh fch gksrh gSA nqfu;k esa tks dqy BaMk is; fcdrk gS]
mldk 27 % vdsys mRrjh vejhdk la;qDr jkT; vejhdk esa fcdrk gSA vejhdk esa izfrokZ izfr O;fDr
lkV fMaDl dh [kir 192 yhVj gSA fQj mlds ckn ;wjksi dk LFkku vkrk gS tgka nqfu;k dh 21%

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lkV fMaDl BaMs is; fcdrs gSaA ;wjksi esa izfr O;fDr izfrokZ BaMs is;ksa dk miHkksx 50-8 yhVj gSA vc
mnkjhdj.k dh gok esa BaMs is;ksa dk cktkj ,fk;k ,oa iwohZ ;wjksi esa Hkh c<+rk tk jgk gSA vejhdh
dEifu;ksa isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk us mnkjhdj.k dk Hkjiwj Qk;nk mBkrs gq;s ,fk;k ds dbZ nskksa esa RkFkk
vjc ds dbZ nskksa esa Hkh cktkj cuk;k gSA vkt ds le; esa ekuk tkrk gS fd ,fk;k ds nskksa rFkk vjc
nskksa esa BaMs is;ksa dk cktkj lcls vf/kd rsth ls c<+ jgk gSA ,fk;k esa ftu nskksa esa isIlh&dksd dk
cktkj rsth ls c<+k gS os gSa& ikfdLrku] fo;ruke] Hkkjr ,oa bUMksusfk;kA Hkkjr ljdkj ds vkdM+ksa ds
vuqlkj lu~ 2001 esa 654 djksM+ cksrysa BaMs is;ksa dh fcdhaA Hkkjr esa izfr O;fDr [kir ds vuqlkj BaMs
is; dk miHkksx nqfu;k esa lcls de gSA Hkkjr esa izfr O;fDr izfr okZ vkSlru 6 cksryksa dh [kir gksrh
gSA FkkbyS.M nsk esa izfr O;fDr izfrokZ 80 cksryksa dh [kir gksrh gSA vejhdk esa BaMs is;ksa dh 800
cksryksa dh [kir izfr O;fDr izfr okZ gksrh gSA Hkkjr esa fnYyh kgj esa lcls vf/kd BaMs is;ksa dh fch
gksrh gSA fnYyh jgus okys yksxksa ds fglkc ls izfr O;fDr izfrokZ fnYyh esa 50 cksryksa dh [kir BaMs is;ksa
dh gksrh gSA
la;qDr lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus izLrqr fd;s x;s nLrkostksa ds vk/kkj ij lkV fMaDl esa feyk;s
tkus okys jklk;fud inkFkksZa dk fooj.k bl izdkj gS & lkV fMDal cukus esa ikuh dk iz;ksx lcls
vf/kd gksrk gSA yxHkx 86% ls 92% rd ikuh lkV fMaDl esa gksrk gSA bl ikuh esa ehBkiu ykus ds
fy;s ,LijVse uke dk jlk;u feyk;k tkrk gSA ;g lShu ls Hkh vf/kd ehBk gksrk gSA ,LijVse] lShu
ls 200 xquk vf/kd ehBk gksrk gSA lkV fMaDl cukus esa dSQhu uke dk jklk;fud inkFkZ Hkh feyk;k
tkrk gSA blh dSQhu ds dkj.k fdlh Hkh O;fDr dks ckj&ckj BaMk is; ihus dh yr yx tkrh gSA lkV
fMaDl esa dkcZu MkbZ vkDlkbM xSl Hkh feykbZ tkrh gSA bl xSl dks feykus dk eq[; dkj.k mu lw{e
thok.kqvksa dks lkV fMaDl esa iuius ls jksduk tks lkV fMaDl esa iSnk gks ldrs gSa] D;ksfa d lkV fMaDl
esa ehBkiu gksrk gSA lkV fMaDl esa dqN ,flM vEy Hkh feyk;s tkrs gS tSl&
s QkLQksfjd ,sflM]
flfVd ,sflM] eSfyd ,sflM vkfnA bu ,sflM+ksa dk dk;Z lkV fMDal ds ehBsiu dk larqyu cukus dk
T;knk gksrk gSA bu lkV fMaDl esa jax iSnk djus okys dqN jlk;u Hkh feyk;s tkrs gSa] mnkgj.k ds fy;s
dSjkesy dks feykus ij BaMs is;ksa dk jax xgjk yky&Hkwjk gks tkrk gSA bu BaMs is;ksa esa iksVsfk;e lkWjosV
RkFkk lksfM;e cssUtks,sV tSls jlk;u Hkh feyk;s tkrs gSaA bu jlk;uksa dks ifjj{kd (Preservatives) ds :i
esa iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lkV fMaDl esa isfDVu uke dk jlk;u Hkh feyk;k tkrk gSA bl jlk;u dk
dke BaMs is;ksa dh lkUnzrk c<+kus esa gksrk gSA
Hkkjr nsk esa BaMs is;ksa dks cukus ,oa cspus ds fy;s ,d dkuwu gS] ftls vko;d oLrq vf/kfu;e
1955 ds :i esa tkuk tkrk gSA bl vf/kfu;e ds
vk/kkj ij ,Q- ih- vks- (Fruit Product Order) 1955
esa tkjh fd;k x;k FkkA blh vk/kkj ij dEifu;ksa dks BaMs is; cukus ,oa cspus dk ykblsUl fn;k tkrk
gSA ysfdu bl dkuwu esa ,slh dksbZ O;oLFkk ugha gS] ftlds vk/kkj ij BaMs is;ksa esa iz;ksx gksus okys ikuh
dh xq.koRrk dk dksbZ ekud r; fd;k tk ldsA Hkkjr dh vktknh ds 58 lky chr tkus ds ckn Hkh
ljdkj us ihus ds ikuh dh mPp xq.koRrk dk dksbZ ekud r; gh ugha fd;kA blh dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq;s
isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk tSlh fonskh dEifu;k cgqr gh ?kfV;k ,oa jklk;fud dhVukkdksa ls feyk gqvk
ikuh BaMs is; cukus esa xr 14 okksZa ls bLrseky djrh jgha gSaA

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lalnh; lfefr ds vuqlkj Hkkjr esa dksdk&dksyk ds 52 dkj[kkus gSa] ftuesa ls 27 dkj[kkus
dksdk&dksyk dEiuh ds gSa rFkk ckdh 25 dkj[kkus vU; nwljh Hkkjrh; dEifu;ksa ds gSa] ysfdu buesa
mRiknu iwjk dksdk&dksyk dEiuh ds fy;s gh gksrk gSA blh rjg isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds iwjs Hkkjr esa
38 dkj[kkus gSa ftuesa ls 17 dkj[kkus dEiuh ds Lo;a ds gSa ,oa 21 dkj[kkus vU; nwljh Hkkjrh; dEifu;ksa
ds gSa] ftuesa isIlh&dksyk ds fy;s mRiknu gksrk gSA isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa }kjk lalnh; lfefr dks nh x;h
tkudkjh ds vuqlkj isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds BaMs is;ksa dh ,d lky dh dqy fch 4000 djksM+ :i;s dh gSA
Hkkjr nsk esa ikuh dh mPp xq.koRrk ds dksbZ ekud fu/kkZfjr ugha gksus ds dkj.k la;qDr lalnh;
lfefr us ekuk fd bl fnkk esa tYnh gh dkuwu cukus dh t:jr gSA ftlds vk/kkj ij ikuh dh
xq.koRrk dks r; fd;k tk ldsA lfefr ds vuqlkj ikuh dh xq.koRrk dk bl rjg fu/kkZj.k djuk pkfg,
fd ikuh esa fdlh Hkh fdLe ds jklk;fud dhVukkd ugha gksAa dksbZ Hkh BaMk is; cuus ds ckn gh tkap
fd;k tkuk pkfg, fd og kjhj ds fy;s lqjf{kr gS ;k ugha\ vFkkZr ikuh ds iz;ksx ls cuus okys vfUre
mRikn dh gh xq.koRrk dks tkap dk vk/kkj cuk;k tkuk pkfg,A
tc la;qDr lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa ds vf/kdkjh izLrqr
gq;s rks muls dbZ izu fd;s x;sA lfefr dh vksj ls ,d egRoiw.kZ izu ;g fd;k x;k fd D;k BaMs
is;kas esa bLrseky fd;s tkus okyh kqxj dh xq.koRrk dh tkap dh tkrh gS \ rks bl izu ds mRrj esa
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk nksua ksa gh dEifu;ksa ds vf/kdkfj;ksa us tokc fn;k ge BaMs is;ksa esa feyk;h
tkus okyh kqxj dh tkap ugha djrs gSa] D;ksfa d gekjh ,slh ijEijk ugha gSA lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus
izLrqr gq;s] cksry can ikuh cukus vkSj cspus okys la?k ds v/;{k ds vuqlkj BaMs is;ksa esa bLrseky gksus
okys ikuh dks cgqr vklkuh ls kq) cuk;k tk ldrk gSA blds fy;s Hkkjr esa dbZ rduhdsa miyC/k gSaA
bl ikuh dks kq) cukus ds fy;s izfr yhVj ek= 2 ls 4 iSls dk gh [kpkZ vkrk gSA bl dFku ls LiV
gS fd ikuh dks BaMs is;ksa esa bLrseky gksus ls iwoZ iw.kZ kq) cukus ds fy;s ek= 2 ls 4 iSls izfr yhVj dk
[kpkZ vkrk gS vkSj blds fy;s rduhd Hkh vklkuh ls miyC/k gSA ysfdu fQj Hkh isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk
tSlh fonskh dEifu;k ikuh dks fcuk kq) cuk;s gh ?kfV;k ,oa jklk;fud dhVukkd feys gq;s ikuh dks
gh bLrseky djrh gSaA la;qDr lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus isIlh&dksd ds vf/kdkfj;ksa us jklk;fud
dhVukkd feys gq;s ikuh ds bLrseky ds ckjs esa cksyrs gq;s dgk fd nqfu;k ds vf/kdkak nskksa esa ihus
okys ikuh dk gh iz;ksx BaMs is; cukus esa ;s dEifu;k djrh gSaA ysfdu vejhdk vkSj ;wjksi esa ikuh dh
kq)rk dk vf/kd /;ku j[kk tkrk gSA blfy;s vejhdk vkSj ;wjksi esa BaMs is; cukus ds igys ikuh dks
jklk;fud dhVukkdksa ls eqDr cukdj gh bLrses ky fd;k tkrk gSA vejhdk vkSj ;wjksi esa ikuh dh
xq.koRrk ds ekud cgqr gh ps ,oa dM+s gksrs gSaA blls LiV gS fd ;wjksi ,oa vejhdk dks NksMd
+ j
nqfu;k ds reke nwljs nskksa esa isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;k tks ikuh dk bLrseky djrha gS og ikuh
mPp xq.koRrk dk ugha gksrk gSA vFkkZr~ vejhdk&;wjksi dks NksMd
+ j nqfu;k ds lHkh nskksa esa isIlh&dksd ds
BaMs is;ksa esa jklk;fud dhVukkd feys gq;s ikuh dk gh bLrseky gksrk gSA bl feykoVh vkSj tgjhys
ikuh ds bLrseky djus ds ekeys ij isIlh&dksd dEiuh ds vf/kdkfj;ksa dk dguk gS fd ge BaMs is;ksa esa
bLrseky gksus okys ikuh dh mPp xq.koRrk dh dksbZ xkjaVh ugha ys ldrs gSaA
lkekU; :i ls BaMs is; dh ,d cksry cukdj cspus esa 10 yhVj ikuh dk [kpkZ vkrk gSA gkykafd
cksry esa ek= 300 feyh gh BaMk is; gksrk gSA ckdh ikuh cksry dks /kksus ess rFkk vU; ekhujh iz;ksx es a

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[kpZ gksrk gSA Hkkjr nsk esa lky esa yxHkx 600 djksM+ ls 700 djksM+ cksry izfrokZ BaMs is;ksa dh fcdrh
gSaA ftu ij iwjh rjg ls vejhdh dEifu;ksa isIlh dksyk ,oa dksdk dksyk dk ,dkf/kdkj gSA vFkkZr~
Hkkjr esa izfrokZ 6000 djksM+ yhVj ls 7000 djksM+ yhVj ikuh izfrokZ bu dksyk dEifu;ksa ds }kjk
bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gSA tc la;qDr lalnh; lfefr us bl ikuh ds iz;ksx ij Hkkjr ljdkj dh laLFkk
dsUnzh; HkwxHkZ ty fu;ked lsUVy xzkmUM okVj ,FkkWfjVh dks ryc fd;k rks ,d vkp;Ztud
tkudkjh feyhA bl laLFkk ds vf/kdkfj;ksa dks tc iwNk x;k fd D;k ljdkj] bu dksyk dEifu;ksa ls
HkwxHkZty ds bLrseky dk dksbZ kqYd ysrh gS\rks vf/kdkfj;ksa us dgk fd gekjh tkudkjh esas ljdkj ,slk
dksbZ kqYd ikuh ds fy;s bu dksyk dEifu;ksa ls ugha ysrh gSA fdruh gSjkuh dh ckr gS fd isIlh dksyk
,oa dksdk dksyk tSlh fonskh dEifu;k Hkkjr ds cskdherh HkwxHkZty dk bLrseky djds gtkjksa djksM+
:i;s dek jgha gSa vkSj gekjh ljdkj bl ikuh ij dEifu;ksa ls dksbZ kqYd Hkh ugha ys jgh gSA ,d vksj
Hkkjr nsk ds 2 yk[k ls vf/kd xko ihus ds ikuh ls oafpr gSa] nwljh vkSj isIlh dksyk vkSj dksdk dksyk
tSlh dEifu;k gj lky gtkjksa djksM+ yhVj ikuh dh cjcknh esa yxh gq;h gSaA ftl ikuh ls Hkkjr ds
yk[kksa yksxksa ,oa ikqvksa dks viuh I;kl cq>kus dk bartke gks ldrk gS] ogh cskdherh ikuh tehu ls
nksgu djds BaMs is;ksa esa cjckn fd;k tk jgk gSA okkZ ty dh cwan&canw tc /kjrh esa mrjrh gS rks
gtkjksa yk[kksa okksZa esa HkwxHkZ ty lafpr gksrk gSA bl HkwxHkZty ij igyk vkf/kdkj mu djksMk+ sa Hkkjr
okfl;ksa ,oa ikqvksa dk gS ftUgsa viuh I;kl cq>kus ds fy;s bl ty dh t:jr gSA fQj nwljk vf/kdkj
mu djksM+ksa fdlkuksa dk gS tks nsk ds yksxksa dk isV Hkjus ds fy;s bl ty dk iz;ksx djrs gSaA rhljk
vf/kdkj ;fn gks ldrk gS rks mu m|ksxksa dk gS tks gekjs thou ds fy;s vR;Ur t:jh ,oa mi;ksxh
oLrqvksa dk mRiknu djrs gSaA BaMs is; cukuk rks dksbZ t:jh m|ksx ugha gSA bu BaMs is;ksa ds fcuk Hkh
gekjk thou vPNs ls pyrk jgk gS] vkxs Hkh pyrk jgsxkA blfy;s BaMs is;ksa ds uke ij isIlh ,oa dksdk
dksyk tSlh dEifu;ksa }kjk cjckn fd;s tk jgs Hkkjr ds cskdherh HkwxHkZ ty dks cpkus dh vR;Ur
t:jr gSA ftl nsk ds vf/kdkak Hkkxksa esa vkSlru gj lky lw[kk iM+rk gks] ftl nsk ds yk[kksa xko ,oa
djksMk+ sa euq;] ikq] i{kh ihus ds ikuh dks rjlrs gksa ogka gj lky BaMs is;ksa ds uke ij gtkjksa djksM+
yhVj ikuh dks cjckn djuk ,d jkVh; vijk/k gSA
la;qDr lalnh; lfefr us viuh tkap esa ik;k fd ftu&ftu LFkkuksa ij isIlh&dksyk vkSj
dksdk&dksyk ds IykUV dkj[kkus yxs gq;s gSa] ogka dh LFkkuh; oS/kkfud laLFkkvksa tSls xzke iapk;r]
uxjifjkn vkfn ls] HkwxHkZty fudkyus dh vuqefr Hkh bu dEifu;ksa us ugha yh gSA eqEcbZ kgj esa gh
isIlh dksyk ,ao dksdk dksyk dEiuh us egkuxj ikfydk ls HkwxHkZty fudkyus dh vuqefr yh gSA bl
ekeys esa dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us dsjy jkT; ds IykpheMk esa LFkkuh; xzke iapk;r ls vuqefr fy;s fcuk
gh izfrfnu djksM+ksa yhVj ikuh fudkyuk kq: fd;kA blds pyrs xko dk HkwxHkZty cgqr gh de gks
x;kA vc ml xko esa ihus ds fy;s ,oa d`fk ds fy;s Hkh HkwxHkZty miyC/k ugha gSA blhdkj.k
dksdkdksyk dEiuh vkSj IykpheMk xko ds ukxfjdksa dk dksdk&dksyk ds la;= dks cUn djkus ds fy;s
vkUnksyu py jgk gSA xzkeiapk;r IykpheMk us dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dks bl lEcU/k esa uksfVl ns fn;k
fd dEiuh viuh ikuh dh O;oLFkk dgha vkSj ls djsA
HkwxHkZ ty ds va/kk/kqa/k nq#i;ksx dks jksdus ds fy;s vHkh rd Hkkjr ljdkj us ;k jkT;ksa dh
ljdkjksa us dksbZ Hkh dkuwu ;k fu;e ugha cuk;s gSaA blh dk Qk;nk isIlh dksyk ,oa dksdk dksyk tSlh

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dEifu;ka mBk jgha gSaA Hkkjr ns'k esa ihus ds ikuh dh 80% t#jr HkwxHkZ ty ls gh iwjh gksrh gSA ek=
20% t#jr Hkwfe dh lrg ij miyC/k ty ls iwjh gksrh gSA
lalnh; lfefr ds lkeus Hkkjr ns'k ds dbZ fo'ks"kKksa }kjk jklk;fud dhVuk'kdksa ds 'kjhj ij
gksus okys nq"izHkkoksa ds ckjs esa dkQh tkudkjh nh x;hA tks jklk;fud dhVuk'kd isIlh ,oa dksdk dksyk
esa ik;s tkrs gSa] muesa Mh-Mh-Vh] Dyksjks ik;jhQkl ,oa eSykfFk;ku izeq[k gSaA bu dhVuk'kd jlk;uksa dk
ekuo 'kjhj ij D;k&D;k nq"izHkko gksrk gS] bl ij lalnh; lfefr us tks tkudkjh nh] og bl izdkj gS
&
fyUMsu dh ekuo 'kjhj ij nq"izHkko %
fyUMsu gekjs 'kjhj esa tkus ds ckn olh; rdksa esa tek gks tkrk gSA ;g 'kjhj ds yhoj] fdMuh
rFkk izfrjks/kd rU= dks u"V djrk gS vkSj dSalj iSnk djrk gSA ekuo 'kjhj dh lHkh xzfUFk;ksa ij Hk;adj
nq"izHkko fyUMsu dk gksrk gSA
Mh-Mh-Vh dk ekuo 'kjhj ij nq"izHkko %
Mh-Mh-Vh- efgykvksa ds o{kLFky ds dSalj ds fy;s eq[; ftEesnkj jlk;u gSA ekuo 'kjhj dh lSDl
{kerk dks cgqr de djus dk dke djrk gSA iq#"kksa ds oh;Z esa 'kqk.kqvksa dh {kerk de djus dk dk;Z
Hkh ;g Mh-Mh-Vh- jlk;u djrk gSA
Dyksjks ik;jh QkWl dk nq"izHkko %
ekuo 'kjhj ds rfU=dk rU=] Fkk;jkbM xzfUFk] rFkk ekalisf'k;ksa ij Hk;adj nq"izHkko bl jlk;u dk
gksrk gSA
eSykfFk;ku dk 'kjhj ij nq"izHkko %
eSykfFk;ku dk lcls vf/kd nq"izHkko 'kjhj ds lHkh vaxksa ij iM+rk gSA bl jlk;u ds dkj.k
i{kk?kkr dk lcls vf/kd [krjk gksrk gSA
dSQhu dk 'kjhj ij nq"izHkko %
bl jlk;u dk 'kjhj ij dkQh cqjk vlj gksrk gSA vfunzk] ?kcjkgV] fpUrk] fpM+fpM+kiu vkfn
chekfj;ka dSQhu ds dkj.k gksrh gSaA bl dSQhu ds dkj.k gfM~M;ksa esa vkWLVh;ks ikjksfll ukedh Hkh chekjh
gksrh gSA ;fn xHkZorh fL=;ksa ds 'kjhj esa dSQhu dh ek=k dqN vf/kd gks tk;s rks fQj iSnk gksus okyk
cPps ds 'kjhj esa dkQh fod`fr;ka gks tkrh gSaA
BaMs is;ksa esa ehBkiu ykus okys jlk;uksa dk nq"izHkko %
BaMs is;ksa esa ehBkiu ykus ds fy;s lShu] ,LijVse rFkk phuh dk mi;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA lcls
vf/kd mi;ksx ,LijVse rFkk lShu dk gksrk gSA ;s nksuksa gh jlk;u ew=fi.M ds dSalj dks iSnk djrs
gSaA lkFk gh lkFk ;s nksuksa jlk;u 'kjhj dh lHkh xzfUFk;ksa ij cgqr cqjk vlj Mkyrs gSaA ,LijVse jlk;u
ls xHkZLFk f'k'kq ij cgqr cqjk vlj iM+rk gSA

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Contents
liuksa ds lkSnkxj ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11
izfrJqr Hkwfe nkZu........................................................................................................................................................................ 15
isIlhdksyk ds izkstsDV dks dSls eatwjh feyh\ ....................................................................................................................................... 20
isIlh dksyk dEiuh }kjk Hkkjr ljdkj dks fn;s x;s /kks[ks ...................................................................................................................... 27
isIlh&dksyk dh Hkzked foKkiu ckth ............................................................................................................................................... 32
dksdk&dksyk dk Hkkjr esa izos k ....................................................................................................................................................... 34
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa }kjk jktuSfrd gLr{ksi .............................................................................................................. 36
Hkkjrh; lekpkj&i=ksa ,oa if=dkvksa eas isIlh&dksyk ds ckjss esa mn~?kkfVr lR; ............................................................................................ 38
Hkkjrh; laln esa isIlh&dksyk ds ckjs esa iwNs x;s izu ,oa ljdkj ds eaf=;ksa }kjk fn;s x;s mRrj ................................................................... 42
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds khry is;ksa esa dhVukkd .................................................................................................................... 46
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk D;k gSa\ .............................................................................................................................................. 49
ikcanh D;ksa ugha \ ........................................................................................................................................................................ 54

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izFke v/;k;-

liuksa ds lkSnkxj
;g jpuk isIlh uked ,d cgqjkVh; dEiuh dh Hkkjr esa ?kqliSB dh okLrfod dFkk ls lEcfU/kr
gSA bl dEiuh dh dk;Ziz.kkyh dks xgjs ls le>us ds fy, dEiuh ds bfrgkl dks tkuuk vko;d gSA
vkSj ;gha ikBd dks dksyk dh nwljh nkuokdkj dEiuh ds bfrgkl esa Mqcdh yxkus dh vko;drk Hkh
iMs+xh rkfd Hkkjrh; ifjizs{; esa ;g le>k tk lds fd dSls ,d dh dgkuh nwljs dks izHkkfor djrh gSA
D;ksfa d ;g dgkor gS fd ^;fn dksd vkrk gS rks D;k isIlh T;knk ihNs gksxk\^ vkSj bldk mYVk Hkh
dguk gh lgh gSA

kq:vkr
1860 o 1870 ds nkd esa x`g ;q) ds ipkr vesfjdk esa fokskr%] mtM+s nf{k.kh fgLlksa esa ,d
Hk;adj eUnh ds nkSj ds :i esa jgsA ;q) ds ipkrfofHkfkdk ds izHkkoksa dks nkkZrs gq, vVyk.Vk ds ,d
v[kckj us fy[kk ^^fokkn] Xykfu] mUekn] lj nnZ] kjkc[kksjh] /kqd&/kqdh vkSj ;gk rd fd uiqaldrk dh
Hkjekj gSA^^ fufPkr :i ls ,slh voLFkk uhe&gdheksa vkSj Nn~e fpfdRldksa ds fy, cM+h moZj Fkh tks
rRdky funku o jksx keu dk nkok djrs FksA bl rjg bZ-la- 1885 esa tkWu isEcVZu uked vVyk.Vk ds
,d QkekZflLV us ^sUp okbu dksyk & ,d vknkZ ukfM+;ksa o kkjhfjd {kerkvksa dk m}hid^ uke ls
iaft;u djk;k tks fd rhu Vkax okys ,d ik= esa irokj }kjk fgykdj cuk;k x;k ,d is; FkkA ;g is;
dksdhu] FkksM+h kjkc ,oa vU; dqN vkSj oLrqvksa dks feykdj cuk;k x;kA 1886 bZ esa isEcVZu us kjkc ds
cnys dSQhu dk iz;ksx fd;k rFkk lqxU/k ds fy;s dksyk Qy dk lRo feyk;kA is; dk uke Hkh cny
dj rc dksdk&dksyk j[kk x;k ftlesa nksuks v{kj dks LisUlj yhfi eas fy[kk x;k tks fd ns[kus esa vkSj
vkdkZd yxus yxsA ysfdu isEcVZu dksbZ O;kikjh ugha Fks vkSj mUgksus ^dksd^ QkeqZys dks tks fd vc
epsZUMkbl 7 dgykrk gS] ,d frtksjh esa lqjf{kr j[kk gqvk gS ek= 2300 Mkyj ds cnys tkftZ;k ds
O;kikjh ,sl dSUMyj dks 1889 bZ- esa csp fn;kA ;g dSUMyj gh Fkk ftlus bl is; ds o`grj cktkjkssa dks
cuk;kA mlus bl is; ds ?kksy dks Fkksd O;kikjh;ksa dks cspk tks fd NksVs nqdkuksa dks csprs Fks tks vius
nqdkuksa eas xSl okyk ikuh lksMk okVj feykdj lksMk QkmUVsuksa lksMkokVj dh nqdkuksa esa vkiwfrZ djrs
FksA blh okZ csUtkfeu ,Q Fkkel ,oa tkslQ ih- OgkbVgsM us dSUMyj ls feydj dksdkdksyk dks cksryksa
esa Hkjdj cspus dk O;kikfjd izLrko fn;kA dSUMyj dks bl izLrko es foksk ne ugha fn[kk vr% mlus
,d Mkyj izfr cksry ds nj ls cksry cUn djus dk vf/kdkj csp fn;k] Fkkel ,oa OgkbVgsM us ckVfyax
vf/kdkj dk mi&Bsdk {ks=h; ckVyjksa dks fn;k vkSj bl rjg fo; vf/kdkj ds lkFk ckVfyax i)fr dk
pyu gqvk tks fd vktrd khry is; m|ksx dh fooO;kih eq[; /kkjk gSA vc rd dSUMyj dh
dksdkdksyk daiuh iw.kZ:is.k lkeus vk pqdh Fkh vkSj og bls 1919 bZ - es 25 fefy;u Mkyj esa cspus ds

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dkfcy cu pqdk FkkA u;s [kjhnnkj vVykUVk ds m|eh vusZLV oqMjQ Fks ftuds iq= jkcVZ us dksd dks
vkt dh nUrdFkk cuk;kA tc 1923 esa jkcVZ oqMjQ us dk;Z lEHkkyk] rc dksdk dksyk us dWukMk] D;wck
vkSj I;qfjVksfjdks esa izosk fd;k] ysfdu vUrjkZVh; cktkj eas ;g vutku gh jgkA ;g oqMjQ dh dYiuk
ds vuq:i ugha jgkA vius cksMZ vkQ MkbjsDVlZ dh vogsyuk djrs gq, mlus ;wjksi esa is; dks pykus dh
dksfkk dh vkSj mlesa lQyrk ikus ij mlus fonsk fo; foHkkx [kksy fy;k fdUrq iwjs foo eas
dksdkdksyk dh mifLFkfr dk ,dek= lcls egRoiw.kZ dkj.k Fkk f}rh; foo ;q)A vejhdu lSfudksa dks]
(GI) og tgk Hkh gksa muds gkFk eas ,d dksd dh cksry Fkekus ds oqMjQ ds fu.kZ; us vPNk ykHk fn;kA
vejhdu ljdkj us txg&txg ckVfyax la;a= dh LFkkiuk djok;h D;ksfa d gjsa jax dh ;s cksrysa ?kj dh
;knksa ls ihfM+r lSU;ksa dk eukscy c<+kus esa lgk;d gksrh FkhaA
bl nkSjku og nwljk O;fDr dgk Fkk\ isIlh dh dgkuh dkQh mrkj&p<+ko ls Hkjh gS] vkSj mldh
gjsd miyfC/k dBhu yM+kbZ ds ckn gkfly dh gqbZ gSA isIlh dk izkjEHk Hkh dksd dh rjg gh gqvkA
mkjh dSjksfyuk ds ,d nok cukus okys] dSysc czSMgSe us 1898 eas isIlh&dksyk uke ls ,d vkSj jkeck.k
is; dk fuekZ.k fd;kA bl ckj ;g is; flQZ cngteh nwj djus ds fy;s yk;k x;kA lu~ 1902 eas czSMgSe
us ,d O;kikj fpUg VsMekdZ dk iathdj.k djk;k rFkk xaHkhjrk ls O;kikj kq: fd;kA lu~ 1905 esa
budk igyk ckVfyax l;aU= yxkA lu~ 1902 ds ek= 8000 xSyu ls czSMgSe 1907 esa 100]000 xSyu dh
fch djus yxk FkkA izFke foo ;q) ds lekIr gksrs gh phuh dh dhersa vkdkk Nqus yxha vkSj isIlh
dh eqfdyksa phuh cktkj ij idM+ cukrs&cukrs ns[kk fd 1920 esa dhersa vkSa/ks eqag tehu ij fxjus yxha
FkhA lu~ 1923 esa daiuh dk fnokyk fudy x;kA jkW; esxjtsy uked oky LVhV ks;j cktkj ds ,d
nyky us czSMgSe ls daiuh dks ys fy;k] ysfdu bl rF; ds ckotwn mlus viuk dkQh iSlk blesa
yxk;k] ks;j cktkj ds cSB tkus ds dkj.k ,d ckj fQj daiuh fnokfy;k gks xbZA bl ckj isIlh ds
m)kj ds fy;s pkYlZ xqFk elhgk cukA ykV dSUMh daiuh ds v/;{k xqFk us isIlh ds QkeZqys dks cnyk
vkSj vius khry is; ds nqdkuksa es gh j[kkA lu~ 1933 rd fQj ls Mwcus dh iqjkuh vuqHkwfr okil vkus
yxhA xqFk ds ikl daiuh dks] dksd daiuh dks keZukd rjhds ls cspus ds vykok dksbZ mik; ugha cpk
FkkA ysfdu dksd us bl rjg dh va/kdkje; Hkfo;okyh daiuh dks [kjnhus esa dksbZ :fp ugha yh] tks fd
,d cM+h Hkwy FkhA mcjus dh vafre psVk eas xqFk us ,d lkSnk isk fd;k&12 vkaSl dh cksry flQZ 5
lsUV es] tks fd ml ewY; ij nqxuk eky FkkA varr% fch ,oa equkQk nksuks gh c<+us yxkA ysfdu xqFk
ds HkkX; eas isIlh dks T;knk fnuksa rd pykuk ugha fy[kk Fkk vkSj deZpkfj;ksa dh gM+rky ds pyrs mls
inR;kx djuk iM+kA lu~ 1938 esa okYVj eSd us daiuh dh deku laHkkyh vkSj mlus vkdkZd foKkiuksa
dk flyflyk kq: fd;k] tks vkt Hkh isIlh ds foi.ku dh eq[; kSyh gSA vR;f/kd yksdfiz; dkfed
LVhi] jsfM;ks foKkiu vUrr% daiuh dks lkeus ys vkbZ] rcrd f}rh; foo ;q) kq: gks pqdk Fkk] ftlesa
isIlh] dksd dh Hkkafr HkkX;kkyh ugha cu ikbZA phuh dk fu;a=.k isIlh ds fy;s ,d /kDdk Fkk tks fd
oqMjQ dh nskHkDr Nfo ds pyrs dksd dks ugha >syuk iM+k vkSj ;q)ksrj rsth us isIlh ds ^^Qk;ns dk
lkSnk^^ dks Lohdkj ugha fd;kA daiuh ds ykHk dk xzkQ yxkrkj fxjrk x;k vkSj iru dk ;g nkSj lu~
1949 es vy LVhy ds v/;{k cuus rd tkjh jgkA LVhy us foksk <ax dh cksryksa ds iz;ksx ds lkFk u;s
rjhdksa dh foi.ku uhfr dh kq:vkr dh;k ,oa isIlh dks ^de dSyksjh dk rktxh okyk is;^ ds :i esa

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izpkj fd;k] HkkX; fQj iyVk vkSj lu~ 1959 rd daiuh 700 % equkQk dekus rd iagqp xbZA vc
isIlh] dksd dh ,d dj izfr}Unh cuus dh fLFkfr es igqp xbZA lu~ 1963 esa MksuYM ,e- dSUMy dk
vkxeu gqvk] vkSj mlds ckn fQj isIlh us ^isIlh pSysUt^^ izfr;ksfxrk dk izorZu fd;k tks fd ,d va/kk
Lokn ijh{k.k dk flyflyk Fkk tks txg&txg ij tu&lk/kkj.k ds lkeus vk;ksftr fd;k tkrk Fkk
ftlesa turk us isIlh ds ehBs Lokn dks dksd ds Lokn ls T;knk ilUn fd;kA dSUMy dh lcls cM+h
thr dk lun rRdkyhu :l ds iz/kku [kzqpso dk ekLdks esa vejhdu jkVh; iznkZuh esa isIlh ihrs gq,
QksVks Fkk ftls izeq[krk ds lkFk daiuh us Hkquk fy;kA isIlh dh ,dlw=h; foKkiu ;kstuk] ftldh ppkZ
ckn es dh xbZ gS us oLrqr% dksd dks bruk >d>ksj fn;k fd mls O;kikj txr dh lcls cM+h Hkwy dgs
tkus okys dk;Z dks djus ds fy;s etcwj dj fn;kA ;g dksd }kjk isIlh ds ehBs Lokn ls VDdj ysus ds
fy;s ^U;w dksdk^ dk cktkj eas mrkjuk FkkA isIlh dks bl /kqrZrk iw.kZ iz;ksx dk Qk;nk ^U;w dksd^ ds vkus
dk ugha cfYd iqjkus dksd ds gV tkus dk gqvkA blls xzkgdksa esa vlarksk iSnk gksus ls fQj ls iqjkus
dksd dks ^dksd Dykfld^ ds u;s uke ls cktkj eas vkuk iM+kA vkf[kj ,d is; ds QkeqZys esa cnyko gksus
ls turk esa D;ksa gypy vkSj HkM+kl iSnk gqbZ\ tks fd flQZ& ,siy dEI;qVj daiuh ds losZlokZ LVho
tksUl ds kCnksa esa & ^^lqxfU/kr phuh ?kqyk ikuh gSA^^ bl rF; dks le>us ds fy;s dksd ;k FkksM+k gVdj
isIlh dk vFkZ le>uk t:jh gSA tSlk fd isIlh ds orZeku v/;{k ,oa eq[; dk;Zikyd vf/kdkjh jkstj
,ufjdks dgrs gSa fd] ^^;g flQZ phuh vkSj lqxa/kksa dk feJ.k ugha gS] cfYd jlfl) dk<+k gSA vFkok
dkUlkl ds v[kckj ds lEiknd fofy;e OgkbZV ds izkfLr ds vuqlkj vejhdk ds lc dqN dk lkj
dskdkdksyk gSA^^ f}rh; foo ;q) esa lSfudksa ds fy;s izrhd :i esa tks kq:vkr gqbZ Fkh og vc ,d
^jkV izrhd^ esa :ikarfjr gks pqdk gSA dksd dk fukku lH;rk dk fukku gSA tSlk fd dgrs gSa & tc
vki dgha ,d dksdkdksyk dk fukku ugha n[ksrs gSa rks le>sa fd vki lH;rk dh lhek ikj dj pqds gSaA
dksd dk lkUVk DykWt foKkiu] mldh nskizsfedrk] ;gh vejhdk gSA ek= 400 lky ds bfrgkl okys
,d nsk dh] dksd ,d ijEijk gSA isIlh Hkh vejhdhiu dks gh Hkqukrk gS ysfdu FkksM+s nwljs rjg lsA ;g
toku vejhdk gS] fuMj vkSj FkksM+k mn~.M Hkh ysfdu lcdqN ,d bZekunkj O;kikjh tSlk] nksuksa is;ksa eas
lekurk ;g gS fd nksuks] cksryksa eas vejhdh liukas dks csprs gaSA bl rjg vejhdh feFkd dk fuekZ.k
gksrk gSA
fiNys rhu nkdkas us bu daiuh ;k fuxeksa dkiksZjsku dks foo ds 50 cM+s HkkX;kkyh;ksa dh lwph
QkpqZu fyLV esa p<+rs ns[kkA ;g dbZ dkj.kksa ls gqvkA igyk&khry is; m|ksx dh rsth&mkstd
foKkiu rFkk foi.ku] vejhdk eas bldk csrgkkk foi.ku bUgsa ogk dkua ,d dk is; cukuk tks fd ihus
ds fy;s ikuh dks Hkh ihNs NksM+ fn;kA nwljk&dksd ,oa isIlh nksuksa dk lEcaf/kr ,oa vlEcaf/kr {ks=ksa esa
O;kikj dk foLrkj] mnkgj.k ds fy;s dksd daiuh dksyfEc;k fiDplZ uked fQYe daiuh dk ekfyd cuk
rFkk ^?kksLVcLVlZ^ tSlh fQYe fuekZ.k fd;k] tcfd isIlh us lsou&vi] VSdks csy] kbVks&ys] fiTt+k gV
ds vf/kxzg.k ds lkFk gh 16]000 dsUVdh k;M fpdu cspus okyh bdkbZ;ksa dks [kjhn fy;kA oLrqr%
isIlh dEiuh ds dqy O;kikj dk ek= 38% khry is; dk fgLlk gSA rhljk & bu is;kas dh vUrjjkVh;
mifLFkfr gS& vkt foo ds 155 nskksa eas dksd ,oa 151 nskksa esa isIlh fcdrh gSA kk;n foo bfrgkl dk
dksbZ foofotsrk Hkh bruh tehu ugha thrk gksxk ftruh bu nks cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa us gkfly dhA

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vUrjjkVh; khry is; cktkj dk 90% bu nks dEifu;ksa ds dCts esa gSA fofkV cgqjkVh; daiuh ds
vuq:i nksuksa dEifu;ksa dk edln fodklkhy nskksa dks flQZ khry is; cspus dk ugha gS] tks fd vHkh
rd foykflrk dh oLrq gS] cfYd ,d thoukSyh Fkksiuk gS tks fd ogk ds fuoklh ogu u dj ldsAa
nksuks gh foo esa vejhdk ds iz/kkU; foLrkj rFkk ?kqliSB ds i;kZ;okph cu pqds gSaA isIlh dh mifLFkfr
gj txg flQZ O;kikfjd dkj.kksa ls gh ugha gS ftldk lk{; fpyh tSls nsk ds dVq vuqHkoksa ls LiV gS]
ysfdu ;s ?kVuk;sa ckn eas foLrkfjr dh tk;saxhA
nksuks cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dk Hkkjr esa inkiZ.k yxHkx ,d gh le; eas gqvkA ysfdu isIlh vius
iqjkus lLrs iskdk dksd ds 4 vkus esa 6 vkSal ds eqdkcys 5 vkus eas 10 vkSal ds ckotwn ipkl ds
nkd ds e/; esa viuh nqdku lesVus dks ck/; gqvkA dksd ukeek= dh izfr}afnrk ds chp ,dN= jkt
djrk jgkA dksd ,oa isIlh ds vkxeu ds iwoZ ;g {ks= iw.kZ :i ls vlaxfBr jgk ftleas dqN
v/kZLopkfyr rFkk gkFk ls pyus okys ;a=ksa ds tfj;s izfr feuV T;knk ls T;knk 10 ls 20 cksry
mRiknu FkkA vkt ds 600 cksry izfr feuV dh rqyuk esa ;s iqjkuh QSfDV;k vius LFkkuh; cktkjksa dks gh
T;knkrj xksyhokyh cksryksa eas vkiwfrZ djrh FkhaA ty&kks/ku] fo; vf/kdkj ;gk rd fd foKkiu rd
dk dgha uke ugha FkkA bu cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa ds vkxeu us iwjs O;kikj izf;k eas kafr t:j iSnk dj
nh] ysfdu blesa fdlh LFkkuh; m|ksx dks u rks 'kkfey fd;k x;k] vkSj u gh ;g lEHk+o FkkA ;g fLFkfr
lu~ 1977 rd ljdkj ds cnyus ,oa lkFk gh fu;eksa ds ifjorZu rd pyrh jghA u;s fu;eksa ds rgr
fonskh eqnzk fu;a=.k dkuwu (FERA) ds vuqlkj cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks 40% fgLls rd lhfer j[kuk
FkkA ;g dksd ds fy;s vdYiuh; Fkk] D;ksfa d foo esa dgha Hkh dksd 100% LokfeRo okyh bdkbZ eas gh
ewy ?kksy dk mRiknu djrh jghA lcls cqjh ckr ;g Fkh fd ijexksiuh;] VLV daiuh] tkftZ;ks ds
frtksjh esa lqjf{kr epsZUMkbl 7 x tgk rd igqp flQZ daiuh ds rhu mPpinLFk vf/kdkjh] tks fd ,d
lkFk ogk rd lQj ugha djrs Fks ,oa viuh e`R;q gksus dh lwjr esa fdlh nwl js vf/kdkjh dks ukfer djds
pyrs Fks dks mtkxj djuk iM+rkA bl dkj.k dksdk dksyk Hkkjr ls izLFkku dj x;kA
bu ?kVukeksa ds ckn gh Hkkjrh; khry is; m|ksx vius Lo:i esa fodflr gqvkA dksd ds
ckWVyj pj.kthr flag us dSEik dksyk cktkj eas mrkjk] ikysZ ds jesk pkSgku us FkElvi rFkk M~;wd ,oa
LisUlj tSls nwljs fuekZrk cktkj esa vk;sA vkt cktkj dh fgLlsnkjh yxHkx fuEu :i ls gS%
ikysZ&65%
I;ksj fMaDl& 19%
vU;& 16%
khry is; m|ksx us vR;qke fodYi isk djus dk kkunkj ekspkZ fy;k gSA ikysZ vkt vhdk]
e/;&iwoZ] lksfo;r la?k ,oa vejhdk dks fu;kZr djrk gSA tc fd] nks jkVh; egkcyh ikysZ ,oa I;ksj
fMaDl ds lkFk {ksf=; m|ksx tSls M~;wd] LisUlj ,oa vc eSDMkoy Hkh gSaA
ysfdu u rks dksd vkSj u gh isIlh vHkh lekIr gks x;s FksA os ,d fdukjs gVdj #[k ns[k jgs Fks
vkSj bUrtkj dj jgs FksA muds fy;s ;g ,d ekspZs dh gkj Fkh u fd ;q) esa gkj fokskdj isIlh vdsys
jkt djus dh /kqu esa dksd }kjk gkjh gqbZ tehu gfFk;kus ds fy;s rS;kj gks jgh FkhA bUrtkj dk ;g
[ksy pyrk jgk vkSj vksjosy ds 1984 ds nks lky ckn isIlh us viuk ekSdk vkrs ns[kkA

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v/;k; & 2

izfrJqr Hkwfe nkZu


Hkkjr geskk gh bu nks khry is; egkcfy;ksa ds fy;s Lof.kZeHkwfe] ,oa [kks;k gqvk LoxZ dk feJ.k
jgkA ^isIlhdks oYMZ okbM csojsts^ ds v/;{k ,oa eq[; dk;Zikyd vf/kdkjh jkstj ,ufjdks Hkkjr dks 85
djksM+ I;klh vkRekvksa dk xje nsk dgrs gSaA Hkkjr dh laHkkouk;sa vikj gSaA Hkkjr esa khry is; dh
[kir izfr O;fDr ek= 2-8 cksry izfr okZ gS tcfd caXyknsk eas ;g [kir 26 cksry gSA ikfdLrku esa
izfr O;fDr [kir 13] FkkbZyS.M esa 86] vkSj ;wjksi rFkk vejhdk esa ;g la[;k ek% 180 vkSj 386 gSA
isIlh bu vkdM+ksa dks Hkzfer djus ds fy;s mi;ksx dj jgk gS vkSj izfrokZ lEHkkfor c<+kskjh 900 % dk
y{; isk dj jgk gSA foo esa khry is; dh c<+kskjh dh nj vkSlru 6 ls 8 % rd fLFkj gSA Hkkjr esa
1990&91 esa c<+kskjh nj fLFkj Fkh tcfd isIlh ds vkdM+s dkQh c<+&
s p<+s gSa] blesa dksbZ lansg ugha gS fd
Hkkjr isIlh tSlh cgqjkVh; daifu;ksa ds fy;s ,d mi;qDr fkdkjxkg gS vkSj isIlh us vius lHkh laons dksa
dks mfpr volj dh rkd eas rS;kj j[kkA
;g isIlh dks vPNh rjg ls irk Fkk fd ek= khry is; dks viuh >ksyh eas j[kdj og Hkkjr esa
fdlh Hkh rjg izosk ugha ik ldrkA gkykafd Hkkjr dh uhfr;k lu~ 1977 ds ckn dkQh uje gksrh xbaZ]
ysfdu ;g vlEHko gh Fkk fd dksbZ Hkh dV~Vj~ lektoknh nsk khry is; tSlh ,d xSj izkFkfedrk ,oa
xSj&t:jh oLrq ds O;kikj dks NwV ns nsA ;g ,d lkFkZd voLFkk gksrh vxj ^mUgsa dsd [kkus nks^ dh
Nfo cukus nsrs rks gekjs usrkvksa dh yksdfiz;rk esa Hk;adj deh vk ldrh Fkh vkSj muds fy, ;g
jktuSfrd vkRegR;k gksrhA ;g isIlh dks LiV vkHkkl FkkA vr% ml oDr vko;drk Fkh dFkkud esa
FkksM+s ifjorZu dhA khry is; dks ihNs j[kdj turk dks Lohdk;Z eq[kkSVk lkeus j[kus dh vko;drk
Fkh] blfy;s [kk| oLrq lalk/ku dk <ksx
a kq: gqvkA ;g vuqHko fd;k x;k fd ;fn dksbZ izkFkfed :i ls
[kk| lalk/ku dk;Z ij dsfUnzr] tks fd lh/ks rkSj ij d`fk vFkZkkL= ls lacf/kr gks ,slh&ifj;kstuk ykbZ
tk;s rks mls lgh ek;us es NwV fey ldrh gSA khry is; rc ,d fdukjs jgs vkSj iwjh ifj;kstuk ds
lgk;d :i esa miyC/k jgsA bruk LFkkfir djus ds ckn isIlh us MUdu bafM;k dh lg;ksxh laLFkk ,xzks
izksMDV~l~ ,DliksVZ bafM;k izk- fy- ls ,d la;q m|e dk xBtksM+ fd;kA vizSy 25] 1985 dks m|ksx
fodkl ea=ky; ds lfpo dks ,d vkk; i= tek fd;k x;kA ;g ;kn j[kuk pkfg;s fd ml oDr
[kk| lalk/ku ea=ky; dk xBu ugha gqvk Fkk la;qDr m|e ds mn~ns; esa ;g dgk x;k fd ^^Hkkjr eas
rS;kj d`fk vk/kkfjr mRiknksa ds fu;kZr dh mUufr ,oa fodkl rFkk isIlhdks ds mRiknksa dk Hkkjr esa izorZu
o fodkl dks izksRlkfgr djuk]^^ bu y{;ksa ds vuq:i la;qDr m|e dh LFkkiuk 1 Hkkjr esa mRiknu ,oa
fu;kZr iz;klksa esa iwth dh O;oLFkk 2 pqfuans mRiknksa ,oa ls okvksa dk foLr`r vUrjjkVh; cktkj eas fu;kZr]
3 isIlh dksyk bUVjuskuy ls lacaf/kr rduhdksa dks] fonskh eqnzk dks ckgj Hksts fcuk] izkIr djuk] 4
^isIlh dks bUd^ ls lkUnz ?kksy ds vk;kr dh O;oLFkk dj mldh Lora= ckWVyjksa dks fch ,oa vkiwfrZ] 5
isIlhdks khry is; ds ?kksy ds vk;kr esa yxus okys Mkyj jkfk ds rhuxquk ykxr ds fu;kZr dh
O;oLFkkiukA

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bl fok; esa ;g izkfLr tksM+k x;k fd dSls isIlh daiuh vius vjcksa Mkyj dh mifLFkfr ,oa
foo] fokskdj e/;&iwoZ ds vuqHko rFkk vius lai.w kZ rduhfd ,oa izcU/k ds vuqHkoksa ds lkFk ,d lgh
ikVZuj cu jgk gSA 1 nsk ds d`fk {ks= ds izkFkfed kfDr dk mRFkku] 2 u;s fu;kZr voljksa dk fuekZ.k
,oa fonskh eqnzk dk 3%1 ds fu;kZr&vk;kr vuqikr ls] vkgj.k 3 mRikn xq.kokk ,oa Hkkjr esa fu;kZr Nfo
dh c<+kbZ 4 [kk| lalk/ku] iSdsftax ,oa khry is; fuekZrk ds loksZRd`V rduhdksa dk fcuk fonskh eqnzk
[kpZ fd;s vk;kr 5 nqljs lacfa /kr O;kikjksa ds fy;s bl ifj;kstuk dk mhid dk dke djuk 6 khry
is; m|ksx ds c<+kus esa 7 vkS|ksfxd foLrkj ls midj.kksa ds fuekZ.k dks etcwrh ls c<+kus ds voljksa dk
iztuu 8 m|ksxksa ,oa d`fk {ks=ksa eas jkstxkj ds voljksa ds cuus ds lkFk d`fk] [kqnjkfch rFkk forj.k eas
{ks=h; m|e ds volj ,oa 9 miHkksDrk cktkj ds foLrkj ls ljdkjh vk; esa etcwr c<+kskjhA
izLrko ds var es ;g fudkZ dgk x;k fd ;g vius foLr`r y{;ksa ds dkj.k vFkZO;oLFkk ds fdrus
vuq:i gS rFkk] ^^jkVh; izkFkfedrkvksa tSls fu;kZr] d`fk] jkstxkj ,oa rduhfd Kku eas foksk :i ls
lgk;d gSA^^ foLrkj ls ;gh 20 fefy;u :i;s ds l;qaDr m|e dk izLrko FkkA ;g izLrko izFkkuqlkj
Nkuchu ls xqtjus ds ckn mPpkf/kdkfj;ks]a ftuds vf/kdkj {ks= esa ;g ifj;kstuk iM+rh gS] vxzlkfjr
fd;k x;kA ,sls gh ,d vf/kdkjh laLFkk ^iatkc ,xzks bUMLVht dkiksZjs ku^ ls ftlds funskd vferkHk
ik.Ms Fks] isIlh ,oa MUdu us lykg ,oa lg;ksx ds fy;s laidZ fd;kA MUdu ,UVjizkbt ds dkjiksjsV
fjlkslsZt mik/;{k ,u-ds-izlkn dks lacksf/kr ,d i= esa ik.Ms us fy[kkA
Hkkjr ljdkj dks fn;s x;s vkids izkFkZuk i= dks eSus ns[kk vkSj ik;k fd izLrkfor [kk| oLrq
m|ksx ds ykHk ds i{k esa tks nkos fd;s x;s gSa os iwjh rjg ls vlaxr gSA [kk| lalk/ku O;olk; esa iM+us
okys ukeek= ds izHkko rFkk oLrqr% dksbZ u;h iwth dk u yxuk vkSj fdlh u;s rdfud dk iz;ksx bl
izLrko esa u gksus ds dkj.k bl izLrko ds iatkc ljdkj ds leFkZu izkfIr ds fy;s eq>ls dksbZ leFkZu ;k
odkyr dh vis{kk u djsa]^^ ml oDr nsk esa isIlh ds vkus dh igyh dksfkk dh ;g izfrf;k jghA
ik.Ms ds n`fVdks.k isIlh dh nwljh dksfkk ds lUnHkZ esa dkQh egRoiw.kZ gaSA dgus dh vko;drk ugha
gS fd isIlh ds izLrko fdlh dks Hkjek ugha ik, vkSj lkanz ?kksy dk vk;kr ugha fd;k tk ldk rFkk
?kjsyq kqYd {ks= (DTA) eas fonskh vkoMZ dk iz;ksx u gks ldus ds vk/kkj ij [kfjt dj fn;k x;kA
ysfdu isIlh bruh vklkuh ls gkj ekuus okyk ugha FkkA ;gha ij jesk okaxy orZeku izcU/k
funskd] isIlh QwM~l~ bfUM;k dk vkxeu gksrk gSA yUnu laLFkk esa dke djus ds ckn ^gj eqfdy
vklku^ ds :i esa ;g [;kr gq,A isIlh ds fkdkfj;ksa us okaxy ls lEidZ fd;k] vkSj mlds ckn muls
feJ bZthIV eas izosk djkus ds dk;Z dks lk/kkA MUdu dh iw.kZ vlQyrk ds ipkr okaxy dks 1 dBhu
ifjfLFkfr;ksa dks gy djus dh {kerk ,oa 2 ,d vfuoklh Hkkjrh; gksus ds dkj.k eSnku eas yk;k x;kA
isIlh vc bl rF; dks gn;axe dj pqdk Fkk fd mlds ifj;kstuk dh Lohd`fr ds fy;s jktuSfrd
izpkj ,oa lgkjs dh vko;drk gh izeq[k gSA mlus ;g Hkh tku fy;k Fkk fd [kk| lalk/ku ds uke ij
okd~+tky QSYkkuk dkQh ugha gSA mudks ckr djus ds fy;s lkFkZd] foLr`r ,oa fofkV ykHkokys rdksZa dh
vko;drk gSA bu ckrksa dks fnekx es j[kdj mUgksusa viuh vkf[kjh dksfkk kq: dhA vkSj ;g dguk
iMs+xk fd ;s mudh vksj ls ,d cgqr gh laxfBr o lqfu;ksftr iz;kl Fkk] tcfd ;g ,d egkure /kks[ kk
Fkk tks fd nsk dks Hkksxuk FkkA bl ckj muds lkFkh Fks ljdkjh laLFkk iatkc ,xzks baMLVht dkiksZjs ku

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(PAIC) rFkk VkVk dh laLFkk oksYVkl tks fd (PAIC) ds lkFk oksyQkeZ uke ls khry is; m|ksx esa viuh
dksfkk ns[k pqds Fks tks cgqr lQy ugha gks ikbZA
mijksDr vferkHk ik.Ms]+ tks fd MUdu ds izLrko dks fljs ls udkj pqds Fks] vc blh ifj;kstuk
dh Lohd`fr ds dj leFkZd ds :i eas [kM+s gq,A 10 vxLr] 1985 dks mUgkaus s ,d xqIr VsysDl (PAIC)
ls isIlhdks ds kbZLV vyczkbZV ,oa usLVj dkcsfuy&ofjB mik/;{k] isIlhdks] dks lacksf/kr dj HkstkA iwjh
rjg ls iyVh [kkdj vc og ,d e/;LFk ,oa pkVqdkfjrk dh gnrd lgk;d cusA mUgksua s isIlh dks
jktuSfrd ,oa ukSdjkkgh lgkjksa dks ,df=r djus dk lq>ko fn;kA ik.M+s dk VsysDl micU/k esa eqfnzr
Lo;a bldh O;k[;k djrh gSA
fe- ts-lh-pksiM+k] ofjB mik/;{k oksYVkl ,oa iatkc ljdkj esa esjs lkfFk;ksa ls fopkj foekZ gqvkA
eSus ljnkj izdkk flag ckny ls Hkh ckrsa dhA bu ppkZvksa ds vk/kkj ij esjk ;g lqfufpr er gS fd ;g
izLrko ,oa izkFkZuk i=] tSlk fd ;g gS] ljdkjh Lohd`fr ;k iatkc ljdkj dk iw.kZ leFkZu ugha ik
ldrk gSA orZeku izLrko dk flQZ lq/kkj gh ugha cfYd iwjh rjg ls R;kx dj ,d u;k izLrko nsuk
gksxkA u;s izLrko ds iatkc ljdkj ls iwjk leFkZu ikus dh vkkk dh tk ldrh gS] ;fn bls fuEufyf[kr
rjhds ls cuk;k tk;s -------- eSa vkkk djrk gw fd ;g VsysDl xqIr j[kk t+k,xk rFkk orZeku esa bldh
dksbZ ppkZ MUdu ds lkFk ugha dh tk,A eaS fQj ls dgrk gw fd ugha dh tk;sA ;fn mijksDr lq>ko
Lohdk;Z gkas rks eaS pkgrk gw fd vki rqjra jkT;iky Jh vtqZu flag ;k eq[; lfpo Jh ih-,p-oS.ko dks
igys dh eqykdkrksa dk gokyk nsrs gq, ,oa mijksDr rjhdksa ds rgr xBcU/ku dh laHkkoukvksa dks crkrs
gq, fy[kasA ;g i= isIlh ds rjQ ls tkuk pkfg;s u fd MUdu] oksYVkl ;k fdlh Hkkjrh; laLFkk dh
vksj lsA ,dckj bl vkk; dk i= Hkstus ds ipkkr esjk lq>ko gS fd vkidh Vksyh pUMhx<+ ,oa iatkc
esa rhu ;k pkj fnu jgdj izLrko ds eqkas ij foLrkj ls dk;Z djs rFkk lHkh mPpkf/kdkfj;ksa ls ,oa
jktuSfrd O;fDr;ksa ls feysA bR;knh-----^^
iatkc ljdkj ls lEc) ,d Hkkjrh; izkklfud lsok ds vf/kdkjh dk ,d laLFkk ftldk fd og
kq: esa fojks/k dj pqdk gks] bl rjg ds i=kpkj ds izHkko dks xaHkhj dguk Hkh de gh gSA bl cfq) iyV
dk dj.k D;k gS\ ik.Ms ds uh;r dh foHkkxh; tkp t:jh yxrh gSA
vxLr 6]1986 dks varr% (PAIC) us isIlhdks bUd ds lkFk ^^la;qDr d`fk m|ksx m|e fokskdj
[kk| lalk/ku ds {ks= ds fy;s^^ ,d fonskh lg;ksx gsrq vkSipkfjd izkFkZuki= isk fd;kA
;g la;qDr m|e bl ckj (PAIC) isIlhdks ,oa MUdu dh txg VkVk dh lg;ksxh oksYVkl
fyfeVsM dk lfEeyu FkkA bl ckj [kk| lalk/ku ds ij tksj Mkyk x;k rFkk khry is; dks de
egRo fn;k x;kA isIlh dks lcd fey pqdk FkkA dqN Hkh gks izLrko eas dksbZ foksk fHkUurk ugha FkhA bl
ij ckn esa foLr`r ppkZ dh tk;sxhA tks Hkh gks izLrko dk laf{kIr i;kZoyksdu fuEukafdr gSA isIlhdks] ,oa
oksYVkl fy- }kjk ,d la;qDr m|e dk izorZuA
ekfydkuk & fonskh % isIlhdks & 39-89%
Hkkjrh; % 60-11% (PAIC) oksYVkl
dqy bfDoVh & :- 9 djksM+
dqy iwth & :- 22-55 djksM+

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m|e ds eq[; ?kVd


&
&
&
&
&

d`fk vuqla/kku dsUnz iwth fuosk & 1-55 djksM+


vkyw@k; lalk/ku bdkbZ;k fuosk & 8 djksM+
Qy@lCth lalk/ku bdkbZ;k fuosk & 7-5 djksM-
khry is; lkanz ?kksy bdkbZ fuosk & 5-5 djksM+
dPps eky dk mi;ksx iatkc esa & 80]000 fefVd Vu
ukkikrh] VekVj] lso] vke Qy@lCth mRiknu dk 25%
20]000 fefVd Vu vkyw ,oa k; dqy mRiknu dk 7%
&fu;kZr izfrc)rk %
& dqy dkj[kkus esa mRiknu ewY; dk 50%
& fonskh eqnzk dk vk;r&fu;kZr dk vuqikr 3%1 fuxZe eas iwthxr ;U=kfn] dPpk eky] fMfoMs.M
bR;kfn lfEefyr
& fu;kZr izfrc)rk vof/k 10 okZ
& U;wure lfEefyr fu;kZr vk; izfrc)rk :&200 djksM+A
;g isIlh ds vius gh kCnksa es izLrko dk foLr`r lkjkak gSA /kks[kk/kM+h dh vkSj xgjh tkp ckn esa
nh tk;sxhA

ukSdjkkgh Nkuchu
fdlh Hkh ifj;kstuk dh Lohd`fr ds fy;s ;g lk/kkj.k izf;k gS fd lacfa /kr eU=ky; izLrko dks
ifj;kstuk Lohd`fr ifjkn PABdks nsrk gSA bl izLrko ds lUnHkZ esa Hkh ;gh fd;k x;kA PAB us viuh
Nkuchu isIlh dks
miyC/k vkarfjd [kk| lalk/ku rdfudksa dks esutj j[k dj kq: fd;k] gksusokys
rduhdksa ds LFkkukUrj.k dh izd`fr ,oa rjhds] blls mRi gksus okys jkstxkj ds volj bR;kfnA blds
fy;s PAB eas pqus x;s lfpoksa dh 16 flrEcj] 1986 dks cSBd gqbZA ckn esa PAIC ds vQlj yksx d`fk
,oa lgdkfjrk lfpo Jhfuokl kkL=h ls feys ,oa ifj;kstuk ds fuLrkj.kksa ds fy;s izkFkZuk fdA 22
uoEcj 1986 dks [kk| ,oa ukxfjd vkiwfrZ eU=ky; ds lfpo oh- fot;ks[kju us m|ksx eU=ky; ds
m|ksx fodkl foHkkx ds lfpo dks fy[kk%
^^lHkh izeq[k y{k.kksa ds lkFk nsk ds ykHkkFkZ] bR;kfn ------ izLrko ds i{k esa ugha gSA isIlhdks dh 30%
O;kikj d`f=e oLrqvksa dks Hkkjr esa cspus dh ifj;kstuk [kk| lalk/ku m|ksx dks {kfr igqpk;sxhA^^
22 tuojh] 1987 dks vkfFkZd O;kikj foHkkx fMikVZesUV vkQ bdksukWfed vQs;j ,Q-,u-Vh-,UM
Vh lsDku us fuEufyf[kr ckrsa dgh % khry is; U;wure izkFkfedrk dk {ks= gSA bl {ks= esa isIlhdks ds
vkxeu ls ?kjsyq mRikndksa dks lE;d {kfr gksxhA izu gS fd fdl izdkj fonskh eqnzk dk fuxZeu ,oa
fu;kZr vk; ds leUo; ij izHkkoh :i ls utj j[kh tk;A izu tks fd /;ku esa j[kuk gS] ^^;g gS fd
,d ckj bdkbZ ds LFkkiuk ds ipkr ljdkj ds ikl izLrkfor fu;kZr ds u gksus ij D;k fodYi jgsxk\^^
27 ebZ] 1987 dks ,d foksk PAB us fup; fd;k fd d`fk foHkkx ds vfrfjDr lfpo ds usr`Ro esa
,d ny [kk|] Qy ,oa lCth lalk/ku m|ksx esa rduhfd ;ksX;rk ,oa fokskKrk ds lkFk ,slh rduhd
dks tkpus ,oa ifj;kstuk esa LFkkukUrfjr djus dh {kerk dh tkp djsxhA vkxs dgk x;k fd ;g ny

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isIlh dh 60% fu;kZr dh mkjnkf;Ro ds fuokZg ds bPNk dk vkdyu djsxh d`fk vuqla/kku rFkk d`fk
lalk/ku eas isIlhdks dh ;ksX;rk ,oa vuqHko ds ckjs esa foksk ppkZ esa 27 ebZ dh cSBd esa [kk| foHkkx us
;g dgk fd ^^muds ikl isIlhdks dh ;ksX;rk ,oa vuqHko ds fok; eas dksbZ fufpr lwpuk ugha gSA lkFk
gh PAIC }kjk dksbZ fufpr vkoklu Hkh ugha fn;k x;k gSA^^
;g r; fd;k x;k fd d`fk lalk/ku] [kk| ,oa lCth lalk/ku rduhd ds LFkkukarj.k ds rduhdh
;ksX;rk ds fok; esa PAB dks tkp ,oa vkdyu ds fy;s vkSj foLr`r lwpukvksa dh vko;drk gSA
vxLr 10]1987 dks PAB dh ,d vkSj cSBd cqykbZ xbZ] ysfdu vfrfjDr lfpo] d`fk foHkkx }kjk
rduhdh i{k esa muds lwpukvksa dks tek u djus ds dkj.k dksbZ fu.kZ; ugha fy;k tk ldk] tks Hkh gks
d`fk foHkkx dks bl fok; esa i=kpkj tkjh j[kus dks dgk x;kA tSlk fd ;gk irk pyrk gS] [kk|
lalk/ku isIlhdks dh rduhdh {kerk ds ckjs esa ftKklkvksa ds rgr vfrfjDr lfpo] d`fk foHkkx PAB dks
tkudkjh nas]^^CFTRI, eSljw dks Hkh rduhdh lacfa /kr fok;ksa dks tkpus dks dgk x;k gSA^^
nl fnuksa ds ckn cqyk;s x;s nwljs cSBd esa vfrfjDr lfpo] d`fk }kjk ekxs x;s fofunZskuksa ds
tokc esa CSIR us ntZ djk;k fd] ^^isIlhdks dk izLrko rduhdh foLrkj dk [kqyklk ugha djrhA vkxs]
isIlhdks ,oa mldh lg;ksxh daiuh;k flQZ vkyw ,oa eDds ds mRiknksa ds lakks/ku dh vuqHkoh gSaA^^
mijksDr ukSdjkkgh Nkuchu dh esjh izd`fr ls ;g LiV gS fd ;g izLrko ewyHkwr eqksa dks Nqikus
eas lQy ugha gks ikbZA ;g LiV Fkk fd uke ds vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh rduhdh LFkkukUrj.k ugha gksus okyk
FkkA fQj PAB us fljs ls bl izLrko dks vLohd`r D;ksa ugha fd;k\ blds ckn 22-55 djksM+ dh ;g
ifj;kstuk eaf=eaMy dks vxzlkfjr fd;k x;kA 6 flrEcj] 1988 dks iwjs izLrko dks rkRdkfyu iz/kku ea=h
jktho xka/kh }kjk Lo;a pqus gq, eaf=;ksa ds ,d ny dks Hkstk x;kA kq: esa rkRdkyhu foRrea=h ,u-Mhfrokjh bl ny ds usrk Fks] ysfdu mudh txg ljnkj cwVk flag dks ;g in fn;k x;k tks fd isIlh ds
vuqjkxh ds :i eas tkfgj FksA ;g iwjh izf;k ljdkj dh viuh gh cukbZ gqbZ uhfr;ksa ds izfr opuc)rk
,oa ukSdjkkgh dh lansgkRed dk;ZkSyh ds fy;s dbZ lokyksa dks tUe nsrh gSA ;g bl ifj;kstuk izLrko
dh [kqyh izxfr Fkh tc rd fd bls loksZPp Lrj ls fuLrkfjr fd;k x;kA vkf[kj br us fojks/k vkSj
fojks/kkHkkl okyh ,d ifj;kstuk dks D;ksa Lohd`r fd;k x;k\

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v/;k;&3

isIlhdksyk ds izkstsDV dks dSls eatwjh feyh\


Hkkjr eas ftruk fojks/k isIlh dksyk ds vkus ij gqvk] mruk fdlh vU; fonskh dEiuh ds ckjs esa
ugha gqvk gSA lekpkji=ksa ,oa ehfM;k esa Hkh isIlh dksyk ds ckjs esa cgqr dqN fy[kk x;kA laln esa Hkh
isIlh dksyk ds ckjs esa dkQh cglsa gqbZaA nsk ds dbZ Hkkxksa esa Hkh isIlh dksyk dk fojks/k gqvkA v[kckjksa esa
ftl rjg dh fjiksVZ isILkh dksyk ds ckjs esa Nih muds dqN mnkgj.k&
1
^^Hkkjr dks bl rduhd dh lkV fMad dksbZ t:jr ugha gS] ftl rjg dh rduhd dks ysdj
;g vejhdh isIlh dksyk vk;h gSA lkV fMad khry is; Hkkjr dk izkFkfed {ks= ugha gSA khry is;
,slk {ks= ugha gS ftlesa fonskh iwath fuosk dh t:jr gksA isIlh dksyk dEiuh ds ikl tks Hkh rduhd
gS] mls Hkkjr esa gh fodflr fd;k x;k gS vkSj mls csgrj Hkh cuk;k tk ldrk gSA^^
2
^^Hkkjrh; khry is; m|ksx viuh rkdr vkSj {kerk ls gh vkxs c<+k gS vkxs Hkh c<+rk jgsxkA
Hkkjrh; khryis; m|ksx dks fdlh fonskh dEiuh dh dksbZ t:jr ugha gSA vHkh Hkkjrh; cktkj esa khry
is;ksa ds fy;s tks Lo;aiw.kZrk gS] og fonskh dEiuh ds vkus ls VwVsxhA^^
3
^^isIlh dksyk tSlh dEifu;ksa ds vejhdh xqIrpj laLFkk lh-vkbZ-,- ds lkFk ?kksfkr lEcU/k gS] vkSj isIlh
dksyk dk Hkkjr vkuk [krjs dk lwpd gSA^^
4
^^isIlh dksyk dEiuh ds ok;ns fcYdqy Hkh /;ku nsus yk;d ugha gaSA isIlh dEiuh us fu;kZr ds tks
ok;ns fd;s gSa] os lHkh [kks[kys lkfcr gksx
a s isIlh dksyk dh iwjh utj Hkkjr ds ?kjsyw cktkj ij yxh gq;h
gS vkSj ;g dEiuh Hkkjr ds ?kjsyw cktkj ij dCtk djuk pkgrh gSA^^
5
^^;fn isIlh dEiuh Hkkjr ds fdlkuksa vkSj d`fk dk dqN Hkyk djuk pkgrh gS] rks mls Hkkjr ls
okil pyk tkuk pkfg,A^^
ij fy[kh x;h lHkh ckrsa Hkkjr ds izeq[k lekpkj i=ksa eas izdkfkr gqbZa rFkk laln ds nksuksa
lnuksa esa Hkh ppkZ esa vk;haA laln esa ljdkj dh vksj ls dbZ ckj dgk x;k fd isIlh dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa
foksk kks/k vkSj fodkl ds dk;Z ds fy;s dgk tk;sxk] ftlls fdlkuksa dks ,oa [kk| izlaLdj.k m|ksx dks
ykHk gksxkA ysfdu gj ckj isIlh dh vksj ls dgk x;k fd flQZ kks/k ,oa fodkl ds dk;Z esa isIlh dksyk
dEiuh ugha vk;sxhA isIlh dEiuh dk Hkkjr ljdkj ds lkFk ,d ^^iSdst Mhy^^ gqvk Fkk blesa Hkkjr ds
cktkj esa khry is; cspus dh ckr ij gh isIlh dEiuh us vf/kd tksj fn;kA Hkkjr ds dbZ laxBuksa ,oa
lekpkj i=ksa us ;g Mj O;Dr fd;k Fkk fd isIlh dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk tSlh dEifu;k Hkkjr ds cktkj
esa ,dkf/kdkj LFkkfir dj ysaxhA ;g Mj ckn esa lp lkfcr gqvk vkSj vkt cktkj eas iwjh rjg ls
isIlh&dksdk dksyk dk ,dkf/kdkj cu pqdk gSA isIlh dEiuh us geskk ls Hkkjr esa ;gh izpkfjr fd;k fd
og rks [kk| izlLa dj.k m|ksx dh ,d dEiuh gS] ftlds dqy 20]000 djksM+ : ds O;kikj dk nks frgkbZ
[kk| izlaLdj.k ls gh vkrk gSA^^ ysfdu ;g ljklj >wB gSA isIlh&dksyk geskk ls gh khry&is; dEiuh
jgh gS vkSj bldk iwjk cktkj khry is; dk gh gSA
laln esa bl fok; ij ljdkj dh dbZ ckj f[kapkbZ dh x;h fd ljdkj viuh ?kksfkr uhfr ds
fo#) tkdj isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa cqyk jgh gSA blh lUnHkZ esa rRdkyhu iz/kkuea=h jktho

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xka/kh dks ,d [kqyk i= lkaln fpeuHkkbZ esgrk }kjk fy[kk x;k FkkA fpeuHkkbZ esgrk dks dkaxzsl ls
fuyfEcr dj fn;k x;k FkkA bl i= easa dqN bl rjg ls fy[kk x;k & ^^
fiz; Jh jkthoth] gkaykfd eq>s dkaxzsl ls fcuk fdlh vk/kkj ds fuyfEcr dj fn;k x;k gS] fQj
Hkh esjk drZO; gS fd eSa dkaxzsl ikVhZ ds fgr esa fopkj d:A blfy;s ;g i= vkidks fy[k jgk gwA bl
i= ds ek/;e ls eSa ,d cM+h jktuSfrd Hkwy dh vksj /;ku fnykuk pkgrk gw] tks vkids }kjk ,oa vkidh
ikVhZ ds }kjk dh x;h gSA eq>s yxrk gS fd O;fDrxr :i ls vki us isIlh&dksyk izkstDs V dks leFkZu
nsdj Hkkjh xyrh dh gSA vHkh Hkh cgqr nsj ugha gq;h gS] ge bl xyrh dks Bhd dj ldrs gSaA gesa bl
isIlh izkstDs V dks ykxw djus esa nsjh djuh pkfg,] rkfd gesa fQj ls bl izkstDs V ds ckjs eas lkspus dk
ekSdk feysA vkidks iatkc ;k=k esa ;g crk;k x;k fd] isIlh dksyk izkstDs V dh ckr dkaxzsl ds fy;s
ykHkdkjh gksxh] ysfdu vkidh igyh iatkc ;k=k vPNh ugha jghA gesa bl isIlh izkstDs V ds dbZ igyqvksa
ij fQj ls fopkj djuk gksxkA lcls egRoiw.kZ ;g gS fd yksx ekurs gSa fd isIlh&dksyk izkstDs V ds ihNs
vkidk iwjk gkFk gS vkSj vkkhZokn gSA dkaxzsl ikVhZ dks pquko ds le; bldk Hkqxrku djuk iM+x
s kA gekjs
nsk ds yksx bl isIlh izkstDs V dks jktho xka/kh ds usr`Ro okyh dkaxzsl dh] vehjksa ds fgr esa cuk;h tkus
okyh uhfr ds :i esa gh ns[ksaxsA ftl nsk esa yksxksa dks ihus dk ikuh ykus ds fy;s ehyksa iSny tkuk
iM+rk gks] mlh nsk esa isIlh dEiuh ds khry is; dk fcduk] yk[kks&
a djksMk+ as Hkkjrh; yksxksa ds fy;s tks
thou dh cqfu;knh lqfo/kkvksa ls oafpr gSa vieku tSlk gh gksxkA ftl rjg cksQkslZ rksi lkSns esa gekjh
cnukeh gq;h gS] mlh rjg blesa Hkh gksxhA ftl fu;kZr ds
vk/kkj ij vkius isIlh izkstDs V dks
gjh >.Mh fn[kkbZ gS] og fu;kZr dk rdZ yksxksa dks Lohdkj ugha gksxkA vkus okys pqukoksa esa ;g isIlh
izkstDs V yksxksa dh utj esa [kVdsxk] vkSj gekjh ikVhZ dks ijkt; dk lkeuk djuk iM+ ldrk gSA isIlh
dksyk ,d egkdk; dEiuh gS] tks fdlh Hkh ljdkj dk lEeku ugha djrh gSA gesa bl isIlh izkstDs V dks
iwjh rjg ls cUn djuk gksxkA^^
iwoZ lkaln fpeuHkkbZ esgrk }kjk fy[ks x;s bl i= ds ckn lu~ 1989 esa jktho xka/kh dh vkSj
dkaxzsl ikVhZ dh pqukoksa eas ijkt; gq;hA mlds ckn jktho xka/kh us Lo;a ^^laMs^^ if=dk dks fn, ,d
lk{kkRdkj esa Lohdkj fd;k fd ^^isIlh izkstDs V cgqr cqjk gSA^^ blh lk{kkRdkj esa jktho xka/kh us dgk fd
^^tc ;g isIlh izkstDs V Lohd`r fd;k x;k Fkk] rc Bhd Fkk^^A blh rjg 13 flrEcj 1986 esa bUnzdqekj
xqtjky tks ckn esa Hkkjr ds iz/kkueU=h Hkh cus us ,d [kqyk i=
iz/kkueU=h ds uke fy[kk] tks
VkbEl vkQ bf.M;k lekpkj&i= esa Hkh NikA bl i= esa fy[kk x;k ^^Jheku~] vkt dy isIlh dksyk
dEiuh ds leFkZu ,oa
fojks/k esa cgqr lkjs rdZ&fordZ i<+us ,oa lquus dks fey jgs gSaA bu lHkh
dks tkuus ls ,d fudkZ rks t:j fudyrk gS fd bl isIlh izkstDs V ds ihNs dqN fufgr LokFkZ Hkh dke
dj jgs gSaA isIlh ds leFkZu esa lcls cM+k rdZ ;g gS fd Hkkjr ds [kk| izlaLdj.k ,oa gkVhZdYpj ds
fy;s cgqr mi;ksxh gksxhA ysfdu esjk ;g ekuuk gS fd Hkkjrh; [kk| izlaLdj.k m|ksx dk fodkl djus
ds fy;s fdlh fonskh dEiuh dh dksbZ t:jr ugha gSA isIlh dksyk dEiuh dh vksj ls tks iSdst Hkkjr
ljdkj ds lkeus isk fd;k x;k gS] mlh rjg ds izLrko nf{k.kh vejhdh nskksa dh ljdkjksa ds lkeus Hkh
bu vejhdh dEifu;ksa ds }kjk isk fd;s x;s FksA ysfdu lHkh nf{k.kh vejhdh nsk mu izLrkoksa dks
Lohdkj djds cjckn gks x;sA bu fonskh dEifu;ksa us nf{k.k vejhdk ds fdlkuksa dks iwjh rjg ls cjckn
dj fn;k FkkA eq>s yxrk gS fd Hkkjr esa [kk| izlaLdj.k m|ksx] Qy ,oa ckxokuh m|ksx esa kafr gksuh

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pkfg,] ysfdu bl kafr ds fy;s fonskh dEifu;ksa dh dksbZ t:jr ugha gSA bl kafr dh rduhd ij
fdlh ,d dk lef/kdkj ugha gSA nqfu;k esa dbZ NksVs nsk tSl]s cYxkfj;k vkSj xzhl us Hkh bl [kk|
izlaLdj.k dh rduhd esa egkjr gkfly dh gSA ;g rduhd [kqys cktkj esa vklkuh ls miyC/k gSA isIlh
dEiuh ds }kjk izLrkfor djkj gekjs Hkkjr ds fgr esa ugha gSA nqfu;k ds vR;Ur vfodflr nskkas esa rks
isIlh izLrko dh dksbZ t:jr gks ldrh gS] ysfdu Hkkjr esa bldh dksbZ t:jr ughaA isIlh dEiuh Hkkjr
ds fdlkuksa dk cgqr uqdlku djsxh] D;ksfa d isIlh tSlh lHkh vejhdh dEifu;ksa dh vknr ,dkf/kdkj ds
lkFk O;kikj djus dh jgh gSA gekjs fdlku ,d fonskh dEiuh ds jgeksdje ij fuHkZj gks tk;sa] ;g
fcYdqy vPNk ugha gSA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk Hkkjr esa vkuk ,d xyr kq#vkr gS ftlls] vkus okys
le; esa vU; vejhdh dEifu;ksa ds fy;s Hkh Hkkjr esa ,d jkLrk [kqy tk;sxkA Hkkjr esa cgqr NksVs
mn~ns;ksa vkSj vius LokFkZ ds fy;s dke djus okys jktuhfrKksa dks ;s fonskh dEifu;k vius fy;s ykWch
cukus ds fy;s mi;ksx djrh gSaA ;g ykWch Hkkjrh; uhfr;ksa dks tks le; fl) [kjh mrjha gSa] cny nsxh]
;g nsk ds fy;s [krjukd gksxkA^^
isIlh dksyk dEiuh ds fojks/k esa tc bl rjg ds [kqys i= iz/kkueU=h dks fy[ks tkus yxs] rks fQj
bl dEiuh us ,d u;k rjhdk viuk;kA bl dEiuh ds deZpkfj;ksa us iatkc ds dqN xkaoksa esa tkdj
fdlkuksa dks cgyk&Qqlykdj vius leFkZu eas ,d gLrk{kj vfHk;ku pyk;kA yxHkx bl rjg ls 20]000
gLrk{kj Hkkjr ljdkj dks lkSais x;sA Hkkjr ljdkj ds lkeus ;g isk fd;k x;k fd isIlh&dksyk dks
Hkkjr esa fdlku Hkh pkgrs gSaA ijks{k:i ls Hkkjr ljdkj dks ;g /kedh Hkh nh x;h fd ;fn ljdkj us
isIlh&dksyk izkstDs V dks eatwjh ugha nh rks iatkc eas fdlkuksa dk oksV dkaxzsl ikVhZ tks ml le; ljdkj
esa Fkh dks ugha feysxkA bl gLrk{kj vfHk;ku esa isIlh dksyk dEiuh ds vferkHk ik.Ms ,oa xksdqy
iVuk;d uke ds cM+s&cM+s vf/kdkjh kkfey FksA
isIlh dEiuh us Hkkjr ljdkj ij ncko Mkyus ds fy;s rRdkyhu iatkc esa py jgs
mxzokn&vkradokn dk Hkh Hkjiwj iz;ksx fd;kA isIlh dEiuh us viuh vksj ls ,d izpkj vfHk;ku pyk;k
fd] ^^iatkc dh lHkh vkfFkZd&jktuSfrd leL;kvksa dk lek/kku isIlh izkstDs V ds Lohd`r gks tkus esa gh
gS^^A isIlh dEiuh us ;g Hkh izpkj v[kckjksa ds }kjk djk;k fd ^^;fn isIlh izkstDV dks tYn Lohdkj ugha
fd;k x;k rks iatkc dh vkfFkZd leL;k;sa Hkh c<+asxh vkSj bu leL;kvksa ds c<+us ls vkradokn Hkh
c<+sxkA^^ isIlh dh vksj ls v[kckjksa esa iSls nsdj ys[k Niok;s x;s fd bl dEiuh ls Hkkjr ds 50]000
yksxksa dks jkstxkj feysxkA
nwljh vksj isIlh dEiuh us Hkkjrh; khry is; dEiuh ikjys ds f[kykQ ,d izpkj vfHk;ku kq:
fd;kA ikjys ds fo:) isIlh us cM+s&cM+s iksLVj ,oa i=d cuk;s] v[kckjksa esa foKkiu fn;sA buesa dgk
x;k fd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds Hkkjr esa vkus ij izfr;ksfxrk c<+sxh] yksxksa dks lLrh dher ij khry
is; ihus dks feysxk] ikjys dEiuh dk ,dkf/kdkj VwVsxk vkfnA ysfdu vkt isIlh&dksyk vkSj
dksdk&dksyk tSlh vejhdh dEifu;ksa ds vkus ds ckn Hkkjrh; cktkj esa iwjk ,dkf/kdkj bu nksuksa
dEifu;ksa dk gh gks x;k gSA Hkkjrh; dEiuh ^ikjys^ cktkj ls xk;c gks x;hA igys yksxksa dks 300 feyh]
khry is; dh cksry 3-50 :- rd esa feyrh Fkh tks c<+rs&c<+rs 10 :- izfr cksry rd igqp x;hA isIlh
dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa us Hkkjr dh dbZ NksVh&NksVh LFkkuh; ckWVfyax dEifu;ksa dks [kjhn
fy;k] ;k kM+;=
a djds can djk fn;kA isIlh dksyk dEiuh us ;g dke cgqr gh prqjkbZ ls fd;kA

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e/;iznsk ds ,d m|ksxifr ,oa ckWVfyax IykUV ds ekfyd ,e-ih-t;iqfj;k ds usr`Ro esa isIlh dksyk ds
leFkZu ls ,d laxBu cuk;k x;kA bl laxBu esa NksVs&NksVs ckWVfyax IykUVksa ds ekfydksa dks kkfey
djk;k x;k vkSj iSls ds nckc esa bu lHkh us isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk nkeu idM+ fy;kA
isIlhdksyk dEiuh ds izkstDs V dks Hkkjr esa eatwjh feyus esa yxHkx 2 lky yxsA bu iwjs 2 lkyksa
rd vejhdh ljdkj dk nckc Hkkjr ljdkj ij iM+rk jgkA vejhdh ljdkj ds rRdkyhu mijkVifr
tktZ cqk tks ckn esa vejhdk ds jkVifr Hkh cus] vkSj vkt vejhdh jktuhfr{ks= esa mUgsa lhfu;j cqk
dgk tkrk gS] vFkkZr orZeku vejhdh jkVifr tktZ cqk ds firk lhfu;j tktZ cqk] vejhdh ljdkj
dh okf.kT; ea=h dkykZ fgYl ,oa Hkkjr esa vejhdh jktnwr dh vksj ls Hkkjr ljdkj dks ncko Hkjs i=
vkSj lansk vkrs jgsA vejhdh ljdkj dh vksj ls Hkkjr ljdkj dks lqij&301 vkSj Lisky&301 dkuwuksa
ds izko/kkuksa ds vk/kkj ij dk;Zokgh djus dh /kedh nh tkrh jghA isIlh dksyk dEiuh dk rRdkyhu
eqf[k;k MksukYM dsaMy Hkkjr ljdkj vkSj vejhdh ljdkj ds chp esa fcpkSfy;s dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrk jgkA
Hkkjr ljdkj dks ckj&ckj ;g dgk x;k fd ;fn isIlh izkstDs V dks eatwjh ugha feyh rks fQj Hkkjr esa
fonskh iwath fuosk :d tk;sxkA bUgha lkjs nckoksa esa rRdkyhu iz/kkueU=h jktho xka/kh us isIlh izkstDs V
dks eatwjh nhA
jktho xka/kh ds eu esa isIlhdksyk izkstDs V dks ysdj ,d jktuSfrd Hk; iSnk gks x;kA ,d vksj rks
vejhdk dh ukjktxh dk Hk;] rks nwljh vksj viuh ikVhZ esa lkalnksa dk Hk; jktho xka/kh dsk lrkus yxkA
dkaxzsl ikVhZ eas dbZ lkalnksa us vU; lkalnksa ds lkFk feydj jktho xka/kh dks i= fy[kus kq: dj fn;sA
nwljh vksj laln ds vUnj gjhd`.k kkL=h iwoZ iz/kkueU=h Jh yky cgknqj kkL=h ds cM+s csVs us 52
lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj ls ;qDr ,d Kkiu isIlh dksyk ds fojks/k esa jktho xka/kh dks lkSaikA blds ckn isIlh
dEiuh us vius ,d vf/kdkjh jesk oaxy dks lkeus yk;kA jesk oaxy us isIlh dksyk ds leFkZu esa
laln es vanj&ckgj ykWfcax djokuk kq: fd;kA iz/kkueU=h dk;kZy; esa isIlh us vius ,stsUV fu;qDr
djk;s] tks gj QSlys dh tkudkjh isIlh ds ij rd ds vf/kdkfj;ksa dks igqpk;k djrs FksA bUgha ,stsUVksa
dh enn ls mu lHkh lkalnksa dks isIlh dksyk ds i{k esa ykus dk dk;Z fd;k x;k] ftUgksaus isIlh dksyk ds
fojks/k esa jktho xka/kh dks Kkiu fn;k FkkA
gjhd`.k kkL=h ds NksVs HkkbZ vfuy kkL=h iwoZ iz/kkueU=h Jh yky cgknqj kkL=h ds NksVs csVs
dks isIlh dEiuh ds vf/kdkfj;ksa }kjk izHkkfor fd;k x;k] ftUgksua s ckn esa vius cM+s HkkbZ gjhd`.kkkL=h
dks isIlhdksyk ds leFkZu ds fy;s rS;kj fd;kA /khjs&/khjs gjhd`.k kkL=h us isIlh dk fojks/k djuk can
dj fn;k] vkSj ckn esa ,dne kkar gksdj cSB x;sA kkL=h ds csVs lat; us Hkh blesa cM+h Hkwfedk fuHkk;hA
lat; ml le; I;ksj fMaDl dEiuh ds fy, ckWVfyax dk dke djrs FksA ckn esa I;ksj fMaDl dEiuh ds
lHkh ckWVfyax dk dke djus okys yksx ;k rks isIlh dksyk ds lkFk pys x;s ;k dksdk dksyk ds lkFk pys
x;sA isIlh dksyk dEiuh us vius fy;s lkalnksa dk leFkZu tqVkus ds fy;s VkVk xqzi dh dEiuh oksYVkl
ds vf/kdkjh tkfgn csx dk mi;ksx fd;kA tkfgn csx dk HkkbZ dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dk cM+k vf/kdkjh
FkkA tkfgn csx ds ,d lg;ksxh d`.ku us nf{k.k Hkkjrh; lkalnksa dks isIlh ds leFkZu esa tqVkuk kq:
fd;kA isIlh dEiuh dh j.kuhfr Fkh fd nf{k.k Hkkjrh; lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj gh tqVk;s tk;a]s D;ks afd isIlh
ds fojks/k esa ftu lkalnksa us gLrk{kj ;qDr Kkiu jktho xka/kh dks fn;k Fkk] os vf/kdkak lkaln mRrj
Hkkjr ds FksA blh j.kuhfr ds rgr nf{k.k Hkkjr ds lkaln Mk- jktsoju dks lcls igys lEidZ fd;k

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x;kA isIlh dEiuh ds lHkh cM+s vf/kdkjh jeskoaxy] vferkHk ik.Ms] tkfgj csx] d`.ku rFkk rRdkyhu
dkaxzsl ikVhZ ds lfpo vfuykkL=h yxkrkj lkaln Mk- jktsoju ds lEidZ esa jgsA Mk- jktsoju
rfeyukMq ls lkaln Fks] tks fQYeh nqfu;k ls jktuhfr esa vk;s FksA Mk- jktsoju ds lg;ksx ls
fr:fpjkiYyh ds dkaxzsl lkaln vMSdyjkt dks isIlh ds leFkZu ds fy;s rS;kj fd;k x;kA vMSdyjkt
rfeyukMq ds cgqr cM+s kjkc m|ksxifr gqvk djrs FksA isIlh dEiuh us ^fMuj fMIykseslh^ dk Hkjiwj
bLrseky djuk kq: fd;kA vMSdyjkt us isIlh dEiuh ds lkFk lkSnsckth djuk kq: fd;kA isIlh
dEiuh us nf{k.k Hkkjr esa vMSdyjkt dks viuk Sapkblh cukus dk lkSnk dj fy;kA cnys esa
vMSdyjkt us nf{k.k Hkkjrh; lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj isIlh ds leFkZu esa tqVkuk kq: dj fn;kA bl izf;k
esa dbZ ,sls lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj Hkh isIlh dEiuh ds leFkZu esa fy;s x;s] ftUgksua s iw oZ esa isIlh dEiuh ds
fojks/k esa gLrk{kj fd;s FksA rfeyukMq iznsk ds 48 lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj isIlh dEiuh ds leFkZu esa fy;s
x;sA blesa ckn esa 8 vkSj ,sls lkalnksa us gLrk{kj fd;s] tks lHkh iwoZ esa isIlh dEiuh ds izkstDs V ds
fojks/k esa gLrk{kj ;qDr Kkiu jktho xka/kh dks ns pqds FksA bl izdj.k ls ;g lkQ gks tkrk gS fd gekjs
lalnh; yksdrU= dks bu LokFkhZ] vuSfrd] xSj ftEesnkj] vkSj HkzV lkalnksa us ,d rjg ls oSpkfjd
os;ko`fk cuk fn;k gSA bl rjg isIlhdksyk ds leFkZu esa 54 lkalnksa us gLrk{kj dj fn;sA 15 vxLr
1986 dks ;s lHkh 54 lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj isIlh dEiuh dks lkSais x;sA ckn esa bu gLrk{kjksa dks jktho
xka/kh dks fn;k x;kA blh 15 vxLr 1986 dks isIlh dksyk dEiuh us lkaln vMSdyjkt ds lkFk ,d
O;kikfjd le>kSrk fd;k (Franchise Agreement), ftlds vk/kkj ij nf{k.k Hkkjr esa isIlh dEiuh dk
O;kikfjd lkezkT; LFkkfir gqvkA
isIlh dEiuh ds eq[; vf/kdkjh jesk oaxy us lkalnksa dks vius leFkZu esa djus ds ckn fQj dbZ
jkT;ksa ds eq[;eaf=;ksa dks vius izHkko esa ysuk kq: fd;kA bldM+h esa lcls igys tEew&dehj ds
rRdkyhu eq[;ea=h Qk#[k vCcnqYyk rFkk fgekapy iznsk ds rRdkyhu eq[;ea=h ohj Hknz flag dks izHkko
eas fy;k x;kA bu nksuksa eq[;ea=h;ksa dh vksj ls iz/kkuea=h jktho xka/kh dks isIlh izkstDs V dks leFkZu djus
okys i= fy[ks x;sA iatkc ljdkj ds dbZ vf/kdkjh tks isIlh&dksyk ds fojks/k esa Fks] mUgsa vejhdk dh
;k=k djk;h x;hA vejhdk dh ;k=k ls ykSVrs gh bu vf/kdkfj;ksa dk iwjk fopkj ,oa gn; ifjorZu gks
x;k vkSj ;s lHkh vf/kdkjh tks iwoZ esa fojks/kh Fks isIlhdksyk ds leFkZu esa vk x;sA dbZ ckj ,slk Hkh gqqvk
fd isIlh dEiuh ds vf/kdkjh jesk oaxy }kjk fy[ks x;s i=ksa ij gh lkalnksa us gLrk{kj dj fn;s vkSj
fQj og i= iz/kkueU=h jktho xka/kh ds ikl Hkstk x;kA jktho xka/kh dks ;g iRkk Hkh ugha pyk gksxk fd]
tks Kkiu ;k i= vkfn lkalnksa dh vksj ls isIlh ds leFkZu esa mUgsa fn;s x;s] os okLro esa isIlh dEiuh
ds eq[; vf/kdkjh jesk caxy }kjk gh fy[ks x;s FksA
19 flrEcj 1988 dks jktho xka/kh us isIlh&dskyk ds izkstDs V dks vfUre :i ls eatwjh ns fn;kA
gkykfd jktho xka/kh ds eq[; lfpo xksih vjksjk us Hkh dkQh fojks/k fd;kA mUgksua s jktho xka/kh dks dkQh
le>kus dh dksfkk fd bl izkstDs V dks eatwjh nsus ds ifj.kke dkQh [kjkc gksx
a sA ysfdu jktho xka/kh us
xksih vjksjk dh ckr dk Hkh /;ku ugha fn;kA ftl ea=ky; dh vksj ls isIlhdksyk izkstDs V dks eatwjh nh
x;h ,oa ?kksk.kk dh x;h og eU=ky; [kk| ,oa izlaLdj.k ea=ky; FkkA blesa ml le; eU=h gqvk
djrs Fks] txnhk VkbZVyjA 19 flrEcj 1988 dh kke 8 ctdj 40 feuV ij nwjnkZu lekpkjksa esa]
ljdkj ds }kjk isIlh&dksyk dh ifj;kstuk eatwjh dk lekpkj vk;kA

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Hkkjr ljdkj us isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk dks ftu krksZa ds vk/kkj ij eatwjh nh os krsZa bl izdkj
Fkh %
1
bl ifj;kstuk ls iwjs nsk esa 50]000 yksxksa dks vkSj iatkc esa 25]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj feysxkA
vFkkZr isIlh ifj;kstuk ls dqy feykdj 75]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj feysxkA
2
iatkc iznsk eas iSnk gksus okys dqy Qy vkSj lfCt;ksa dk 25% izlaLdj.k bl ifj;kstuk }kjk gksxkA
3
bl ifj;kstuk ls Hkkjr esa [kk| izlaLdj.k dh og rduhd yk;h tk;sxh tks nsk eas miyC/k ugha
gSA bl rduhd dh enn ls Hkkjr dk fu;kZr c<+sxkA
4
dqy ifj;kstuk ykxr dk 74% [kk| izlaLdj.k {ks= esa gh yxk;k tk;sxkA
5
isIlh dEiuh ds dqy mRiknu dk 50% fu;kZr fd;k tk;sxkA
6
isIlh dEiuh vius dqy mRiknu ewY; ds 25% ds gh khry is; dk mRiknu dj ldsxhA
7
bl ifj;kstuk ls 174 djksM+ :- dk vfrfjDr jktLo VSDl izfrokZ ljdkj dks feysxkA
8
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh tc 5 Mkyj ewY; ds cjkcj dk Hkkjr ls fu;kZr djsxh rc 1 Mkyj ds
cjkcj ewY; dk vk;kr dj ldsxhA vFkkZr isIlhdks ftruk vk;kr djsxh] mldk ikap xquk fu;kZr djuk
iM+sxkA
9
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh viuk lkV fMad khry is; dk dalUVsV khris; cukus ds fy;s t:jh
?kksy Hkkjr esa gh rS;kj djsxh] bls vejhdk ls vk;kr ugha fd;k tk;sxkA
10 isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk esa vf/kdre iwth Hkkjrh; lg;ksxh tSls oksYVkl ,oa iatkc ,xzks bUMLVht
dkjiksjsku ds ikl jgsxhA
11 isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks vius fu;kZr ok;nksa dks 10 lky rd fuHkkuk iM+sxkA vFkkZr isIlh&dksyk
ftruk ewY; dk mRiknu djsxh] mldk 50% yxkrkj 10 lkyksa rd fu;kZr djrh jgsxhA
12 isIlh&dksyk dEiuh equkQk dek dj vius nsk vejhdk rHkh ys tk ldsxh] tc fd og fu;kZr
dh krkaZs dks iwjk djsA vFkkZr 5 Mkyj dk fu;kZr djds gh ;g dEiuh 1 Mkyj Hkkjr ls ys tk ldsxhA
13 isIlh dEiuh dks tks dqN Hkh vk;kr djuk gksxk] og cgqr t:jh gksxk rHkh gks ldsxkA vFkkZr~
dEiuh xSj t:jh vk;kr ugha dj ldsxhA vk;kr Hkh Hkkjr ljdkj dh uhfr;ksa ,oa dkuwuksa ds vk/kkj ij
gh gks ldsxkA
14 ifj;kstuk Lohd`r gksus ds igys gh lky esa isIlh dEiuh dks 20 djksM+ :- dk lkeku Hkkjr ls
fu;kZr djuk iM+sxkA
15 isIlh dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa [kk| ,oa d`fk izlaLdj.k dk ,d kks/k dsUnz [kksyuk iM+sxkA ;g kks/k
dsUnz Hkkjrh; d`fk vuqla/kku dsUnz ,oa d`fk foofo|ky;] yqf/k;kuk dh ns[k&js[k esa pysxkA
16 Hkkjr esa isIlh&dksyk dEiuh vius fdlh Hkh eky ij fonskh vejhdh
czkaM&uke
bLrseky ugha djsxhA
bu lHkh krksZa ds vk/kkj ij gh isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk dks Lohd`r fd;k x;kA ysfdu vkt 15
lky iwjs gksus ds ckn Hkh isIlh dEiuh us ,d Hkh krZ iwjh ugha dh gSA isIlh dEiuh us Qjojh 1989 esa
gksfk;kjiqj esa tgwjk uked LFkku ij ,d QSDVjh cukbZ ftlesa VekVj dh pVuh vkSj lkWl cukus dh
ckr dgh x;hA fQj twu 1989 esa isIlh dEiuh us iatkc esa NUuks uked LFkku ij ,d khry is; lkV
fMad dh QSDVjh yxk;hA

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tc isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh ifj;kstuk dks Hkkjr esa eatwjh nh tk jgh Fkh ml le; dksdk&dksyk
dEiuh [kkekskh ds lkFk ;g lc ns[k jgh FkhA bl dksdk&dksyk dks 1977 esa Hkkjr ls Hkxk;k x;k FkkA
1977 dh rRdkyhu turk ljdkj us dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dk ykbZlasl fujLr dj fn;k FkkA ysfdu ;gh
dksdk&dksyk Hkkjr esa fQj ls vkus ds fy;s jkLrk [kkstus yxhA tSls gh isIlh ifj;kstuk dks izkFkfed
eatwjh 1986 esa feyh] dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us vius fokskKksa dh ,d Vhe dks Hkkjr Hkst fn;kA
dksdk&dksyk dh Vhe us Hkkjr vkdj isIlh&dksyk ds Hkkjr ljdkj ls gq;s djkj dk v/;;u fd;kA blh
djkj dks
/;ku esa j[kdj dksdk&dksyk us Hkh vius fy;s ,d u;k djkj Hkkjr ljdkj ls djus dk
r; fd;kA blds fy;s dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr ljdkj dh foksk fu;kZr {ks= (Export Prousing
Zones) cukus dh uhfr dk Qk;nk mBk;kA Hkkjr ljdkj us Hkkjr dk] fu;kZr vk/kkfjr fodkl djus
dk] QSlyk fd;k FkkA blds fy;s foksk fu;kZr {ks= cuk;s x;s] tgk ij yxus okyh vkS|ksfxd bZdkbZ;ksa
dks 100% fu;kZr djus ds fy;s izksRlkgu fn;k tkus yxkA bu foksk fu;kZr {ks=ksa dk ,d fu;e Fkk] fd
;gk cuus okyh dksbZ Hkh oLrq Hkkjrh; cktkj esa ugha fcdsxhA ckn esa Hkkjr ljdkj us fonskh dEiuh
dksdk&dksyk ds ncko esa bl uhfr dks FkksM+k cny fn;kA fQj ,d ubZ uhfr cuk;h x;h fd] foksk
fu;kZr {ks= esa bZdkbZ yxkus okyh dEiuh dks dqy mRikn dk 25% Hkkjrh; cktkj esa cspus dh NwV gksxhA
dksdk&dksyk us blh ljdkjh fu;kZr {ks= dh ;kstuk ds vk/kkj ij uks;Mk fu;kZr {ks= esa ,d
vkS|ksfxd bZdkbZ yxkus ds fy;s Hkkjr ljdkj ds lkeus izzLrko j[kkA blesa 25% mRiknu Hkkjrh; cktkj
esa cspus ds fy;s izLrkfor fd;k x;kA ftl rjg ls isIlh dksyk us jktuSfrd ncko Mkyus ds fy,
lkalnksa dks vius leFkZu esa [kM+k djus dk] eq[;eaf=;ksa dks viuh vksj feykus dk dk;Z fd;k] Bhd mlh
rjg ls dksdk&dksyk us Hkh djuk kq# fd;kA vkSj Hkkjrh; lalnh; yksdrU= ds HkzVkpkj] LokFkZokn
vkSj oSpkfjd os;ko`fk ds pyrs dksdk&dksyk dks Hkh Hkkjr esa eatwjh fey x;hA dksdk&dksyk dks ftl
vk/kkj ij eatwjh feyh] mlh dks vk/kkj cukdj ,d vkSj izLrko Hkkjr ljdkj ds lkeus isIlh&dksyk
dEiuh us isk fd;kA bl nwljs izLrko ds fy;s isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us rRdkyhu iatkc ds jkT;iky
fl)kFkZ kadj jk; dk lgkjk fy;kA fl)kFkZ kadj jk; us lu~ 1977 esa dksdk&dksyk ds ykbZlsal jn~n
djus dk cgqr fojks/k fd;k FkkA fl)kFkZ kadj jk; Hkkjrh; laln esa geskk ls fonskh iwth vkSj fonskh
dEifu;ksa ds leFkZu djus ds fy;s ekgwj jgsA dksdk&dksyk ds izLrko dks eatwjh okf.kT; ea=ky; ls
feyh] ftleas ea=h Fks fnusk flagA ysfdu etsnkj ckr ;g gqbZ fd] isIlh&dskyk dEiuh dk izLrko [kk|
izlaLdj.k ea=ky; }kjk Lohd`r fd;k x;k vkSj dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dk izLrko okf.kT; ea=ky; }kjk
Lohd`r fd;k x;kA ysfdu dksdk&dksyk dEiuh ds izLrko dh fojks/k [kk| izlaLdj.k ea=ky; txnhk
VkbZVyj }kjk dkQh fd;k x;k] tcfd bUgha ea=h] txnhk VkbZVyj vkSj muds ea=ky; us isIlh&dksyk
dEiuh dk iwjh rkdr ls leFkZu fd;kA bl lUnHkZ eas okf.kT; ea=h fnusk flag ,oa [kk| izlaLdj.k ea=h
txnhk VkbZVyj ds chp i=ksa }kjk dkQh fookn Hkh gqvkA

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v/;k; & 4

isIlh dksyk dEiuh }kjk Hkkjr


ljdkj dks fn;s x;s /kks[ks
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us viuh ifj;kstuk dh eatwjh ds rqjar ckn gh Hkkjr ljdkj dks /kks[ks
nsus kq# fd;sA lcls igyk /kks[kk ifj;kstuk ykxr dks c<+kdj fn;k x;kA tc ifj;kstuk Lohd`r gqbZ
Fkh] rc mldh ykxr 22 djksM+ #i;s j[kh x;h Fkh] ysfdu isIlh us bls c<+kdj 75 djksM+ #i;s dj
fn;k] vkSj bl rjg Hkkjr nsk ls 53 djksM+ #i;s vejhdk Hkst fn;k x;kA tc bl ckjs esa Hkkjr ljdkj
}kjk isIlh dEiuh ls iwNrkN dh x;h rks dEiuh us fnlEcj 1989 esa crk;k fd le; chrus ds lkFk
ifj;kstuk dh ykxr Hkh c<+ xbZ gSA isIlh dEiuh us vejhdk ls yk;h x;h ekhujh dh dherksa dks
vuki&kuki c<+kdj gh bl ykxr dks c<+k;kA rduhdh Hkkkk esa bldks ^^vksoj buok;flax^^ dgk tkrk
gSA vFkkZr vejhdk esa dksbZ ekhu dh okLrfod dher ;fn 1 djksM+ Mkyj gks rks mlss c<+kdj 3 djksM+
Mkyj dj fn;k tk; rks ml ekhu dks Hkkjr ykus esa 2 djksM+ Mkyj lh/ks vejhdk dh isIlh dEiuh ds
[kkrs esa ykHk ds :i esa tek gks tk;sxkA blh rjg isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ls vk;kfrr ekhuksa dh dherksa
dks c<+kdj 53 djksM+ :i;s Hkkjr ds isIlh&dksyk ds [kkrs ls vejhdk dh isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds [kkrs esa
Hkst fn;sA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us lkekU; :i ls 200 ls 300 izfrkr rd ^^vksoj buok;flax^^ fd;kA
isIlh dEiuh dks Hkkjrh; foRrh; laLFkkvksa us 43 djksM+ :i;s dk dtZ fn;kA /;ku nsus dh ckr gS
fd iwjs 75 djksM+ :- dh ykxr okyh ifj;kstuk dks Hkkjr esa gh 43 djksM+ :- dk dtkZ fey x;kA bl
dtsZ dks fnyokus esa dkaxzsl ikVhZ ds rRdkyhu lfpo vfuy kkL=h dh izeq[k Hkwfedk jghA ;g dtkZ
vkbZ-,Q-lh-vkbZ- us fn;k FkkA ;g dtkZ isIlh&dksyk dEiuh }kjk crk;h x;h laHkkfor fch ds vk/kkj ij
fn;k x;k] tks vius vki esa cgqr gh gSjkuh dh ckr gSA okLrfodrk ;g jgh fd isI lh&dksyk us tks Hkh
laHkkfor fch crk;h og xyr lkfcr gqbZA isIlh dEiuh us vius [kk| inkFkksZa dh fch dh laHkkouk
yxHkx 13 djksM+ #- crk;h Fkh og okLro eas 2 djksM+ #- dh gh gqbZA tcfd bl 2 djksM+ #- dh fch
esa 1 djksM+ #- rks foKkiuckth esa gh [kpZ fd;s FksA
blh rjg isIlh dEiuh us laHkkfor
fch ds >wBs vkdMs+ fn[kkdj Hkkjrh; cSadksa ,oa foRrh; laLFkkvksa ls dtkZ ysuk kq# fd;kA lu~ 1990 vkSj
1991 esa nksuksa gh okksZa esa isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us vius fu;kZr dh krksZa dks iwjk ugha fd;kA vFkkZr nks
okksZard yxkrkj bl dEiuh us ,d Mkyj Hkh Hkkjr nsk dks dek dj ugha fn;kA igys lky isIlh ds
laHkkfor fch ds 13 djksM+ #- c<+dj nwljs lky ds fy;s 25 djksM+ #- gks x;sA
isIlh dksyk dEiuh dh bl /kks[kk/kM+h ds ckjs esa laln esa dbZ ckj izu mBk;s x;sA [kkldj lhih-vkbZ- ,e- ds lkaln nhisu ?kksk us lcls vf/kd loky bl ckjs esa fd;sA 52 lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj okyh

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,d ;kfpdk ljdkj ds lkeus isk dh x;h] ftlesa isIlh dEiuh dh /kks[k/kM+h dh tkp djus ds fy;s
dgk x;k FkkA iatkc ds iwoZ eq[; eU=h vkSj dkaxzslh usrk njckjk flag us Hkh isIlh dh /kks[kk/kM+h dh tkp
djus ds fy;s ljdkj dks dgk] ysfs du dqN Hkh ugha gqvkA
75 djksM+ #i;s okyh ifj;kstuk esa isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh kq#vkrh iwth (initial paidup Capital))
Hkkx 10 djksM+ dh FkhA ysfdu igys gh lky esa isIlh dksyk dEiuh us 53 djksM+ #i;s vejhdk dks Hkst
fn;sA bl 75 djksM+ dh ifj;kstuk esa 43 djksM+ #- Hkkjrh; foRrh; laLFkkvksa ls dtZ ds :i esa fy;s
x;sA ckdh ds cps gq;s esa oksYVkl dEiuh ,oa iatkc ,xzks b.MLVht dkjiksjsku dh fgLlsnkjh FkhA
oksYVkl ds fgLls esa 6 djksM+ #- rFkk iatkc ,xzks ds fgLls esa 8 djksM+ #- dk izkFkfed iwath fuosk jgkA
isIlh dEiuh us ,d vkSj /kks[kk/kM+h ekhuksa ds vk;kr djus esa fd;kA lkekU; :i ls Hkkjr eas ;g
fu;e gS fd tc dksbZ dEiuh ckgj ds nskksa ls ekhusa ;k lkeku vk;kr djrh gS] rks dtZ nsus okyh
laLFkkvksas dks lcdqN crkuk iM+rk gSA fdl dEiuh ls] dgk ls vkSj fdruk vk;kr fd;k tk jgk gS] blh
fu;e ds rgr tc isIlh dEiuh us vkbZ-,Q-lh-vkbZ- ls dtkZ fy;k rks crk;k x;k fd isIlh&dksyk
dEiuh Mykl vejhdk fLFkr dEiuh ^^ap cSjsy QwM~l dkjiksjsku^^ ls lHkh ekhuksa dk vk;kr djsxhA
ysfdu [kkst djus ij irk pyk fd Mykl esa ^^ap cSjsy QwM~l dkjiksjsku^^ uke dh dksbZ dEiuh gh
ugha FkhA isIlh dEiuh dh vksj ls bl mijks dEiuh dk tks irk vkSj Qksu uEcj crk;k x;k] og iwjh
rjg ls cksxl fudykA bl isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us okLro esa tks Hkh ekhusa vk;kr dh os lc viuh gh
vejhdh isIlh dEiuh ls dhA blh ls ^^vksoj buok;flax^^ dk Qk;nk isIlh dEiuh dks gksrk jgkA ysfdu
;g Hkkjrh; dkuwu ,oa fu;eksa ds f[kykQ gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ds izoZru funskky; us blds ckjs esa tkp
dhA fQj isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us Lohdkj dj fy;k fd ^^ap cSjsy^^ uke dh dksbZ dEiuh ugha gS cfYd
isIlh&dksyk }kjk gh Hkkjr esa vk;kr djus ds fy;s ;g cuk;h x;h FkhA bruh cM+h /kks[kk/kM+hs isIlh
dEiuh dh idM+h x;h] fQj Hkh Hkkjr ljdkj us dqN Hkh ugha fd;kA
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr esa le>kSrk djrs le; Hkkjr ljdkj dks ok;nk fd;k Fkk fd iwjs
nsk eas 75]000 yksxkssa dks jkstxkj isIlh dEiuh ds dkj.k feysxkA blesa ls 25]000 yksxksa dks iatkc esa ,oa
50]000 yksxksa dks iatkc ds ckgj jkstxkj nsus dh ckr isIlh&dksyk ds le>kSrs esa dgh x;h FkhA ysfdu
vkt rd isIlh dEiuh us viuk ;g ok;nk iwjk ugha fd;kA vc rks isIlh dEiuh ds vf/kdkjh ;g
Lohdkj Hkh ugha djrs gSa] fd 75]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj nsus dk mUgksua s dksbZ ok;nk fd;k FkkA rRdkyhu
[kk| izlaLdj.k m|ksx ds eU=h txnhk VkbZVyj us Hkh isIlh ifj;kstuk dh ?kksk.kk djrs le; 75]000
yksxksa dks jkstxkj feyus dh ckr dgh FkhA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ls tc Hkh bl ckjs esa iwNk x;k] rks
tokc feyk fd dEiuh dh vksj ls dHkh Hkh dqN ugha dgk x;kA dHkh&dHkh isIlh dh vksj ls ;g dg
fn;k x;k] fd isIlh ds khry is; dh cksryksa dks cspus okyksa dks jkst+xkj rks fn;k gSA okLrfodrk ;g gS
fd isIlh dh cksryksa dks cspusokys yksx ;k rks iku] iku elkyk vkfn csprs gSa] ;k fQj pk;] dkQh vkfn
csprs gSa] ftUgsa igys ls pk;&dkQh] iku&chM+h vkfn cspus ls jkstxkj feyk gh gqvk gSA okLro esa isIlh
dEiuh dh vksj ls ,d Hkh u;k jkstxkj fdlh dks ugha fn;k x;k gSA
isIlh&dksyk }kjk jk;YVh fy;s tkus ,oa ml jk;YVh dks vejhdk Hkstus ds ckjs esa ,d isIlh
vf/kdkjh uhy pVthZ }kjk crk;k x;k fd] ^^isIlh&dksyk dh ,d s V cksryksa 24 cksry dks Hkjus esa 8
#- dk lkUnz ?kksy dUlUVsV& Concentrate [kpZ gksrk gSA blesa 2 #- isIlh dEiuh dks tkus okyh

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jk;YVh gS rFkk 6 #-dUlUVsV& Concentrate lkUnz ?kksy dh vlyh dher gS^^A /;ku jgs fd isIlh
dEiuh blh 6 #- ds lkUnz ?kksy dh dher ij 24 izfr'kr mRikn dj (Exciseduty) Hkkjr ljdkj dks
nsrh gSA vFkkZr ,d sV 24 cksrysa tc isIlh dh cudj rS;kj gksrh gSa rks mu lHkh 24 cksryksa ij 1 #vkSj 44 iSls dk mRiknu dj yxkrk gSA vFkkZr~ ,d isIlh dh cksry ij 6 iSls ek= gh mRiknu dj bl
le; yx jgk gSA Hkkjr nsk esa bl le; lu~ 2003 esa isIlh vkSj dksdkdksyk dh dqy fch 7000
djksM+ #- izfrokZ gSA bl le; vkSlru isIlh&dksdkdksyk dh ,d cksry 10 #- dh csph tkrh gSA vFkkZr
yxHkx 700 djksM+ cksry izfrokZ isIlh o dksdkdksyk dh Hkkjr esa fcd jgh gSA ,d cksry ij 6 iSls dk
mRiknu dj Hkkjr ljdkj dks feyrk gS] rks 700 djksM+ cksryksa ij yxHkx 42 djksM+ #- Hkkjr ljdkj
dks mRikndj ds :i esa feyrk gSA Hkkjr nsk dh dbZ jkT; ljdkjksa us isIlh o dksdkdksyk ij fch dj
esa 100 izfrkr NwV nh gqbZ gSA tSls xqtjkr ljdkj] mM+hlk ljdkj] dukZVd ljdkj vkfn us iwjh rjg
ls isIlh&dksd dks dj eqDr fd;k gqvk gSA vxj eku fy;k tk; fd isIlh o dksdkdksyk dEifu;ksa dk
O;oLFkk[kpZ] foKkiu [kpZ vkSj djksa dk [kPkZ dqy fch dk 40 ls 50 izfrkr gks rks gj lky ;s nksuksa
dEifu;k 3500 djksM+ #i;s Hkkjr ls equkQs ds :i esa ywVdj vejhdk ys tk jgh gSaA isIlhdksyk dEiuh
ds ,d eq[; vf/kdkjh jktho c[kh ds vuqlkj bu BaMs is;ksa ij foKkiu dk dqy [kpkZ] dqy fch dk
12% ds vkl&ikl gksrk gSA vFkkZr BaMs is;kas dh dqy isIlh o dksdkdksyk fch 7000 djksM+ #- rks
foKkiu [kpZ gqvk 850 djksM+ #-A vFkkZr izR;sd cksry ij foKkiu [kpZ yxHkx 1-20 #-1 #i;s]20 iSls
cSBrk gSA
vc ;fn isIlh ;k dksdkdksyk dh ,d cksry dks cukus dk [kpkZ fudkyk tk; rks fglkc dqN bl
izdkj cSBrk gS ,d cksry dks cukus esa lkUnz ?kksy dUlUVsV& Concentrate 30 iSls dk] ,d cksry ij
mRikndj 6 iSls dk] ,d cksry ij foKkiu [kpkZ 1-20 #-] cspus okys nqdkunkj dks equkQk yxHkx 1
#-] dqy [kpkZ gqvk] 2-56 #- 2 # 56 iSls A vc ;fn dqN jkT;ksa esa fch dj vkfn dk [kpkZ tksM+ ysa rks
yxHkx ,d cksry ij dEiuh dh vksj ls [kpkZ gksrk gS 3 #-A vkSj ;g cksry fcdrh gS yxHkx 10 #dh bl rjg ,d cksry ij dEiuh dks 7 #- dk equkQk gksrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us iatkc ds fdlkuksa lss VekVj] vke] phdw vkfn Qyksa dks gtkjksa Vu esa
[kjhnus dk tks ok;nk fd;k Fkk] og Hkh dHkh ugha fuHkk;kA blds fy;s isIlh dEiuh dk eq[; vf/kdkjh
jesk caxy dgrk jgk fd] paMh+ x<+ ls cEcbZ ds chp Qyksa dks ykus ds fy;s [kpkZ] Qyksa dh dher ls
vf/kd gksrk gS] blfy;s ge iatkc ds fdlkuksa ls Qy ugha [kjhn djrs gSaSA isIlh dks yk ds lkFk gq;s
Hkkjr ljdkj ds le>kSrs esa ;g LiV dgk x;k fd rc rd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks vkS|ksfxd ykbZlal
s
(Industrial Licence) ugha feysxk\A ysfdu vQlksl dh ckr ;g gS fd vkt rd Hkh isIlh&dksyk dEiuh
us vius le>kSrs dh ,d Hkh krZ dks iwjk ugha fd;k vkSj bl dEiuh dks vkS|ksfxd ykbZlUs l Hkh fey
x;kA tc Hkkjr esa pUnzks[kj ljdkj vk;h Fkh] ml le; isIlh&dksyk dks vknsk fn;k x;k Fkk fd og
vius khry is; dk mRiknu vf/kd ugha c<+k;sA ysfdu isIlh dEiuh us bl vknsk dk Hkh mYya?ku
fd;k vkSj vius BaMs is; dk mRiknu yxkrkj c<+k;kA iwoZ iz/kkueU=h pUnzks[kj us bl ij ,d tkp
djk;hA blds fy;s rhu lnL;h; ,d lfefr cuk;h x;hA bl lfefr }kjk iwNs tkus ij Hkh isIlh
dEiuh dh vksj ls dgk x;k ^^tc gekjk khry is; Hkkjr esa bruk vf/kd fcd jgk gS] rks ge blh ij
/;ku dsfUnzr djsx
a sa] uk fd fdlh vkSj O;olk; ijA yksd lHkk ls ,d lnL; nhisu ?kksk us bl ij dM+h

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vkifRr tkfgj dh vkSj lEcfU/kr ea=h txnhk VkbZVyj dks Hkh dbZ i= fy[ks vkSj yksdlHkk eas izu
mBk;s] ysfdu dqN ugha gqvkA bl rjg isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr ljdkj ds lkFk fd;s x;s le>kSrs
dh ,d Hkh krZ dks dHkh iwjk ugha fd;kA fu;kZr djus ds izu ij geskk gh isIlh us fdlh vU; dEiuh
;k O;fDr }kjk fd;s x;s fu;kZr dks viuk fu;kZr crk;k] vkSj ljdkj dks /kks[kk fn;kA Hkkjr ds fdlkuksa
ls vke] phdw] VekVj] ve:n] lsc vkfn [kjhndj fQj izlaLdj.k djds mUgsa fu;kZr djus dk tks ok;nk
isIlh dk Fkk] mls Hkh dHkh iwjk ugha fd;k x;kA tc VkbZEl Vh-oh- }kjk isIlh&dksyk dh xfrfof/k;ksa ij
,d Qhpj rS;kj fd;k x;k o ;g iwNk x;k fd os lc QSDVfj;k dgk ij gSa tgka ls Qyksa dk izlaLdj.k
djds fu;kZr fd;k tkrk gS] rks dEiuh ds vf/kdkfj;ksa us dksbZ Hkh tokc ugha fn;kA
tc Hkkjr ljdkj vkSj ehfM;k dh vksj ls isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ij ncko Mkyk x;k rks ,d fnu
vpkud isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us tqykbZ 1991 esa fnYyh esa ,d foksk i=dkj ifjkn~ dk vk;kstu fd;k
ftlesa dEiuh dh vksj ls dgk x;k fd] isIlh dEiuh }kjk 9-62 djksM+ #- dk fu;kZr fd;k x;k gSA
ysfdu ;g fu;kZr Fkk pk;] pkoy] dkWVu ds rkSfy;s tSlh oLrqvksa dk uk fd isIlh }kjk mRiknu dh x;h
oLrqvksa dkA ysfdu ljdkj }kjk ;g lc dqN tkuus ij Hkh dksbZ dB+ksj dk;Zokgh ugha dh x;hA Hkkjr
ljdkj ds [kk| izlaLdj.k ea=ky; ds lfpo vkj-ds-jFk }kjk tqykbZ 1991 esa ,d dM+k i= okf.kT;
ea=ky; dks fy[kk x;kA ml i= esa isIlh dEiuh dh lkjh iksy [kksyh x;hA isIlh }kjk ljdkj dks /kks[kk
fn;s tkus ds ckjs esa Hkh foLrkj ls fy[kk x;k vkSj isIlh dEiuh ds f[kykQ dkuwuh dk;Zokgh djus ds
fy;s dgk x;kA ysfdu bl ij Hkh dqN ugha gqvkA
nf{k.k Hkkjr esa isIlh us vius iSj tekus ds fy;s rRdkyhu lkaln vMSdyjkt dk Hkjiwj iz;ksx
fd;kA blh lkaln vMSdyjkt us laln esa Hkh isIlh&dksyk ds leFkZu esa lkalnksa ds gLrk{kj ysus dk Hkh
dke fd;kA vMSdyjkt rfeyukMq eas kjkc cukus okyksa esa lcls ij ekuk tkrk jgkA ysfdu dbZ
?kksVkyksa esa lh-ch-vkbZ- us mls fyIr ik;k FkkA dsjy ds ,d O;kikjh ,e-lh-tSdc ds lkFk feydj
vMSdyjkt us ,d lgdkjh lfefr LFkkfir fd;kA bl lgdkjh lfefr ds uke ij ,d djksM+ #- dk
dtkZ ,d cSad ls fy;k x;kA vMSdyjkt bl lgdkjh lfefr dk funskd cukA lh-ch-vkbZ- us tc tkp
fd;k rks ik;k fd ;g lgdkjh lfefr cksxl FkhA bl rjg ml cSad dk ,d djksM+ #- Mwc x;kA isIlh
us blh ?kksVkysckt vMSdyjkt dks nf{k.k Hkkjr dh ftEesnkjh lkSaihA vMSdyjkt us ;g lkjk dk;Z] isIlh
dks rfeyukMq rFkk vU; nf{k.k jkT;ksa esa QSykus dk] vius csVs foUlsUV tkslQ
s ds uke ij fd;kA
vMSdyjkt us blh vfHk;ku ds rgr 2-5 djksM #- ,df=r fd;kA ;g /ku mu yksxksa ls fy;k x;k]
ftUgsa isIlh dksyk dEiuh dk forj.kdrkZ cuk;k tkuk FkkA ckn esa vMSdyjkt us vfuoklh Hkkjrh;ksa ls
Hkh blh rjg /ku ,df=r djuk kq# fd;kA ;g lkjk /ku ml le; ,df=r fd;k tk jgk Fkk] tc
isIlh dEiuh dk fof/kor dk;Z Hkh Hkkjr esa kq# ugha gqvk FkkA vfuoklh Hkkjrh;ksa ls fonskh eqnzk ds
dkuwuksa dk mYy?kau djds 1-5 djksM+ Mkyj ,df=r fd;s x;sA
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds khry is;ksa dks cksry esa Hkjus ds fy;s tks ekhuksa dh t:jr gq;h] os lHkh
vejhdk ls eaxk;h x;haA ysfdu bu ekhuksa dks exkus esa Hkh dkQh ?kksVkyk gqvkA bu ekhuksa dks rkts
Qyksa dk jl fudkyus okyh ekhuksa ds vk/kkj ij vk;kr fd;k x;k] tcfd ;s lHkh ekhusa khry is;
lkV fMad ds fy;s gh FkhaA bu ekhuksa dks Qyksa ds jl okyh ekhu dgdj] vk;kr dj esa NwV yh
x;hA Hkkjr ljdkj dh vk;kr uhfr ds vuqlkj ckgj ds nskksa ls Qyksa dk jl fudkyus okyh ekhuksa dks

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vk;kr djus ij vk;kr dj cgqr gh de yxrk gSA bl rjg ds vk;kr esa rRdkyhu Qsjk dkuwuksa dk
cM+s iSekus ij mYya?ku fd;k x;kA

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v/;k;&5

isIlh&dksyk dh Hkzked foKkiu ckth


vejhdk esa dksyk dEifu;ksa dh lQyrk dk lcls cM+k dkj.k gS
va/kk/kaq/k foKkiuckthA
geskk u;s&u;s rjhdksa ls foKkiu cukdj yksxksa dks vkdfkZr djuk] isIlh&dksyk dEiuh djrh jgh gSA
Hkkjr esa vkdj Hkh bl dEiuh us ;gh fd;kA Hkkjr esa isIlh dksyk dEiuh ds foKkiu dk [kpkZ bl
dEiuh ds kks/k dk;Z ds [kpZs ls dbZ xquk vf/kd gSA Hkkjr esa bl isIlh dEiuh us foKkiukas ds ek/;e ls
;qok oxZ dks vf/kd ls vf/kd Qlkus dk dk;Z fd;k gSA blds fy;s isIlh dEiuh us ekbdy tSDlu]
eSMksuk] Vhuk VuZj tSls vejhdh lqij LVkjksa dks djksMk+ as Mkyj nsdj vuqcaf/kr fd;kA Hkkjr ljdkj ls
gq;s djkj ds vuqlkj isIlh&dksyk dEiuh vius czkaM uke dk bLrseky Hkkjr esa ugha dj ldrh Fkh]
ysfdu isIlh dEiuh us djkj dh bl krZ dks Hkh rksM+kA blds fy;s dEiuh us vius czkaM uke ds vkxs
^ygj^ kCn yxkdj bLrseky djuk kq: fd;kA tSl&
s ^ygj isIlh^] ^^ygj lsou vi^^] ^^ygj fefjUMk^^]
^^ygj Lykbl^^ vkfn yxk;kA bu foKkiuksa dk lcls vf/kd iz;ksx isIlh dEiuh us Hkkjr ds Lora=rk
fnol ,oa x.kra= fnolksa ij fd;kA Vsyhfotu pSuyksa ij yksdfiz; /kkjkokfgdksa ds kq# gksus ds iwoZ bu
foKkiuksa dks lcls vf/kd fn[kk;k tkrk jgkA dbZ fgUnh fQYeksa dk Hkh isIlh dEiuh us vius izpkj ds
fy;s iz;ksx fd;kA mnkgj.k ds fy;s fouksn ik.M+s dh fQYe ^^ifjank^^ dks 60 yk[k :- nsdj isIlh us
vius fy;s bLrseky fd;kA Hkkjrh; flusek ds dykdkjksa twghpkoyk] jseksQukZUMhl dks isIlh&dksyk
dEiuh us foKkiu ds fy;s lcls igys vuqcaf/kr fd;kA
Hkkjrh; dEiuh ikjys dk khry is; FkElvi dk foKkiu Hkh yxkrkj c<+us yxkA isIlh&dksyk
vkSj ikjys esa fch ikjys dEiuh ds FkElvi dh gh vf/kd jgrh FkhA blh rjg cktkj esa ,d vkSj
Hkkjrh; dEiuh dk khry is; dSEik dksyk miyC/k Fkk ftldh dkQh fch gqvk djrh FkhA ;s lHkh
khry is; 3 #- ;k 3-50 #- ds vkl&ikl dh dher ij fcdrs FksA nksuksa gh Hkkjrh; khry is; dSEik
dksyk ,oa FkEl vi dh fch ygj isIlh ls dkQh vf/kd FkhA fQj isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us fdsV
f[kykM+h dfiynso dks foKkiu ds fy;s vuqcaf/kr fd;kA dfiynso us bl dEiuh ds izpkj ds fy;s
?kj&?kj tkuk kq: fd;k yksxksa dks dgk x;k fd os vius ?kjksa ds vUnj isIlh dh cksryksa dks j[ksa fQj
dfiynso fdlh ds ?kj vpkud igqpdj isIlhdksyk dks ih;sx
a saA ets dh ckr ;g Fkh fd dfiynso us
FkksM+s fnuksa iwoZ rd Hkkjrh; dEiuh ikjys ds BaMs is; ^FkEl vi^ dk foKkiu fd;k FkkA bl ij fookn
gqvk vkSj isIlh dksyk vkSj ikjys ds chp esa eqdnesckth Hkh gq;hA bl eqdnesckth dk ifj.kke ikjys
dEiuh ds i{k esa vk;kA
Hkkjrh; dEiuh ikjys us isIlh&dksyk dh rqyuk esa viuh cksryksa esa vf/kd khry is; nsuk kq:
fd;kA 6 #- eas 500 feyh- dh FkEl vi dh cksry cktkj esa feyuh kq: gq;h] tcfd mu fnukas esa
isIlh&dksyk dh 250 feyh- dh cksry 4 #- esa feyk djrh FkhA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk 90 lsdsUM dk
foKkiu 60 yk[k #- esa cuk;k x;k Fkk] tcfd Hkkjrh; dEiuh ikjys dk FkEl vi foKkiu ek= 4 yk[k
#- eas cuk;k x;kA isIlh dksyk dEiuh us 700 ls 750 fdeh- ds ifjo`r esa vius is; inkFkksZa dks cspus ds
fy;s 15 dkj[kkus yxk;s] rFkk dbZ vU; Hkkjrh; dkj[kkuksa dks vius fy;s iz;ksx djuk kq# fd;kA

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cktkj esa vius khry is; dh [kir dks c<+kus ds fy;s isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us vferkHk cPpu]
lfpu rsanqydj] foosd vkscsjk;] ,so;Z jk; iwoZ foo lqqUnjh tSls ekgwj yksxksa dk yxkrkj bLrseky
fd;k] vHkh Hkh dj jgh gSA

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v/;k;&6

dksdk&dksyk dk Hkkjr esa izosk


lcls igys lu~ 1966&67 eas bfUnjk xka/kh ds izFke ckj iz/kkueU=h cuus ds le; dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us
Hkkjr esa izosk fd;k FkkA bfUnjk xka/kh us viuh lRrk dks cjdjkj cuk;s j[kus ds fy;s iztkrU= dk xyk
?kksVa dj 1975 eas vkikrdky ykxw dj fn;kA bfUnjk xka/kh ds bl yksdrU= fojks/kh dk;Z dk fojks/k djus
ds fy;s izfl) xka/khoknh ,oa loksZn; usrk Jh t;izdkk ukjk;.k us lEiw.kZ kfUr vkUnksyu kq# fd;kA
bl vkUnksyu dks Hkkjh lQyrk feyuk kq# gqbZ] tc yk[kksa ;qodksa us vius dSfj;j NksMd
+ j bl
vkUnksyu esa kkfey gksuk kq: fd;kA bfUnjk xka/kh dks Jh t;izdkk ukjk;.k ds bl lEiw.kZ kfUr
vkUnksyu ls viuh lRrk ds fy;s [krjk eglwl gqvkA blfy;s Jh t;izdkk ukjk;.k dks fxjrkj djds
tsy esa Mky fn;k x;k] vkSj vkikrdkyhu fLFkfr dh ?kksk.kk nsk esa dj nh x;hA blesa yksxksa ls lHkh
ekSfyd laaoS/kkfud vf/kdkj Nhu fy;s x;sA bfUnjk xka/kh ds bl dne dk iwjs nsk esa fojks/k gqvkA vUrr%
1977 esa vkikrdky dks okil fy;k x;k vkSj pquko gq;sA bu pqukoksa esa Jh t;izdkk ukjk;.k ds usr`Ro esa cuh turk
ikVhZ dks Hkkjh cgqer feyk vkSj turk ikVhZ dh ljdkj cuhA bl ljdkj esa iz/kkueU=h Jh eksjkjth nslkbZ] m|ksxeU=h
tktZ QukZUMhl] fonsk eU=h vVy fcgkjh oktis;h] LokLF; eU=h jktukjk;.k vkfn&vkfn yksx kkfey gq;sA blh
turk ikVhZ ljdkj us dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dk ykblsUl jn~n djds Hkkjr ls ckgj fudkyus dk dk;Z fd;kA mlh
dksdkdksyk dEiuh us isIlh&dksyk ds ihNs&ihNs Hkkjr esa fQj ls izosk dj fy;kA
dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr esa izosk djus ds fy;s ogh jkLrk viuk;k tks isIlh&dksyk us
viuk;k FkkA dksdk&dksyk us Hkh Hkkjr vkus ds fy;s vius dqy mRiknu dk 75 % fu;kZr djus ,oa 25%
dks Hkkjrh; cktkj esa gh cspus dh ckr djuk kq# dj fn;kA blds fy;s dksdk&dksyk us viuh ,d
foksk dEiuh dks cukus dk ,syku Hkh fd;kA dksdk&dksyk us lcls igys fczVkfu;k dEiuh ds jktu
fiYybZ ds lkFk feydj le>kSrk fd;kA mlds ckn viuk izLrko Hkkjr ljdkj ds ikl Hkst fn;kA
jktu fiYybZ vkSj dksdk&dksyk us feydj ,d vkQkksj dEiuh ts-,e-vkj-ih- ds uke ls cuk;kA bl
dEiuh dk eq[; dk;kZy; gkaxdkax esa fn[kk;k x;kA bl dEiuh esa jktu fiYybZ ds 60 % ks;j ,oa
dksdk dksyk ds 40% ks;j j[ks x;sA ckn esa ts-,e-vkj-ih- dEiuh vkSj fczVkfu;k bUMLVht dh vksj ls
la;qDr dEiuh ^fczVdks QwM~l izkbosV fyfeVsM^ uke ls LFkkfir dh x;hA bl fczVdks dEiuh esa ts-,evkj-ih- dk fgLlk 66% ,oa fczVkfu;k bUMLVht dk fgLlk 24% j[kk x;kA ckdh 10% fgLlk fdlh
ljdkjh dEiuh ds fy;s NksM+ fn;k x;kA
jktu fiYybZ ,oa dksdk dksyk us 2 djksM+ Mkyj yxkdj bl /kU/ks dks kq# fd;kA ujflagjko dh
ljdkj dh mnkjhdj.k dh uhfr dk ykHk mBkdj dksdk&dksyk dks vkWVkseSfVd ykblsUl feykA
dksdk&dksyk o jktu fiYybZ us Hkkjr ljdkj dks 10 lky esa 1002 djksM+ #- dk fu;kZr djus dk
ok;nk fd;kA yxHkx 26-85 djksM+ #- dh ifj;kstuk dksdk&dksyk ,oa jktu fiYybZ }kjk Hkkjr esa kq#
dh x;hA Hkkjr ljdkj dks fn;s x;s izLrko esa dksdk&dksyk dEiuh us 10 lky esa 280 djksM+ #-

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fMCckcan Hkkstu LuSd QwM vk;kr djus ,oa 151 djksM+ #- lkUnz ?kksy (Concentrate)) vk;kr djus rFkk
66 djksM+ #- ykHkkak ds :i esa ys tkus dk mYys[k fd;kA vFkkZr dqy feykdj 497 djksM+ #- Hkkjr ls
ckgj tkus dh ckr bl izLrko esa dgh x;hA
lHkh fonskh dEifu;k fodklkhy nskksa dh ywV djus ds fy;s cnuke jgha gSaA bu dEifu;ksa dk lcls cM+k
mn~ns; /ku dekdj vius&vius nskksa esa ys tkus dk gh jgrk gSA /ku dks ys tkus ds fy;s dbZ ?kksfkr&v?kksfkr jkLrs
gqvk djrs gSaA dqN dkuwuh vkSj dqN xSjdkuwuh jkLrksa ls ;g /ku ys tk;k tkrk gSA dkuwuh ,oa ?kksfkr jkLrk /ku ys
tkus dk ykHkkak ds :i esa ;k kq) equkQs ds :i esa gksrk gSA ysfdu xSjdkuwuh vkSj v?kksfkr jkLrk VkalQj izkbflax
(Transfer pricing) dk gksrk gSA lHkh fonskh dEifu;k vk;kr vkSj fu;kZr dk O;kikj viuh gh dEifu;ksa (Parents
Companies) ds lkFk djrh gSaA tc Hkh dksbZ fonskh dEiuh] vk;kr djrh gS rks geskk cktkj ds ewY; ls cgqr ps Hkko
ij] viuh gh lg;ksxh dEiuh ls djrh gSA blh rjg tc Hkh dksbZ fonskh dEiuh fu;kZr djrh gS rks viuh gh
lg;ksxh dEiuh dks cktkj Hkko ls de ewY; ij nsrh gSA bl rjg nksuksa gh jkLrksa ls /ku dks ys tkus dk dk;Z fd;k
tkrk gSA fonskh dEifu;k ftl nsk esa tkrh gSa] ogk dh LFkkuh; Lonskh dEifu;ksa ds lkeus izfrLi/kkZ esa djksM+kas #- dk
uqdlku mBkdj Hkh lLrh dher ij eky csp ldrh gSaA isIlh&dksyk us lu~ 1990&91 esa ;gh fd;k vkSj
yxHkx 24 djksM+ #- dk ?kkVk mBk;kA

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v/;k;&7

isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa }kjk jktuSfrd gLr{ksi


isIlh&dksyk dEiuh o vejhdh tklwlh laLFkk lh-vkbZ-,- lsUVy bUVsyhtsUl ,tsUlh ds ?kksfkr
lEcU/k jgs gSaA bl dEiuh us vius O;kikfjd fgrksa dh j{kk djus ds fy;s lh-vkbZ-,- ds jktuSfrd izHkko
dk Hkjiwj bLrseky fd;k gSA ySfVu vejhdh nsk fpyh esa ,d pquh gq;h lYoknksj vysUns uke ds
jkVifr dh ljdkj dk r[rk iyV isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us lh-vkbZ-,- dh enn ls djk;kA vejhdh
i=dkj&ys[kd ckWc oqMoMZ us viuh iqLrd ^^lhsV okj vkQ lh-vkbZ ,-^^ esa bl luluh[kst rF; dk
mn~?kkVu fd;k FkkA ;g iqLrd lu~ 1981 ls 1987 ds chp esa lh-vkbZ-,- }kjk nwljs nskksa esa fd;s x;s
jktuSfrd gLr{ksi dks mtkxj djrh gSA ftl le; isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk Hkkjr esa izosk gqvk ml
le; bl dEiuh dk eq[; vf/kdkjh MksukYM dSaMy gksrk FkkA bl MksukYM dSaMy dh iwoZ vejhdh
jkVifr fjpMZ fuDlu ls dkQh xgjh nksLrh jghA ftl le; lYoknksj vysUns dh ljdkj dk fpyh esa
r[rk iyV fn;k x;k vkSj fQj lYoknksj vysUns dh gR;k dh x;h] rc vejhdk esa fjpMZ fuDlu
jkVifr Fkk] vkSj MksukYM dSaMy isIlh dEiuh dk eq[; vf/kdkjh FkkA vejhdh jkVifr fjpMZ fuDlu us
rRdkyhu lh-vkbZ-,- ds funskd vkj- gsYe dks vknsk fn;k Fkk] fd fdlh Hkh dher ij fpyh dk
jkVifr lYoknksj vysUns ugha jguk pkfg,A ftl le; fpyh esa lYoknksj vysUns jkVifr cuk] ml
le; isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk fpyh esa eq[; O;kikjh vkWxLVhu ,MokMZ FkkA lYoknksj vysUns
vR;f/kd
nskHkDr ,oa Lonskh leFkZd FkkA og vius nsk fpyh dh ywV cUn djkus ds fy;s vejhdh dEifu;ksa ij
fkdatk dl jgk FkkA tc lYoknksj vysUns vius nsk dks vejhdh dEifu;ksa ds kksk.k ls eqDr djkus ds
iz;kl esa yxk gqvk Fkk] mlh le; vkWxLVhu ,MoMZ vejhdk x;k vkSj vejhdk ds fonsk eU=h gsujh
fdflaxj dks feykA gsujh fdflaxj ls mldh eqykdkr ds ckn og lh-vkbZ-,- ds funskd vkj- gsYe dks
feykA ;s nksuksa gh eqykdkrsa isIlhdksyk dEiuh ds eq[; vf/kdkjh MksukYM dSaMy us djk;hA MksukYM
dSaMy ebZ 1991 rd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk eq[; vf/kdkjh jgkA lu~ 1970 esa lYoknksj vysUns fpyh
dk jkVifr cuk vkSj lu~ 1973 esa mldh gR;k dj nh x;hA gR;k ds iwoZ vejhdk esa rRdkyhu jkVifr
fjpMZ fuDlu us] laln esa dgk fd ^^fpyh dk orZeku jkVifr lYoknksj vysUns vejhdh fgrksa ds fo:)
gS^^A ;gh ckr lh-vkbZ-,- funskd vkj- gsYe }kjk ,oa isIlh dEiuh ds eqf[k;k MksukYM dSaMy }kjk Hkh
dgh x;hA ftuds nLrkost vkt Hkh miyC/k gSaA vejhdk dh lHkh dEifu;k] vejhdh lkezkT;okn dks
nqfu;k ds reke nskksa esa QSykus ds fy, dke djrh jgha gSaA isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk dks vejhdh
lkezkT;okn ds nks gkFk ekuk tkrk gSA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh }kjk dbZ ckj ;g dgk x;k gS fd ^^tc rd
dksbZ O;kikjh gekjs fgrksas dh iwfrZ djrk jgsxk] rHkh rd og O;kikj djrk jgsxk vkSj le`f)kkyh gksrk
jgsxk^^A
Hkkjrh; laln esa Hkh isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ,oa lh-vkbZ-,- ds vkilh lEcU/kkas ij dkQh dqN dgk
x;kA 21 ls 27 tqykbZ 1991 ds lkIrkfgd v[kckj ^^lUMs vkWCtcZj^^ (Sunday observer) esa foLrkj ls bl

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ij fy[kk x;kA blh vad esa ;g Hkh dgk x;k fd Hkkjr ds dqN usrkvksa ,oa 17 vf/kdkfj;ksa us
isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk dks Hkkjr esa ykus esa fjor yh gSA
Hkkjrh; jktuhfr esa Hkh iwoZ iz/kkueU=h jktho xka/kh us vejhdk fojks/kh :[k viuk;k FkkA tc
[kkM+h ;q) gks jgk Fkk] rks jktho xka/kh us vejhdh gokbZ tgktksa esa rsy Hkjus ls badkj djk;k FkkA
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks jksdus dh Hkjiwj dksfkk dh Fkh ysfdu dqN lkalnksa ds ncko eas vkdj
isIlh&dksyk dks eatwjh nhA D;wck ds jkVifr QhMsydkL=ks ,oa fQfyLrhuh usrk ;klj vjkQkr us ml
le; jktho xka/kh dks lko/kku jgus ds fy;s lansk Hksts FksA D;ksfa d bu nksuksa usrkvksa dks jktho xka/kh dh
gR;k fd;s tkus dk vans kk gks x;k FkkA 21 ebZ 1991 dks ftl fnu jktho xka/kh dh gR;k gq;h] mlh
fnu VkbEl vkWQ bfUM;k lekpkj i= dks fn;s x;s vius lk{kkRdkj esa jktho xka/kh us dgk fd ^^,d
egkkfDr Hkkjr dks fLFkj gksrs ns[kuk ugha pkgrh gS^^A tc jktho xka/kh dks iwNk x;k fd og egkkfDr
dkSu gS\ rks mUgksua s tokc fn;k fd ^^og egkkfDr lksfo;r&:l rks ugha gh gS^^A vFkkZr~ og egkkfDr
vejhdk gSA mlh nkSjku ^lUMs^ (Sunday) uked lekpkj i= esa Hkh jktho xka/kh dk ,d lk{kkRdkj izdkfkr
gqvk Fkk] ftlesa mUgksua s isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh dM+h vkykspuk dh FkhA mlesa dgk x;k fd ^^ftl vk/kkj
ij isIlhdksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa ykblsal fn;k x;k] mlesa rks [kk| izlaLdj.k dk {ks= eq[; Fkk vkSj
mlesa 50]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj nsus dh ckr egRoiw.kZ FkhA ysfdu isIlh dEiuh us bldk ikyu ugha
fd;k gSA jktho xka/kh us oh-ih-flag ljdkj dh vkykspuk djrs gq;s dgk fd ;g ljdkj isIlh&dksyk
dEiuh ds f[kykQ dksbZ Hkh dk;Zokgh ugha dj jgh gS] cfYd isIlh dEiuh dks cpkus dh dksfkk dj jgh
gSA
jktho xka/kh dh gR;k Jhyadk eas fgalkoknh laxBu fycjsku VkbxlZ vkQ rfey bZye (LTTE) us
fd;kA bl laxBu dks izfk{k.k nsus dk dk;Z btjk;yh laLFkk ekslkn djrh jgh gSA ekslkn ds vejhdh
xqIrpj laLFkk lh-vkbZ-,- ds lkFk utnhdh lEcU/k gSaA isIlh&dksyk dks nf{k.k Hkkjr esa QSykus okys
vMSdyjkt dh lgkuqHkwfr (LTTE) ds lkFk jgh gSA ;fn bl utfj;s ls jktho xka/kh gR;kdkaM dh
[kkstchu dh tk;s rks dqN vkSj lPpkbZ lkeus vk ldrh gSA
lksfo;r la?k eas tks Hkh dqN xr 10&15 okksZa esas jktuSfrd :i ls ?kfVr gqvk] og isIlh&dksyk ds
lksfo;r la?k eas tkus ds ckn gh gqvkA blh rjg phu esa Hkh jktuSfrd mFky&iqFky isIlh&dksyk ds
igqpus ds ckn gh gq;hA

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v/;k;&8

Hkkjrh; lekpkj&i=ksa ,oa if=dkvksa eas isIlh&dksyk ds ckjss esa


mn~?kkfVr lR;
9 vxLr 1986] dks ^^djaV^^ (Current) if=dk esa izdkfkr%& ^^Hkkjrh; laln ds bfrgkl esa dbZ
okksZa eas igyh ckj lRrk i{k ,oa foi{k ds lkalnkas es]a isIlh&dksyk ds izu ij bruh ,drk fn[kk;h ns
jgh gSA^^
3 flrEcj 1989 dks ^^fCyV~t^^ (BLITZ) esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk ds vejhdh xqIrpj laLFkk
lh-vkbZ-,- ds lkFk lEcU/kksa ds vfrfjDr vU; dbZ egRoiw.kZ eqn~ns gSa] ftu ij fopkj djus dh t:jr gSA
isIlh&dksyk dks Hkkjr ds cktkj esa ywVus dh [kqyh NwV ns nh x;h gS^^A
& ^^;g vkp;Z dh ckr gS fd lRrk i{k ds vUnj gh isIlh&dksyk dk fojks/k djus okys vf/kd gSa
ysfdu fQj Hkh bl dEiuh dh ifj;kstuk dks eatwjh feyh gS^^aA
& ^^Hkkjr esa vkyw dk fpIl cukus vkSj BaMs is; dh iwjh rduhd miyC/k gS] fQj Hkh ,d fonskh
vejhdh dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa yk;k x;k gSA kk;n gh dHkh ;g dEiuh vius fu;kZr ok;nksa dks iwjk
djsxhA ,d ckj bl dEiuh dk mRiknu dk;Z kq# gks x;k rks fQj Hkkjr ljdkj Hkh ncko Mkyus esa
vleFkZ gksxhA vUrr% vius fu;kZr ok;nksa dks iwjk djus ds fy;s ;g dEiuh igys ls fu;kZr gks jgs
lkekuksa dk fu;kZr vius uke ls [kjhn dj] dj ysxhA^^
6 ebZ 1989 QkbusfUk;y ,Dlizsl eas izdkfkr%& ^^ftu vejhdh dEifu;ksa ds O;kikfjd fgr
Hkkjr ds cktkj esa gSa] os lHkh Hkkjr ds fo#) yxk;s tkus okys lqij&301] Lisky&301 ds izko/kkuksa ds
fojks/k esa gSaA bl lUnHkZ esa isIlh dEiuh ds eqf[k;k MksukYM dSaMy us vejhdh O;kikj izfrfuf/k dks Hkh i=
fy[kk gS vkSj mUgsa lq>ko fn;k gS fd Hkkjr ij lqij&301 ds rgr dk;Zokgh ugha djsa^^A
3 uoEcj 1988 dks ^^n fgUnw^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^Hkkjr ds dbZ fgLlksa esa ;g vkkadk O;Dr dh tk
jgh gS fd [kk| izlaLdj.k ds {ks= esa ,d fonskh dEiuh dk vkuk Hkkjr ds fy;s vPNk ugha gksxkA bl
dEiuh dh Hkkjr dks dksbZ t:jr ugha gSA vPNk gksrk fd Lonskh dEifu;ksa ,oa Lonskh rduhd dks bl
{ks= esa c<+kok fn;k x;k gksrk^^A
3 uoEcj 1988 dks ^^n
fgUnqLrku VkbEl^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk ds le>kSrs ds fy;s dbZ fu;eksa dk mYya?ku gqvk gS^^A
23 vDVwcj 1988 dks ^^n fgUnqLrku VkbEl^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh }kjk de ls de
50]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj fn;k tk;sxk^^A
27 flrEcj 1988 dks ^^VkbEl vkQ bf.M;k^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^iatkc ds fdlkuksa dh ,d gsDVs;j
Hkwfe ls yxHkx 7000 #- dh vkenuh gks jgh gS tks cgqr de gSA isIlh&dksyk dh ifj;kstuk vkus ds
ckn iatkc ds fdlkuksa dh vkSlru vkenuh yxHkx 15000 #- izfrgsDVs;j ls 25]000 #- izfr gsDVs;j

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rd c<+ tk;sxhA isIlh&dksyk dh ifj;kstuk esa iwjs iatkc esa iSnk gksus okys Qyksa dk 25 % fgLlk [kir
gksxk^^A
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us iatkc ds fdlkuksa dks VekVj iSnk djus ds fy;s ,d foksk izdkj dk
cht fn;k bl cht dks iatkc ds dbZ fdlkuksa us cks;kA bl cht ds pyrs tks Hkh VekVj iSnk gqvk og
gjs jax dk cuk jgk vkSj yky ugha gqvkA ckn esa bl VekVj dks isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us ugha [kjhnk vkSj
fQj fdlkuksa us cgqr gh lLrs nke ij ;g VekVj cktkj esa cspkA blesa fdlkuksa dk ykxr [kpkZ Hkh ugha
fudy ik;kA ykxr [kpsZ dh ,d pkSFkkbZ dher ij ;g VekVj fcdkA
27 flrEcj 1988 ^^bdksukWfed VkbEl^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds cktkj esa vkus ls
izfr;ksfxrk c<+sxh ,oa xzkgdksas dks de dher ij khry is; ihus dks feysxk^^A
21 flrEcj 1988 ^^n fctusl LVS.MMZ^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^ rRdkyhu turk ny usrk tktZ
QukZUMhl us oh-ih-flag- dks ,d i= fy[kk tks mi;qDr lekpkj i= esa izdkfkr gqvkA
& ^^isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk dks eatwjh nsdj jktho xka/kh ljdkj us Hkkjh xyrh dh gSA vr%
isIlh&dksyk ds fojks/k dk eqn~nk pquko dk eqn~nk cuk;k tkuk pkfg,A ljdkjh nkoksa ds vuqlkj bl
ifj;kstuk ds dkj.k 50]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj feysxkA ysfdu okLro esa 500 yksxksa dks Hkh blls jkstxkj
ugha feysxkA iwjs nsk esa bl eqn~ns dks vkUnksyu dk vk/kkj cukuk pkfg,A^^
19 flrEcj 1988 ^n fgUnqLrku VkbEl^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^ turk ny usrk tktZ QukZUMhl us
,syku fd;k gS fd jktho xka/kh ljdkj }kjk tks isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks eatwjh nh x;h gS] og lekIr
dj nh tk;sxh] ;fn turk ny dh ljdkj cu tk;sxhA tktZ QukZUMhl ds vuqlkj bl isIlh&dksyk
ifj;kstuk esa cgqr vf/kd fjor ysus&nsus dk dke gqvk gSA de ls de 5 djksM+ #i;s rks fjor ds :i
esa Hkkjr ds usrkvksa ,oa vf/kdkfj;ksa dks fn;s gh x;s gSa^^A
egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd jktho xka/kh dh ljdkj tkus ds ckn turk ny rFkk vU; ikfVZ ;ksa dh
feyh&tqyh ljdkj Hkkjr esa cuhA bl ljdkj esa tktZ QukZUMhl Lo;a ea=h Fks] ysfdu bl turk ny
ljdkj us Hkh isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds fo#) dqN ugha fd;kA turk ny ljdkj ds le; esa isIlh&dksyk
dh ifj;kstuk ykxr 22 djksM+ #- ls c<+dj 75 djksM+ #i;s gks x;hA iwjh ifj;kstuk dh mRiknu {kerk
ugha c<+us ds ckn Hkh ifj;kstuk dh ykxr 75 djksM+ #i;s gks x;hA ysfdu dHkh Hkh turk ny ljdkj
us isIlh&dksyk ds f[kykQ dqN ugha fd;kA bl ifj;kstuk ykxr [kpZ c<+us esa Hkh fjor dk ysu&nsu
gqvk gksxk] rHkh rks ljdkj us isIlh dEiuh dks dqN Hkh ugha dgkA
7 vxLr 1986 dks ^^n VkbEl vkQ bf.M;k^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh eatwjh ds
ckn vc] Hkkjr nsk esa isIlh&dksyk ds ewy czkaM uke ds vk/kkj ij uk rks khry is; cspk tk;sxk vkSj uk
gh dksbZ nwljk mRiknd bl ewy czkaM uke ds vk/kkj ij mRiknu dj ldsxkA tks Hkh lkUnz ?kksy dh
t:jr iMsxh] khry is; cukus ds fy;s og Hkkjr esa gh rS;kj fd;k tk;sxkA cgqr gh t:jh dqN
jlk;u vk;kr fd;s tk;saxs tks Hkkjr esa miyC/k ugh gksx
a s^^A
13 Qjojh 1988 dks ^^n VkbEl vkQ bf.M;k^^ esa izdkfkr%&^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh vejhdh
lkezkT;okn dk izrhd gSA ;g dEiuh nqfu;k Hkj esa jktuSfrd gR;k;sa djkus vkSj mFky&iqFky djkus ds
fy;s cnuke jgh gSA ySfVu vejhdh nsk fpyh vksj is: blds thrs&tkxrs mnkgj.k gSaA Hkkjr ljdkj
dks ,slh dEiuh ds ckjs esa iwjh xaHkhjrk ls lksp&le>dj gh dksbZ vfUre QSlyk djuk pkfg,A D;k

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Hkkjr tSls nsk dks fonskh khry is; dh t:jr gS \ vkSj og Hkh viuh lqj{kk O;oLFkk dks [krjs easa
Mkydj] fonskh dEiuh dks cqykuk cgqr eagxk iM+ ldrk gS\^^
11 Qjojh 1988 dks ^^n fgUnqLrku VkbEl^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^Hkkjr ljdkj us Lonskh vkSj
Lokoyacu ds jkLrs dks NksM+ dj isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa vkus dh vuqefr nh gS tks nsk dh
vFkZO;oLFkk ds fy;s ?kkrd fl) gksxk^^A ;g c;ku iwoZ iz/kkueU=h pUnzks[kj us fn;k FkkA tc
1990&1991 esa pkj ekg ds fy;s pUnzks[kj nsk ds iz/kkueU=h cus rks mUgksua s isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds
?kksVkyksa vkSj ok;nk f[kykQh ds ckjs esa tkp djk;h vkSj dEiuh dks uksfVl fn;k x;kA lkFk gh lkFk
pUnzks[kj ljdkj us isIlh&dksyk }kjk ijkekZ kqYd (Consultancy Fees) ds uke ij Hkkjr ls /ku vejhdk
ys tkus ij ikcUnh yxk fn;kA lHkh dj olwyus okys foHkkxksa tSls mRikndj funskkky; ,oa vk;dj o
dEiuhdj funskky;ksa dks isIlh&dksyk dss f[kykQ l[rh cjrus ds vknsk fn;s x;sA ysfdu bu lHkh
dk;Zokgh ij dksbZ Bksl QSlyk ljdkj ys ikrh] mlds iwoZ gh pUnzks[kj ljdkj fxj x;hA iatkc ds ,d
usrk cyoar flag jkewokfy;k us rRdkyhy iz/kkueU=h pUnzks[kj dks ,d yEck i= fy[kk FkkA bl i= eas
isIlh&dksyk dh /kks[kk/kM+h ds ckjs esa foLrkj ls fy[kk x;k FkkA
14 1 vDVwcj 1988 dks ^^djaV^^ (Current) if=dk esa izdkfkr%& ^^jktho xka/kh ljdkj ds ckjs esa
tks Hkh vQokgsa mM+ jgh gSa] /khjs&/khjs os lc lp gksrh tk jgh gSaA vHkh gky gh esa jktho xka/kh dh
vejhdk okfkxaVu ;k=k gq;h gSA bl ;k=k ls ykSVus ds ckn gh Hkkjr ljdkj ds m|ksx ea=h ts osaxyjko us isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk dks vPNk dguk kq# fd;k gS] tcfd kq# esa os isIlh&dksyk dk
fojks/k djrs jgsA ;g dSlk QSlyk gS fd isIlh ifj;kstuk dks eatwjh nsus ds fy;s ,d u;k ea=ky; [kk|
,oa izlaLdj.k ds uke ls [kksyk x;k gSA okLro esa rks ;g ifj;kstuk m|ksx ea=ky; ds }kjk gh Lohd`r
gks ldrh FkhA ysfdu vyx ls u;k ea=ky; [kksyuk kd iSnk djrk gSA txnhk VkbZVyj tSls fonskh
dEifu;ksa ds leFkZd dks bl u;s [kk| ,oa izlaLdj.k ea=ky; dk ea=h cuk;k tkuk Hkh kd iSnk djrk
gSA pwfd kq# eas m|ksxeU=h ts-oasxyjko us bl isIlh ifj;kstuk dks udkj fn;k Fkk] blfy;s u;k
eU=ky; cukdj isIlh&dksy
s k dks eatwjh nh x;h gSA m|ksx lfpo vksfrek cksjfn;k Hkh bl isIlh
ifj;kstuk ds f[kykQ jgs gSaA ysfdu m|ksx ea=ky; ds jkT;ea=h v#.kkpye isIlh&dksyk ds leFkZu esa
jgsA D;kssafd rfeyukMq ds gh v#.kkpye ds vMSdyjkt ds lkFk vPNs lEcU/k gaS^^A nf{k.k Hkkjr eas
isIlh&dksyk dks QSykus esa vMSdyjkt dh eq[; Hkwfedk jghA
15 21 flrEcj 1988 dks ^^n bfUM;u iksLV^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^okeiaFkh ikfVZ;k lh-ih-vkbZ- ,e-
vkSj lh-ih-vkbZ- nksukas us gh Hkkjr ljdkj ls ekx dh gS fd isIlh&dksyk dks fn;k x;k ykbZlal
s jn~n
fd;k tk;A jktho xka/kh ljdkj dh mnkjhdj.k dh uhfr ds rgr bl isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa
vuqefr nsuk nqHkkZX;iw.kZ gSA ;g dne Hkkjrh; vFkZO;oLFkk dks fonskh dEifu;ksa ds gkFkksa fxjoh j[kus
tSlk gSA Hkkjr ljdkj foo cSad vkSj eqnzkdksk ds funsZkksa ij dke dj jgh gS] vkSj Hkkjr dks fonskh
dEifu;ksa dh ywV ds fy;s [kksy fn;k x;k gSA^^
16 21 flrEcj 1986 dks ^^vkxZukbtj^^ esa izdkfkr%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa vkus nsuk
fcYdqy Hkh le>nkjh dk QSlyk ugha gSA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk khry is; ,slh [kkl pht ugha gS vkSj
uk gh bl dEiuh dk vkyw fpIl ,slk [kkl gSA 1977 esa Hkkjr ls dksdk&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkxk;k x;k
Fkk] D;ksfa d og dEiuh vius khry is; dk QkewZyk crkus dks rS;kj ugha FkhA vkyw dk fpIl vkSj VekVj

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dh pVuh Hkkjr ds ?kj&?kj es]a xko&xko esa curk gSA vr% fpIl vkSj pVuh cukus ds fy;s vejhdh
dEiuh dks ykus dk dksbZ vkSfpR; ugha gSA oSls rks isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us iwoZ esa dHkh Hkh vkyw dk fpIl
vkSj VekVj dh pVuh cukus dk dk;Z ugha fd;k gS] vkSj uk gh [kk| izlaLdj.k dk dksbZ vuqHko bl
dEiuh ds ikl gSA jktho xka/kh ljdkj us bl isIlh ifj;kstuk dks tks eatwjh nh gS] mldk ,d Hkh
vk/kkj Bksl ugha gSA^^ ;g c;ku Hkkjrh; turk ikVhZ ds usrk t; dk gS] tks ikVhZ dh vkfFkZd uhfr cukus
okys lewg ds izeq[k jgsA bl c;ku ds yxHkx 10 lky ckn Hkkjrh; turk ikVhZ ds usr`Ro esa ,d
ljdkj cuh tks vHkh rd vDVwcj&2003 rd py jgh gSA ysfdu vHkh rd bl ljdkj us Hkh
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds f[kykQ dksbZ dk;Zokgh ugha fd;k gSA

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v/;k;&9

Hkkjrh; laln esa isIlh&dksyk ds ckjs esa iwNs x;s izu ,oa
ljdkj ds eaf=;ksa }kjk fn;s x;s mRrj
tc ls isIlh&dksyk dEiuh Hkkjr esa vk;h] rHkh ls ysdj vkt rd yxHkx 500 izu fofHkUu
lkalnksa }kjk laln esa iwNs x;sA ftuesas ls dqN izeq[k izuksa dks uhps fn;k tk jgk gSA

lkaln nhisu ?kksk }kjk iwNk x;k izu


& 29 vxLr 1991%&
izu%&

eSa ljdkj ls ;g tkuuk pkgrk gw fd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Lohd`r] ysVj vkQ bUVsUV
(Letter of Intent) esa tks kCn ^VuZ vksoj^ fy[kk x;k gS] mldk vFkZ D;k gS\ dkuwu ea=ky; dks bl kCn
VuZ vksoj (Turn Over) dh O;k[;k djus ds fy;s D;ksa dgk x;k gS\
izu%&
yksdlHkk v/;{k egksn;] ea=h egksn; txnhk VkbZVyj us laln esa ckj&ckj dgk gS fd
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks Hkkjr esa khry is; vius czkaM uke ls mRiknu djus ,oa cspus dh vuqefr ugha
nh tk;sxhA bl dEiuh dks flQZ [kk| izlaLdj.k ds {ks= esa gh vuqefr gksxhA ysfdu eq>s yxrk gS fd
;g vejhdh dEiuh] Hkkjr ljdkj dh fdlh Hkh ckr ;k funsZkksa dks ugha ekusxhA ;g dEiuh le; vkus
ij khry is; dk mRiknu vkSj fch nksuksa gh vius uke ls djsxhA xr 20 tqykbZ 1989 dks [kk|
izlaLdj.k ea=h txnhk VkbZVyj }kjk laln esa vkoklu fn;k x;k Fkk fd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks
Hkkjr esa khry is; mRiknu djus dh vuqefr rc rd ugha nh tk;sxh tc rd og dEiuh vius djkj
dh lHkh krksZa dks iwjk ugha djsxhA ysfdu vHkh&vHkh ljdkj dh vksj ls lwpuk nh x;h gS fd
isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us vius dqy VuZ
vksoj dk 25% khry is; mRiknu kq: dj fn;k gSA ,slh
fLFkfr esa ljdkj bl dEiuh dks jksdus ds fy;s dksbZ dk;Zokgh D;ksa ugha djrh gS \ ljdkj dks bl
dEiuh dh ok;nkf[kykQh ds fo#) dk;Zokgh djus ls dkSu jksd jgk gS\
ea=h fxfj/kj xksekax }kjk fn;k x;k mRrj%&
^^gekjs ikl dksbZ fuxjkuh djus okyk ra= ugha gSA gekjs ea=ky; dks isIlh dEiuh }kjk ekfld
Lrjij tks tkudkjh nh tkrh gS] mlh ds vk/kkj ij ge dk;Z djrs gSa^^A
blh cgl esa Hkkx ysrs gq;s lkaln gkjosUnz flag galiky }kjk fn;k x;k c;ku%& ^^eq>s irk pyk gS
fd ;g dEiuh dqN leqnzh oLrqvksa dk fu;kZr dj jgh gS] ftldk iatkc ds fdlkuksa ds lkFk dqN
ysuk&nsuk ugha gSA eq>s yxrk gS fd ;g isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ljdkj ds lkFk feydj iatkc ds yksxksa dks
/kks[kk ns jgh gSA eq>s ea=h egksn; ls ;g vkoklu pkfg, fd os bl dEiuh dh /kks[kk/kM+h dks jksdx
sa s^^A

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yksdlHkk v/;{k dh fVIi.kh%& ^^ea=hth] lkaln dk izu fcYdqy
lh/kk gSA dEiuh dh vksj ls
ok;nk fd;k x;k Fkk fd iatkc ds fdlkuksa dks ykHk gksxkA ysfdu vHkhrd ,slk dksbZ ykHk iatkc ds
fdlkuksa dks ugha gqvk gSA D;k vHkhrd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh vksj ls iatkc esa ,slh dksbZ QSDVjh yxkbZ
x;h gS] ftlesa Qy ,oa lfCt;ksa dk izlaLdj.k djds dksbZ mRikn cuk;k tk jgk gS\
lkaln gkjosUnz flag galiky dk oDrO;%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh ds lkFk fd;s x;s djkj dh ;g
krZ gS fd igys [kk| izlLa dj.k ds {ks= esa dEiuh dkj[kkus yxkdj mRiknu dk;Z djsxhA mlds ckn gh
khry is; cktkj eas yk ldsxh^^A
yksdlHkk v/;{k dh izfrf;k%& ^^ysfdu D;k vHkh rd bl dEiuh us ,slh dksbZ QSDVjh [kk|
izlaLdj.k ds fy;s ugha yxk;h gS D;k\
lkaln gkjosUnz flag dk mRrj %& ^^ugha^^aA
yksdlHkk v/;{k dh fVIi.kh%& ^^eU=h th vkidks bl lEcU/k esa tYnh vkSj dM+h dk;Zokgh djus
dh t:jr gSA ftldk dksbZ ifj.kke fudy lds^^A
lkaln nhisu ?kksk dh fVIi.kh%& ^^;k rks isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks djkj dh lHkh krksZa dks iwjk
djuk pkfg, ;k fQj bl dEiuh dks Hkkjr ls ckgj fudky nsuk pkfg,^^A
fxfj/kj xksekaxks dk c;ku%& ^^tc isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh Vhe Hkkjr vk;h Fkh] rc ,d ;wfuV dh
dher 1200 #- crk;h x;h FkhA ysfdu vc ;g dher c<+kdj 8058 #- izfr ;wfuV dj nh x;h gSA
geus bl lEcU/k esa isIlh dksyk dEiuh dks 19 vizSy 1991 dks dkj.k crkvks uksfVl tkjh dj fn;k gS
vkSj dEiuh ls tckc ryc fd;k gSA
yksdlHkk v/;{k dk oDrO;%& ^^ea=hth] lkaln egksn; vkils ;g tkuuk pkgrs gSa fd vki isIlh
dEiuh dh ok;nk f[kykQh ds ckjs essa dksbZ dk;Zokgh tYnh djus tk jgs gSa ;k ugha\^^
ea=h fxfj/kj xksekaaxks dk c;ku%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us tks Hkh djkj Hkkjr ljdkj ls fd;k gS]
mldh lHkh krksZa dk ikyu djuk gh gksxk^^A
t;iky jsM~Mh dk c;ku%& ^^v/;{k egksn;] isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr esa ftl rjg dk dke
fd;k gS] og cgqr vkifRrtud gSA tc bl dEiuh ds lkFk djkj fd;k x;k Fkk] ml le; laln ds
nksuksas gh lnuksa esa cgl gq;h FkhA djkj dh krksZa ij Hkh ppkZ gq;h FkhA ysfdu bl fonskh dEiuh us vius
lkFk gq;s djkj dh ,d Hkh krZ dks ugha ekuk gSA ljdkj us Hkh djkj Hkax ds vk/kkj ij dks bZ dk;Zokgh
ugha dh gSA
yksdlHkk v/;{k dh fVIi.kh%& ^^vkius tks Hkh dgk og lHkh dqN lkfcr gks pqdk gSA^^
t;iky jsM~Mh dk c;ku%& ^^ea=h egksn; us vius tokc esa ;g Lohdkj fd;k gS] fd dEiuh ds
}kjk crkbZ x;h dherksa esa gsjkQsjh gq;h gSA bl ckr dks mRiknu dj foHkkx us Hkh Lohdkj fd;k gSA^^
23 ekpZ 1990 dks laln yksdlHkk esa gq;h cgl%&
lqnkZujk; pkS/kjh lkaln%& ^^iatkc ljdkj ,oa iatkc ds yksxkas dks isIlh dEiuh us /kks[kk fn;k
gSA u flQZ iatkc cfYd iwjs nsk dks Hkh /kks[kk gqvk gSA gfjr kafr] Qy kafr vkfn dh lHkh ckrsa
[kks[kyh lkfcr gq;h gSaA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk vlyh mn~ns; khry is; vkSj vkyw fpIl cspus dk gh
Fkk] fdlkuksa dk Hkyk djus dk dksbZ] mn~ns; ugha FkkA

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lq/khj fxjh lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^isIlh dEiuh us cgqr lkjs ok;ns fd;s Fks] ftlesa ls ,d Hkh
ok;nk iwjk ugha fd;k^^A
Mk- jkepUnz Mkse lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^isIlh dEiuh us iatkc ds fdlkuksa esa ,d vkkk iSnk dh
Fkh] fd nwljh gfjr kafr iatkc esa fQj gksxhA isIlh ifj;kstuk ls 50]000 yksxksa dks jkstxkj feyus okyk
FkkA ysfdu vkt okLrfodrk D;k gS\ laln esa ;g Hkh dgk x;k fd bl dEiuh dk vejhdh xqIrpj
laLFkk lh-vkbZ-,- ds lkFk Hkh lEcU/k gSA lc tkurs gSa fd bl isIlh dEiuh us lh-vkbZ-,- ds lkFk feydj
fpyh nsk dh vysUns ljdkj dk r[rk iyV djk;k FkkA eq>s Mj gS fd ;g dEiuh Hkkjr esa Hkh ,slk gh
jktuSfrd gLr{ksi dj ldrh gSA^^
6 fnlEcj] 1988 dks laln esa gq;h cgl %&
t;iky jsM~Mh lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^bruh cM+h fonskh dEiuh isIlh&dksyk] nl lky rd fcuk
kq) equkQs ds Hkh O;kikj dj ldrh gSA D;ksfa d bl dEiuh ds ikl vusdksa jkLrs gSa ftuds }kjk Hkkjr ls
/ku vejhdk ys tk;k tk ldrk gSA blesa ,d jkLrk ^^vksoj bUok;flax^^ (Over invoicing) dk gSA egRo
dh ckr ;g gS fd vkyw fpIl ,oa ikidkuZ dks rks fu;kZr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA rks ;s oLrq,a Hkkjrh;
cktkj esa gh csph tk;saxhA ea=h egksn; D;k vkius bu ckrksa ij xEHkhjrk ls fopkj fd;k gS \ ea=h egksn;
vki gels dg jgs gSa fd isIlh dEiuh vius dqy mRiknu dk 25% gh khry is; cukdj cspsxhA ysfdu
vkius vuqeku yxk;k gS fd ;g fdruk [krjukd gks ldrk gS\ ;fn isIlh dEiuh dk O;kikj LFkkfir gks
x;k rks ihNs&ihNs dksdk&dksyk dEiuh Hkh pyh vk;sxhA dksdk&dksyk dEiuh Hkkjr esa 100 izfrkr
fu;kZr djus ds cgkus ls izosk djus tk jgh gSA uke ds fy;s rks 100 izfrkr fu;kZr fd;s tkus dh ckr
gS] ysfdu mRiknu dk 25% Hkkjrh; cktkj esa gh cspk tk;sxkA Hkkjr ds cktkjksa esa fQj dksyk ;q) kq#
gksxkA tks vkfFkZd :i ls khr ;q) ls Hkh Hk;adj gksxkA ;fn ljdkj pkgrh gS fd nsk esa fLFkjrk ,oa
le`f) cuh jgs rks isIlh vkSj dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa dks dHkh Hkh Hkkjr esa O;kikj dh vuqefr ugha nh
tkuh pkfg,A^^
txnhk VkbZVyj ea=h dk c;ku%& ^^isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us Hkkjr ljdkj dks cSad xkjaVh vkSj
dkuwuh xkjaVh nh gSA ;g dEiuh vius lHkh fu;kZr ok;nksa dks iwjk djsxh] ;g ge ns[ksx
a sA ;g dEiuh
iatkc esa iSnk gksus okys Qy&lfCt;ksa dk 25% fu;kZr djsxh] ;g cgqr gh egRoiw.kZ gSA^^
3 uoEcj 1988 dks laln esa gqbZ cgl%&
,u- bZ- cyjke lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^vki isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks vuqefr nsus tk jgs gSaA bl
dEiuh ds }kjk fu;kZr djus ls lEcfU/kr lHkh ckrsa okLrfodrk ls cgqr nwj gSaA vki ea=h egksn; lnu
dks xqejkg ugha djsAa vki tkurs gSa fd bl dEiuh dk bfrgkl cgqr gh dkyk ,oa [kjkc jgk gSA ;g
cgqr gh dq[;kr ,oa cnuke dEiuh gSA bfrgkl dk gjsd fo|kFkhZ tkurk gS fd blh isIlh&dksyk dEiuh
us fpyh dh lYoknksj vysUns ljdkj dk r[rk iyV fn;k FkkA^^
nhisu?kksk lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^D;k ea=h egksn; nqfu;k esa ,d Hkh ,sls dkj[kkus dk irk crk
ldrs gSa tgk isIlh&dksyk dEiuh Qyksa dk jl rS;kj djkrh gks] ,oa mldk fu;kZr djrh gks\^^
txnhk VkbZVyj ea=h dk c;ku%& ^^isIlh&dksyk }kjk fn;s x;s rF;k ls irk pyrk gS fd bl
dEiuh dk 60% O;kikj Qy mRiknksa ls tqM+k gqvk gSA^^

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nhisu ?kksk lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^vki ea=h th xyr cksy jgs gSa vkSj vkidks xyr tkudkjh nh
x;h gSA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dk iwjh nqfu;k esa khry is;ksa dk gh O;kikj gSA
;koar flUgk lkaln jkT;lHkk dk c;ku%& ^^v/;{k egksn;] isIlh&dksyk dk ekeyk cgqr gh
laosnukhy gSA bl iwjs ekeys esa vkdM+ksa dh ckthxjh dh x;h gSA isIlh&dksyk dEiuh us ljdkj dks ,oa
nsk dks xqejkg fd;k gSA ;g dEiuh nsk ds yksxksa dh ywV djus tk jgh gSA bl dEiuh us vius djkj
dh lHkh krksZa dk mYya?ku fd;k gSA bl le; ekuuh; iz/kkuea=h lnu esa cSBs gq;s gSaA eSa ;g tkuuk
pkgrk gw fd ljdkj bl dEiuh ds f[kykQ D;k dkuwuh ,oa izkklfud dk;Zokgh djus tk jgh gS\ ;fn
ea=h egksn; esjs izu dk mRrj ugha ns ldrs rks ekuuh; iz/kkueU=h bl izu dk mRrj nsa^^A
Mk- ;sykekapyh fkokth lkaln%& ^^v/;{k egksn;] iwjs nsk esa yksxksa ds chp ;g ppkZ gS fd Hkkjr
ljdkj us isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks eatwjh nsus ds fy;s gh ,d u;s ea=ky; ^[kk| izlaLdj.k^ dk xBu
fd;k gSA D;k vc isIlh ifj;kstuk dks eatwjh ds ckn bl ea=ky; dks lekIr dj fn;k tkuk pkfg,\
2 ebZ 1990 dks laln esa gq;h cgl%&
dey eksjkjdk lkaln%& ^^v/;{k egksn;] eSa isIlh&dksyk ifj;kstuk ds vkfFkZd i{k ls lEcfU/kr
dqN xaHkhj vkifRr lnu ds lkeus j[kuk pkgrk gwA kq# esa tc bl ifj;kstuk dks ljdkj ds lkeus
eatwjh ds fy;s j[kk x;k Fkk] rc bldh ykxr 22 djksM+ #i;s FkhA vc bl ifj;kstuk dh ykxr c<+dj
75 djksM+ #- gks x;h gSA bl dher ds c<+us dk dksbZ Hkh dkj.k isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dh vksj ls ugha
fn;k x;k gSA dEiuh dh vksj ls bl ckjs esa >wB cksyk tk jgk gSA^^
nhisu ?kksk lkaln dk c;ku%& ^^eSa orZeku ljdkj ls vihy djrk gw fd isIlh&dksyk dEiuh dks
Hkkjr esas vuqefr ugha nh tkuh pkfg,A D;ksfa d ;g dEiuh vius fdlh Hkh ok;ns dks iwjk ugha dj jgh gSA
bl dEiuh dh Hkkjr dks dksbZ t:jr ugha gSA bl dEiuh us ySfVu vejhdh nsk fpyh esa Hk;adj mRikr
fd;k Fkk^^A
27 ekpZ 1990 dks laln esa gq;h cgl%&
[ksepUnz lksekHkkbZ pkoM+k lkaln%& ^^isIlh vejhdk dh cgqr cM+h cgqjkVh ; dEiuh gSA bl
dEiuh us Hkkjr esa vkdj lHkh fu;eksa dk mYya?ku fd;k gSA bl dEiuh us ok;nk fd;k Fkk fd 50]000
yksxksa dks jkstxkj fn;k tk;sxk ysfdu ek= 400 yksxksa dks gh vHkh rd jkstxkj fn;k x;k gSA dEiuh us
dgk Fkk fd Qyksa dk izlaLdj.k djds fu;kZr fd;k tk;sxk] ysfdu vHkh rd dqN Hkh fu;kZr ugha fd;k
tk jgk gSA ;g dEiuh /kks[ksckt dEiuh gSA^^

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v/;k;&10

isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds


khry is;ksa esa dhVukkd
5 vxLr] 2003 dks ^lsUVj Qkj lk;Ul ,UM ,uok;jesUV^ laLFkk dh iz;ksxkkyk }kjk tkjh dh
x;h fjiksVZ ds vuqlkj isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds khry is;ksa essa] fu/kkZfjr ek=k ls dbZ xquk vf/kd
dhVukkd ik;s x;sA bl laLFkk ds rhu oSKkfudksas izks- Mk- ,p-ch-ekFkqj] Mk- liuk tkWulu] ,oa vfoukk
dqekj us isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds khry is;ksa ds lHkh czkaM ukeksa ls fcdus okys is;ksa dk oSKkfud
ijh{k.k fd;kA bl ijh{k.k esa ygj isIlh] ygj lsou vi] ygj fefjUMk] dksdk&dksyk] FkElvi] fyEdk]
flVk tSls djhc 12 czkaMks dks fy;k x;kA vkt dh izpfyr vUrjjkVh; ijh{k.k rduhd] xSl
kseVs ksxzkQh dks bySDVku dSIpj fMVsDVj (Electron Capture Detector) ,oa ukbVkstu QkWLQksjl fMVsDVj
(Nitrogen Phosphorus Detector) dh enn ls ;s ijh{k.k fd;s x;sA bu ijh{k.kksa ls Kkr gqvk fd isIlh vkSj
dksdk&dksyk }kjk tks ikuh bLrseky fd;k tk jgk gS& khry is; cukus ds fy;s& ml ikuh esa gh
dhVukkdksa dh ek=k cgqr vf/kd gSA nqfu;k dh fofHkUu laLFkkvksa tSls foo LokLF; laxBu] [kk| ,oa
d`fk laxBu ,Q- ,- vks- vejhdh i;kZoj.k laj{k.k laLFkk (USEPA) [kk| ,oa vkSkf/k izkklu (F.D.A.)
us dhVukkdksa dh [kk| ,oa is; inkFkksZa essa mifLFkfr ds fy;s dqN ekun.M r; fd;s gq;s gSaA ;wjksih;
vkfFkZd vk;ksx (E.E.C) us ihus ds ikuh esa vf/kdre dhVukkdksa dh ek=k 0-0001 feyhxzke izfr yhVj
r; dh gSA vFkkZr ,d yhVj ikuh esa vf/kd ls vf/kd 0-0001 feyhxzke dhVukkd dh mifLFkfr gks
ldrh gS tks euq; dh lsgr ds fy;s T;knk [krjukd ugha ekuh tkrh gSA vHkh ;wjksi ds lHkh nskksa esa
25 fnlEcj 2003 ls u;s ekud r; fd;s tk jgs gSaA ftuds vuqlkj ihus ds ikuh esa ,d yhVj esa
vf/kdre 0-00003 feyhxzke gh dhVukkd gks ldsx
a sA bl ek=k dks lqjf{kr ekuk tkrk gSA lsUVj Qkj
lk;Ul ,.M ,uok;jesUV ds oSKkfudksa us ;wjksi ds bUgha ekun.Mksas dks vk/kkj cukdj] Hkkjr esa fcdus okys
isIlh&dksdk&dksyk ds BaMs is;ksa dh tkp dhA bl tkap esa fyUMsu] DyksjksikbjhQkl] Mh-Mh-Vh-] eSykfFk;ku
tSls [krjukd dhVukkd isIlh o dksdk&dksyk ds khry is;ksa esa ik;s x;sA bl dk;Z ds fy;s isIlh vkSj
dksdk&dksyk ds czkaM dh 36 cksrysa fnYyh ds fofHkUu cktkjksa ls [kjhnh x;haA ebZ 2003 esa budk ijh{k.k
fd;k x;kA blds vfrfjDr vejhdk ls Hkh isIlh&dksdk dksyk ds BaMs is;ksa ds uewus Hkh ijh{k.k fd;s
x;sA fnYyh ds cktkjksa ls izkIr khry is;ksa esa tks Hkh [krjukd dhVukkd] tgjhys jlk;u ik;s x;s
mudh lwph vkSj ek=k uhps nh x;h gS&

BaMs is; dk
czkaM uke

dhVukkdksa dh ek=k ;wjksih;nskksa esa


ek=k izfryhVj es]a dhVukkdksa dh

;wjksih; nskksa dh
rqyuk esa Hkkjr esa

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Hkkjr esa
isIlh

0-0187 feyhxzke

ekM.Vsu
M&;w
MkbV isIlh
fefj.Mk
vkjsUt
fefjUMk yseu
Cyw isIlh
lsou&vi
dksdkdksyk
QSUVk
fyEdk
LizkbV
FkEl&vi

ek=k izfryhVj
esa

fdrus xquk vf/kd


dhVukkd
37

0-0141 feyhxzzke

0-0005
feyhxzke
0-0005 AA

0-0071 feyhxzke
0-0196 feyhxzke

0-0005
0-0005

AA
AA

14 xquk vf/kd
39 xquk vf/kd

0-0352
0-0142
0-0166
0-0223
0-0214
0-0148
0-0055
0-0111

0-0005
0-0005
0-0005
0-0005
0-0005
0-0005
0-0005
0-0005

AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA
AA

70
29
33
45
43
30
11
22

feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke
feyhxzke

xquk vf/kd

28 xquk vf/kd

xquk
xquk
xquk
xquk
xquk
xquk
xquk
xquk

vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd
vf/kd

Hkkjr esa fcdus okys ij nh x;h rkfydk ds vuqlkj isIlh&dksyk esa dhVukkdksa dh ek=k
;wjksih; isIlh&dksyk esa dhVukkdksa dh ek=k ls 37 xquk vf/kd gSA blh rjg Hkkjr esa fcdus okys
dksdk&dksyk esa ;wjksih; ekudksa dh rqyuk esa 45 xquk vf/kd dhVukkd tgj gSA blh rjg Hkkjr esa
fcdus okys FkEl vi esa ;wjksih; ekudksa dh rqyuk esa 22 xquk vf/kd dhVukkd tgj gSA Hkkjr esa fcdus
okys lsou vi esa rks ;wjksih; ekudksa dh rqyuk esa 70 xquk vf/kd dhVukkd tgj gSA Hkkjrh; fyEdk esa
;wjksih; ekudkssa dh rqyuk esa 30 xquk vf/kd dhVukkd tgj gSA blh rjg isIlh ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds
vU; lHkh czkUMksa esa dbZ xquk vf/kd dhVukkd tgj ik;k x;k gSA

isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa feys gq;s dhVukkdksa dk kjhj o LokLF;


ij nqizHkko
isIlh&dksyk vkSj dksdk&dksyk ds khry is;ksa esa pkj izdkj ds dhVukkd fyUMsu]
DyksjksikbjhQkl] Mh-Mh-Vh-] ,oa eSykfFk;ku ik;s x;sA bu dhVukkdksa dk kjhj ds LokLF; ij cgqr gh
[kjkc vlj gksrk gSA fyUMsu uke dk tgjhyk dhVukkd kjhj ds ikpurU= ,oa olu rU= }kjk kjhj
ds rdksas esa (Fattissues) tek gksrk jgrk gSA ;g fyUMsu yhoj] fdMuh rFkk kjhj dh izfrjks/kd rU= dks
cgqr uqdlku igqpkrk gSA fyUMsu uked dhVukkd tgj] dSalj vkSj tUetkr kkjhfjd fod`fr;ksa ds
fy;s Hkh ftEesnkj gksrk gSA kjhj dh ,UMkskbu xzfUFk dks Hkh fyUMsu Hkkjh uqdlku igqpkrk gSA

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fyUMsu dh 40 feyhxzke ek=k fdlh Hkh O;fDr dh efgyk ;k iq:k dh iztuu {kerk dks lekIr
dj ldrh gSA iq:kksas ds o`k.k rU= (Testienlar system) dks cgqr cqjh rjg ls fyUMsu izHkkfor djrk gSA
efgykvksa ds fu;fer ekfldp dks Hkh fyUMsu izHkkfor djrk gSA efgykvksa ds kjhj esas cuus okys
,LVkstksu ,oa izkstsLVksu gkeksZUl dh ek=k dks fyUMsu dkQh de dj nsrk gSA pwgksa ij fd;s x;s ijh{k.kksa
ls ;g fl) gqvk gS fd fyUMsu ls yhoj dSUlj gksrk gSA fyUMsu fdlh Hkh O;fDr ds rfU=dk rU= dks Hkh
cqjh rjg ls izHkkfor djrk gSA gn; dks jDr igqpkus okyh ufydkvksa dks Hkh fyUMsu dkQh {kfr igqpkrk
gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa fyUMsu ds ckn nwljk [krjukd tgjhyk dhVukkd Mh-Mh-Vh(Dichloro diphenyltrichlo roethane) ik;k x;kA ;g Mh-Mh-Vh- euq; ds oh;Z esa kqk.kqvksa dh la[;k de
djus dk dk;Z ,oa fL=;ksa essa o{k dSUlj fodflr djus ds fy;s ftEesnkj ekuk tkrk gSA fL=;ksa ds kjhj
ds fy;s lcls egRoiw.kZ ,LVkstu uked gkeksZu dks Mh-Mh-Vh- de dj nsrk gSA bl dkj.k ls efgykvksa eas
fcuk fdlh dkj.k xHkZikr gksus vkSj o{kLFky ds dSUlj gksus dk [krjk iSnk gks tkrk gSA yEcs le; rd
cgqr vYi ek=k esa Hkh Mh-Mh-Vh- kjhj esa tk;s rks yhoj dSUlj gksus dh lEHkkouk jgrh gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdks&dksyk esa rhljk [krjukd dhVukkd tgj DyksjksikbjhQkWl
(Chloropyrifos) feykA ;g dhVukkh tgj euq; kjhj ds efLrd ,oa rfU=dk rU= (Nervous system) dks
cqjh rjg ls izHkkfor djrk gSA DyksjksikbjhQkWl efLrd dh dksfkdkvksa dks cqjh rjg ls uV dj nsrk
gSA yxkrkj DyksjksikbZjhQkWl euq; kjhj esa cgqr gh vYi ek=k esa Hkh tk, rks fnekxh fodkl dks jksd
nsrk gSA kjhj dh ekalisfk;ksa dks Hkh detksj djus dk dke DyksjksikbZjhQkWl djrk gSA DyksjksikbjhQkWl
ls kjhj dk fodkl Hkh #drk gS vkSj euq; LoHkko esa Hkh fod`fr;k vk tkrh gaSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa pkSFkk dhVukkh tgj eSykfFk;ku (Malathiyan) ik;k x;kA ;g
tgj Hk;adj dSaljdkjd gSA ;g dhVukkh tgj kjhj ds rfU=dk rU= ij Hkh cgqr cqjk izHkko djrk gSA
efgykvksa eaas Lru dSalj Hkh fodflr djus dk dk;Z ;g eSykfFk;ku djrk gSA tUetkr kkjhfjd
fodykaxrk dks Hkh iSnk djus dk dk;Z eSykfFk;ku djrk gSA ;g dhVukkh tgj i{kk?kkr dk Hkh dkj.k
cu ldrk gSA
egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk ds Hkkjr esa fcdus okys khry is;ksa esa gh
;s dhVukkh tgj eSykfFk;ku] DyksjksikbZjhQkWl] Mh-Mh-Vh-] ,oa fyUMsu ik;k x;kA ysfdu tc isIlh&dksyk
,oa dksdk&dksyk ds vejhdk esa fcdus okys khry is;ksa dk ijh{k.k fd;k x;k rks dksbZ Hkh dhVukkh
tgj muesa ugha ik;k x;kA

ekmaVsu M~;w esa dSQhu Hkh gn ls T;knk % lh,lbZ


cgqjkVh; daiuh isfIldks ds nsk esa fcdus okys lkV fMad ^ekmaVsu M~;w^ esa dSQhu dh
ek=k varjjkVh; ekud ls cgqr T;knk gSA ;g [kqyklk lasVj vkWQ lkbal ,aM buok;juesVa
lh,lbZ dh v/;{kk lquhrk ukjk;.k us fd;k gSA lqJh ukjk;.k ds eqrkfcd phu] dukMk]
vkLVsfy;k] nf{k.k vhdk] gkySaM] Lisu vkfn nskksa esa dsoy dksyk is; esa dSQhu feykus dh NwV gS]
og Hkh izfr yhVj ek= 150 feyhxzkeA Hkkjr esa lHkh rjg ds lkV fMd
a esa izfr yhVj 200 feyh
xzke rd dSQhu feykus dh NwV gSA blh dk Qk;nk mBkdj khry is; daifu;k dSQhu feyk jgh
gSaA

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v/;k;&11

isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk D;k gSa\


lkV fMad ,sls is; inkFkksZa dks dgk tkrk gS tks ikuh eas dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM xSl rFkk vU;
jklk;fud nzoksa tSls ,sflM vkSj ehBk cukus okys jlk;uksa dks feykdj cuk;s tkrs gSaA ysfdu buesa kjkc
;k ,Ydksgy ugha gksrh gSA blfy;s bUgsa lkV fMad dgk tkrk gSA bu lkV fMaDl esa Qyksa dk jl ugha
gksrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk dksyk&tSls BaMs is;ksa esa 86 ls 90% rd ikuh gksrk gSA blesa Lokn dks
lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy;s dSQhu feyk;k tkrk gSA bldks ehBk cukus ds fy;s lShu dk ;k ,LijVse uked
jlk;u dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA blesa nzo :i esa dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM xSl dks feyk;k tkrk gSA ;g
xSl ikuh esa thok.kqvksa dks iuius ls jksd
s rh gSA bl xSl dh mifLFkfr ls gh lkV fMaDl ihus ij eqg esa
okLrfodrk ls vf/kd BaMk gksus dk ,glkl gksrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa eq[; :i ls QkWLQksfjd ,sflM Hkh feyk;k tkrk gSA blds
vfrfjDr flfVd ,sflM ,oa eSfyd ,sflM Hkh feyk;s tkrs gSaA bu vEyksa (Acids) dks feykus ls I;kl
cq>us dk ,glkl gksrk gSA lkV fMaDl esa feyk;s x;s jlk;uksa dh vkil esa f;kvksa dks jksdus ds fy;s
,Ldkjfcd ,sflM Hkh feyk;k tkrk gSA isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa jax nsus ds fy;s dSjkesy
(Caramel) uked jlk;u dk iz;ksx
s fd;k tkrk gSA isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dks yEcs le; rd
lqjf{kr j[kus ds fy;s iksVsfk;e lkWjcsV uked jlk;u feyk;k tkrk gSA blds lkFk gh lksfM;e
csUtks,V (Sodium Bengoate) Hkh feyk;k tkrk gSA blds vfrfjDr isfDVu] ,YxhusV (Alginate) tSls vU;
jlk;u dk Hkh iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa ikuh ds vfrfjDr tks Hkh jlk;u iz;ksx fd;s tkrs gSa mudh lwph
bl izdkj gSA
1 dSQhu 2 ,sLijVse lShu ls 200 xquk vf/kd ehBk 3 dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM nzo :i esa 4
QkWLQksfjd ,sflM 5 dSjkesy (Caramel) 6 lksfM;e csUtks,V 7 iksVsfk;e lkWjcsV 8 isfDVu 9 ,YxhusV
10 eSfyd ,flM cukus dh fof/k%&
lkV fMaDl cukus ds fy;s lcls igys ikuh vkSj ehBk cukus okys jlk;u ,LijVse ;k lShu dks
feykdj ?kksy cuk;k tkrk gSA fQj blesa isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dEifu;ksa dk foksk :i ls rS;kj
lkUnz ?kksy (Concentrate) feyk;k tkrk gSA mlds ckn vEyksa dks feykus dh f;k lEiUu gksrh gS ftlesa
QkWLQksfjd ,flM tSls vEy feyk;s tkrs gSaA bl f;k ls lhji tSlk cu tkrk gSA
blds ckn ikuh dks vkDlhtu eqDr cuk;k tkrk gSA mlds ckn mPp nkc (High Pressure) ij
ikuh esa dkcZu MkbvkWDlkbM nzo :i feyk;k tkrk gSA bl izf;k esa ikuh eas ls gok iwjh rjg fudy
tkrh gSA vc bl ikuh esa gh mi;qDr rjhds ls rS;kj lhji dks ,d fufpr ek=k esa feykdj cksryksa esa
Hkjdj fch ds fy;s Hkst fn;k tkrk gSA

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isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa feyk;s tkus okys jklk;fud inkFkksZa dk kjhj o LokLF; ij
nqizHkko
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa feyk;s tkus okys lHkh jlk;ukssa dk kjhj ij cgqr vf/kd nqizH kko
gksrk gSA nqfu;k Hkj ds vusd nskksa esa fd;s x;s kks/k ds vuqlkj isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk ihus ls
eksVkik] e/kqesg (Diabetes), nar {k; (Tooth Decay), gfM~M;ksa dk {k; (osteoporosis), gn; jksx (Heart
Disease), ,oa dbZ ekufld jksx gksrs gSaA isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk tSls khry is;ksa esa QkWLQksfjd
,sflM] flfVd ,sflM] eSfyd ,sflM tSls dbZ vEy gksus ds dkj.k bls ihus ls kjhj esa vEyksa dh ek=k
c<+ tkrh gS] ftlds dkj.k ,flfMVh dh chekjh gksrh gSA isV esa dbZ vU; chekfj;k Hkh bl vEyrk ds
c<+us ls gks tkrh gSaA vXukk; esa vEy vkSj {kkj dk ,d fufpr vkSj fu;fer vuqikr jgrk gS] ;g
vuqikr ,sflM vEy dh ek=k c<+us ls fcxM+ tkrk gSA bl dkj.k isV esa tyu] [kV~Vh Mdkjs]a isV nnZ]
isV esa vYlj tSlh chekfj;k iSnk gksrh gSaA vXukk; esa o ikpuf;k esa Hkh [kjkch vkrh gS ftlls vipu
vkSj xSl dh leL;k Hkh gksrh gSA
dkcZu MkbZvkWDlkbM ,d fokSyh xSl gksrh gS] ftls gekjk kjhj ,d csdkj inkFkZ ;k vuqi;ksxh
ekudj ckgj fudkyrk jgrk gSA ysfdu tc blh xSl dks khry is;ksa ds ek/;e ls ge kjhj esa Mkyrs
gSa rks gekjs QsQM+ksa ij bldk cqjk vlj gksrk gSA dkcZu MkbZvkWDlkbM ,oa QkWLQksfjd ,sflM rFkk
,LijVse dks lkFk feykdj tc khry is; ds :i esa fi;k tkrk gS] rks ;g kjhj dh gfM~M;ksa ds fy;s
t:jh ikskd rRoksa dh deh djrk gS] blds dkj.k tYnh gh gfM~M;ksa ds VwV tkus dh laHkkouk gksrh gSA
blh chekjh dks vkWfLV;ksiksjksfll dgrs gSaA bl chekjh esa gfM~M;ksa ds vUnj ekStwn dSfYk;e ,oa
QkWLQksjl dk larqyu VwV tkrk gSA bl chekjh esa dSfYk;e dh ek=k gfM~M;ksa esa cgqr gh de gks tkrh
gSA
gekjs nkWrksa ds ij ,usey dh iVy gh nkWrksa dh lqj{kk dk dk;Z djrh gSA fdlh khry is; esa
ekStwn ,sflM ds dkj.k nkWrksa dh j{kk djus okyh ;g iVy detksj gksrh tkrh gSA bl rjg nar{k; kq#
gks tkrk gSA ysDVkscSlhyl (Lactobacilius) ,oa ,DVhuksekblsl (ACtinomyces) uke ds nks cSDVhfj;k eqg
ds vUnj cgqr rsth ls iSnk gksdj c<+rs gSa] tc lkV fMaDl fi;k tkrk gSA bu nksuks gh cSDVhfj;k ds
fy;s vEyrk ,sflfMd ,oa ehBk okrkoj.k cgqr gh vuqdwy gksrk gSA ;s nksuksa cSDVhfj;k nar{k; rFkk
vU; eqgs ds jksxksa ds fy;s Hkh ftEesnkj gksrs gSaA eqg ds vUnj khry is;ksa ls ,d vkSj cSDVhfj;k E;wVsUl
LVsIVkslh (Mutans streptocci) iSnk gksrk gSA ;g cSDVhfj;k lkV fMaDl esa feyk;s tkus okys ,LijVse
ehBk cukus ds fy;s ds dkj.k iSnk gksrk gSA ;g Hkh nar{k; dks cgqr c<+kok nsrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk tSls khry is;ksa esa dSQhu Hkh feyk;k tkrk gSA ;g dSQhu gekjs
kjhj ds dsUnzh; raf=dk ra= (Central Nervous System) dks cqjh rjg ls fcxkM+ ldrk gSA ;fn kjhj esa
dSQhu dh ek=k
vf/kd gks tk;s rks vfunzk] fpM+fpMk+iu] vR;f/kd fpark] volkn tSlh xaHkhj
chekfj;k iSnk gks tkrh gSaA dSQhu ds dkj.k iskkc esa tkus okys dSfYk;e dh ek=k cgqr vf/kd c<+
tkrh gS] bl dkj.k Hkh vkLVh;ksiksjksfll chekjh gks tkrh gSA fdlh efgyk dks xHkkZoLFkk ds nkSjku ;fn
isIlh&dksyk ;k dksdk&dksyk tSls is; fiyk;s tk;sa rks xaHkhj :i ls xHkZikr dk [krjk rFkk xHkZLFk fkkq
dh kkjhfjd lajpuk esa fod`fr dk [krjk c<+ tkrk gSA vf/kd ek=k esa dSQhu uiqaldrk Hkh iSnk djrh

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gSA lHkh khry is;ksa esa [kkldj isIlh vkSj dksdk&dksyk esa xgjk yky jax nsus ds fy;s dSjkesy
(Caramel) dk iz;ksx fd;k tkrk gS tks vR;f/kd dSaljdkjd gSA blh rjg isIlh vkSj dksdk&dksyk esa
bLrseky gksus okys iksVsfk;e lkWjcsV ,oa lksfs M;e csUtks,V Hkh dSaljdkjd gSaA ;s nksuksa jlk;u euq; dh
vkuqoafkd lajpuk eas Hkh Hkkjh fod`fr iSnk dj nsrs gSaSA isIlh vkSj dksdk&dksyk esa uk rks izksVhu uk gh
dksbZ foVkfeu gksrs gSaA
vejhdk ls izdkfkr ^^Dyhfudy fjlpZ U;wt ysVj^^ uked oSKkfud if=dk esa Mk- tkWMuZ
fLVsUlu }kjk fy[ks x;s ,d ys[k esa crk;k x;k gS] fd ^^dksYM fMaDl^^ esa dqN Hkh ikskdrk ugha gksrh
gSA ;s dksYM fMaDl nkWrksa dks lcls vf/kd uqdlku igqpkrs gSaA bu khry is;ksa ls nkrksa esa xM~Ms (Cavity)
vkSj nkrksa esa lM+u iSnk gksrh gSA fo[;kr esMhdy tuZy ySUlsV ds vuqlkj dksYM fMaDl ls izkd`frd
Hkw[k yxus ds rU= esa vfu;ferrk iSnk gksrh gSA blls {kf.kd ,oa d`f=e Hkw[k yxrh gS vkSj isIlh&dksd
ihus okys dqN uk dqN [kkrs jgrs gSaA ftlds dkj.k eksVkik c<+us yxrk gSA tSls gh ge dqN [kkrs gSa
rks isV ls fnekx dks ,d lansk igqp tkrk gS fd bruk Hkkstu isV esa vk pqdk gSA fQj fnekx ls kjhj
ds nwljs fgLlksa dks Hkkstu larqfV dk lansk igqprk gSA ysfdu dksYM fMaDl ds :i esa ge tks Hkh ysrs gSa
og rjy gksus ds dkj.k isV ls tYnh gh lekIr gks tkrh gS vkSj larqfV dk vuqHko ugha jgrk] blls
fQj Hkw[k yxus yxrh gS vkSj fQj [kkuk [kkrs gSaA bl rjg eksVkik c<+us yxrk gSA vejhdk es a vkt
70% yksx eksVkis ds fkdkj gSa mldk dkj.k isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk dksyk gh gSaA
blh esfMdy tuZy ySUlsV ds vuqlkj ^^isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa feyk;k tkus okyk
jlk;u ,LijVse ew=uyh dk dSUlj Hkh dj nsrk gSA bl jlk;u ds dkj.k czsu gsejst Hkh gks ldrk gSA
isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk esa Mkyk x;k dSQhu ,d mRrstd jlk;u gSA ;g kjhj dks FkksM+h nsj ds
fy;s mRrsftr dj nsrk gSA fny dh /kM+du dks c<+k nsrk gSA blls FkksM+s le; ds fy;s kjhj esa jDr
lapkj rst gks tkrk gS vkSj ge FkksM+h nsj ds fy;s rjksrktk eglwl djus yxrs gSaA ysfdu ckj&ckj ,slk
gksus s ij kjhj dh thouh kfDr de gksus yxrh gSA dSQhu gekjh vkrksa dks rFkk vekkk; dh nhokjksa dks
Hkh uqdlku igqpkrk gS] ftlds dkj.k vYlj gks tkrk gSA^^
dbZ oSKkfudksa us ;g fl) fd;k gS fd dSalj dh dksfkdk;sa vkDlhtu dh mifLFkfr esa FkksM+s gh
le; ftUnk jgrh gSa] tcfd ;gh dSalj dksfkdk;sa dkcZu Mkb&vkWDlkbZM dh mifLFkfr esa Hkjiwj o`f)
djrh gSaA blds vykok vf/kd vEyrk dh fLFkfr Hkh dSalj dksfkdkvksa dh o`f) ds fy;s vuqdwy gksrh
gSA vr% dkcZu MkbZ&vkWDlkbM ,oa QkWLQksfjd vEy nksuksa dh mifLFkfr dSalj dksfkdkvksa dh o`f) djus
esa lgk;d gksrh gSA vf/kd ek=k esa isIlh&dksyk ,ao dksdk&dksyk dk lsou lsfjczy QkYlh uke dh
[krjukd chekjh dks tUe nsrk gSA bl chekjh esa ekufld viaxrk iSnk gks tkrh gSA fnekx dh raf=dk;sa
Hkh bl chekjh esa uV gks tkrh gSaA isIlh&dksd ds vf/kd lsou ls yhoj&fljksfll Hkh gks tkrk gSA
lkekU; :i ls ;g yhoj&fljksfll chekjh mu yksxksa dks gh gksrh gS tks kjkc dk lsou vf/kd djrs gSaA

isIlh&dksyk ,oa dksdk&dksyk dh vEyh;rk ,sflfMVh


5 vxLr 2003 dks tkjh dh x;h lsUVj Qkj lk;Ul ,.M ,uok;jesUV dh fjiksVZ esa isIlh&dksy
s k
,oa dksdk&dksyk dh vEyh;rk (Acidity) dh tkap fjiksVZ Hkh nh x;h gSA mi;qDr laLFkk ds oSKkfudksa us
isIlh&dksyk rFkk dksdk&dksyk ds lHkh 12 czkaMksa dh 3&3 cksryksa dk ijh{k.k fd;k FkkA vFkkZr~ dqy 36
cksryksa dk ijh{k.k fd;k x;k FkkA buessa izR;sd cksry esa fdruk tgjhyk dhVukkd fyUMsu] Mh-Mh-Vh]

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DyksjksikbjhQkWl] eSykfFk;ku ik;k x;k vkSj izR;sd cksry dh vEyh;rk (Acidity) fdruh Fkh] og foLrkj
ds lkFk uhps dh lkfj.kh esa fn;k x;k gSA kq) ihus ds ikuh dh vEyh;rk 7 (7PH) gksrh gSA 7 ls de
PH eku dks vEy rFkk 7 Ph ls vf/kd eku dks {kkj dgk tkrk gSA vEy ftruk vf/kd rhoz gksrk gS
mldk Ph eku 7 ls mruk gh de gksrk gSA 7 Ph ls de eku 6] 5] 4] 3] 2] 1] Ph gksus ls vEyh;rk
rhoz gksrh tkrh gSA vr% 6 Ph dk vEy] 5 Ph dk mlls vf/kd vEy] 4 Ph dk vkSj Hkh vf/kd vEy] 3
Ph dk vkSj Hkh vf/kd vEyA tSl&
s tSls Ph eku ?kVrk tkrk gS] vEyh;rk vEy dh ek=k vf/kd ls
vf/kd c<+rh tkrh gSA

ikcanh D;ksa ugha \

gfM~M;ksa ls dSfYk;e lks[k ysrs gSa khry is; 9782705883)


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ubZ fnYyh ,tsafl;kaA khry is;ksa esa dhVukkdksa dh ekStnw xh ds oSKkfud izek.k feyus ds
ckn vc u, v/;;uksa us khry is; ds vf/kd miHkksx ls gksus okys [krjs ds ckjs esa Hkh
psrkouh nh gSA
fokskKksa dk dguk gS fd cPpksa ds eu essa dSfYk;e ls Hkjiwj nw/k ds izfr
oSjkX; txkus eas khry is;ksa dk lcls cM+k gkFk gSA ;s khry is; kjhj esa gf;ksa ls
dSfYk;e dh ek=k dks lks[k ysrs gSaA lksMk esa mifLFkr QkLQksfjd ,flM kjhj esa dSfYk;e
ls fey tkrk gS vkSj gfM~M;ksa dks dSfYk;e ugha fey ikrkA blds vykok dksyk esa mifLFkr
dSQhu ew=o)Zd dh Hkwfedk fuHkkrk gS ftlls kjhj ls vkSj T;knk ek=k esa dSfYk;e ckgj
fudy tkrk gSA ;gk fLFkr th- ,e- eksnh vLirky ds ofjB vfLFk kY; fpfdRld Mkeukst efyd ds vuqlkj vkWfLV;ksiksjksfll ls kjhj esa dSfYk;e dh deh ds dkj.k gfM~M;ksa
dk ?kuRo ,oa vkfLFk eTtk cgqr de gks tkrk gSA lkFk gh gfM~M;kas dh cukoV Hkh [kjkc gks
tkrh gS ftlls gfM~M;ka vR;ar HkqjHkqjh vkSj vfr laons ukhy gks tkrh gSaA bl dkj.k gfM~M;ksa
ij gYdk ncko iM+us ;k gYdh pksV yxus ij Hkh os VwV tkrh gSaA
vksfLV;ksiksjksfll dks [kkeksk chekjh Hkh dgk tkrk gS D;ksafd blds xaHkhj :i ysus
vkSj gfM~M;ksa ds vpkud QSDpj gksus ls igys bldk rfud Hkh vkHkkl ugha gksrkA vesfjdh
esfMdy ,lksfl,ku ds v/;;u esa ik;k x;k fd fiNys dqN okksZa ds nkSjku dSfYk;e dh
deh ds dkj.k dwYgksa vkSj dykb;ksa esa QSDpj ds ekeys yM+dksa esa 32 izfrkr vkSj yM+fd;ksa esa
56 izfrkr rd c<+ x, gSaA cksu ds;j QkmaMsku vkWQ bafM;k ds v/;{k Mk- lqHkkk kY;k dk
dguk gS fd de O;k;ke] nw/k dk de lsou vkSj lksMk dk vf/kd lsou djus okyh gekjh
orZeku ih<+h de ?kuRo okyh detksj gfM~M;ksa ds lkFk cM+h gks jgh gSA lcls T;knk fpark
dh ckr gS fd orZeku ih<+h de dSfYk;e okyk vkgkj vkSj foVkfeu ^Mh^ dh vi;kZIr ek=k
ys jgh gS] tks muesa gfM~M;ksa dk ?kUkRo de djus ds lkFk&lkFk mUgsa detksj dj jgh gSA dSfYk;e
dk lcls cM+k lzksr nw/k vkSj nqX/k mRikn gSa] ysfdu vkt ds cPps u rks <ax dk [kkuk [kk jgs gSa vkSj u nw/k
ih jgs gSaA

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ikcanh D;ksa ugha \


varr% lkfcr gks x;k fd isIlh vkSj dksdkdksyk Hkkjr esa yksxksa dh tku ls [ksy jgs gSaA kjn
iokj dh v/;{krk okyh la;qDr lalnh; lfefr us lsVa j QkWj lkbal ,aM ,Uok;jesVa lh- ,lbZ- dh jiV dks lgh ekukA lp ;gh gS fd cgqjkVh daifu;k vU; nskksa esa ftl xq.kokk dk
eky csprh gS]a Hkkjr esa oSlk ugha csprhaA Hkjiwj dhVukkd feykrh gSa vkSj tjk Hkh ,glkl
ugha djrha fd Hkkjrh;ksa dh ftanxh Hkh mruh gh dherh gS ftruh vU; nskksa dhA mudk
utfj;k ;gh gS fd Hkkjr xjhc yksxksa dk nsk gS blfy, mls varjjkVh; lqj{kk ekudksa dks
ikus dk gd ugha gS] laln dh dSaVhu esa bu cksrycan ,oa fMCckcan khry is;ksa dh vkiwfrZ ij
jksd mlh fnu yxk nh xbZ Fkh tc lh-,l-bZ us BaMs esa tgj dk inkZQkk fd;k FkkA ysfdu
rc ls vc rd eghuksa chrus ds ckn Hkh laln Hkou ds ckgj nsk esa vke turk ds fy,
bldh fch ij dksbZ ikcanh ugha yxkbZ xbZA tsihlh dh jiV esa Hkh ikcanh dh dksbZ ckr ugha
gSAa dsoy ;g dgk x;k gS fd cksryksa esa dhVukkdksa dh ek=k varjjkVh; Lrj ls cgqr
T;knk gS] vkSj ;g vkifktud gSA daifu;ksa dks ekud lq/kkjuk gksxkA jkVh; Lrj ij u,
ekud cuk, tk,axs] mUgsa eatwjh feysxh] os ?kksfkr gksaxs] mlds ckn gh ykxw gksaxsA eghuksa dk
ekeyk gS] ;k kk;n lky yx tk,] D;ksfa d tsihlh jiV esa gh eghuksa yxs gSaA pquko dk
fcxqy ugha ctrk rks kk;n blesa vkSj foyac gks ldrk FkkA brus fnuksa rd isIlh]
dksdkdksyk fcdrs gh jgs] vkxs Hkh fcdrs jgsaxsA yksxksa esa vius LokLF; ds izfr dqN
tkx:drk iSnk gqbZ gS] ftlds dkj.k BaMs dh fch ?kVh gS] can ugha gqbZ gSA tsihlh jiV ds
ckn dqN vkSj yksx Mj dj ihuk can dj ldrs gS]a ysfdu ;g Hkh gks ldrk gS fd ;s
daifu;k vius tcjnLr izpkjra= ds cwrs yksxksa dks ;g Hkjkslk fnyk nsa fd os vc varjjkVh;
Lrj dk gh BaMk ;gk Hkh csp jgs gSaA blfy, Mjus dh dksbZ ckr ugha gSA nksuksa gkykrksa esa
ljdkjh ekudksa ds ykxw gksus rd vkSj yk[kksa cksrysa nskokfl;ksa ds daB ls uhps mrj tk,axhA
tsihlh u, ekudksa ds ykxw gksus rd budh fch ij ikcanh dh flQkfjk Hkh dj ldrh FkhA
ysfdu mlus ,slk ugha fd;kA cgqjkVh; daifu;ksa dks rks flQZ equkQs ls eryc gS] ysfdu
tsihlh ds lnL; rks Hkkjrh;ksa ds tuizfrfuf/k gSAa mUgksua s nskokfl;ksa ds LokLF; dh fpark dh]
cM+h vPNh ckr gS] ysfdu ;g fpark v/kwjh gSA vc tc ;g jiV ljdkj dks isk gks pqdh gS]
mls pkfg, fd u, ekudksa ds ykxw gksus rd bu khry is;ksa dh fch ij izfrca/k ykxw dj
nsA og tgk gj fnu yksxksa ds Hkys ds fy, ?kksk.kk,a dj jgh gS] ;g t:jh ?kksk.kk Hkh dj
ldrh gSA
ysfdu] lansg dh dkyh Nk;k ;gk Hkh ekStwn gSA tsihlh fjiksVZ LokLF; ea=h
lqkek Lojkt }kjk laln esa isIlh ,oa dksd tSlh daifu;ksa dks nh xbZ DyhufpV ls Hkh esy

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ugha [kkrhA Jherh Lojkt us lh- ,l- bZ- fjiksVZ ij eps coky ds chp laln dks ;g
tkudkjh nh Fkh fd ljdkj us tks tkp djkbZ gS] mlesa bu is;ksa esa dhVukkd dh ek=k lh,l-bZ- }kjk crk, x, Lrj ls dkQh de gS vkSj ;s ekU; gSAa vc tsihlh fjiksVZ ls lqkek
Lojkt dV?kjs esa gS]a ysfdu tkfgj gS fd ljdkj mudk cpko ;g dgdj gh ldrh gS fd
mlus gh tsihlh tkp djokbZA laHkor% tkp lfefr us Hkh bl ckr dk /;ku j[kk vkSj viuh
fjiksVZ dh fnkk cny nhA lfefr ds ,d lnL; ,oa fkolsuk lkaln lat; fu#ie us dgk
Hkh fd lh-,l-bZ- fjiksVZ lgh gS ;k xyr ;g eqk ugha gS] eqk ;g gS fd khry is;ksa esa
dhVukkd ekStwn gSaA kk;n ;g etcwjh dk Hkh ekeyk gSA dhVukkdksa dh ekStwnxh bruh
T;knk gS fd fNikbZ ugha tk ldrh] blfy, eku yh xbZ] ysfdu ;g dcwyh lh-,l-bZ- fjiksVZ
ds cjkcj ugha gSA tsihlh us lh-,l-bZ- dh bl [kkst jiV ds fy, rks izkalk dh] ysfdu mls
fooluh;rk cuk, j[kus dh lh[k Hkh nh] [kkldj dhVukkdksa dh ek=k ds ekeys esaA
tsihlh us viuh fjiksVZ esa dgk gS fd lh-,l-bZ- dks viuh fjiksVZ tkjh djus ls igys fdlh
iz;ksxkkyk ls iqfV djkuh pkfg, Fkh] D;ksfa d dhVukkdksa dh ek=k mruh ugha feyh ftruh
mlus dgh FkhA okLro esa ftu ikp iz;ksxkkykvksa esa vyx&vyx ijh{k.k djk, x,] muesa
dhVukkdksa dh ek=k ds ckjs esa vyx&vyx Lrj gSAa fdlh Hkh nks fjiksVZ esa dhVukkd dh
crkbZ xbZ ek=k leku ugha gSA gkykfd bldk ,d eq[; dkj.k rks ijh{k.k ds le; dk
rkieku ,oa vyx&vyx txgksa ls fy;s x, uewuksa dks crk;k tk jgk gSA oSls Hkh tgk
cksrycan is; j[ks gksaxs] ogk ds ok;qe.My dk izHkko rks ml ij iM+rk gh gSA bu ifjfLFkfr;ksa
esa dguk dfBu gS fd vjcksa #i, ds bl /ka/ks dks can djus dh ckr gksxhA
tsihlh }kjk 300 i`Bksa esa izLrqr fjiksVZ dk eq[; tksj bl ckr ij gS fd
cksrycan is;ksa ,oa [kk| inkFkksZa ds fy, mi;qDr lqj{kk ekud r; gksuk pkfg,A njvly]
lfefr us viuh fjiksVZ esa vke vkneh ds LokLF; dks vk/kkj cukdj ;g dgk gS fd LokLF;
ds lkFk fdlh izdkj dk f[kyokM+ ugha gksuk pkfg,A kjn iokj dh v/;{krk esa xfBr la;qDr
lfefr dh 16 flracj 2003 dh igyh cSBd esa gh bldk nk;jk c<+k fn;k x;k Fkk ,oa blesa
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1
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3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25

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2.32

0.0209

P.03.76.06:06

2.37

0.0170

P.03.54.01:50

3322

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MO.03.19.10:00

33.3

ekMUVsu M;w&2

MO.03.13.15:02

33.2

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MO.03.26.17:12

33.2

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OP.03.11.18:21

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OP.09.9.14:25

332

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OP.03.11.20:21

332

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MO.03.24.22:08

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332.

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L3

332.

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ML.03.07.15:23

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ML.03.13.17:43

332.

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PB.03.19.13:57

3322

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PB.03.18.21:20

332.

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PB.03.19.21:28

33.3

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S.03.02.19:06

2322

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S.03.02.00:43

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332

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0.0311
0.0372
0.0117
0.0187
0.0138
0.0163
0.0178
0.0156
0.0223
0.0174
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3322

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BN.791

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BN.720

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BN.727

333.

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BN.525

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0.0152
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0.0070
0.0110
0.0107
0.0118