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foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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Hkwfedk
1 tuojh 2005 ls foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrk nsk esa ykxw gks pqdk gSA 15 fnlEcj 1994]
tc Hkkjr ljdkj us foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj fd;k Fkk] rc ls ysdj 1 tuojh 2005
rd ds nl okZ esa yxHkx lHkh jktuSfrd nyksa us nsk ij kklu fd;kA ,sls jktuSfrd ny Hkh
kkfey jgs ftUgksaus dHkh foo O;kikj laxBu ds f[kykQ tcjnLr vkUnksyu fd;s FksA ysfdu bu
ljdkjksa us nsk dh turk dks dHkh Hkh ;g crkus dk lkgl ugha tqVk;k fd vkf[kj foo O;kikj
laxBu tSls le>kSrs dks ykxw djus ds ihNs mudh etcwjh D;k gSA cfYd bu ljdkjksa ds O;ogkj ls
rks ,slk yxrk gS fd ekuksa os Hkkjr ds ukxfjdksa ds fgrksa dh j{kk ds fy;s ugha cfYd foo O;kikj
laxBu ds fgrksa ds fy;s pqudj vk;h gSaA fiNys nl okksZa esa foo O;kikj laxBu dh krksZa ds lanHkZ esa
gekjs jktusrk yxkrkj >wB cksydj nsk dks xqejkg dj jgs gSaA ,d ,slk le>kSrk ftldk nsk ds u
dsoy d`fk] m|ksx] O;kikj] fk{kk] cSafdax] chek vkSj fpfdRlk tSls laosnukhy {ks=ksa ij xgjk vkSj
O;kid vlj iM+us okyk gks cfYd nsk dh lEizHkqrk gh foo O;kikj laxBu dh fxjoh gks] ds lanHkZ esa
nsk dh turk ds lkekus u lgh ysfdu turk dh izfrfu/kh] laln esa Hkh xaHkhj ppkZ u djkuk
jktuSfrd nyksa ds bjknksa ds izfr kd iSnk djrk gSA gksuk rks ;g pkfg, Fkk fd nsk dh ljdkjsa [kqn
vkxs c<+dj bl lanHkZ esa lekpkj i=ksa o Vh- oh- vkfn ds ek/;e ls turk ds chp esa O;kid cgl
pykrha vkSj yksxksa ds kadkvksa dk lek/kku dj vko;d gksus rFkk turk dh ekax ij bl le>kSrs dks
ykxw djrhaA ysfdu ,slk djus dh txg ljdkjksa us turk dks xyrQgeh esa j[kdj rFkkdfFkr
fodkl dk gokyk nsdj nsk dks va/ks dq, esa fxjkus dk dke fd;k gSA
,slh ifjfLFkrh esa nsk ds leLr laosnukhy] tkx:d vkSj nskHkDr ukxfjdksa dk drZO; gS fd
os foo O;kikj laxBu dh lPpkbZ;ksa ls nsk dks voxr djk;saA vius blh drZO; dk fuokZg djrs gq;s
Lojkt izdkku lewg us foo O;kikj laxBu ds dqN krksZa vkSj mlds izHkkoksa dk foysk.k bl
iqfLrdk ds ek/;e ls turk ds chp esa ykus dk iz;kl fd;k gSA

Lakiknd

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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Table of Contents
foo O;kikj laxBu (W.T.O) D;k gS \...................................................................................................................................... 4
PROVISIONS IN W.T.O AGREEMENT ON ............................................................................................................. 9
AGRICULTURE............................................................................................................................................................. 9
foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs dk Hkkjrh; d`fk ,oa fdlkuksa ij izHkko ................................................................................................. 11
ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk .............................................................................................................................................. 21
lsok {ks= .............................................................................................................................................................................. 23
laoS/kkfud elys .................................................................................................................................................................... 25
oSV dk lp \....................................................................................................................................................................... 30

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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foo O;kikj laxBu

(W.T.O)

D;k gS \

15 fnlEcj 1994 dks Hkkjr ljdkj us foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrk (W.T.O.
Agreement) Lohdkj dj] bl ij gLrk{kj fd;kA ;g ,d ,slk vUrjjkVh; le>kSrk gS
ftls ;k rsk iwjh rjg ls Lohdkj djuk gS ;k iwjh rjg ls NksM+uk gSA vFkkZr bl le>kSrs
dh dqN krksZa dks ekuuk vkSj dqN krksZa dks NksM+uk lEHko ugha gSA ysfdu bl le>kSrs dh
krksZa ij gLrk{kj djus okys nskksa ds chp esa cgl gks ldrh gSA yxHkx okZ esa ,d ckj ;k
dHkh&dHkh 2 ckj bl le>kSrs esa kkfey nskksa ds izfrfuf/k;ksa ds chp cgl gksrh jgrh gSA
nks lky esa ,d ckj foo O;kikj laxBu esa kkfey nskksa dh lkekU; lHkk gksrh gSA foo
O;kikj laxBu esa bl le; yxHkx 126 nsk kkfey gSAa foo O;kikj laxBu dk eq[;
dk;kZy; ftusok fLoVtjyS.M esa gSA ysfdu egRo dh ckr ;g gS fd fLoVtjyS.M us
vHkh rd xSV djkj ;k foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj ugha fd;s gSaA
Hkkjr ljdkj us foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj rks 15 fnlEcj 1994 dks
fd;s] ysfdu ;g le>kSrk iwjh rjg ls 1 tuojh 2005 ls ykxw gqvkA ftl le; Hkkjr
ljdkj us bl le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj fd;k Fkk] ml le; bldk uke cgqi{kh; O;kikj
laxBu (M.T.O) FkkA ysfdu 1 tuojh 1995 dks ;g uke cnydj foo O;kikj laxBu
gks x;kA egRo dh ckr le>us dh ;g gS fd ;g le>kSrk 1 tuojh 2005 ls ykxw gqvk]
ysfdu Hkkjr ljdkj us xr 10 okksaZ esa bl le>kSrs dh dbZ krksaZ dks mnkjhdj.k vkSj oSohdj.k ds
uke ij ykxw dj fn;k gSA foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs esa dqy 28 fok; gSa] tks vius vki esa
,d&,d le>kSrs ds tSls gh gSaA bl foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs dk viuk ,d bfrgkl gSA
lu 1948 esa nqfu;k ds nskksa esa O;kikj dks O;ofLFkr vkSj ljy cukus ds mn~ns; ls
tujy ,xzhesUV vku VsM ,UM VSfjQ (GATT) fd;k x;kA Hkkjr mlh le; xSV dk
lnL; cu x;k FkkA kq: esa blesa 23 nsk kkfey gq;s FksA lu~ 1930 esa nqfu;k ds nskksa esa
Hka;dj eanh vk x;h FkhA bl eanh dks nwj djus ds fy;s ifpeh nskksa us rjg&rjg ds
mik; fd;sA bUgha esa ls ,d mik; Fkk] nwljk foo ;q)A ifpeh nskksa esa ,d ekU;rk gS]
og ;g fd tc cgqr vf/kd vkfFkZd eanh vk;s rks ;q) yM+uk pkfg,A blls gfFk;kjksa dh
[kir c<+rh gS vkSj fQj gfFk;kjksa dk mRiknu c<+rk gSA gfFk;kjksa dk mRiknu ifpeh
nskksa vejhdk] teZuh] kal] fczVsu] vkfn dk lcls eq[; mRiknu gSA ifpeh nskksa esa
gfFk;kj m|ksx ds lkFk 10 vU; m|ksx tqM+s gq;s gSaA blfy;s tc gfFk;kj m|ksx esa
mRiknu vkSj [kir c<+rh gS rks ckdh vU; 10 m|ksxksa esa Hkh [kir vkSj mRiknu c<+rk
tkrk gSA vkfFkZd eanh nwj djus ds blh mik; ds lkFk 1939 ls 1945 rd nwljk foo
;q) yM+k x;kA bl ;q) esa vjcksa&[kjcksa Mkyj ds gfFk;kj fcdsA blls ;wjksi&vejhdk ds
gfFk;kj m|ksx esa cgqr rsth vk;hA bl rsth us ckdh nwljs m|ksxksa esa Hkh rsth ykus dk
dk;Z fd;kA
tc 1945 esa nwljk foo ;q) lekIr gqvk rks dbZ vUrjjkVh; le>kSrs gq;sA bu
le>kSrksa ds vk/kkj ij dbZ vUrjjkVh; laLFkk;sa cuhaA lHkh nskksa ds chp jktuSfrd izuksa
4

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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dks lqy>kus ds fy;s ,oa foo kkafr dh LFkkiuk ds fy;s la;qDr jkV egkla?k cukA
ysfdu nqHkkZX; ls bl la;qDr jkV egkla?k dh LFkkiuk ds ckn Hkh nqfu;k ds nskksa ds
jktuSfrd izuksa dk lek/kku vHkh rd ugha gks ldkA nwljh blls Hkh cM+h vlQyrk
la;qDr jkV egkla?k dh ;g gS fd foo kkafr dh LFkkiuk ds fy;s cus bl laxBu ds
ckn vHkh rd nqfu;k esas 325 NksV&
s cM+s ;q) gks pqds gS]a ftlesa yk[kksa yksx ekjs x;s] djksM+ksa
?kjksa ls cs?kj gq;s gSaA vHkh gky esa gh vejhdk vkSj mlds lg;ksxh nskksa }kjk bZjkd ij
fd;s x;s geys ls ;g fl/n gks x;k fd la;qDr jkV la?k vc vejhdh jkV la?k cu pqdk
gSA 1945 ds nwljs foo ;q/n dh lekfIr ij ;g ns[kk x;k fd ;wjksih; nskksa dh
vFkZO;oLFkk iwjh rjg ls fcxM+ pqdh gS] rks fQj bl fcxM+h gq;h vFkZO;oLFkk dks lq/kkjus ds
fy;s nks laLFkk;sa cuk;h x;haA ,d Fkh foo cSad ;k tkxfrd cSad (World Bank) nwljh
Fkh] vUrjjkVh; eqnzkdkskA (Internationl Monetary fund) foo cSad dk dk;Z Fkk] ;q) esa
cjckn gq;s nskksa ds vf/klajpukRed <kps ds fodkl (Infrastructural Development) ds
fy;s dtkZ nsuk rFkk vUrjjkVh; eqnzkdksk dk dk;Z Fkk] nskksa dks Hkqxrku vlarqyu dh
fLFkfr esa rkRdkfyd dtkZ miyC/k djkukA ;s nksuksa laLFkk;sa cuh rks Fkha lHkh la;qDr jkV
esa kkfey nskksa ds fodkl ds fy;s ysfdu bu laLFkkvksa }kjk fodkl ;wjksih; nskksa dk gh
gqvkA ;k fQj vejhdk leFkZd nskksa dks gh bu laLFkkvksa ls ykHk feykA D;ksafd bu nksuksa
laLFkkvksa foo cSad ,oa eqnzkdksk dh uhfr;ka geskk ls gh vejhdh vkSj ;wjksih; nskksa ds
leFkZu esa jgh gSa vkSj nqfu;k ds xjhc nskksa ds fgrkas ds fojks/k esa jgh gSaA nwljs foo ;q)
esa lcls vf/kd rckgh ;wjksih; nskksa dh gh gq;h FkhA lcls vf/kd bekjrsa ;q) ds nkSjku
;wjksih; nskksa dh uV gq;haA lcls vf/kd yksx Hkh ;wjksi ds gh ekjs x;sA foo cSad }kjk
bu ;wjksih; nskksa dks cgqr gh de C;kt nj rFkk vklku krksZa ij dtZs fn;s x;sA bUgha
dtksZa dk bLrseky djds xr 50 okksZa esa ;wjksih; nsk dkQh ij vk;sA foo cSad vkSj
eqnzkdksk dh uhfr;ksa ls vejhdk dks Hkh dkQh Qk;nk gqvkA foo cSad rFkk eqnzkdksk esa
/kujkfk rks mu lHkh nskksa dh yxh gq;h gS tks la;qDr jkV la?k esa kkfey gS]a ysfdu bl
/kujkfk dk lcls vf/kd ykHk ;wjksi ,oa vejhdh nskksa dks gh gqvk gSA
blh rjg nwljs foo ;q) dh lekfIr ij lHkh nskksa ds chp O;kikj dks lqxe vklku cukus
ds fy;s ,d vUrjjkVh; laLFkk cuk;h x;hA mlh laLFkk dk uke xSV (GATTS) tujy ,xzhesUV
vku VsM ,UM VSfjQ] ,d le>kSrs ds vk/kkj ij j[kk x;kA bl le>kSrs dks fgUnh esa rVdj ,oa
O;kikj ij lkekU; le>kSrk dgk tkrk gSA 30 vDVwcj 1947 dks gLrk{kj fd;k x;k ;g le>kSrk
tuojh 1948 ls ykxw gqvkA le>kSrs dh ewy Hkkouk ;g Fkh] fd nskksa ds chp gksus okys vkilh
O;kikj esa oLrqvksa ij yxus okys VSDl] dLVe M~;wVh ;k vk;kr djksa ds fooknksa dks lqy>kuk vkSj
O;kikj dks c<+kok nsukA le>kSrs ds izkjaHk esa 23 nsk blesas kkfey gq;s] ftuesa Hkkjr Hkh FkkA
le;&le; ij blesa vU; ns'k Hkh 'kkfey gksrs x;sA nwljs nsk ;wjksih; Fks] ,oa vejhdk Hkh blesa
kkfey FkkA lu~ 1948 ls ysdj lu~ 1986 rd bl xSV }kjk O;kikj dks dkQh c<+kok feykA tks Hkh
vkilh >xM+s lnL; nskksa ds chp rVdjksa ls lEcfU/kr gq;s] mudk lek/kku bl xSV esa gksrk jgkA
nqfu;k ds nskksa esa fu;kZr&vk;kr dk O;kikj nks rjhds ls gksrk gSA ,d rks f}i{kh; i)fr ls nwljk
cgqi{kh; rjhds lsA f}i{kh; i)fr esa nks nsk vkilh fu;kZr O;kikj ds fy;s le>kSrs djrs gSaA
5 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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cgqi{kh; i)fr ;sa lHkh nsk lkewfgd O;kikfjd fu;e r; djds O;kikj djrs gSaA xSV djkj geskk ls
gh cgqi{kh; O;kikj ds fy;s gh cuk FkkA 1948 ls 1986 rd bl xSV djkj ds ek/;e ls cgqi{kh;
O;kikj dkQh vPNk pykA ysfdu bl cgqi{kh; O;kikj esa vejhdk ,oa ;wjksih; nskksa dks ftruk
Qk;nk gqvk] mruk Qk;nk xjhc nskksa ,fk;kbZ] vhdh nsk dks ugha gks ik;kA phu ,d ,slk nsk
jgk ftlus 53 lkyksa rd xSV djkj dks Lohdkj ugha fd;kA fcuk xSV dh enn ds phu us ek=
f}i{kh; O;kikj djds gh vius dks vkfFkZd txr dh pkbZ;ksa rd igqpk;kA
lu~ 1980 ds vkl&ikl ifpeh nskksa ds cktkjksa esa fQj ls eanh dk nkSj kq: gqvkA
bl eanh ds nkSj dk lcls cqjk vlj vejhdk ds ij iM+kA vejhdk dh dbZ cM+h&cM+h
dEifu;k fnokfy;k gks x;hA dbZ vejhdh dkj[kkus cUn gks x;sA vejhdk esa gtkjksa yksx
csjkstxkj gksus yxsA blh rjg ;wjksi esa Hkh vkfFkZd fLFkfr fcxM+us yxhA bl 80 ds nkd
dh vkfFkZd eanh dks nwj djus ds fy;s vejhdk us fQj ;q) dk lgkjk fy;kA bZjku vkSj
bZjkd ds chp yxHkx 8 okksZa rd pyus okys ;q) esa vejhdh dEifu;ksa us vjcks&[kjcksa
Mkyj ds gfFk;kj csp dj vius m|ksxksa dh eUnh dks de djus dk iz;kl fd;kA blh
rjg [kkM+h ;q) dks Hkh vejhdk us vius fgr esa gh bLrseky djds vjcksa&[kjcksa Mkyj ds
gfFk;kjksa dk O;kikj fd;kA gky gh esa vejhdk }kjk vQxkfuLrku ,oa bZjkd ij fd;k
x;k geyk Hkh blh j.kuhrh dk fgLlk gSA ;wjksih;&vejhdh vFkZO;oLFkk dh ,d lcls
cM+h ijskkuh ;g gS fd gj 30&40 lky ckn blesa eanh vkrh gSA ml eanh dks nwj fd;s
fcuk bu vejhdh&;wjksih; nskksa dk xqtkjk ugha pyrk gSA blfy;s vejhdh&;wjksih;
vFkZkkfL=;ksa us bl vkfFkZd eanh dk LFkk;h bykt djus dh dksfkkksa esa xSV djkj dks
vk/kkj cuk fy;k gSA mn~ns; ;g gS fd eanh dks nwj djus ds fy;s vejhdh& ;wjksih;
lkeku nqfu;k ds reke nskksa ds cktkjksa esa fcdrs jgsaA vejhdh ,oa ;wjksih; cktkjksa esa ,d
rjg dh fLFkjrk vk pqdh gSA blfy;s vejhdh&;wjksih; vFkZO;oLFkk dks thfor j[kus ds
fy;s] nwljs nskksa ds cktkjksa dk lgkjk ysuk cgqr t:jh gSA vr% vejhdh&;wjksih; nskksa
dh ljdkjksa us xSV djkj dk mi;ksx djds nwljs nskksa ds cktkjksa dks vkSj vf/kd [kqyokus
dk iz;kl kq: fd;k gSA
lu~ 1986 esa xSV ds lnL; nskksa dh ,d lkekU; lHkk ySfVu vejhdk ds ,d nsk
m:Xos eas kq: gq;hA bl cSBd esa vejhdk vkSj ;wjksih; nskksa dh nknkfxjh esa xSV djkj
dh lhek dks c<+k;k x;kA ewyr% 1948 ls 1986 rd xSV ,d cgqi{kh; O;kikj dk eap Fkk]
rVdjksa lhekkqYd dk fookn lqy>kus ds fy;sA ysfdu m:Xos nkSj dh okrkZvksa us bldk
LOk:i iwjh jg ls cny fn;kA xSV djkj esa lhek kqYd ds eqn~nksa ds vykok 28 vkSj fok;
kkfey dj fn;s x;sA ftlesa d`fk O;kikj] diM+k O;kikj] ckSf)d lEink vf/kdkj tSls
vokafNr fok; kkfey dj fy;s x;sA gkykafd bu fok;ksa ij dksbZ vkSj le>kSrk gksus dh
t:jr ugha FkhA D;ksfa d ;s lHkh fok; lHkh nskksa ds vkUrfjd fok; gSAa xSV djkj dk
1948 ls 1986 rd ;g fu;e jgk fd nskksa ds vkUrfjd fok;ksa dks xSV djkj ds rgr ugha
ykuk pkfg,A D;ksfa d ;s lHkh fok; vkUrfjd lEizHkqrk ls tqM+s gq;s gSAa ysfdu vejhdh
ncko esa vkUrfjd lEizHkqrk ls tqM+s gq;s fok; Hkh kkfey dj fy;s x;s vkSj ,d u;k
le>kSrk rS;kj gqvkA bl u;s le>kSrs dks rS;kj djus ds fy;s tks Vhe cuk;h x;h] ml
6 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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Vhe ds eqf[k;k vkFkZj Mady uke ds ,d vejhdh FksA blfy;s bl le>kSrs dk] kq:vkrh
uke Mady MkV Hkh iM+ x;kA lu~ 1986 ls ;g Mady MkV cuuk kq: gqvk vkSj 1991
esa lHkh lnL; nskksa ds lkeus fopkj&foekZ ds fy;s j[kk x;kA bl MkV dks cukus okyh
lfefr esa iwjh rjg vejhdh&;wjksih; izfrfuf/k;ksa dk ncnck Fkk] blfy;s blesa vf/kd ls
vf/kd ,slh krsZa Mkyh x;h ftuls vejhdh ,oa ;wjksih; nskksa dks vf/kd ykHk gksA xjhc
vhdh] ,sfk;kbZ] ySfVu vejdh nskksa us FkksM+h dksfkk dh] fd xjhc nskksa ds fgrksa esa Hkh
ykHk nsus okyh krsZa MkV esa kkfey gksa] ysfdu blesa dqN [kkl lQyrk ughaa fey ldhA
Hkkjr dh vksj ls Hkh dkQh dksfkk 1986 ls 1991 ds chp xjhc nskksa ds fgrksa dks lk/kus
okyh krsZa MkV esa ykus dh gq;ha] ysfdu Hkkjr ljdkj dks blesa lQYkrk ugha fey ldhA
blfy;s Hkkjr ljdj us 1986 ls yxkrkj ;g dguk kq: fd;k] fd xSV djkj dh krsZa
Hkkjrh; fgrksa ds vuqdwy ugha gSaA bl vk/kkj ij Hkkjr ljdkj us le>kSrs ij gLrk{kj
djus ls euk dj fn;kA yxkrkj Hkkjr ljdkj ;g dgrh jgh fd tc rd xSV djkj ds
orZeku Lo:i dks cnyk ugha tk;sxk] rc rd gLrk{kj ugha fd;s tk;saxsA laln ds vanj
vkSj laln ds ckgj Hkkjr ljdkj dh vksj ls xSV djkj ij gLrk{kj ugha djus dk ok;nk
fd;k x;kA ysfdu 15 fnlEcj 1994 dks Hkkjr ljdj us nsk ds yksxksa dks /kks[kk nsrs gq;s
vkSj laln ds f[kykQ ok;nkf[kykQh djrs gq;s xSV djkj ij gLrk{kj dj fn;sA nsk ds
fy;s ;g vR;Ur nqHkkZX;iw.kZ FkkA lu~ 1991 ls lu~ 1994 ds chp laln esa xSV djkj ds
fok; ij ek= 11 ?kaVs gh ppkZ gq;hA gekjh laln esa cgqr ckj Qkyrw fok;ksa ij ?kaVksa&?kaVksa
ppkZ gksrh gS vkSj vuko;d gaxkesa gksrs jgrs gSAa ysfdu xSV djkj tSls xaHkhj ,oa
laosnukhy eqn~ns ij 4 okksZa esa ek= 11 ?kaVksa dh gh ppkZ gks ldhA Hkkjr esa 28 jkT; vkSj
9 dsUnz kkflr iznsk gSaA ysfdu fdlh Hkh jkT; dh fo/kkulHkk vkSj dsUnz kkflr iznskksa dh
izfrfuf/k lHkk esa xSV djkj dh krksZa ,oa izLrkoksa ij dksbZ ppkZ ugha gks ldhA FkksM+h cgqr
ppkZ ia- caxky vkSj iatkc fo/kkulHkk esa gq;h ysfdu ;g Hkh v/kwjh jghA gkykafd xSV djkj
ds dbZ ,sls izko/kku gS]a ftudk lh/kk lEcU/k jkT;ksa ds foksk vf/kdkjksa ds lkFk gSA xSV
djkj ds ckjs esa tks Hkh FkksM+h&cgqr ppkZ gq;h gS] rks og lekpj&i=ksa ,oa if=dkvksa esa gh
gks ik;h gSA Hkkjr nsk esa izdkfkr gksus okys dbZ egRoiw.kZ nSfud lekpkj i=ksa] lkIrkfgd
if=dkvksa vkSj ekfld if=dkvksa esa xSV djkj ij ys[k fy[ks x;sA bUgha i=&if=dkvksa ds
ek/;e ls Hkkjr ds ukxfjdksa dks xSV&djkj ds ckjs esa FkksM+h tkudkjh gks ik;h gS] ysfdu
og i;kZIr ugha gSA Hkkjr ljdkj dh ;g ftEesnkjh Fkh fd] og xSV&djkj ds ckjs esa
vf/kd ls vf/kd tkudjh laln esa ns vkSj nsk ds yksxksa dks Hkh crk;sA ysfdu Hkkjr
ljdkj us viuh ftEesnkjh dks Bhd ls ugha iwjk fd;kA
30 vDVwcj 1947 dks gLrk{kj fd;k x;k xSV djkj ] tuojh 1948 ls ykxw gqvkA
le;&le; ij blesa vU; nwljs nsk Hkh kkfey gksrs x;sA le;&le; ij xSV djkj dh
okrkZvksa ds nkSj gksrs x;sA okrkZ dk igyk nkSj D;wck nsk ds gokuk kgj esa gqvkA okrkZ dk
nwljk nkSj 5 vxLr 1949 kal ds ,sUlh kgj esa gqvkA okrkZ dk rhljk nkSj baXySM
a ds
VkdsZ kgj esa gqvkA okrkZ ds bl nkSj esa 4 vkSj u;s nsk xSV djkj esa kkfey gq;sA blh
rjg xSV okrkZ dk pkSFkk nkSj ebZ 1956 esa ftusok esa gqvkA xSV okrkZ dk ikapok nkSj 1960
7 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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es]a NB+oka nkSj 1964 es]a lkroka nkSj 1973 esa VksD;ksa es]a vkBoka nkSj 1982 esa ftusok esa rFkk
uoka nkSj 1986 esa m:Xos nsk esa gqvkA 1986 ds igys vkSj xSV djkj kq: gksus rd d`fk
fok; blesa kkfey ugha FkkA 1948 ls 1986 rd xSV djkj esa flQZ oLrqvksa ds O;kikj dk
gh eqn~nk kkfey FkkA ;g oLrqvksa dk O;kikj Hkh ,d foksk O;kikj gh gksrk FkkA nsk dh
lhekvksa ds ckgj dk O;kikj vFkkZr fonsk O;kikj ls gh lECfU/kr eqn~ns xSV djkj esa kkfey
jgsA xSV djkj esa lEcfU/kr lnL; nskksa ds vk;kr&fu;kZr ls lEcfU/kr vkilh >xM+ksa dks
lqy>kus dh gh O;oLFkk cuk;h x;h FkhA izR;sd nsk ckgj ls vkusokyh oLrqvksa ij vk;kr
dj rFkk vU; dbZ rjg ds djksa dks yxkrk gSA bu djksa dh ph njsa vDlj gh >xM+ksa
dk dkj.k curh jgha gSAa izR;sd nsk vius&vius Lonskh m|ksxksa dks laj{k.k nsus ds fy;s
ckgj ls vkusokyh fonskh oLrqvksa ij vf/kd ls vf/kd ek=kRed izfrcU/k vkSj pk vk;kr
dj yxkrk jgk gSA bUgha vf/kd vk;kr djksa esa rFkk ek=kRed izfrcU/k esa NwV ysus&nsus ds
fy;s 1948 ls 1986 rd xSV okrkZ;as gqbZaA bu okrkZvksa ds ek/;e ls nskksa us ,d nwljs dks
vk;kr djksa rFkk ek=kRed izfrcU/kksa esa vius&vius jkV fgrksa dks /;ku esa j[krs gq;s dbZ
rjg dh NwVsa nhaA
lu 1986 dh m:Xos nkSj dh xSV okrkZ esa igyh ckj d`fk fok;] ckSf)d lEifRr
vf/kdkj fok;] lsok {ks= dk fok; vkfn kkfey fd;s x;sA bu u;s fok;ksa dks xSV djkj
esa kkfey djus ij dkQh fojks/k gqvkA ;g fojks/k lcls vf/kd vhdh nsk] ,fk;kbZ nsk
rFkk ySfVu vejhdh nskksa dh vksj ls gqvkA bl fojks/k esa Hkkjr] ukbZthfj;k] czkthy] feL=
tSls nsk lcls vkxs FksA ysfdu vejhdh&;wjksih; nskksa ds lkeus bu nskksa dk fojks/k
/khjs&/khjs de gksrk x;kA vUr esa bu lHkh nskksa us vejhdk vkSj ;wjksih; nskksa ds lkeus
?kqVus Vsd fn;sA xSV djkj esa d`fk le>kSrk] ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk] lsok{ks=
le>kSrk vkfn vejhdh vkSj ;wjksih; nskksa ds ncko esa kkfey fd;k x;kA d`fk le>kSrs
dks xSV djkj esa kkfey djus ds ihNs eq[; mn~ns; ;g gS fd d`fk dks m|ksx vkSj
O;kikj tSlk gh ekuuk vkSj nqfu;k ds reke nskksa dk cktkj d`fk mRiknksa ds fy;s miyC/k
djkukA
xSV djkj esa dqy 28 v/;k; gSaA ftuds dqN uke gSaA tSls d`fk le>kSrk] iwt
hfuosk le>kSrk]
lsok O;kikj dk le>kSrk] ckSf)d lEink vf/kdkj dk le>kSrk vkfn&vkfnA bu lHkh v/;k;ksa ds ckjs
esa foLrkj ls tkuuk t:jh gSA ;g xSV djkj gekjs nsk ds lafo/kku ds iwjh rjg fo:) gS] ;g Hkh
tkuuk t:jh gSA gekjs nsk dh laln }kjk cuk;s x;s dkuwuksa ds fo:) Hkh gSA Hkkjrh; laLd`fr vkSj
lH;rk dh ekU;rkvksa ds iwjh rjg f[kykQ gS ;g xSV djkjA ;g xSV djkj vhdh] ,sfk;kbZ vkSj
ySfVu vejhdh nskksa dh ywV dk ogh jkLrk [kksy jgk gS] tks 500 okksaZ igys dksyEcl ,oa
okLdks&fMxkek tSls yqVsjksa us [kksyk FkkA dksyECkl] okLdks fMxkek rFkk vU; ;wjksih; nskksa us 500 okZ
iwoZ tks ywV&ekj iwjh nqfu;k ds yxHkx 60&70 nskksa esa dh Fkh] ogh vc foo O;kikj laxBu djkj
ds dkuwuh Lo:i ls gksus tk jgh gSA

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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PROVISIONS IN W.T.O AGREEMENT ON


AGRICULTURE
foo O;kikj la?kBu ds d`fk fok;d le>kSrs esa dqy 13 [k.M gSAa bu [k.Mksa esa 21
vuqPNsn (Articles) gSAa igys [k.M esa lHkh rjg dh ifjHkkkk;sa nh x;h gSAa nwljs [k.M esa
mu d`fk mRiknksa dh lwph nh x;h gS] ftUgsa bl le>kSrs esa kkfey fd;k x;k gSA ;g iwjh
lwph bl d`fk le>kSrs ds ifjfkV&1 (Annex-1) esa nh x;h gSA bl d`fk le>kSrs esa
dqy 5 ifjfkV fn;s x;s gSAa bl d`fk le>kSrs esa nwljs [k.M ls os lHkh vuqPNsn kq:
gksrs gS]a tks krksZa ds :i esa ekuus gksx
a sA uhps dqN eq[; vuqPNsnksa dks xSV djkj dh Hkkkk
vaxzsth esa tSls dk rSlk fn;k tk jgk gSA bu vuqPNsnksa dk D;k nqizHkko iMsx
+ k] og vkxs
fn;k x;k gSA igys ge bu vuqPNsnksa dks tku ysa] fQj muds nqizHkko dks tkuuk vPNk
gksxkA
Article-3
1) The domestic Support and export subsidy commitments in part IV of each
members schedule constitute commitments limiting subsidiration and are here by
made an integral part 1994.
2) Subjects to the provisions of article 6, a member shall not provide support
in favour of domestic producers in excess of the commitments levels specified is
section I of part IV of its schedule.
3) Subject to the provisions of para 2(b) and 4 of article 9, a member shall not
provide export subsidies listed in para 1 of article 9 in respect of the agricultural
products or groups of products specified in section II of part IV of its schedule in
excess of the budgetary outlay and quantity commitment levels specified there
in and shall not provide such subsidies in respect of any agricultural product not
specified in that section of its schedule.

MEANING OF ARTICLE - 3
This article deals with domestic support and export subsidy reduction
commitments as specified in each members schedule. It bars a member from
granting export subsidies not specified in section II of part IV of its schedule.
The article also brings domestic support and export subsidy reduction
commitments with in pesrview of Gatt 1994
9

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ARTICLE - 4
1) Market access concessions contained in schedules relate to bindings and
reductions of tariffs, and to other market access commitments as specified there
in.
2)
Members shall not maintain, resort to, or revert to any measure of the kind
which have been required to be converted into ordinary customs duties expect as
otherwise provided for in Articls 5 and annex. 5

MEANING OF ARTICLE - 4
The key elements of the market access commitments for agricultural
products are the establishments of tariffication, tariff reduction, and the binding
of all agricultural tariffs. commitments were also undertaken by members to
provide minimum market access for agricultural products through expahsion of
tariff rate quotas.
In the tariffication process the quantitative restrictions, variable levis,
import bans or other non tariff measures are replaced by an import duty so that
there is no change in the level of protection. The developed countries are
undertook to cut their agriculture tariffs by an average of 36% over six years.
While developing countries are committed to slash the same by 24% in ten years.

10

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foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs dk Hkkjrh; d`fk ,oa


fdlkuksa ij izHkko
xSV djkj ;k foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs esa d`fk fok; ls lEcfU/kr ,d le>kSrk
gSA bl d`fk fok;d le>kSrs esa 21 vuqPNsnksa ds rgr yxHkx 56 krasZ gSAa ;s lHkh krsZa
Hkkjrh; d`fk vkSj fdlkuksa ij ykxw gksrh tk;sx
a hA Hkkjr dh dsUnz ljdkj vkSj lHkh jkT;ksa
dh jkT; ljdkjsa bUgha krksZa dks vc fu;e&dkuwu ds :i esa ykxw djsaxhA xSV djkj tc
lcls igys 30 vDVwcj 1947 dks gLrk{kj fd;k x;k Fkk] rc mlesa d`fk fok; kkfey
ugha FkkA 2 tuojh 1948 ls xSV djkj nqfu;k ds 23 nskksa esa ykxw gqvk FkkA ;s 23 nsk
bl izdkj Fks & vkLVsfy;k] csfYt;e] czkthy] oekZ] dukMk] Jhyadk] fpyh] D;wck]
psdksLykfo;k] kal] Hkkjr] yscuku] yDteoxZ] gkyS.M] U;wthyS.M] ukosZ] ikfdLrku]
jksMsfk;k] lhfj;k] nf{k.kh] vhdk] fczVsu] vejhdk] phuA
nqfu;k ds lHkh nskksa dh ljdkjsa vius fdlkuksa dks vkSj d`fk mRiknu dks rjg&rjg
ls enn nsrh gSaA fdlkuksa dks muds mit dk U;wure leFkZu ewY; nsuk] fdlkuksa dks
jklk;fud [kkn ,oa dhVukkdksa dks lLrh njksa ij miyC/k djkuk] fdlkuksa dks de C;kt
ij _`.k fnykuk] le;&le; ij fdlkuksa ds dtksZa dks ekQ djuk ;k dtksZa dk C;kt
ekQ djuk] fdlkuksa dks lLrh nj ij fctyh ikuh miyC/k djkuk] ckgj ls vkus&okys
d`fk mRiUu ij ek=kRed izfrcU/k yxkuk ;k mu ij vf/kd vk;kr dj yxkuk ;g lHkh
dqN lfClMh ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA blesa dqN rks izR;{k lfClMh vkSj dqN vizR;{k
lfClMh ds uke ls tkuk tkrk gSA xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs esa eq[; :i ls rhu {ks=
kkfey gSaA d`fk {ks= ds le>kSrs esa lcls egRoiw.kZ {ks= gS& fdlkuksa dks feyusokyh vkSj
d`fk mRiknu dks feyusokyh ljdkjh lgk;rk lfClMhA nwljk {ks= gS cktkj igqp
(Market access) vFkkZr lEcfU/kr nskksa esa ,d fufpr ek=k esa fonskh d`fk mRiknksa dh
fch fufpr djukA rhljk {ks= gS d`fk mRiknksa dks fonskksa esa fu;kZr djus ds fy;s
lgk;rk nsukA
xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn&3 (Article 3) ds vuqlkj d`fk dk;Z vkSj
fdlkuksa dks nh tkus okyh ?kjsyw lgk;rk (Domestic Support) vFkkZr lfClMh dks
yxkrkj de djuk gksxkA Hkkjr tSls nskksa ds fy;s ;g lfClMh dh deh xSV djkj ds
gLrk{kj gksus ls xSV djkj ds ykxw gksus rd vFkkZr 15 fnlEcj 1994 ls 1 tuojh 2005
rd 24% de dj nh x;h gSA vFkkZr 1 tuojh 2005 rd Hkkjr ds fdlkuksa dks nh tkus
okyh lfClMh esa 24% dh deh dj nh x;h gSA vkxs vkus okys le; esa ;g deh vkSj
gksrh pyh tk;sxhA vkus okys izR;sd okZ esa ;g dVkSrh vkSj vf/kd gksr&
s gksrs ek= 5%
rd jg tk;sxhA vFkkZr xSV djkj ds vuqlkj Hkkjr nsk dh ljdkjsa vius fdlkuksa dks
dqy d`fk mRiknu dk 5% ls vf/kd lfClMh ugha ns ldrh gSAa ;g lfClMh
vyx&vyx d`fk mRiknksa ds fglkc ls Hkh gks ldrh gS ;k dqy d`fk mRiknksa ds fglkc ls
Hkh gks ldrh gSA
11 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn 3 dk vc Hkkjrh; ifjfLFkfr esa foysk.k djsa
rks bldk nqifj.kke D;k gksxk ;g le> esa vk;sxkA Hkkjr ds fdlkuksa dks nks izdkj ls
?kjsyw lgk;rk lfClMh nh tkrh gSA ,d gS izR;{k nwljh gS vizR;{kA izR;{k lgk;rk
(Direct Subsidy) D;k gS ? tc Hkkjr dk fdlku viuh d`fk mRiUu oLrqvksa dks cktkj esa
cspus ds fy;s ykrk gS rks Hkkjr dh ljdkj vkSj Hkkjr ds jkT;ksa dh ljdkjsa mu lHkh d`fk
oLrqvksa ds fy;s U;wure leFkZu ewY; dh ?kksk.kk djrh gSAa ;g ewY; fdlkuksa }kjk oLrqvksa
ds mRiknu ykxr vkSj mlesa FkksM+k lk ykHkkak ij vk/kkfjr gksrk gSA lkekU; :i ls bl
leFkZu ewY; dk vFkZ gS fd fdlkuksa }kjk mRikfnr d`fk oLrqvksa dks ml leFkZu ewY; ls
de dherksa ij [kjhnk ugha tk;sxkA Hkkjr nsk esa fdlkuksa dks fn;k tkus okyk ;g leFkZu
ewY; vUrjjkVh; cktkj ds [kqys ewY; ls vDlj vf/kd gksrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy;s
vUrjjkVh; cktkjksa esa dikl dk ewY; lu~ 2005 esa 1500 ls 1700 :i;s fDaoVy ds
vkl&ikl gS] tcfd Hkkjr ds dbZ jkT;ksa esa dikl dk leFkZu ewY; 2000 ls 2500 :i;s
fDoaVy ds vkl&ikl gS] bldk vFkZ gS fd ;fn fdlku viuk dikl [kqys cktkj esa csps
rks mls ,d fDoVay dikl dk Hkko ek= 1500 :- ls 1700 ds chp esa gh feysxkA tcfd
ogh dikl dks og ljdkjh [kjhn laLFkkvksa dks csps rks mls 2000 :- fDoaVy ls 2500 :
fDaoVy ds chp dikl dh xq.koRrk ds vk/kkj ij Hkko feysxkA blh rjg vUrjjkVh;
cktkj esa xsgw dk [kqyk Hkko 450 :- fDaoVy ls ysdj 580 :- fDoaVy ds chp esa gSA
tcfd Hkkjr ds dbZ jkT;ksa esa xsgw dk leFkZu ewY; blls vf/kd gSaA blh rjg vU; lHkh
d`fk mRiknksa ds ckjs esa gksrk gSA bu mnkgj.kksa ls izR;{k lfClMh dks le>uk vc vklku
gSA vUrjjkVh; [kqys cktkj ds ewY; ls vf/kd ewY; ij fdlkuksa }kjk mRikfnr oLrqvksa
dks [kjhnuk gh izR;{k lfClMh dgykrk gSA
blh rjg nwljh vizR;{k lfClMh gksrh gSA Hkkjr esa fdlkuksa dks jklk;fud [kkn
;wfj;k] Mh- ,- ih- lqij QkLQsV vkfn mRiknu ykxr ls de ewY; ij nh tkrh gSA
mnkgj.k ds fy;s ,d fDaoVy 100 fdyksxzke ;wfj;k dh mRiknu ykxr yxHkx 980 :ds vkl&ikl gS ysfdu ;g 100 fdyks ;wfj;k fdlkuksa dks yxHkx 560 :- ds vkl&ikl
fn;k tkrk gSA blh rjg Mh- ,- ih- vkSj lqij QkLQsV dh dherksa dks Hkh de djds
fdlkuksa dks cspk tkrk gSA mRiknu ykxr ls de dher ij fdlkuksa dks ;wfj;k] Mh-,-ih-]
lqij QkLQsV rFkk vU; jklk;fud dhVukkdksa dks miyC/k djkuk] vizR;{k lfClMh
dgykrk gSA fdlkuksa dks bl vizR;{k lfClMh ds rgr mRiknu ykxr ls de dher ij
fctyh vkSj ikuh Hkh miyC/k djk;k tkrk gSA mnkgj.k ds fy;s Hkkjr ds jkT;ksa esa m|ksxksa
dks fctyh 4 :- ;wfuV ls 6 :- ;wfuV ds chp esa nh tkrh gS] tcfd fdlkuksa dks ;g
fctyh 1 :- ;wfuV ls 2 :- ;wfuV ds chp esa gh feyrh gSA m|ksxksa dks ftl Hkko esa ikuh
fn;k tkrk gS] fdlkuksa dks mlls dgha de Hkko ij ikuh fn;k tkrk gSA xSV djkj ds
d`fk le>kSrs ds vuqPNsns&3 ds vuqlkj vc Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa dks feyus okyh blh ?kjsyw
lgk;rk iz;R;{k ,oa vizR;{k lfClMh esa yxkrkj deh djuh gksxhA xr 10 okksZa esa lu~
1994 ls 2004 rd 24% lfClMh rks Hkkjr ljdkj de dj pqdh gSA ftlds dkj.k Hkkjr
esa ;wfj;k] Mh-,-ih- vkSj lqij QkLQsV tSls jklk;fud [kknksa ds Hkko cgqr c<+s gSa vkSj
12 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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fdlkuksa dks feyus okys leFkZu ewY; esa Hkh deh vk;h gSA blh dkj.k ls xr okksZ esa
fdlkuksa dks nh tkus okyh fctyh vkSj ikuh nksuksa eagxs gq;s gSAa vkxs Hkh xSV djkj ds
dkj.k ljdkj yxkrkj lfClMh esa dVkSrh djsxh vkSj fdlkuksa dk Qlyksa dk leFkZu ewY;
de gksrk tk;sxk vkSj ;wfj;k] Mh-,-ih- tSls jklk;fud [kkn cgqr eagxs gksrs tk;saxAs blds
dkj.k fdlkuksa dk d`fk mRiknu [kpZ rks c<+rk tk;sxk ysfdu vkenuh de gksrh tk;sxhA
,d vksj d`fk mRiknu eagxk nwljh vksj Qlyksa dks leFkZu ewY; Hkh ughaA fdlkuksa dks
nksukssa vksj ls ?kkVk gksxkA
xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn &4 ds vuqlkj Hkkjr ds cktkjksa dks fonskh
d`fk mRiknksa ds fy;s iwjh rjg ls [kksyuk gksxkA Hkkjr ds cktkjksa esa ckgj ls vkus okys
fdlh Hkh d`fk mRikn ij dksbZ izfrcU/k ugha yxk;k tk ldrk gSA vHkh Hkkjr ds cktkjksa
esa fonskh d`fk mRiknksa ds vkus ij ek=kRed izfrcU/k vkSj cgqr vf/kd vk;kr dj yxk;s
tkrs gS]a rkfd lLrk fonskh vukt rFkk vU; d`fk oLrq;sa Hkkjr ds cktkjksa esa Hkj ugha
tk;sAa xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn 5&4 ds rgr vc Hkkjr ljdkj cgqr vf/kd
vk;kr dj fonskh d`fk oLrqvksa ij ugha yxk ldsxhA lHkh fonskh d`fk oLrqvksa ij
ek=kRed izfrcU/k gVkus gksaxsA blds dkj.k Hkkjrh; cktkjksa esa fonskh d`fk oLrq;sa vc
vf/kd ek=k esa vk;saxhA xSV djkj ds ykxw gksus rd xr 10 okksZa esa Hkkjr ljdkj us
fonskh oLrqvksa ij vk;kr djksa esa 35% ls ysdj 70% rd dVkSrh dj nh gSA xSV djkj
ds vuqlkj vc dbZ fonskh oLrqvksa ij uke ek= ds fy;s 5% rd dk gh vk;kr dj
yxsxkA ,slh fLFkfr esa fonskh lLrs vukt ,oa vU; d`fk oLrq;sa Hkkjr esa vf/kd ek=k esa
vk;saxhA ftlds dkj.k cktkj esa oLrqvksa dh ekax de vkSj miyC/krk vf/kd gksxhA blds
pyrs cktkj esa d`fk oLrqvksa dh dherksa esa Hkkjh fxjkoV gksxh] bl dkj.k Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa
dks mudh mit dk ewY; vkSj Hkh de feysxkA bldk /khjs&/khjs ;g nqifj.kke gksxk fd
Hkkjrh; fdlku dbZ d`fk mRiknksa dh [ksrh de djrs tk;sx
a s vkSj fQj ,d le; Hkkjr esa
d`fk oLrqvksa dh deh vk;sxh vkSj nsk dh [kk| lqj{kk [krjs esa iM+ tk;sxhA
xSV djkj ds d`k le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn&7 ,oa vuqPNsn&9 ds vuqlkj lHkh rjg ds
d`fk mRiknksa ij fu;kZr lfClMh esa dVkSrh djuh gksxh ,oa vU; O;kikj fojks/kh lfClMh Hkh
lekIr djuh gksxhA vFkkZr Hkjrh; d`fk oLrqvksa dks fu;kZr ds fy;s Hkkjr ljdkj tks Hkh
enn ;k izkRs lkgu nsrh gS og lHkh cUn djuk gksxkA fu;kZr dks nh tkus okyh ljdkjh
enn dks eqDr O;kikj ds jkLrs esa vojks/k ekuk tkrk gSA blfy;s lHkh fu;kZr lfClMh dks
d`fk oLrqvksa ls gVkuk gksxkA ,slh fLFkfr esa Hkkjrh; d`fk oLrqvksa dk fu;kZr vf/kd eagxk
gkss tk;sxkA fu;kZr eagxk gksus dh fLFkfr esa vUrjjkVh; cktkj esa Hkkjrh; d`fk mRikn
de fcdsx
a s bldk lcls cqjk vlj Hkkjrh; fu;kZrdksa ,oa fdlkuksa ij iM+x
s kA Hkkjr nsk ls
tks d`fk mRikn lcls vf/kd fu;kZr fd;s tkrs gS]a muesa pk;] dkWQh] dikl] lfCt;k]
Qy] pkoy] xsgw] ?kh] lw[kk esos k] vkfn izeq[k gSaA budh vUrjjkVh; cktkj esa ekax cgqr
gSA Hkkjr ls gksus okys dqy fu;kZr esa d`fk mRiknksa ,oa izkFkfed oLrqvkas dk fgLlk cgqr
vf/kd gSA vc ;g fu;kZr de gksrs tkus ls Hkkjr ljdkj dh fu;kZr vkenuh de gksxh
vkSj vk;kr ds [kpsZ vf/kd gksx
a sA ftlds pyrs Hkkjr nsk dk O;kikj ?kkVk vkSj vf/kd
13 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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gksxk O;kikj ?kkVs dh iwfrZ djus ds fy;s Hkkjr ljdkj ds ikl fonskh dtkZ ysus dk gh
,d jkLrk gksxkA blds pyrs fonskh dtZ vkSj c<+sxkA fonskh dtkZ c<+us ls fonskh dtsZ
dk C;kt Hkh c<+sxkA fQj dtsZ dk C;kt Hkjus ds fy;s ljdkj ukxfjdksa ds ij vkSj
vf/kd VSDl yxk;sxh ;k vkSj vf/kd dtkZ ysxhA ukxfjdksa ds ij VSDl vf/kd c<+us ls
thou dh eqfdysa vkSj c<+x
s h vkSj vkUrfjd cktkj esa oLrq;sa vkSj vf/kd eagxh gksaxhA ;fn
Hkkjr ljdkj vkSj vf/kd fonskh dtkZ ysxh rks Hkkjrh; eqnzk :i;s dh dher vkSj vf/kd
de gksxhA blds dkj.k Hkkjr esa vk;kfrr t:jh oLrq;as tSls Mhty&isVky
s ds fy;s dPpk
rsy] jlksbZ xSl vkfn eagxs gksaxsA Hkkjr ls tkus okys fu;kZr vkSj lLrs gksaxsA blls Hkkjr
dh fu;kZr vkenuh vkSj de gksrh tk;sxhA vUr esa Hkkjr fonskh dtsZ ds nqp esa vkSj
vf/kd Qalrk tk;sxkA
xSV djkj esa ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk Hkh gqvk gSA bl le>kSrs esa fdlkuksa
,oa d`fk fok; ds fy;s ,d krZ gSA mldh Hkh ;gka ij ppkZ djuk vko;d gSA ckSf)d
lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk (TRIPS) esa vuqPNsn&27 ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh vkfodkj ;k
[kkst ds fy;s isVsUV nsuk gksxk pkgs] og izf;k ds fy;s gks ;k mRikn ds fy;sA vFkkZr
vc Hkkjr nsk esa lHkh mRiknksa ,oa izf;kvksa ds fy;s isVUs V nsuk gksxk tks vHkh rd flQZ
izf;k ds {ks= esa gh vf/kd fn;k tkrk FkkA Hkkjr esa vHkh rd d`fk {ks= vkSj [kk| lqj{kk
ls tqM+s gq;s {ks=ksa ,oa t:jh nokvksa ds {ks= esa isVsUV ugha fn;k tkrk FkkA ysfdu vc lHkh
{ks=ksa esa isVUs V nsuk gksxkA
ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn&65] vuqPNsn&70 ds vuqlkj isVsUV
vf/kdkj fcuk fdlh HksnHkko ds nsus gksaxs] pkgs og oLrq ;k izf;k ftlij isVsUV fn;k
x;k gS fdlh Hkh LFkku ij cukbZ x;h gks vkSj pkgs og oLrq ;k izf;k LFkkuh; Lrj ij
mRiknu dh tkrh gks ;k fQj vk;kr dh tkrh gks
xSV djkj ds ckSf)d vf/kdkjksa ls tqM+s gq;s bu vuqPNsnksa dk Hkkjrh; d`fk vkSj
fdlkuksa ij cgqr vf/kd nqizHkko iM+us okyk gSA vHkh rd Hkkjr esa d`fk {ks= dks isVsUV ds
ckgj j[kk x;k FkkA ftlds pyrs gekjs nsk esa gtkjksa fdLe ds chtksa dk fodkl gqvkA
bu chtksa dh miyC/krk Hkh fdlkuksa dks de dherksa ij gksrh jghA ysfdu vc xSV djkj
ds vuqlkj bu chtksa ij rFkk d`fk dh vU; izf;kvksa ij isVsUV gksus yxsxk isVsUV dk vFkZ
gksrk gS& ,d rjg dk dkuwuh vf/kdkj tks fdlh nwljs dks og oLrq ;k izf;k dk
mRiknu ,oa forj.k djus ls jksdrk gS] ftl ij isVUs V fn;k x;k gSA vFkkZr fdlh Hkh
oLrq vFkok izf;k ij ftl fdlh dks Hkh isVsUV fey tkrk gS] ogh ml oLrq ;k izf;k
dk mRiknu vkSj O;kolkf;d forj.k dj ldrk gS] nwljk dksbZ ughaA bl rjg] ls isVsUV
/kkjd dks ,d rjg dk fokskkf/kdkj fey tkrk gS isVsUV dh gq;h oLrq ;k izf;k ijA
Hkkjr nsk esa vktknh ds ckn lu~ 1970 esa ,d dkuwu cuk Fkk] ftldk uke Fkk Hkkjrh;
isVsUV vf/kfu;e 1970A bl dkuwu ds vuqlkj Hkkjr esa flQZ vkfodkj dks gh isVsUV iznku
fd;k tkrk gSA isVsUV Hkh Hkkjr esa izf;k dk gh fn;k tkrk gS] mRikn dks ughaA izf;k
isVsUV dh vof/k vf/kd ls vf/kd 5 ls 7 okZ dqN viokn Lo:i 14 okZ rd gh gksrh gSA
Hkkjrh; isVsUV vf/kfu;e esa d`fk rFkk ckxokuh dh dksbZ Hkh izf;k ij isVsUV ugha fn;k tk
14 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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ldrk gSA blh rjg Hkkjrh; isVsUV dkuwu ds rgr euq;ks]a ikqvksa rFkk ikS/kksa ds
fpfdRldh; kY; fpfdRldh; rFkk vU; vkjksX;dkjh mipkjksa dh fdlh Hkh izf;k ij
isVsUV ugha gks ldrk gSA vkt rd blh isVsUV dkuwu ds rgr Hkkjr esa vkfodkjksa dk]
m|ksxksa ,oa O;kikj dk fodkl gqvk gSA 1970 ls iwoZ Hkkjr esa vaxzsth ljdkj dk cuk;k gqvk
isVsUV dkuwu pyrk FkkA 1970 esa Hkkjrh; isVsUV dkuwu cuus ds ckn] vaxzsth le; dk dkuwu lekIr
gqvkA
vc xSV djkj ds ykxw gks tkus ij gekjs nsk ds lu~ 1970 ds cus gq;s Hkkjrh;
isVsUV dkuwu dks cny fn;k x;k gSA blfy;s vc d`fk vkSj ckxokuh ds {ks= esa Hkh isVsUV
fn;s tk;sx
a s vkSj mu lHkh {ks=ksa esa isVsUV fn;s tk;sx
a s] ftuesa vHkh rd isVsUV ugha fn;s tkrs
FksA bldk lcls vf/kd nqizHkko cht mRiknu ds {ks= esa iM+x
s kA vHkh rd tks Hkh cht
chuk fdlh isVsUV dks fdlkuksa dks miyC/k gq;s Fks] mu lHkh ij isVsUV gksus yxsxkA chtksa
ij isVsUV gksus ls mu ij dEifu;ksa dk ,dkf/kdkj gksxkA vkSj dEifu;ka mu chtksa dks
euekus nke ij gtkjksa izfrkr equkQs ds lkFk cspsaxhA xSV djkj ds isVsUV dk;nksa ds
vuqlkj dksbZ Hkh isVsUV de ls de 20 lky rd ds fy;s gksxkA vFkkZr cht cukdj cspus
okyh dEifu;k 20 lkyksa rd iwjs ,dkf/kdkj ds lkFk cht cspasxhA ftl dEiuh ds ikl
ftl cht dk isVsUV gksxk] mls dksbZ nwljk O;fDr ;k dEiuh ugha cuk ldrh gSA
vktdy fonskh dEifu;ksa us ,sls cht cukus kq: fd;s gSa tks flQZ ,d ckj gh Qly dk
mRiknu ns ldrs gSAa ml Qly esa ls fQj ls cht cukuk laHko ugha gksrk gSA bl rjg
ds chtksa dks cgqr eagxk cukdj fdlkuksa dks ywVus dh iwjh rS;kjh vc Hkkjr esa gks pqdh
gSA xSV djkj dk ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk ,d cgqr gh vthc le>kSrk gSA
D;kafs d ckSf)d lEifRr ,d ,slh iz.kkyh gS tks fdlh vkfodkjd ;k dEiuh dks nwljs
fdlh vkfodkjd ;k dEiuh }kjk mlds vkfodkj dh udy djus ls jksdus dk vf/kdkj
iznku djrh gSA ;g iz.kkyh vkfodkjd dks ,dkf/kdkj iznku djrh gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa
vkfodkjd dks vf/kd ykHk gksrk gS D;ksfa d dksbZ nwljk ml oLrq dk mRiknu ugha dj
ldrk gS ftl ij isVsUV gks tkrk gSA ;g vthc blfy;s gS fd lEifRr dh ifjHkkkk dks
Kku vFkok tkudkjh ij ykxw fd;k tk jgk gSA tcfd Hkkjrh; ijEijk esa Kku vkSj
tkudkjh dHkh Hkh fdlh dh lEifRr ugha ekuk x;k gSA Hkkjrh; laLd`fr esa gtkjksa lky ls
Kku vkSj tkudkjh dks vf/kd ls vf/kd ckVus vkSj nsus dh ijEijk pyh vk;h gSA blh
vk/kkj ij gekjs nsk Hkkjr esa gtkjksa fdLe ds kkL= jps x;s gSa vkSj yk[kksa iqLrdsa fy[kh
x;h gSAa Kku dks Hkkjr esa ,d ih<+h ls nwljh ih<+h dks fn;k x;k gSA ;fn fdlh ds ikl
,d fxykl nw/k gS] tehu dk dksbz VqdM+k gS ftlds uhps rsy gS ;k cskdherh /kkrq;sa gS
rks bls lEifRr ekuk tk ldrk gSA ysfdu tkudkjh vkSj Kku ds ckjs esa ;g ugha dgk
tk ldrk gSA nks O;fDr ,d gh tkudkjh dk mi;ksx dj ldrs gSAa Kku ds ckjs esa Hkkjr
esa dgk tkrk gS fd ;g ckVus ij vkSj vf/kd c<+rk gSA Hkkjr esa ;g Hkh ekuk tkrk gS fd
Kku nsus okyk Hkh le`) gksrk gS vkSj Kku ikus okyk Hkh le`) gksrk gSA Hkkjr esa dHkh Hkh
Kku dks ykHk ds lkFk ugha tksM+k x;kA Hkkjr esa Kku dHkh Hkh ykHk dekus ds fy;s ugha
ekuk x;k gSA ;wjksih;&vejhdh ekU;rk esa ;g ekuk x;k gS fd Kku ds ek/;e ls
15 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

vfrfjDr ykHk fy;k tk ldrk gSA blfy;s Kku dks cpkdj j[kuk ;k ykHk ds fy;s Kku
dks cspuk ;g ifpeh lH;rk dk nkZu gSA ifpe dh iwjh dh iwjh lekt O;oLFkk ykHk
dsfUnzr vkSj O;fDr dsfUnzr gS] blfy;s tgka ls Hkh feys] ftlls Hkh feys ykHk dekuk
pkfg,] ;gh ;wjksih;&vejhdh O;oLFkk dk izLFkku fcUnq gSA xSV djkj Hkh ;wjksih;&vejhdh
ncko dk gh urhtk gSA
xSV djkj ds vuqlkj vc tSfod inkFkksZa ij Hkh isVUs V gksuk kq: gksxk tks fd ,d
fdLe dk ikxyiu gksxkA D;ksfa d lHkh tSfod inkFkZ vius vki iSnk] gksrs gSAa ysfdu
vejhdk vkSj ;wjksih; nskksa esa tSfod inkFkksZa dks xr 20 okksZa ls isVsUV fn;s tk jgs gSAa ;s
lHkh isVsUV vejhdk vkSj ;wjksi dh cM+h&cM+h dEifu;ksa ds ikl gh gSaA vc ;s gh dEifu;ka
Hkkjr esa vkdj bu isVsUV vf/kdkjksa dk Hkjiwj ykHk mBkus dh rS;kjh esa gSaA ikS/kksa ds fy;s
lcls igyk isVUs V vesfjdk esa fn;k x;kA ;wjksi esa lcls igyk ikS/ks ds fy;s isVsUV 1989
esa fn;k x;kA ;wjksi vkSj vesfjdk esa ;s tks isVsUV fn;k x;k] mlds vk/kkj ij dEifu;ksa us
bl rjg ds cht cukuk kq: fd;k tks flQZ ,d ckj gh Qly ns ldsAa bu dEifu;ksa dk
rdZ gS fd chtksa ij isVsUV feyus ls bu dEifu;ksa dks ;g vf/kdkj fey x;k gS fd os
fdlkuksa dks ,d okZ dh Qly ls izkIr cht dks cpkdj vxys okZ cqokbZ djus ls jksd
ldsAa bldk lh/kk vFkZ gS fd dEifu;k gj lky cht cspdj gtkjksa djksM+ :i;ksa dk
equkQk dekuk pkgrh gSAa tc gj lky fdlkuksa dks u;k cht [kjhnuk iM+x
s k] rks cht
dEifu;ksa dh fch vkSj equkQk nksuksa gh c<+sxkA Hkkjr chtksa ds fglkc ls nqfu;k ds lcls
cM+s cktkj esa ls ,d gSA D;ksfa d Hkkjr esa 70% vkcknh [ksrh dk dk;Z gh djrh gSA Hkkjr esa
yxHkx 32 djksM+ ,dM+ tehu ij [ksrh dh tkrh gSA gj lky 22 djksM+ Vu vukt dk
mRiknu Hkkjr esa gksrk gSA brus vukt mRiknu ds fy;s gtkjksa&yk[kksa Vu cht dh [kir
gj lky gksrh gSA Hkkjr dk ;g cht cktkj vc fonskh dEifu;ksa dh fxjr esa vk
tk;sxkA
xSV djkj ds d`fk le>kSrs dh bu krksZa ds vuqlkj vc d`fk {ks= esa fonskh
dEifu;ksa dk csjksdVksd izosk gksrk tk;sxkA xSV djkj dh krksZa dk ;g nqifj.kke gksxk
fd fonskh dEifu;k lLrs vuktksa dk <sj Hkkjr ds cktkjksa esa yxk nsaxhA D;ksafd vc
fonskh vuktksa ds fy;s Hkkjr dk cktkj [kqy tk;sxkA vHkh rd fonskh vuktksa ij Hkkjr
ds cktkjksa esa izfrcU/k yxk gqvk FkkA vc ;g izfrcU/k gV tk;sxkA fonskh vuktksa ij
Hkkjr esa vk;kr dj Hkh de gksrk tk;sxkA Hkkjrh; cktkj esa fonskh vukt ds dkj.k
Lonskh vukt dk cktkj Hkko de gksrk tk;sxk ftlds pyrs fdlkuksa dks mudh Qly
dk Hkko vkSj Hkh de feysxk ,d vksj bUgha krksZ ls fdlkuksa dks feyus okyh vizR;{k
lfClMh ds yxkrkj de gksus ij jklk;fud [kknksa dk Hkko Hkh c<+rk tk;sxk ftlds pyrs
fdlkuksa dk ykxr [kpZ c<+sxkA ysfdu mUgha fdlkuksa ds Qly dk Hkko cktkj esa de
gksrk tk;sxkA ftldk vfUre nqifj.kke fdlkuksa dh xjhch vkSj c<+sxhA muds thou dk
ruko vkSj vf/kd c<+sxkA mudh vkRegR;k dh izo`fRr vkSj vf/kd gksxhA
lu~ 1980 ds nkd esa vejhdk ds ncko esa dbZ vhdh nskksa esa mnkjhdj.k dh
fufr;k kq: dh x;haA yxHkx 4&5 lkyksa esa vhdh nskksa esa fonskh oLrqvksa vkSj fonskh
16 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

vuktksa dk Hkjiwj vkuk kq: gqvkA ukbZthfj;k] lksekfy;k] bFkksfi;k tSls nskksa esa fonskh
vuktksa ds Hk.Mkj yx x;sA mu nskksa ds fdlkuksa dk mRiknu cktkj esa fcduk de gksrk
x;k vkSj fQj ogk fdlkuksa us /khjs&/khjs [ksrh&dk;Z de djuk kq: fd;kA tc mu nskksa
dk d`fk mRiknu de gks x;k rks ckgj ls vkus okys fonskh vukt dh dhersa c<+rh x;haA
fQj ogka ds ukxfjdksa dh ; kfDr ds ckgj gksrs tkus ij LFkkuh; ukxfjdksa us vuktksa
dks [kjhnuk de dj fn;kA /khjs&/khjs ;s lHkh nsk Hkq[kejh dh vksj c<+rs x;s] vkSj vkt
Hkh Hkq[kejh bu vhdh nss kksa dh lcls cM+h leL;k gks x;h gSA chp esa lu~ 1983 esa
ukbZthfj;k dh ljdkj us fonskksa ls vkus okys vukt xsgw ij izfrcU/k yxk fn;kA bl
izfrcU/k ds ckn ukbZthfj;k ds fdlkuksa us dlkck] ;ke] Tokj] cktjk vkfn vuktksa dk
mRiknu c<+kuk kq: fd;k] D;ksfa d fdlkuksa dks mudh mit dk vPNk Hkko feyuk kq:
gqvkA blds ckn vejhdh dEiuh dkjfxy us ukbZthfj;k ljdkj ij ncko Mkyuk kq:
fd;kA nwljh vksj vejhdh ljdkj us ukbZthfj;k ljdkj ij ncko Mkyus ds fy;s
ukbZthfj;k ds oL=ksa ij vejhdh cktkj esa izfrcU/k yxk fn;kA vkSj bl rjg fQj ls
ukbZthfj;k dk cktkj fonskh vuktksa ds fy;s [kksy fn;k x;kA ;gh gky lksekfy;k]
bFkksfi;k tSls dbZ nskksa dk gqvk gSA
xSV djkj ds ek/;e ls vc ;gh mnkjhdj.k dkuwuh :i ls Hkkjr esa Hkh ykxw gksus
tk jgk gSA fdlkuksa dks feyus okyh vkfFkZd lgk;rk dk can gksuk vkSj ljdkj }kjk
fdlkuksa dks leFkZu ewY; lekIr fd;k tkuk] ;s nksuksa gh uhfr;k Hkkjr ds NksV&
s NksVs
fdlkuksa dks cjckn dj nsx
a hA Hkkjr nsk esa yxHkx 75 izfrkr fdlku NksVs fdlku gS]a
ftuds ikl 5 ,dM+ ls de tehu gSA ftl nsk ds 75% fdlku NksVs ,oa e/;e ntsZ ds
gksa ml nsk esa fdlkuksa dks ljdkjh vkfFkZd lgk;rk ,oa ykHkdkjh leFkZu ewY; dh lcls
vkf/kd t:jr gksrh gSA NksVs ,oa e/;e ntsZ ds fdlkuksa dks ykHkdkjh ewY; vkSj vkfFkZd
lgk;rk ugha feyus ij os [ksrh djuk de djrs gSa vkSj viuh tehusa cspuk kq: djrs gSAa
vejhdk tSls nsk esa ;gh gqvk gSA lu~ 1950 ds vkl&ikl vejhdh ljdkj us mnkjhdj.k
kq: fd;k] ftlesa vejhdk ds NksV&
s NksVs fdlku lekIr gksrs x;s vkSj vejhdh [ksrh
cM+&
s cM+s tehnkjksa vkSj dEifu;ksa ds gkFk esa pyh x;hA lu~ 1950 ls 1960 ds chp
vejhdk ds 30% NksVs fdlku lekIr gks x;sA lu~ 1960 ls 1970 ds chp vejhdk ds
26% fdlku vkSj de gks x;sA lu~ 1970 ls 1995 ds chp vejhdk essa ek= 10% fdlku
gh jg x;sA vc lu~ 2005 esa vejhdk esa ek= 3 ls 4 izfrkr fdlku gh jg x;s gSAa
vFkkZr vejhdk esa xr 50&55 okksZa esa 96% fdlku lekIr gks x;sA vejhdk dh iwjh [ksrh
vc cM+h&cM+h dEifu;ksa ds gkFk esa ;k fQj pan tehnkjksa ds gkFkksa esas pyh x;h gSA
vejhdk esa vc [ksr gtkjksa ,dM+ esa gksrs gSAa vkSj bu gtkjksa ,dM+ [ksrksa dk ekfyd dksbZ
,d O;fDr ;k dEiuh gksrh gSA vejhdk ds fdlkuksa dh yk[kksa ,dM+ tehusa vc dEifu;ksa
ds gkFkksa esa gSaA vc Hkkjr tSls nskksa esa Hkh ;gh gksus dh rS;kjh gSA Hkkjr tSls nsk esa tgka
vf/kdkak dh vkthfodk [ksrh ls gh izkIr gksrh gS] ogka xSV djkj dh krksZa dk ykxw gksuk
vR;Ur ?kkrd fl) gksxkA
17

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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Hkkjr nsk esa gfjr kfUr ls tks vis{kk;sa Fkha] os vc lekIr gks x;h gSaA Hkwfe ls vc
bruh de vkenuh gksrh gS fd mlls thou dk i;kZIr fuokZgu Hkh laHko ugha gSA d`fk
Hkwfe esa fuosk dh ykxr cgqr c<+ x;h gSA D;ksafd gfjr kfUr dk iwjk vk/kkj jklk;fud
[kknsa] dhVukkd vkSj ladj cht gh gSaA Hkkjr esa d`fk mRiknu bu jklk;fud [kknksa]
dhVukkdksa ,oa ladj chtksa dk gh ifj.kke gSA gfjr kfUr esa vkxs tks Hkh FkksM+h cgqr
laHkkouk gsS og Hkh fuos; oLrqvksa jklk;fud [kkn] dhVukkd ,oa ladj cht esa o`f)
djds gh laHko gSA ysfdu vc fuos; oLrqvksa dh dhersa c<+ x;h gaS vkSj vf/kd c<+us tk
jgh gSAa blh dkj.k [ksrh dh ykxr c<+ tkrh gS] ftlls fdlkuksa dh vk; de gksrh gSA
vc fdlkuksa dh mit vkSj vkenuh c<+kus ds nks gh jkLrs gSaA ,d rks jkLrk gS fd fdlku
viuh [ksrh ijEijkxr ,oa izkd`frd rjhdksa ls djsAa ftlesa fdlkuksa dks jklk;fud [kknksa]
dhVukkdksa ,oa ladj chtksa dh vko;drk ugha gks vkSj tks dqN Hkh fdlkuksa ds ikl
xzkeh.k {ks= esa miyC/k gS] mlh dk bLrseky djds [ksrh&mRiknu fd;k tk;A nwljk jkLrk
gS ck;ksVDs uksykth dh enn ls mu lHkh laHkkoukvksa dks [kkstuk ftudk vkt rd mi;ksx
ugha gks ik;k gSA vc egRoiw.kZ ckr ;g gS fd ck;ksVDs uksykth ds {ks= esa isVsUV vf/kdkjksa
ds ckn fLFkfr cM+h&cM+h dqN dEifu;ksa ds fu;a=.k esa gksxhA ftUgsa Hkjiwj ykHk ds fy;s gh
O;kikj djuk vkrk gSA cM+h&cM+h fonskh cgqjkVh; dEifu;k chtksa ds mRiknu ij iwjk
fu;a=.k djus ds fy;s isVsUV dkuwuksa dk gh lgkjk ysaxhA isVsUV O;oLFkk iwjh rjg ls
,dkf/kdkj gh iznku djrh gSA lHkh fonskh dEifu;ka pkgrh gSa fd mUgsa cktkj esa fdlh Hkh
rjg dh izfr;ksfxrk dk lkeuk ugha djuk iM+]s blhfy;s ;s dEifu;k isVsUV pkgrh gSaA
D;ksfa d ,sdkf/kdkj gksus ls vf/kdre equkQk feyrk gS vkSj euekuh dher ij O;kikj djus
dk ekSdk fey tkrk gSA lHkh fonskh dEifu;ka foKkiuckth va/kk/kqa/k djrh gSaA vke rkSj
ij fonskh cgqjkVh; dEifu;k ftruk iSlk kks/k ,oa vuql/a kku ij [kpZ djrh gS]a mlls
dbZ xquk vf/kd foKkiuksa ij [kpZ djrh gSAa ftu dEifu;ksa dks chtksa ij isVsUV fey
tk;sx
a s] mu chtksa dks fdlkuksa ds chp esa yxkrkj foKkiu djds cspk tk;sxkA bu
foKkiukas dh lR;rk dks tkapus dk fdlkuksa ds ikl dksbZ rjhdk ugha gSA dbZ ckj fonskh
dEifu;k vius iqjkus gh chtksa dks foKkiuksa ds ek/;e ls u;k crkdj csprh jgsaxh vkSj
eqagekaxs nke fdlkuksa ls olwyrh jgsaxh vkSj dksbZ bls pqukSrh Hkh ugha ns ik;sxkA tc isVUs V
ds lekIr gksus dk 20 okZ dk le; vk;sxk rHkh ;s dEifu;k vius chtksa esa FkksMk+ lk
ifjorZu djds fQj ls u;k isVsUV ys ysaxh vkSj vxys 20 lky rd fQj yxkrkj bu
chtksa dks cspdj equkQk dekrh jgsx
a hA ;g isVsUV dk gfFk;kj fosnskh dEifu;ksa ds gkFkksa esa
,d ,slk kfDrkkyh gfFk;kj gS tks va/kk/kqa/k equkQk dekus dk tfj;k gSA [ksrh ds ekeys esa
gesa ftu cM+h&cM+h leL;kvksa dk lkeuk djuk iM+ jgk gSA mlesa ls ,d leL;k gS fd
vPNh fdLe ds chtksa dh i;kZIr miyC/krk ugha gSA Hkkjr esa cht miyC/k djkus dh
O;oLFkk ds detksj gksus ds dkj.k] fdlkuksa rd os ubZ vkSj mi;ksxh fdLesa ugha igqap ik
jgh gS]a ftudk fodkl ljdkjh kks/k laLFkkuksa esa gks pqdk gSA gkykafd Hkkjr esa dbZ
NksVhs&NksVh Lonskh dEifu;k blesa vkxs vk;ha gS]a ysfdu mudh la[;k i;kZIr ugha gSA bu
dEifu;ksa dks vkxs c<+kus ,oa mUgsa izksRlkgu nsus dh t:jr gSA bu dEifu;ksa ds vfrfjDr
18 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

fdlkuksa ds laxBu cukdj] chtksa dh miyC/krk djk;h tk;sA bu laxBuksa dks oSKkfudksa
dh Hkh enn feysA fdlkuksa dh lgdkjh lfefr;k Hkh ;g dk;Z dj ldrh gSaA i;kZIr
oSKkfud Kku vkSj fdlkuksa dh ekax ds vuq:i ;g oSdfYid O;oLFkk fdlkuksa dks mu ubZ
fdLe ds chtksa dks miyC/k djk ldrh gS] ftudk fodkl gekjs nsk dh jkVh;
iz;ksxkkykvksa esa gks pqdk gSA
vHkh rd xSV djkj ds igys Hkkjr esa chtksa dk mRiknu lkoZtfud {ks= dh
dEifu;ksa ds }kjk] NksVh&NksVh futh Hkkjrh; dEifu;ksa ds }kjk fd;k tkrk gSA ;s
dEifu;k vU; nwljh dEifu;ksa }kjk mRikfnr chtksa dk Hkh mRiknu djus ds fy;s LorU=
jgh gSAa fdlkuksa dks Hkh vHkh rd cht cukus dk vf/kdkj jgk gSA vFkkZr tks cht fdlku
cktkj ls [kjhnrs gS]a ogh cht Lo;a Hkh cuk ldrs gaSA bu chtksa dks cukdj fdlku csp
Hkh ldrk gSA vr% Hkkjr esa cht m|ksx esa cgqr laHkkouk;sa ,oa {kerk gSA vr% jkV ds fgr
esa Hkkjr ds 70 djksM+ fdlkuksa ds fgr esa bu laHkkoukvksa ,oa {kerkvksa dk Hkjiwj mi;ksx
fd;k tkuk pkfg,A ysfdu xSV djkj ds ykxw gksus ls ;s lkjh laHkkouk;sa lekIr gks tkus
okyh gSa D;ksfa d isVsUV vf/kdkj dh enn ls cgqjkVh; dEifu;k chtksa ds mRiknu vkSj
O;kikj esa iwjh rjg ls dkfct gksus dh dksfkk dj jgh gSAa Hkkjr ds ckjs esa ,d [kjkc
lR; ;g Hkh gS fd HkzVkpkj ds pyrs cqfu;knh kks/k ,oa vuql/a kku rks ljdkjh jkVh;
iz;ksxkkyk;sa djrh gSa] ysfdu mldk iwjk Qk;nk cgqjkVh; dEifu;kaas dks gh feyrk gS bl
izdkj Hkkjr dh jkVh; iz;ksxkkyk;sa fonskh dEifu;ksa dh fiNyXXkw cu tkrh gSAa vc xSV
djkj ds ykxw gksus ls Hkkjr esa tks NksVh&NksVh Lonskh cht dEifu;k fodflr gq;ha gS]a
mUgsa cM+h&cM+h fonskh dEifu;ksa ds jgeksdje ij jguk gksxkA ;s NksVh&NksVh dEifu;k tks
Hkh cht {ks= esa dk;Z djsaxh] mudks vc jk;YVh ykHkkak nsuk gksxk] mu dEifu;ksa dks
ftuds ikl vf/kdkak isVsUV gksx
a sA xSV djkj ds ykxw gksus ls fdlku Hkh chtksa dk mRiknu
ugha dj ldsx
a sA mUgs rks gj ckj u;s cht [kjhndj [ksrh djuh gksxhA bl rjg Hkkjrh;
fdlkuksa dh vkenuh cM+h&cM+h fonskh cht dEifu;ksa dh tscksa esa pyh tk;sxhA vkSj
fdlkuksa dks ;g vkenuh nsus ds fy;s etcwj gksuk iM+sxk] D;ksfa d mlds ikl blds vykok
dksbZ nwljk jkLrk ugha gSA isVsUV gksus ls fdruk nqizHkko gks ldrk gS] mldk ,d
mnkgj.k & eku yhft;s fd pkoy dh Qly ij CykLV jksx dh egkekjh QSy tk;sA
blls fuiVus ds fy;s dksbZ dEiuh pkoy ds cht dh ,slh ubZ fdLe fodflr djs tks
CykLV jksx dk izfrjks/k dj ldsA ,slh fLFkfr esa dksbZ nwljh dEiuh ;k laxBu pkoy dh
bl fdLe dks ugha cuk ldrh gSA pkgs og dEiuh FkksM+k ifjorZu djds gh cht fodflr
djus dh dksfkk djs] rks Hkh og ugha dj ldrh gSA ,slh fLFkfr esa CykLV jksx izfrjks/kd
fdLe ds cht dh isVUs V /kkjd dEiuh Lo;a mRiknu djds cktkj esa 20 lky rd cspx
s h
vkSj equkQk dek;sxhA bl cht dk ftl Hkh dher ij isVUs V /kkjd dEiuh fch djs
fdlkuksa dks etcwjh esa [kjhnuk gh iM+sxk
xSV djkj dh isVsUV O;oLFkk dk fdlkuksa ds fgrksa ij rRdky cqjk izHkko iM+x
s kA
ysfdu vly ckr ;g gS] fd ck;ksVDs uksykWth tSls vk/kqfud foKku dk YkkHk izkIr djus esa
gesa cgqr gkuh mBkuh iM+x
s hA nwljh egRoiw.kZ ckr rduhd dh miyC/krk dh Hkh gSA ,slk
19 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

blfy;s gS fd rduhdh rHkh rd miyC/k ekuh trh gS] tc rd mls Hkkjrh; ifjfLFkfr
ds vuq:i mfpr :i ls <ky fy;k tk;A ysfdu vc xSV djkj ds ykxw gksus ls ;g
rduhd dh miyC/krk laHko ugha gks ldsxhA fonskh dEifu;ksa ds fy;s rks Hkkjr ,d
cktkj gSA fonskh dEifu;ksa dh lHkh uhfr;k cktkj vkSj equkQs ds vk/kkj ij r; dh tkrh
gSAa bu dEifu;ksa ds fy;s rks mu cktkjksa dh vf/kd t:jr gS ftuesa cM+&
s cM+s fdlkuksa dh
t:jrsa iwjh gksrh gSa vr% ;s dEifu;ksa ds fy;s rduhdh ogh vPNh gS tks cM+&
s cM+s fdlkuksa
ds dke vk;sA /;ku nsus dh ;g egRoiw.kZ ckr gS fd gfjr kfUr ds nkSj esa vukt dh
ckSuh fdLeksa dk fodkl jkVh; iz;ksxkkykvksa esa gh gqvk FkkA ;s lHkh fdLesa lHkh ds fy;s
miyC/k FkhaA loZlk/kkj.k ds fy;s bu chtksa dh lqyHkrk jgh] ;g lcls egRoiw.kZ gSA
fonskh cgqjkVh; dEifu;k dsoy mUgha chtksa dk mRiknu djrh gS]a ftudk fodkl
mu dEifu;ksa us fd;k gksA lkekU; :i ls ;s dEifu;k igys dPps cht cukrh gSAa fQj
mu dPps chtksa dk fu;kZr bu dEifu;ksa ds foksk dsUnzksa dks fd;k tkrk gSA ckn esa mu
chtksa dks vkxs nwljs nskksa dks Hkstk tkrk gSA bldk ifj.kke gksrk gS fd bl fu;kZr ls mu
nskksa dks lcls vf/kd Qk;nk gksrk gS] tks nsk bu dEifu;ksa ds gksrs gSAa fodklkhy nskksa
dk mi;ksx fonskh dEifu;k vPNs ekSle vkSj lLrs Je ds fy;s gh djrh gSAa Hkkjr esa
vHkh rd ftrus Hkh vPNs chtksa dk fodkl gqvk gSA os lc lkoZtfud {ks= dh dEifu;ksa
;k Hkkjrh; dEifu;ksa ds }kjk gh fodflr gq;s gSAa Hkkjr dh jkVh; iz;ksxkkykvksa us Hkh
dkQh vPNs chtksa dk fodkl fd;k gSA

20

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

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ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrk


1 tuojh 2005 ls ubZ isVUs V O;oLFkk ykxw gks xbZ gSA blds iwoZ 31 fnlEcj dks
dsUnz ljdkj us bl O;oLFkk dks ykxw djus ds fy;s *v/;knsk* dk lgkjk fy;kA laln ds
Qjojh 2005 ds ctV l= esa ljdkj us jktuSfrd dykckft;ksa ds tfj, isVVsa fcy ikfjr
djok fy;k gSA vc Hkkjrh; isVaVs dkuwu 1970 cny x;k gSA
ubZ iVsUV O;oLFkk] foo O;kikj laxBu ds ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj (Trade
Related Intellectual Property Rights, TRIPS) le>kSrs ds rgr ykxw dh tk jgh gSA
bl ckSf)d lEifRr vf/kdkj le>kSrs dks tkuuk ge lcds fy, vko;d gSA
fVIl le>kSrs ds [k.M 5 dk vuqPNsn 27 dgrk gS Patents shall be available
for any inventions, whether products or processes in all fields of technologies

;kfu rduhd ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa mRikn vkSj izf;k isVUs V fn;s tk;sx
a sA Lo;a iztfur ikS/kksa
vkSj ikqvksa dks NksM+dj tks tho ;k ikS/ks iz;ksxkkyk esa tSo rduhd }kjk fodflr gksx
a s
vuqPNsn 3-b mu ij Hkh isVsUV ykxw gksxkA ftu thoksa dks isVsUV ls eq j[kk x;k gS]
mu ij Hkh pkj lky ckn le>kSrk ykxw gksus ds iquZfopkj fd;k tk,xkA
fVIl le>kSrs ds rgr [k.M 1 ds vuqPNsn 3] 4 vkSj 5 dk dFku gS fd fonsfk;ksa
dh ckSf)d lEifr ds lkFk Hkh] viuh gh lEiRrh tSlk jkVh; O;ogkj djuk gksxkA
ubZ isVUs V iz.kkyh ds rgr vkS|ksfxd rduhdh ds lHkh {ks=ksa esa gjsd vUosk.k dks
mRikn vkSj izf;k isVsUV nsus gh gksx
a s fVIl dk vuqPNsn&27A isVsUV laj{k.k dh vof/k
20 okZ gksxh fVIl dk vuqPNsn&33 ;g ubZ isVsUV iz.kkyh vesfjdh isVsUV iz.kkyh ls Hkh
vf/kd nq%lg gksxhA ubZ iz.kkyh ds dkj.k 20 okZ rd mRikn isVsUV vkSj vxys 20 okZ
rd izf;k isVsUV vf/kdkj gksaxsA vesfjdk dh rjg nokb;ksa ds u;s dEchuskuksa ij] ubZ
Mkslt
s ij] u;s mi;ksx :iksa ij Hkh isVsUV vf/kdkj ykxw gksaxsA vkSj ;s dsoy u;s mRiknksa
ij gh ugha] orZeku mRiknksa ij Hkh ykxw gksaxsA vesfjdk esa vkt 85 ls 90% Qhlnh
mRiknksa dks fdlh u fdlh izdkj dk isVVas laj{k.k feyk gqvk gSA blh izdkj Hkkjr esa Hkh
isVsaV vkSj blh rjg dk laj{k.k fdlh u fdlh :i esa gekjs nok mRiknksa ds de ls de
70 ls 80% Qhlnh ij 20 okZ ls T;knk yEch vof/k ds fy;s yxkus gksxasA
ifj.kkeLo:i ,dN= mRikn isVsVa ,dkf/kdkj dk;e gks tkus ls nokb;kssa ds nke nl xquk
ls T;knk ;kfu 1000 Qhlnh rd c<+ tkus dh lEHkkouk gSA ftu nskksa esa mRikn isVsUV
iz.kkyh ykxw gS muds mnkgj.k ls bl ckr dks le>k tk ldrk gSA eku yhft,
jsuhVhMhu & tSusfVd nokbZ XySDlks uked cgqjkVh; dEiuh cukrh gS vkSj bldk nl
xksyh dk ikk ikfdLrku esa 260 :- esa] vesfjdk esa 744-65 :i;s es]a baXyS.M esa 481-31
:i;s esa cspk tkrk gSA bu lHkh nskksa esa mRikn isVVsa iz.kkyh ykxw gS tcfd Hkkjr esa ;gh
nok ek= 29-03 :i;s esa feyrh gSA ;gka vHkh mRikn isVVsa iz.kkyh ykxw ugha gS blh rjg
cgqjkVh; dEiuh lhck xkbxh] MkbDyks fQukd&oksojku uked nokbZ dh nl xksyh
21

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

ikfdLrku esa 55-80 :i;s] bXyS.M esa 95-84 :i;s] vesfjdk esa 239-47 :i;s vkSj Hkkjr esa
5-96 :i;s esa csprh gSA XySDlks rFkk lhck xkbxh Hkkjr ds foijhr vU; rhu nskksa esa nl
xquk ls pkyhl xquk ;kfu 1000 ls 4000 Qhlnh T;knk dher olwy jgh gSaA Hkkjr esa bu
dEifu;ksa ds vfrfj vkSj Hkh dbZ dEifu;k bu nokb;ksa dks cukrh gaS vkSj bl izdkj
dherksa esa eqdkcyk (competition) gksus ds dkj.k bu nokb;ksa dh dhersa cgqr de gaSA
vU; rhuksa nskksa esa dsoy ;gh nks cgqjkVh; dEifu;ka bu nks nokb;ksa dks csp jgh gSAa ubZ
iz.kkyh ds vUrZxr Hkkjr dh isVsaV O;oLFkk Hkh vesfjdk] baXyS.M vkSj ikfdLrku tSlh gks
tk;sxh rFkk ,dkf/kdkj gksus ds dkj.k nokb;ksa dh dhersa dbZ xquk yxHkx 1000 ls 4000
Qhlnh rd c<+ tk;ax
s hA
;g vlj flQZ ubZ nokb;ksa ij gh ugha cfYd orZeku nokb;ksa ds dEchuskuks]a Mkslt
s
:iksa ij Hkh gksxk vkSj muds nke Hkh mlh vuqikr esa c<+ tk;saxAs

22

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

lsok {ks=
lsok {ks= ;kfu cSad] chek] ifjogu] nwjlapkj] ehfM;k] foKkiu] LokLF;] fk{kk vkfn
igyh ckj kkfey fd;k x;k gSA iwoZ ds xSV le>kSrs esa ;s fok; kkfey ugha FksA lsok
le>kSrs dk vuqPNsn &2 dgrk gS Services include any service in any sector except
services supplied in the excercise of governmental authority iSjk 3(c) vkSj LiV
djrk gS& A service supplied in the exercise of governmental authority means
any service which is supplied neither on a commercial basis, nor in competition
with one or more service suppliers vFkkZr~ ljdkjh izkklfud dk;ksZa vkSj lSfud dk;ksZa

dks NksM+ lsokvksa ds lHkh {ks= bl le>kSrs esa kkfey dj fy;s x;s gSaA uxj egkikfydkvksa
}kjk fk{kk] LokLF;] ty] dy vkSj lQkbZ O;oLFkk Hkh lsokvksa ds le>kSrs esa vk x;h gS
blhfy;s rks le>kSrk LiV dgrk gS & vuqPNsn &1 iSjk 3 (a) measures taken by (i)
Central, regional or local governments and authorities and (ii) non governmental
bodies in the exercise of power delegated by central, regional or local
governments or authoritiesA bruk O;kid gS ;g le>kSrk fd ljdjh izkklfud vkSj

lSfud dk;ksZa dks NksM+ izR;sd lsok ds {ks= esa fonskh dEifu;ksa dks O;kikj dh iwjh NwV nsuh
gksxhA le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn &2 dk iSjk 1 dgrk gS with respect to any measure
covered by this agreement, each member shall accord immediately and
unconditionally to services and service suppliers of any other member, treatment
no less favorable than that it accords to like services and service suppliers of any
other country ;kfu lcds lkFk jkVh; O;ogkj djuk gksxkA

lsok {ks= bruk lkQ D;ksa cuk;k x;k gS vkSj mls bruh tYnh foo O;kij esa D;kas
tksMk+ x;k gS] mls le>us ds fy;s ;g tkuuk t:jh gS fd fodflr nskksa ds blesa D;k
fgr gaSA fodflr nskksa dh vFkZO;oLFkkvksa esa lsok {ks= dk lcls T;knk fgLlk gSA
fLoV~tjySaM tSls nskksa dh 90 Qhlnh vkenuh lsok {ks= ls gksrh gSA teZuh] kal] baXyS.M
vkSj vesfjdk esa nks&frgkbZ ls T;knk jkstxkj lsokvksa ds dkjksckj ls gh feys gSaA lwpuk
kfUr lSVykbV Vh- oh- us lsok {ks= esa cgqr btkQk fd;k gSA d`fk ds izkFkfed {ks= vkSj
m|ksxksa ds f}rh; {ks= dks lapkfyr vkSj fu;fU=r djus esa lsokvksa ds rhljs {ks= vFkZ
O;oLFkkvksa ds rhu {ks= ekus tkrs gSAa dh egRoiw.kZ Hkwfedk gS vFkkZr ;fn lsokvksa ij
vkidk dCtk gS rks d`fk vkSj m|ksx Loeso vkids fu;U=.k esa vk tk;sx
a sA
lsok {ks= esa lcls egRoiw.kZ fokh; lsok cSad vkSj chek vkSj nwj&lapkj jsfM;ks]a
nwjnkZu] VsyhQksu vkfn gSAa vkt fodflr nskksa ds nl cM+s cSadkas ds ikl nqfu;k dh nks
frgkbZ iwath dh fefYd;r gSA tkiku ds rhu cM+s cSadksa esa izR;sd ds ikl Hkkjr ds ldy
?kjsyw mRikn ds rhu xquk ls T;knk iwath gSA vesfjdk] teZuh vkSj baXyS.M ds cSadksa dh Hkh
;gh fLFkfr gSA ;s cSad foo jktuhfr ds ek/;e tks iSls ds lgkjs pyrh gS vkSj foo
23

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

O;kij tks jktuhfr ds ek/;e ls pyrk gS ij dCtk tek, gSAa bu cSadks ds dkjksckj esa
dksbZ fu;e&dkuwu ugha pyrs] u gh ;s fdlh nsk ds fu;e&dkuwuksa ls ca/ks gSAa
vjcksa&[kjcksa dk fuiVkjk {k.k Hkj esa dj nsrs gSaA nwj lapkj] lwpuk vkSj fopkj QSykus dk
lcls cM+k ra= cu x;k gSA D;k lwpuk nsuh gS vkSj fdl rjg ds fopkj QSYkkus gSa
nwj&lapkj ra= ij dCtk tek;s cSBs cM+&
s cM+s iwath&ifr (CNN, Star. T. V., BBC vkfn)
r; djrs gSaA budk lcls egoiw.kZ mn~ns; gS Homogenisation of culture, lkaLd`frd
fofHkkrkvksa dks uV dj *lkaLd`frd ,drk* cukukA nskh yksx D;k [kk,a] D;k ih;sa] dSls
jga]s dSls mBs&
a cSB]sa dSls *fodflr* gksa vkSj vk/kqfud cusa] ifpeh thou kSyh ds vuq: i ;s
izpkj ek/;e ;g lc gesa fl[kkrs gSaA vkSj vc bu nksuksa {ks=ksa esa geus vius nsk dks iwjh
rjg fonskh cSadksa ds dCts esa ns fn;k gSA vkSj yksxksa dh fnup;kZ dks fonskh nwjlapkj
dEifu;k r; djsaxhA
lsok le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn&16 ds vuqlkj lnL; nskksa dh lsok dEifu;ksa ;k O;f;ksa
ij dksbZ Hkh izfrcU/kkRed fu;e&dkuwu yxkus ls jksdk x;k gSA ge bldk fdruk Qk;nk
mBk ldrs gS]a dgk ugha tk ldrkA u;s&u;s cktkj voljksa dk vlyh Qk;nk rks lsok
{ks= esa dk;Zjr cM+h cgqjkVh; dEifu;k gh mBk;saxh ftuds ikl vk/kqfud] dEI;wVj ;q
Lopkfyr rduhdsa gSa tks dke dks rsth ls fuiVk ldrh gSAa gekjs nsk esa ljdkj }kjk
lapkfyr lsokvksa cSadks]a chek dEifu;ksa] ifjogu] jsyos] VsyhQksu] jsfM;ksa vkSj nwjnkZu
vkfn dh gkyr cgqr [kLrk gSA ;fn fonskh lsok dEifu;ksa dks NwV ns nh tk; rks ;s
izfrLi/kkZ esa dgka rd fVd ik;sx
a h \ vr% ekdssZV ,Dlsl voljksa dk vlyh Qk;nk
cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks gh feysxkA

24

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

laoS/kkfud elys
WTO ls fuEu laoS/kkfud dfBukb;k mRiUu gksx
a h&

1 jkV ds lapkyu (Governance) ij ewyHkwr izHkko gksxkA


2 lEizHkq rkdr dks bLrseky djus dh {kerk uV gks tk;sxhA
3 [kk|k esa Hkkjr dh vkRe fuHkZjrk lekIr gksxh] vkSj jkT;ksa dk [kk|] lqj{kk miyC/k
djkus dk vf/kdkj de gks tk;sxkA
4 cgqla[;d Hkkjrh; fdlkuksa dh vkthfodk dk vf/kdkj izHkkfor gksxkA ;fn mPp
mRiknu nsuos kys chtkas ij fdlkuksa dk vf/kdkj ugha jgsxk rks [kk|k mRiknu ij izfrdwy
vlj iM+x
s kA
5 nokvksa ds nkeksa esa dbZ xquk o`f) gksus ls Hkkjrh; yksxksa dk LokLF; dk vf/kdkj
izHkkfor gksxkA
6 yksxksa ds thus ds vf/kdkj dks lqjf{kr j[kus dk mkjnkf;Ro ljdkj dks NksM+uk
iM+x
s k tcfd lafo/kku ds eqrkfcd jkT; ;g mkjnkf;Ro ugha NksM+ ldrkA
7 cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa vkSj NksVs Hkkjrh; m|ksxksa dh vleku izfr;ksfxrk dks c<+kok
nsuk gksxk] tcfd laoS/kkfud ftEesnkjh ds vuq:i vleku ds lkFk vleku O;ogkj djuk
pkfg;sA
8 vkS|ksfxd fodkl dks mu rjhdksa ls jksdk tk;sxk ftudh btktr lafo/kku ugha nsrk
gSA
9 Hkkjrh; lafo/kku dk la?kh; Lo:i uV gksxkA
10 vius oSfod Hkfo; ds ckjs esa iwjh tkudkjh ds lkFk ppkZ djus dk yksxksa dk
vf/kdkj lekIr gks tk;sxkA
11 dkuwuksa] tSls 1970 dk isVUs V dkuwu] dks turk ds fgrksa ds foijhr cukuk gksxkA
foo O;kikj laxBu ds nk;js dks ifjHkkfkr djrs gq;s vuqPNsn &2 ds iSjk &1 esa
dgk x;k gS The WTO shall provide the common constiutional framework for
the conduct of trade relations among the members in matters related to the
agreements and associated legal instruments------ ;kfu MCY;w- Vh- vks- lnL; nskksa

ds chp O;kikj ds fy;s le>kSrs ls lECkfU/kr vkSj tqM+s gq;s dkuwuh igyqvksa ij ,d leku
laLFkkxr <kapk cuk,xkA foo O;kikj laxBu ds dk;kaZs ds vUrZxr vuqPNsn&3 ds iSjk 5
esa dgk x;k gS With a view to acheiving greater coherence in global economic
policy making, the WTO shall cooperate, as approsiate, with the international
25

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)
Monetary fund (IMF)and with the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (World Bank) and its affiliated agencies ;kfu foo O;kikj laxBu

Hkwe.Myh; vkfFkZd fodkl dh uhfr r; djus ds fy;s vkbZ- ,e- ,Q- vkSj foo cSad ls
lg;ksx djsxkA vuqPNsn 4 ds iSjk 7 esa dgk x;k gS fd The ministerial conference
(which shall carry out the functions of the WTO) shall establisha Committee on
Trade and Development, a Committee on Balance-of-payments Restrictions and
a Committe on Budget, Finance and Administration which shall carry out the
functions assigned to them by this agreement..... ;kfu O;kikj vkSj fodkl lfefr]

Hkqxrku larqyu ds izfrcU/kksa dh lfefr] vkSj ctV] fok vkSj izkklu lfefr le>kSrs ds
vUrxZr fn;s x;s dk;ksZa dks iwjk djsx
a hA bu rhuksa vuqPNsnkas dh ckrksa ls LiV gks tkrk gS
fd WTO le>kSrs ds ckn jkVh; vFkZ O;oLFkkvksa vkSj izkFkfedrkvksa dk dksbZ vFkZ ugha
jg tk;sxkA vkfFkZd fodkl dh Hkwe.Myh; uhfr foo O;kikj laxBu }kjk foo cSad vkSj
vkbZ- ,e- ,Q- dh enn ls cuk;h tk;sxh vkSj mldh izkFkfedrk;sa jkVh; izkFkfedrkvksa
ls vyx gksasxhA lHkh nskksa ds fy;s ,d leku dkuwu cusx
a s tcfd lnL;] nskksa dh
vFkZO;oLFkkvksa vkSj foo O;kikj esa ?kksj vlekurk,a gSa vkSj ;s dkuwu jkVh; dkuwuksa ls
ij gksx
a sA lHkh nskksa dks vius dkuwwu WTO ds dkuwuksa ds eqrkfcd cukus gkax
s sA bl
lUnHkZ esa vuqPNsn &16 dk iSjk&4 LiV dgrk gS Each member shall ensure the
conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures with its
obligation as provided in the annexed agreements ;kfu lHkh lnL; nskksa ds

le>kSrs esa fn;s x;s mkjnkf;Roksa ds vuq:i vius dkuwu&fu;e vkSj izkklfud f;kvksa
dh vuq:irk lqfufpr djuh gksxhA blh vuqPNsn ds iSjk 5 ds eqrkfcd No
reservation may be made in respect of any provisons of the agreement.
Reservation may only be made in accordance with the provision set out in these
agreement vFkkZr~ le>kSrs ds foijhr dksbZ Hkh nsk fdlh Hkh izdkj dk cpko vkj{k.k
ugha dj ldrkA le>kSrs ds vuqPNsn&9 dk iSjk& 2 LiV djrk gS & The Ministerial
Conferrence and the General Council (to be constituted to carry out the function
of the WTO shall have the exclusive authority to adopt interpretations of this
agreement and of the Multifateral Trade Agreements O;k[;k djus dk vf/kdkj

MCY;w- Vh- vks- ds rgr cuus okyh fefuLVh;y dkUsal vkSj tujy dkmafly dks gksxkA
,sls esa gekjh lEizHkq laln dh gSfl;r D;k gksxh \ jcj LVSEi dh gksxh] tks foo
O;kikj laxBu ds dkuwuksa ij eqgj yxk;sxh vkSj ogka cSBs lkaln DydZ dk dke djasxs
D;ksfa d vuqPNsn &8 dk iSjk 1 dgrk gS The WTO shall have legal personality and
shall be accorded by each of its members such legal capacity as may be necessary
for the exercise of its function vFkkZr~ foo O;kikj laxBu dh dkuwuh gSfl;r gksxh
vkSj] iSjk &2 The WTO shall be accorded by each of its members such privilages
and in munities as are necessary for the excercise of its function foo O;kikj
26

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

laxBu dks jkVh; ljdkjksa }kjk vius dkuwuksa ds ij fokskkf/kdkj rFkk muls lqj{kk
fnyokuh gksxhA
laln dh lEizHkqrk rks lekIr gksxh gh] lkFk esa vlyh lEizHkq Hkkjrh; turk dk Hkh
bl le>kSrs esa dksbZ n[ky ugha jg tk;sxkA ogha nwljh rjQ cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dh
rkdr c<+ tk;sxhA foo O;kikj laXkBu fopkj foekZ ds fy;s xSj ljdkjh laxBuksa dks rks
vkefU=r djrk gS ijUrq turk dks ughaA vkSj xSj ljdkjh laLFkkvksa esa cgqjkVh; dEifu;k
izeq[k gSAa vuqPNsn &4 dk iSjk &2 dgrk gS & The General council (to be
constituted to carry out function of the WTO) may make appropriate
arrangements for consultation and cooperation with non govermmental
organisation concerned with matters related to those of the WTO vFkkZRk~ mu

cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa tks foo O;kikj laxBu ds elyksa ls lcls T;knk tqM+h gSa ls fopkj
foekZ vkSj lg;ksx dk cankscLr fd;k tk;sxkA
lafo/kku dk ewy fl)kUr gS fd fcuk jkT;ksa dh lgefr fy;s muds vf/kdkjksa esa dksbZ
dVkSrh ugha dh tk ldrhA blds fy;s lafo/kku esa jkT; vf/kdkj {ks=ksa dh *jkT; lwph* Hkh
nh gSA lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 249 ds vuqlkj] jkT; lHkh esa nks frgkbZ cgqer ls izLrko ikl
djok dj gh dsUnz *jkT; lwph* ds {ks=ksa esa dkuwu cuk ldrk gSA lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 252
ds eqrkfcd jkT;ksa dh btktr ysdj gh dsUnz ljdkj muds vf/kdkj {ks=ksa ls lECkfU/kr
dkuwu cuk ldrh gSA
ysfdu MCY;w- Vh- vks- tSls cgqvk;keh vUrZjkVh; le>kSrs dks djrs le; ljdkj us
jkT;ksa ls iwNs fcuk gh *jkT; lwph* ds {ks=ksa ds ckjs esa le>kSrk dj fy;k gS vksj dkuwu
cukus dk vf/kdkj gkfly dj fy;k gSA jkT; lwph ds ;s {ks= gS]a d`fk] d`fk ij lfClMh]
xjhcksa dks lLrk vukt miyC/k djkuk] lsok tSls fk{kk LokLF;] lQkbZ vkfn vkSj m|ksxA
bu lHkh {ks=ksa esa MCY;w- Vh- vks- le>kSrs ls jkT; ds vf/kdkjksa dk guu gksxkA lafo/kku dh
jkT; lwph esa fuEu foksk elys gSa ftu ij MCY;w- Vh- vks- le>kSrk gqvk gSA
lwph II vkbVe 6&lkoZtfud LokLF;] vLirky vkfn
14 d`fk vkSj d`fk kks/k] dhVksa ls lqj{kk vkSj ikqvksa dh chekfj;ksa ls cpkoA
18 Hkwfe] Hkwfe dk gLrkarj.k] d`fk _.k
23 [knku dk lapkyu vkSj [knku mRiknksa dk nksgu
24 m|ksx
26 jkT; ds vUnj O;kikj vkSj okf.kT;
27 oLrqvksa dk mRiknu] vkiwfrZ vkSj forj.k
52 LFkkuh; miHkksx ds fy;s oLrqvksa ds izosk ij dj
ysfdu le>kSrk djrs o ljdkj us jkT; ljdkjksa vkSj fo/kku lHkkvksa dks fookl
esa ugha fy;kA d`fk lgk;rk lfClMh] [kk| vkiwfrZ] nok mi;ksx] jkT;ksa vksj LFkkuh;
cktkjksa esa O;kikfjd oLrqvksa ds izosk ij ikcUnh] ewY; fu;U=.k dh lekfIr] vkSj foksk
m|ksxksa esa fuosk vkfn ij le>kSrs dk O;kid izHkko iM+x
s kA lkFk gh vius ukxfjdksa dks
27

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

fk{kk vkSj LokLF; rFkk vU; ukxfjd lqfo/kkvksa&ty] fctyh] lQkbZ] vkfn nsus ds jkT;
vf/kdkjksa ij Hkh O;kid izHkko gksxkA
dqN {ks=ksa ds ckjs esa rks le>kSrs esa gh jkT; ljdkjksa vkSj LFkkuh; Lok;kkklh
fudk;ksa dh lgefr ysus dk lnL; nskksa ls vuqjks/k fd;k x;k gSA mnkgj.k ds fy,&
1& fVIl le>kSrs dk vuqPNsn &6 dk iSjk 2 dgrk gSS & Each member shall
notify the WTO Secretariat of the publications in which TRIMS may be found,
including those applied by regional and local governments and authorities within
their territories izR;sd lnL; nsk dks MCY;w- Vh- vks- lssVsfj;sV dks fVEl ls lEcfU/kr

izdkkuksa dh tkudkjh nsuh gksxh mlesa LFkkuh; vkSj {ks=h; ljdkjksa }kjk fd;s x;s
izdkku gks ldrs gSAa izdkku ls ;gka vFkZ fu;e] dkuwuks]a xtV vkfn ds izdkku ls gS
ftlls ikjnfkZrk cjdjkj jgsA
2& O;kikj dh rduhdh :dkoVksa ds ckjs esa gq, le>kSrs (Agreement on
technical Barriers To Trade) dk vuqPNsn &7 LFkkuh; fudk;ksa }kjk vuq:irk ds
fu/kkZj.k dk rjhdk (Procedures for Assessment of Conformity by Local
Government Bodies) crykrs gq;s dgrs gSa & With respect to thier local
government bodies within their territories, the members shall take such
reasonable measures as may be available to them to ensure compliance
by such bodies--
O;kikj esa vkus okyh rduhdh :dkoVksa dks nwj djus ds fy;s lnL; nskksa dks vius
LFkkuh; fudk;ksa jkT; ljdkj] uxj egkikfydk,a] ftyk ifjkn vkfn ds fu;e dkuwu
dk vuqikyu (Compliance) djus ds fy;s t:jh dne mBkus gksaxsA
3- lsok le>kSrs dk vuqPNsn &1 dk iSjk 3(a) lsok le>kSrs ds fy;s mBk;s x;s
dneksa (Measures) dks ifjHkkfkr djrs gq;s dgrk gS fd] For the Purpose of this
agreement measures by members means measures taken by (i) central,
regional or local governments and authorities (ii) non governmental
bodies in the exercise of powers delegated by central, regional or local
governments or authorities.
;kfu dsUnzh;] {ks=h; vkSj LFkkuh; ljdkjksa vkSj fudk;ksa ;gka rd fd xSj ljdkjh
fudk;ksa }kjk mBk;s x;s dne Hkh le>kSrs dh ifjHkkkk esa kkfey gks x;s gSaA
ge le>kSrs ls dHkh Hkh vyx gks ldrs gSaA MCY;w- Vh- vks- le>kSrs (Agreement
of Establishment of the W.T.O.) dk vuqPNsn &15 vyx gksus (withdrawal) dh
ckr djrk gSA blds vuqlkj Any member may withdraw from this agreement.
Such withdrawal shall apply both to this agreement & the WTO agreement
and shall take effect upon the expiration of six months from the date on
which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director General of
28

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)
the WTO vFkkZRk~ dksbZ Hkh nsk le>kSrk ls vyx gks ldrk gS MCY;w - Vh- vks- ds

egkfunskd dks bl vkk; dh fyf[kr lwpuk feyus ds 6 eghus ckn izHkkoh gks tk;sxkA
nsk es]a ;fn MCY;w- Vh- vks- fojks/kh ljdkj curh gS rks og le>kSrs ls vyx gksus dk
fu.kZ; mijks vuqPNsn ds vUrZxr ys ldrh gSA
le>kSrk fodkl ds orZeku ekMy Hkwe.Myhdj.k dh ifpeh vo/kkj.kk dks iwjh
nqfu;k ij Fkksius dk ,d vkSj iz;kl gSA uaxk cktkjokn vkSj fod`r miHkkskokn bl
le>kSrs ds funsZkd fl)kUr gSAa *bLrseky djks vkSj Qsd
a ks* (Use and Throw) dh
ewY;ghu laLd`fr bldk dop gSA lkekftd & vkfFkZd vlekurk bldks iqV djrh gS
vkSj foLFkkiu] csjkstxkjh] lkaLd`frd iru vkSj ekuork dk kl bldk ifj.kke gSA
jktuhfrd dwVuhfrd izHkqRo blds gfFk;kj gSAa izd`fr ds fueZe vfu;af=r nksgu ij ;g
lkjk [ksy fVdk gqvk gSA le>kSrs dk fojks/k oLrqr% fodkl dh ekU;rkvksa dks pqukSrh gSS
vkSj izd`fr ds lkFk lkeatL;iw.kZ lgp;Z] lkekftd vkfFkZd lekurk] LokoyEcu vkSj
jkstxkj] lkaLd`frd vfLerk vkSj jktuSfrd vktknh dks cjdjkj j[kus ds fy;s u;s fodkl
ds fodYi dh [kkst dk iz;kl gSA yM+kbZ flQZ bl le>kSrs ds gh f[kykQ ugha gS cfYd
iwjh ekuo fojks/kh O;oLFkk ds f[kykQ gSA

29

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

oSV dk lp \
vrqy e- nskeq[k
1 vizSy 2005 ls nsk ds 21 jkT;ksa esa oSV dkuwu ykxw gSA oSV ykxw gksus ds iwoZ ls
gh nsk Hkj esa blds f[kykQ yxkrkj fojks/k&iznkZu tkjh gS] ckotwn blds ljdkj us oSV
yxkdj u dsoy nsk ds m|eh vkSj O;kikjh oxZ cfYd lEiw.kZ jkV dks vpEHks esa Mky
fn;k gSA egRoiw.kZ ;g gS fd ljdkj us vc rd ;g LiV ugha fd;k gS fd oSV ykxw
djus ds ihNs mldk edln vkSj etcwjh D;k gS\ D;ksa ljdkj lkjs fojks/kksa dks utj
vankt djds oSV yxk jgh gS \ vkSj u gh ljdkj us O;kikfj;ksa&m|fe;ksa ls ;g tkuus
dh dksfkk dh gS fd oSV ykxw gksus ls mUgs D;k ijskkuh gS \ uk gh ljdkj us mudh
ijskkfu;ksa dks nwj djus ds lanHkZ esa dksbZ Bksl iz;kl fd;s gSAa vyckk ljdkj dh iwjh
dksfkk oSV fojks/kh vkanksyu dks] *lke&nke&naM&Hksn* fdlh Hkh uhfr ls nck nsus dh gSA
tks fd iwjh rjg ls ljdkjh rkukkkgh dk lwpd gSA
21 Qjojh 2005 dks Hkkjr can ds lkFk kq: gqvk fojks/k iznkZuksa dk flyflyk
yxkrkj tkjh gSA bl nkSjku jkVO;kih canh ds dkj.k nsk dks gks jgs Hkkjh vkfFkZd
uqdlkuksa] ds ckotwn oSV yxkus ds ihNs ljdkjh ftn] mldh eakkvksa ds izfr kd iSnk
djrh gSA [kkl ckr ;g gS fd ;g fojks/k dsoy mu jkT;ksa esa ugha gS tgk oSV ykxw gqvk
gS cfYd iwjs nsk esa gS vkSj mu jkT;ksa esa dgha T;knk gS tgk jkT; ljdkj us fdlh Hkh
dkj.k ls vc rd oSV ykxw ugha fd;k gSA 1 vizSYk dks 21 jkT;ksa esa oSV ykxw gqvkA
ljdkj dk ekuuk gS fd nsk ds nks frgkbZ jkT;ksa esa oSV yx x;k gS vkSj dqN jkT; gh gSa
ftUgkaus s ykxw ugha fd;k gS] ogk Hkh tYnh gh ykxw gks tk;sxkA ysfdu ns[kus okyh ckr ;g
gS fd ftu jkT;ksa esa oSV ykxw gS mudk nsk ds vkfFkZd <kps esa fdruk ;ksxnku gSA buesa
ls T;knkrj jkT; vR;ar NksVs gSa mnkgj.k ds fy, mRRkj&iwoZ ds jkT; tks fd Lo;a gh
ljdkjh vuqnku ij ftank gSaA dsoy fnYyh] egkjkV] caxky vkSj iatkc dks NksM+ fn;k
tk; rks vkS|ksfxd n`fV ls oSV ykxw djus okyk dksbZ jkT; ,slk ugha gS ftldh miHkksDrk
la[;k oSV u ykxw djus okys jkT; ls vf/kd gSA vkSj u gh ;s jkT; ,sls gSa tks jkVh;
vkfFkZd <kpksa esa cgqr vf/kd ;ksxnku djrs gSAa ij ls bu jkT;ksa dh ljdkjas oSV fojks/kh
vkanksyu ds dkj.k cqjh rjg ijskku gSaA blds foijhr oSV ykxw u djus okys jkT;ksa ds
<kps dks ns[ksa rks rLohj dqN vkSj gh fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA tula[;k dh n`fV ;s jkT;
rfeyukMq] xqtjkr] jktLFkku] e/;iznsk] Nkhlx<+] mkjiznsk] >kj[k.M vkSj mkjkapy&
,sls gSa ftudh dqy tula[;k nsk ds ksk jkT;ksa ds vk/ks ls T;knk gSA bu jkT;ksa dh dqy
tula[;k yxHkx 64 djksM+ gSA bldk eryc gS fd nsk dh vk/ks ls T;knk vkcknh oSV
30 foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

ds ek/;e ls jkV dks dksbZ ;ksxnku ugha ns jghA buesa xqtjkr jkT; ds ukxfjdkas dh
miHkksx o ; kfDr nsk ds vU; jkT;ksa dsjy NksM+dj ls dgha T;knk gSA mkjiznsk]
jktLFkku] rfeyukMq] e/;iznsk ,sls jkT; gSa ftudh izfr O;fDr vk; Hkys gh de gks
ysfdu tula[;k bruh T;knk gS fd os ckdh jkT;ksa ds yxHkx cjkcj gh nsk ds vkfFkZd
<kps esa ;ksxnku djrs gSAa >kj[k.M vkSj Nkhlx<+ ,sls jkT;s gaS ftudh izkd`frd lalk/kuksa
dh izpqjrk ij vU; lHkh jkT;ksa dk }sk j[kuk LokHkkfod gSA bldk lh/kk eryc ;g gSa
fd ;s oks jkT; gSa tks gSfl;r okys gS vkSj ftuds lg;ksx ds fcuk nsk esa *oSV* D;k] fdlh
Hkh rjg dk dksbZ dkuwu izHkkoh gksuk u dsoy ukeqefdu gS cfYd vlaHko gSA ckotwn
blds dsanz ljdkj dh ftn vkSj mldh /kefd;k fdlh fonskh lkftk dk fgLlk utj
vkrh gSaA

ljdkjh rdZ
fiNys okZ Hkh rRdkyhu ljdkj us oSV ykxw djus dk iz;kl fd;k FkkA ysfdu
O;kikjh lewgksa ds m}sx dks ns[krs gq, mUgs ;g izLrko okil ysuk iM+kA ysfdu rc gekjs
tSls yksxksa dk ekuuk Fkk fd ;g iz;kl ,d fn[kkok ek= gSA ftlds ek/;e ls ;g tkuus
dh dksfkk dh x;h fd oLrqr% oSV dk fojks/k fdu jkT;ksa esa T;knk eq[kj gks ldrk gSA
vkSj nwljk ;g fd fojks/k dh fLFkfr esa ljdkjh j.kuhfr D;k gks ldrh gSA njvly oSV
2005&06 ds fokh; okZ esa gh ykxw gksuk Fkk& D;ksa \ bl izu dk lek/kku vkxs Lor% gh
ikBdksa dks fey tk,xkA tks fd vc ykxw gks pqdk gSA vkSj ljdkj iwoZ fu/kkZfjr j.kuhfr
ds vk/kkj ij gh oSV ykxw dj jgh gSA
oSV ykxw djus ds vius mn~ns;ksa dk izpkj&izlkj ljdkj lapkj ek/;eksa Vh- oh-]
lekpkj i=] jsfM;ks vkfn ds tfj, c[kwch dj jgh gSA ljdkjh izpkj dk dqy
yCcks&yqckc ;g gS fd oSV ls vPNk jkV ds fy, dksbZ VSDl dkuwu ughaA ljdkjh izpkj
vfHk;ku dk lcls T;knk tksj ;g crkus esa gS fd *oSV* vkus ls eagxkbZ ugha c<+sxh] O;kikj
esa ikjnfkZrk (Transperency) jgsxh ljdkj ds dj dh olwyh T;knk gksxh rFkk nsk dk
fokh; ?kkVk de gksxkA ljdkjh ?kksk.kk gS fd oSV ds lkFk vU; nwljs VSDl elyu
VuZvksoj] ljpktZ] vfrfjDr ljpktZ] vkWDVk;] izosk dj] O;olk; dj] fchdj vkfn
lekIr gksaxAs D;k ljdkj ds ;s nkos lp gSa ;k dsoy >qu>quk \ bl izu dk tokc Hkh
gesa Lor% feysxkA ;gk oSls ;g crkus dh t:jr gS fd tc ljdkj O;kikj esa ikjnfkZrk
(Transperency) dh ckr djrh gS rks mldk bjknk turk dks ;g crkus dk gS fd nsk
dk O;kikjh lekt pksj vkSj csbZeku gSA og VSDl dh pksjh dj nsk dks uqdlku igqpk jgk
gSA vc rd ds VSDl dkuwu bl pksjh vkSj csbZekuh ij vadqk yxkus esa ukdke gSaA oSV ds
}kjk bu ij vadqk yxsxk] pksjh :dsxh vkSj nsk dh dj olwyh ls gksus okyh vk; c<+x
s hA
;gh dkj.k gS fd ljdkj bl ckr dks ckj&ckj nqgjkrh gS fd nsk dk fokh; ?kkVk de
gksxkA ljdkj bl ckr dks izpkfjr dj vius bl edln esa dke;kc jgh gS fd turk
dh utj esa O;kikjh lewgksa dh Nfo /kwfey dh tk, vkSj bl vkanksyu ls turk dks vyx
j[kk tk,A
31

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

Hkkjr esa oSV D;ksa \


;g ,d tfVy izu gSA bl izu ds tokc ds lkFk gh ikBdksa dks iwoZ izu fokh;
okZ 2005&06 esa gh oSV D;ksa ykxw gqvk] bldk tokc Hkh fey tk,xkA iqLrd ds izFke
ikB ds ek/;e ls vki lcdks foo O;kikj laxBu (W.T.O) le>kSrs ds fok; esa tkudkjh
fey x;h gksxhA Hkkjr us foo O;kikj laxBu dh lnL;rk Lohdkj dh gSA bldk vFkZ gS
fd Hkkjr dks nqfu;k esa vc] viuk O;kikj foo O;kikj laxBu ds dk;nksa ds fglkc ls
djuk gksxkA foo O;kikj laxBu le>kSrs esa (Homogeneous Tax Structure) leku dj
<kps dh ckr dgh x;h gSA vFkkZr foo O;kikj laxBu ds lHkh lnL; nskksa ds
*dj&dkuwu* ,d tSls gkas ftlls fd oSfod O;kikj esa dherksa ewY; ds Lrj ij fdlh
rjg dk dksbZ HksnHkko u gksA ns[kus esa ;g *dj&dkuwu* dkQh lqUnj vkSj
ekuorkoknh&lekurkoknh yxrk gSA ysfdu bldh lPpkbZ dqN vkSj gS] vkSj og ;g fd
ekhuksa }kjk fufeZr vkSj euq;ksa }kjk fufeZr oLrqvksa ds nke ,d tSls gks tk,axsA tcfd
nksuksa izdkjksa ls fufeZr oLrqvksa dh ykxr dher vkSj mudk mn~ns; fHkUu gSA ;a=ksa ls
fuekZ.k dk mn~ns; cktkjiwfrZ gS vkSj euq; }kjk fuekZ.k dk mn~ns; jkstxkj iwfrZ gSA
;wjksih; nskksa esa tula[;k de gS blfy, ogk dh cM+h&cM+h cgqjkVh; dEifu;k vf/kdre
mRiknu ;a=ksa }kjk djrh gSaA tcfd Hkkjr tSls tula[;k ckgqy ,fk;kbZ ds vfdh nskksa
esa yksxksas ds jkstxkj dks /;ku esa j[kdj vf/kdre mRiknu euq;ksa }kjk gksrk gSA
foo O;kikj laxBu esa bl le; 126 nsk lnL; gSAa ftlesa ls 123 nskksa us vius
;gk *oSV* dkuwu dks ekU;rk nh gSA buesa ls vf/kdkak nsk oks gSa ftuesa ;a=ksa }kjk fuekZ.k
gksrk gSA tcfd *oSV* ykxw djus okys ksk nskksa us ;wjksih;&vejhdh ncko esa *oSV* ykxw
fd;k gSA ysfdu [kkl ckr ;g gS fd nqfu;kHkj esa foo O;kikj laxBu ds ek/;e ls
nknkfxjh djus okys vefjdk us [kqn vius ;gk *oSV* ykxw ugha fd;k gSA Hkkjr oSV ykxw
djus okyk 124 ok nsk gSA ;wjksih; nskksa us gh viuh cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks ykHk igqpkus
ds fy, Hkkjr ij yxkrkj *oSV* ykxw djus dk ncko cuk;kA bldk vanktk gedks bl
ckr ls yx tk,xk fd iwoZ esa Hkkjr ljdkj geskk ;g oknk djrh jgh fd ;fn fdlh ,d
jkT; us Hkh *oSV* ykxw ugha fd;k rks *oSV* ykxw ugha gksxkA ysfdu ncko bruk T;knk Fkk
fd gj&gky esa mlsA 1 viSzy ls oSV ykxw djuk iM+k pkgs 21 jkT;ksa essa gh lgh] Hkkjh
fojks/k ds ckotwnA ncko fdruk tcjnLr Fkk bldks le>us ds fy, ;g rF; dkQh gS&
14&15 ekpZ 2005 dks bVyh esa foo O;kikj laxBu ds lnL; nskksa ds izfrfuf/k;ksa dh
cSBd gqbZA cSBd esa Hkkjrh; izfrfu/kh dks cM+s gh dM+s kCnksa esa 1 vizSy ls *oSV* ykxw djus
dks dgk x;kA

oSV D;k gS \
oSV (VAT) dk iwjk uke] ewY; of/kZr dj iz.kkyh gSA ;wjksih; nsk kal eas yxHkx
1893 bZ- ds vkl&ikl ;g *dj&iz.kkyh* igyh ckj vfLrRo esa vkbZA ftls ;wjksih; nskksa us
vius ;gk /khjs&/khjs ykxw fd;kA bl dj&iz.kkyh (Tax System) ds rgr fdlh Hkh oLrq
dh fch ij] fu;r nj ls] oLrq dh ftruh ckj fch gksrh gS mruh ckj ml ij dj
32

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)
(Tax) yxk;k tkrk gSA ;g ,d LFkku ij yxusokyk (Singal Point tax) dj ugha gSA
;g vussd LFkkuksa ij(Multi Point Tax) yxus okyk dj gSA blhfy, oLrq ds ewY; esa

ckj&ckj o`f) gksrh gSA vkSj mRiknd ls vafre xzkgd rd oLrq ds igqpus ij oLrq ds
ewY; esa Hkkjh o`f) gks tkrh gSA ;g dj oLrq ds vf/kdre fch dher (MRP) ij yxrk
gS u fd fosrk ds ykHk ijA bldks ge bl mnkgj.k ls vklkuh ls le> ldrs gSaA
eku fy;k fd fdlh O;fDr us ,d oLrq [kjhnh ftldk vf/kdre fch ewY; 100/:i;k gSA vc ;fn ml oLrq ij *oSV* nj 4% gS rks ml O;fDr dks ml oLrq dh dher
104/- :i;s vnk djuh iM+x
s hA vFkkZr~ VSDl yxHkx 4 :-A vc bl oLrq dks iqu% fch
fd;k x;k 150/- :- esa rks 4% dh nj ls oSV 6/- :- vc bl oLrq ds [kjhnnkj dks dher
nsuh iM+x
s h 156/- :- f}rh; fosrk ftlus 156/- :- esa cspk dks iwoZ esa dh x;h [kjhnh
ftl ij 4/- :- oSV vnk fd;k x;k Fkk ij fn;k x;k oSV 4 :- bl fch esa fy;s x;s
oSV 6 :- esa ls okil fey tk;sxkA vr% dqy oSV yxk 2/- :- tks fd fch ewY; vkSj
[kjhn ewY; dk vUrj gSA ysfdu bl oSV dh dher miHkksDrk dks egaxkbZ ds :i esa
pqdkuh iM+x
s h] D;ksafd og vafre [kjhnnkj gSA
ysfdu bl iz.kkyh esa nqdkunkjksa dks cM+s iSekus ij fglkc&fdrkc dk C;kSjk j[kuk
iM+x
s k rFkk viuh oSV vnk;xh dh iquZokilh ds fy, lkeku dh fch dk bartkj djuk
iM+x
s kA
bldks ge ,d nwljs mnkgj.k ls Hkh le> ldrs gSAa ekuk fdlh O;fDr us ,d
eghus esa ,d yk[k 1]00]000-00 dh [kjhnh dhA mldh bl [kjhnh ij ;fn 4% dh nj
ls oSV gS rks mls 4000/-:- pkj gtkj :i;s oSV ds :i esa nsus gksaxsA mlus eghus esa nks
yk[k 2]00]000-00 :i;s esa fch fd;k rks mls 20]000/-:- chl gtkj :i;s oSV ds :i
esa feysxkA ftlesa ls pkj gtkj :i;s mldk iwoZ esa fd;k x;k oSV Hkqxrku gS vFkkZr~
mlUks oSV ds :i esa 16]000/-:- lksyg gtkj :i;s vnk fd;kA
vFkkZr~ 20]000&4000 = oSV 16]000/-:-

Hkkjr esa oSV <kpk


(VAT Structure in India)
Hkkjr esa nks rjg ls oSV yxsxk] ,d dsUnzh; (Central) nwljk jkT; (State) djA
dsUnzh; oSV nks izdkj dk gksxk &
1 Tax on goods - Excise duty mRikndj
2) Tax on Services - Service tax lsokdj
jkT; oSV Hkh nks izdkj dk gksxk &
1) Vat at the Place of Sals tax fchdj ds LFkku ij oSV
2) Service tax lsokdj
oSV yxus ls iwoZ jkT; esa dsoy fch dj Fkk tks dsoy ,d LFkku ij (Single
Point) FkkA mlds lkFk lsok dj ugha Fks] vc oSV ds lkFk lsokdj Hkh yxus okyk gSA
33

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

ljdkj dh ;kstuk gS fd dqN okZ ckn dsUnzh; vkSj jkT; oSV dks feykdj u;k
dj&dkuwu cuk;k tk;sxkA ftldk uke gksxk Goods and Service Tax (GST)A

fdruh oLrqvksa ij vkSj fdruk yxsxk oSV


egkjkV jkT; ds tgk vHkh oSV ykxw gS oSV vf/kfu;e (VAT Act) dh /kkjk 6 ds
vuqlkj yxHkx 50 oLrqvksa ij 0% oSV vFkkZr~ ;s oLrq,a oSV eqDrA 3 oLrqvksa ij 1%
Tosyjh] LVksu vkfn] 106 oLrqvksa ij 4%] 10 oLrqvksa ij 20% ls 34% isVksfy;e mRikn o
kjkc rFkk ksk lHkh oLrqvksa ij 12-5% tks oLrq,a ij ugha gSa mDr vf/kfu;e esa djhc
600 oLrqvksa dh lwph gSA ljdkj dh ;kstuk gS fd vkus okys fnuksa esa vkSj 2200 oLrqvksa
dks oSV ds nk;js esa yk;k tk;A rc dqy 2]000 oLrq,a oSV ds nk;js esa gksxhA bu 2]800
oLrqvksa esa ls yxHkx 2600 oLrqvksa ij 12-5% dh nj ls oSV yxsxkA
oSV ds nk;js esa vkus okyh oLrqvksa ij /;ku nsx
a s rks ljdkj dh ew[kZrk ij vkp;Z
fd, fcuk ge ugha jg ik,axsA oSV ls iwoZ dsoy lhy can (Packed) elkyksa ij gh VSDl
yxrk Fkk ysfdu vc lHkh [kqys elkyksa ij Hkh oSV yxsxkA feV~Vh dh [kjhn&fch ij
ljdkj us 4% oSV yxk;k gS Entry -C-21 ysfdu ;fn dksbZ dqEgkj feV~Vh [kjhn dj
mlls nhid fn;k cuk, rks og oSV eqDr gS Entry -A-15A bldk vFkZ gS fd dksbZ
dqEgkj tc feV~Vh [kjhnsxk rks 4% oSV nsxk ysfdu tc og feV~Vh ls nhid cukdj cspx
s k
rks vius fn;s x;s oSV dh okilh ugha ys ik;sxk D;ksafd nhid oSV eqDr gSA ljdkj dgsxh
ge nsk dh feV~Vh cpkdj] nsk dk i;kZoj.k cpk jgs gSAa gS dksbZ tokc vkids ikl! iwoZ
esa ukfj;y ij dksbZ VSDl ugha FkkA ysfdu vc 4% oSV gSA
[kknh ,oa xzkeks|ksx] xzkeh.k jkstxkj dks c<+kok nsus dk lcls vPNk ek/;e gSA
blfy, [kknh ij dHkh fdlh ljdkj us dksbZ dj (Tax) ugha yxk;kA vc [kknh ds
flys&flyk;s (Readymade) oL=ksa ij oSV gSA vFkkZr~ nsk dk frjaxk >aMk oSV ds nk;js esa
gSA vaxzstksa ds f[kykQ la?kkZ esa egkRek xka/kh dk ued lR;kxzg ehy dk iRFkj lkfcr
gqvk vkSj varr% vaxzstksa dks Hkkjr NksM+uk iM+kA vaxzstksa }kjk ued ij yxk;s x;s dj ds
f[kykQ xka/khth us nkaMh ;k=k dj] ued dkuwu rksM+dj vaxzstksa dks pqukSrh nh FkhA vkSj
vc nkaMh ;k=k ds 75 okZ iwjs gkssus ij] xka/kh dk vuq;k;h dgus okyh ljdkj us oSV ds
ek/;e ls ued ij 4% dj (Tax) Entry-C-78yxkdj nsk dks uk;kc rksgQk fn;k
gSA xoZ gS gesa bu rFkkdfFkr vkSj ljdkjh xka/khokfn;ksa ij tks nkaMh;k=k dj xka/kh dh
vkRek dks kkafr iznku dj jgs gaSA

dkSu Hkjsxk oSV


,sls lHkh mRiknd ;k fosrk ftudk okfkZd [kjsnh&fch 5 yk[k gksxh oks oSV vnk
djsx
a sA ,sls fosrk tks nwljs jkT;ksa ls [kjhn dj fch djrs gSa vksj mudh okfkZd
[kjsnh&fch ,d yk[k gh gS rks mUgs Hkh oSV vnk djuk iM+sxkA ,sls mRiknd ;k fosrk
ftudh okfkZd [kjsnh&fch mijksDr ,d yk[k ;k ikp yk[k ls de gksxh os Hkh Lo;aLQwrZ
(Voluntary) iaftdj.k djk ldrs gSAa ysfdu ,d yk[k ls de [kjsnh&fch okyk
mRiknd ;k fosrk iaftdj.k djkuk pkgsxk rks mls vk;dj foHkkx (Income Tax) ls
34

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)
iSu la[;k (PAN - Permanent Account Number) ysuk vfuok;Z gksxkA vFkkZr~ ,sls lHkh

mRikndksa o fosrkvksa dks oSV ds lkFk vk;dj foHkkx dh Hkh ekj >syuh iM+sxhA LoeaLQwrZ
oSV la[;k ysus ds fy, ifjp; vko;d gS] tks fd igys ugha FkkA bldk eryc ;g fd
oSV la[;k dsoy mlh mRiknd ;k fosrk dks fey ik;sxk tks fdlh iathd`r fosrk ;k
dj lykgdkj (Tax Consultant) dks xokg ds :i esa izLrqr djsxkA bl fu;e dk lh/kk
vFkZ gS fd ;fn dj nkrk us dj vnk ugha fd;k rks xokg dks djuh iMsx
+ h mldh HkjikbZ
\A insZ ds ihNs ls ;g dkuwu Lor% dgrk gS fd ge ew[kZ cuk jgs gS]a ,d rjQ rks ge
lqfo/kk,a ns jgs gaS vksj nwljh vkSj yksxksa dks lqfo/kk dk ykHk feys gh ugha bldh iwjh O;oLFkk Hkh
gS D;ksfa d ,slh ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa dksbZ fdlh dk xokgnkj D;ksa cusxkA
bl dkuwu ds v/;;u dk fudkZ ;g gS fd oSV dk iaftdj.k djkus ds lkFk gh
ljdkjh HkzVkpkj dk pDdj kq: gks tk;sxk pkgs Hkys mRiknd ;k fosrk ,d yk[k ;k
ikp yk[k nk;js esa u vkrs gksaA

Set-Off jde okilh


igys crk;k tk pqdk gS fd fdl rjg dksbZ fosrk iwoZ esa vnk fd;s x;s oSV dh
jde okil ik ldrk gSA fdlh] fosrk }kjk fch ds ipkr izkIr oSV esa gh mlds }kjk
fd;s x;s oSV Hkqxrku dh jde kkfey jgrh gSA ;gh Set-Off jde okilh gSA vFkkZr~
fdlh fosrk ds }kjk vnk fd;s x;s dj dh okilh mlds }kjk ifjJe iwoZd dh x;h
fch ij fuHkZj gSA blesa ljdkj dk dksbZ ;ksxnku ugha gksxkA
blds foijhr jde okilh ds ekeys esa ljdkj ds dqN tfVy fu;e gaSA elyu&
fdlh jkT; ls [kjhnh dj nwljs jkT; esa fch ij jde dh iw.kZ okilh ugha gksxh vFkkZr~
iw.kZ Set-Off ugha feysxkA blh rjg fdlh ,slh py lEifRRk (Fixed Assets)dh [kjhnh
ftldk mi;ksx lh/kk&lh/kk mRiknu esa gksxk rks mlij Set- Off dk YkkHk feysxk ij
,slh py lEifRRk& ftldk mi;ksx lh/ks mRiknu essa u gks ysfdu mlls mRiknu {kerk
c<+rh gks] dh [kjhnh ij Set-Off dk ykHk ugha feysxkA tks fosrk fcy (Tax Invoice)
ugha nsxk ;k xyr fcy nsxk rks vxys fosrk dks Set-Off dk ykHk ugha feysxkA,d gh
jkT; esa eky gLrkarj.k (Stock Transfer) ;fn fd;k gks rks oSV ugha yxsxkA
blds vykok lhek kqYd (Custom Duty) dsanzh; fchdj (CST) pqaxh ukdk
(Octroi) mRikndj (Excise Duty) o lsokdj (Service Tax) ;k nwljs jkT;ksa esa oSV
vnk djus ij ;fn lh&QkeZ ugha fn;k gS rks Set-Off dk ykHk ugha feysxkA

(Composition Scheme)
dg ldrs gSa fd O;kikfj;ksa dks vius tky esa Qalkus dh ljdkj dh ;g fofp=
;kstuk gSA ftlesa O;kikjh dks viuk ykHk Hkh fn[ksxk vkSj ljdkj dks dksbZ uqdlku Hkh
ugha gksxkA Hkkjr ljdkj }kjk oSV ds lanHkZ esa igys dgk x;k Fkk fd ;fn dksbZ O;kikjh
oSV ds dEiksftku Ldhe esa tkuk dk ykHk ysuk pkgrk gS rks mls fdlh rjg dk dksbZ
fjdkMZ [kkrk j[kus dh t:jr ughaAbl iqLrd ds Nius rd ljdkj us ,slk dguk can dj
fn;k Fkk vkSj bls dkuwu esa Hkh dgha fy[kok;k ugha x;k
35

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

bl ;kstuk ds rgr O;kikjh ds O;kikj ls dksbZ eryc ughaA mldks O;kikj esa gq,
equkQs (Sale-Purchase) ij lh/kk 8% oSV yxsxkA
ysfdu vk;dj dh /kkjk 44 A ds vuqlkj ftudh okfkZd [kjsnh&fch 10 yk[k ds
ij gS ;k ftudh okfkZd vk; 1-20 yk[k ls ij gS mudks cfg&[kkrk j[kuk vfuok;Z
gSA bldk eryc vk;dj vkSj oSV ds ;s fu;e ,d&nwljs ds fojks/kh gSAa vFkkZr~ ljdkj
bl ;kstuk ds }kjk O;kikfj;kas dks csodwQ cuk jgh gS lkFk gh mijksDr 8% oSV ds lanHkZ
esa Hkh ?kksk.kk,a LiV ugha gaSA ctV 2005&06 esa ;g nj fch ij 1% Fkk tks fd lekpkjksa
esa 0-25% gks x;k vkSj 8 vizSy 2005 dks gq, lakks/ku esa ;g 8% gks x;kA blfy, ljdkjh
?kksk.kk,a fookl ls ijs gSAa bl ;kstuk dh [kkl ckr ;g gS fd ;g flQZ muds fy, gS
ftudh okfkZd [kjsnh&fch 50 yk[k gS vkSj ftuds oLrqvksa dh fch lh/ks miHkksDrkvksa dks
gksxh vFkkZRk~ oLrq dh fch flQZ ,d ckj gksuh gSA ,d gh jkT; esa eky gLrkarj.k
(Stock Transfer) ;fn fd;k gks rks oSV ugha yxsxkA ;g ;kstuk vR;ar [krjukd gSA bl
;kstuk ds dkj.k O;kikj deZ esa yxk mRiknd vkSj miHkksDrk ds chp dk iwjk oxZ lekIr
gks tk,xkA bl ;kstuk dk lh/kk ykHk cM+h&cM+h cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks feysxk tks vc
xko&xko esa vius miHkksDrk dsanz [kksy jgh gSAa ;s dEifu;k vius mRiknu dsanz ls
miHkksDrk dsanz rd eky Hkstdj lh/kk equkQk dek,axh vkSj flQZ ,d LFkku ij oSV vnk
djsx
a hA ;gh dkj.k gS fd cgqjkVh; dEifu;k vkSj ljdkj oSV dh u dsoy odkyr dj
jgh gSa cfYd lekpkjksa esa foKkiu nsdj turk dks Hkzfer dj jgh gSaA bl ;kstuk dh
nwljh fokskrk ;g gS fd bl ;kstuk esa kkfey fosrk dks iwoZ esa fn;s x;s oSV dh okilh
ugha gksxhA
dksbZ mRiknd] vk;krd] forjd] gksylsyj vkSj kjkc cukus vkSj cspus okyk bl
;kstuk dk YkkHk ugha mBk ldrkA D;k ;g ;kstuk egt ,d ljdkjh >qu>quk ugha gS\
Vd pkyd [krjs esa
oSV ykxw gksus ds ckn Vd pkydksa dh ftanxh [krjs esa iM+ x;h gSA vki ;fn dksbZ
Vd pykrs gSa vkSj lkeku ysdj ,d jkT; ls nwljs jkT; esa tkrs gSa rks vki iwjh lko/kkuh
cjrsAa vki dh NksVh lh Hkwy vkidks tsy dh gok f[kyk ldrh gS \A vkius ftl jkT; ls
lkeku fy;k gS ogk oSV yxk gS fd ugha blls dksbZ eryc ugha] tgk lkeku igqpkus tk jgs gSa ogk
;fn oSV yxk gS rks vkidks dkxth dkjZokbZ iwjh djuh gh iM+x
s h ojuk tsy gks tk,xhA
izR;sd jkT; ds psd&iksLVksa ij vkids eky ds lkFk dkxtksa dh tkp iM+rky gksxh
vkSj deh ik;s tkus ij vf/kdkjh dks ;g vf/kdkj gS fd og eky tCr djus ds
lkFk&lkFk vkidks tsy Hkh fHktok ldrk gSA cpus dk mik; gS lc dkxt lkFk esa j[ksa
;k n.M Hkqxrsa ;k fQj ?kwl nsAa ;gk ij HkzVkpkj dk egklkxj [kksy fn;k x;k gSA
,d Vd pkyd dks vius lkFk de ls de fuEufyf[kr dkxt j[kus iMs+axsA ysfdu
fdruh izfr;k ;g mls ekywe ugha] D;ksfa d fdl jkT; esa fdrus psd&iksLV gSa bldh
tkudkjh mudks ugha gksxhA vkSj izR;sd psd iksLV ij izR;sd dkxt dh de ls de ,d
izfr nsuk vfuok;Z gSA
36

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

,d pkyd dks fuEufyf[kr dkxt j[kuk t:jh gS %&


1 Tax Invoice fcy
2 Delivery Memo lqiqnZxh jkhn
3 Lorry Receipts xkM+h dkxt
4 C-Form dh izfr ;fn ykxw gS rks
5 izR;sd psd iksLV ij eqgj yxokuh gksxh
6 lcls T;knk vfuok;Z gS (Transit Pass) VkaftV ikl
VkaftV ikl dk eryc gS fd izR;sd pkyd dks fdlh jkT; esa izosk ls iwoZ mls
crkuk gksxk fd og bl jkT; esa dc rd jgsxk vkSj dc NksM+ nsxkA mnkgj.k ds fy,
,d Vd pkyd eky ysdj xksok ls xqtjkr tk jgk gS rks mls egkjkV ls gksdj xqtjuk
iM+x
s kA xqtjkr esa vHkh oSV ugha gSa ogk bu dkxtksa dh t:jr ugha iM+sxh ysfdu egkjkV
esa oSV gS blfy, mls egkjkV esa bu dkxtksa dh t:jr iM+x
s hA Vd pkyd dks egkjkV
esa izosk djus ls igys ;g crkuk gksxk fd og egkjkV esa fdrus fnu jgsxk vkSj fdrus
fnuksa esa egkjkV dh lhek NksM+dj xqtjkr esa izosk dj tk,xkA ;fn Vd pkyd fdlh
dkj.kok fu;r fnuksa esa egkjkV ugha NksM+rk vkSj og dgha idM+k tk,xk rks mlij eky
cspus dk vkjksi yxsxk vkSj eky dh fch ij mls oSV vnk djuk iM+sxk vkSj lkFk esa
n.M Hkh nsuk iM+x
s kA bUgha dkj.kksa ls ukxiqj fLFkr cS|ukFk dEiuh dh pkj xkfM+;k ukxiqj ls
pydj vka/kzizns k dh lhek ij lhy dh xbZ FkhA

vkSj D;k&D;k gS oSV vf/kfu;e esa


oSV vf/kfu;e esa oSV vk;qDr dks fn, x, vf/kdkj mldks fujadqk cuk ldrs gSAa
oSV vk;qDr dks eftLVsV ds leku vf/kdkj nsdj mls vf/kfu;e ds ikyu dk losZlokZ
cuk fn;k x;k gSA dg ldrs gSa fd lEiw.kZ oSV dkuwu vk;qDr dfeuj ds gkFkksa dh
dBiqryh gS og tSls pkgs bldk iz;ksx dj ldrk gSA
& ,sls fosrk ftuds ikl LFkkuh; lsyVSDl uacj gS mUgsa oSV uacj ysus dh t:jr
ugha gSA ysfdu oSV vf/kfu;e dh /kkjk&17 esa dfeuj dks ;g vf/kdkj fn;k x;k gS fd og
fdlh dks Hkh u;k uacj ysus dks dg ldrk gSA
& ,sls fosrk ftudk ofkZd vk;&O;; 40 yk[k :i;s ;k
mlls ij gS rks
mUgsa vius vk;&O;; dk fglkc pkVZMZ ,dkm.VsVa ls djkuk vfuok;Z gksxkA ysfdu oSV dh
/kkjk&61 ds vuqlkj dfeuj] lh- ,- ds vkWfMV ds ckn Hkh iqu% vkWfMV dk vknsk ns
ldrk gSA tSls %&
1
;fn fosrk us ekfld] =Sekfld] N%ekgh ;k okfkZd fooj.k (Return File) ugha tek
fd;k rks] ekfld fooj.k esa ;fn Refund Claim fd;k gS rks Hkh dfeuj iqu% vkWfMV dk
vknsk ns ldrk gSA
2
;fn fdlh us vkids f[kykQ dfeuj dks fkdk;r fd;k gS rks og vkids
cfg&[kkrksa ds iqu% vkWfMV dk vknsk ns ldrk gSA
37

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

3
lcdqN Bhd gS ysfdu ;fn dfeuj larqV ugha gS ;k mldh bPNk gS rks og iqu% vkWfMV
djk ldrk gSA
4
nk:okyksa dk nks ckj vkWfMV gksuk vfuok;Z gSA
VSDl baok;l (Bill) cukuk vfuok;Z gS ugha rks naM ds Hkkxhnkj gksx
a sA vkSj fcy ij
gLRkk{kj djus okyksa dks ;g naM fn;k tk ldrk gSA ;fn fdlh fosrk dks ,slk vkHkkl
gksrk gS fd] mlds }kjk fn;s x;s fooj.k esas dksbZ deh ;k xyrh gS vkSj og Lo;a gh ml
deh ;k xyrh esa lq/kkj djuk pkgs rks ml ij naM yxsxkA ;g naM jkfk de ls de
1]000 ;k 2]000 gks ldrh gSA
& oSV dh /kkjk&61 ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh fosrk dks vius cfg&[kkrksa dk vkWfMV ugha
djokus ij ,d yk[k :i;s rd dk naM gks ldrk gSA
& oSV dh /kkjk&9 ds vuqlkj C;qjksdzlh@vk;qDr dfeuj ds vf/kdkj c<+kus ds fy;s
laln esa cgl dh vko;drk ugha gSA vFkkZRk~ oSV vf/kfu;e esa Lor% gh oSV vk;qDr ds
vf/kdkjksa esa o`f) dk izko/kku gSA oSV vk;qDr vius bl vf/kdkj dk iz;ksx djds nks okZ esa
,d ckj oSV dh nj c<+k ldrk gSA
& oSV dh /kkjk& 22 3] 22 5 vkSj 64 4 ds vuqlkj oSV vf/kdkjh dHkh Hkh tkp ds
fy;s tk ldrk gSA pkgs Hkys gh og O;olk; dk lcls O;Lr le; D;ksa u gksA
& oSV dh /kkjk&15 ds vuqlkj fdlh Hkh vf/kdkjh ds mij mlds }kjk fd, x,
fujk{k.k ds f[kykQ] pkgs og vPNh Hkkouk ls fd;k x;k gks ;k cqjh Hkkouk ls] fdlh Hkh
rjg dk dksbZ ekeyk ntZ ugha fd;k tk ldrkA
& fu;kZr ij fdlh rjg dk dksbZ oSV ugha yxk gS ysfdu fu;kZr ls iwoZ fn;k x;k oSV
okil feysxkA

oSV ls Hkjsxk ljdkjh [ktkuk


ljdkj ckj&ckj dgrh gS fd oSV dkuwu ls fdlh jkT; dk uqdlku ugha gksxkA
ysfdu fdlh dk uqdlku gksxk rks bldh HkjikbZ dh tk;sxhA oSV ls gksus okyh vk; ds
lanHkZ esa ge /;ku nas rks irk pyrk gS dh ,d vdsys bl dj&dkuwu ds dkj.k jkT;ksa dks
gtkjksa djksM+ :i;s dk Qk;nk gksuos kyk gS ;gh dkj.k gS fd oks fdlh u fdlh rjhds ls
ncko cukdj oSV ykxw dj jgs gSaA ,d mnkgj.k ls bldks le>k tk ldrk gSA
egkjkV ljdkj ds bl okZ 2005&06 ds ctV esa crk;k x;k gS fd ljdkj dks
50429-82 djksM+ :i;s dk dqy jktLo izkIr gksxk bl jktLo esa vf/kdre vuqikr oSV ls
izkIr gksus okys jktLo dk gSAA tcfd blesa ls 50163-96 djksM+ :i;s jkT; ds fodkl
\ esa [kpZ gks tk;saxAs vFkkZRk~ egkjkV ljdkj dks 265-66 djksM+ dk Qk;nk gksxkA ;gk /;ku nsus
okyh ckr ;g gS fd fiNys fokh; okZ 2004&05 esa egkjkV ljdkj us 7303-35 djksM+ dk ?kkVk fn[kk;k FkkA bl
okZ oSV ds dkj.k u dsoy ;g ?kkVk iwjk gksxk cfYd dh ljdkj dks yxHkx 265 djksM+ dk equkQk Hkh gksxkA

oSV dh vlQyrk
fonskh ncko esa ljdkj us nsk ds 21 jkT;ksa esas oSV dkuwu ykxw dj fn;k gSA ysfdu
blls gksus okyh ijskkfu;ksa ;k mldh lQyrk&vlQyrk ds fok; esa dksbZ fopkj ugha
38

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

fd;k gSA viuh tfVyrk ds dkj.k gh 1995&98 ds okZ esa egkjkV esa yxk oSV dkuwu
Qsy gks x;k vkSj bls okil ysuk iM+kA ysfdu vc iqu% fcuk ml vlQyrk dk dkj.k
tkus 21 jkT;ksa esa oSV yxk fn;k x;k gSA gfj;k.kk dh iwoZofrZ ljdkj us Hkh oSV yxk;k Fkk
vkSj mls lRrk ls gkFk /kksuk iM+kA oSV vf/kfu;e esa vcrd 147 lakks/ku gks pqds gSa tcfd ;g
vf/kfu;e vHkh&vHkh cuk;k gSA

;wjksih; vkSj Hkkjrh; oSV dkuwu esa vUrj


Hkkjr ljdkj ds fokea=h nsk dks xqejkg djrs gq, ckj&ckj bl ckr dh nqgkbZ nsrs
gSa fd] nqfu;k ds 123 nskksa esa oSV dkuwu lQyrk \ iwoZd py jgk gSA blfy;s Hkkjr esa
Hkh bls yxk;k tkuk pkfg, vkSj ;g lQy gksxkA ysfdu fokea=hth dHkh Hkh ;g ugha
crkrs fd mu 123 nskksa esa ;k ;wjksih; nskksa esa ykxw oSV dkuwu dk <kpk dSlk gSA vkSj og
Hkkjrh; oSV dkuwu <kps ls fdl rjg fHkUu gSA ysfdu ge vkidks ;gk ;wjksih; oSV dkuwu
ds <kps ds fok; esa dqN ewy ckrsa vo; crk;sx
a s ftldks tkuus ds ckn vki u dsoy
vkp;Z djsx
a s cfYd ljdkj dh ew[kZrk vkSj mldh etcwjh ij viuk flj Hkh ihVsaxsA
;wjksi esa oSV dkuwu ds lkFk dksbZ Hkh vizR;{k (Indirect) dj ugha yxk;k tkrkA dbZ
nskksa esa dsoy rhu izdkj ds dj gksrs gSa] igyk vk;dj (Income Tax) nwljk oSV rFkk
rhljk lhek kqYd (Custom Duty)A dqN nskksa esa rks vk;dj Hkh ugha yxrk gSA ogk oSV
ds lkFk u rks mRikn dj yxrk gS] u vkWDVkW; yxrk gS] u gh lsyVSDl dsanzh; ;k jkT;
dksbZ Hkh ugha u gh jksM+ VSDl] u VksyVSDl] u dkiksZjsku VSDl vkSj u gh E;qfufliy
VSDl] u rks ljpktZ ;k dksbZ Hkh izR;{k djA blds vykok ;wjksih; oSV vf/kfu;e esa oSV
vk;qDr dks fdlh rjg dk dksbZ vf/kdkj (Powers/ Rights) ugha fn;k x;k gSA mls
dsoy dqN nkf;Ro (Duties) fn;s x;s gSaA tSl&
s ;fn fdlh fosrk us oSV vnk fd;k vkSj
xyrh ls mlus oSV T;knk vnk dj fn;k rks vk;qDr dk ;g nkf;Ro gS fd og nh x;h
vf/kd jkfk fosrk dks okil djs vkSj og ,slk djrk gSA blds vykok mls fdlh dks
naM nsus dk Hkh dksbZ vf/kdkj ugha gSA Hkkjr ds oSV vk;qDr dh rjg mls fdlh Hkh rjg
dh ixkj Hkh ugha nh tkrhA vk;qDr ds }kjk ,d= dh x;h oSV jkfk esa ls gh mls dqN
fgLlk fn;k tkrk gSA
;wjksih; oSV dkuwuksa esa oLrqvksa ij yxk;s x;s oSV dh nj Hkh vf/kdre 12 ls 16
izfrkr gksrh gS ftlesa mRikn dj] pqaxh] fcdzh dj] jksM+ VSDl] ,UVh VSDl] E;qfufliy
VSDl] ljpktZ bR;kfn kkfey gksrs gSa vk;dj rFkk lhek kqYd NksM+ dj tcfd Hkkjr esa
oSV dkuwu ds lkFk&lkFk ;g lHkh dj ykxw gksrs gSaA

ljdkj dh fu;r
bl iwjs v/;k; ds vH;kl ds ckn ge ljdkj dh fu;r dk vanktk vklkuh ls
yxk ldrs gaSA mldh eakk Hkkjrh; dj <kps esa lq/kkj dh ctk; Hkkjrh; m|fe;ksa vkSj
O;kikfj;ksa ij ,d u;k dj ykn nsus dh gSA Hkkjr ljdkj ckj&ckj cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa ls
izfrLi/kkZ dh ckr djrh gS] ysfdu ljdkj Hkkjrh; m|fe;ksa vkSj O;kikfj;ksa dks Bhd oSlh
gh lqfo/kk ugha iznku djrh tSlk fd og cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks nsrh gSA mYVs og foo
39

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku

WWW.RAJIVDIXITMP3.COM(09928064941, 9782705883)

cSad] vUrjjkVh; eqnzkdksk vkSj foo O;kikj laxBu ds ncko esa cgqjkVh; dEifu;ksa dks
izkRs lkgu o Hkkjrh; O;kikjh lekt dks grksRlkfgr djus ds fy;s fnu&izfrfnu oSV tSls
u;s&u;s dkys&dkuwu cukrh tk jgh gSA oSV fojks/kh vkanksyu ds nkSjku Hkh ljdkj dh
fu;r dqN ,slh gh gSA ljdkj dh iwjh dksfkk gS fd vkanksyu ds vxqvk O;kikjh usrkvksa
ds O;fDrxr O;olk;ksa dks oSV ds nk;js ls ckgj j[kdj mUgsa vkanksyu ls gVk fn;k tk;sA
bldh dksfkk kq: gks pqfd gSA blds vykok ljdkj mu jkT;ksa ij Hkh yxkrkj oSV ykxw
djus dk ncko cuk jgh gS tgk vHkh rd oSV ykxw ugha gSA vkSj nwljh rjQ ljdkj
izpkj ek/;eksa ds }kjk turk dks xqejkg dj ;g crkus dh dksfkk dj jgh gS fd bl
dkuwu ls O;kikj esa ikjnfkZrk gksxh vkSj eagxkbZ ugha c<+sxhA tcfd lPpkbZ ;g gS fd
ftu jkT;ksa esa oSV ykxw gks x;k gS] ogk oLrqvksa dh dherksa esa o`f) ls vke vkneh dk
ctV xM+cM+k jgk gSA
blfy;s bl dkys dkuwu ds f[kykQ O;kid tu&vkanksyu dh t:jr gS ftlesa u
dsoy O;kikjh cfYd iwjh turk fgLlsnkjh djs

40

foo O;kikj laxBu xqykeh dk lfo/kku