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Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculator - U.S.

C
Workbook Contents
Click on tabs at the bottom of the screen to access the following:
Tab 1. Contents (current tab)
Tab 2. Fluid Properties - Set values of fluid properties for other worksheets
Tab 3. Vertical Plane
Tab 4. Horizontal Plane
Tab 5. Horizontal Cylinder

t Calculator - U.S. Customary Units

or other worksheets

Selection of Fluid and Setting the Fluid Property


values for use in the other Worksheets

Enter Temperatures and Pressure


Surface Temperature (oF):

(Enter Values in
yellow cells only)

175

Fluid Temperature ( F):

105

Fluid Pressure (psi):

15

FLUID DENSITY

Select a Fluid and Enter Temperature


Click at right to Select Fluid
Temperature Range (oF):
Film Temperature (oF):

Choose "Other Fluid" (at the bottom


of the list) if you want to enter fluid
properties obtained elsewhere.

Toluene
-139 to 606
140

Density from above menu selection:


lbm/ft3
51.88
OR
Enter a Fluid Density Obtained Elsewhere
Fluid Density (lbm/ft3):

Fluid Density Result:

51.88
1.613

Unit Conversion:

lbm/ft3
slugs/ft

(from menu selection)

FLUID VISCOSITY

(This is the density value that will be used in all of the other worksheets.)

Viscosity from above menu selection:


8.076E-06
Temperature Range (oF):

lbf-sec/ft2
-139 to 232
OR

Choose "Other Fluid" (at the bottom


Enter a Fluid Viscosity Obtained Elsewhere
Fluid Viscosity (lbf-sec/ft2)

of the list in the menu near the top o


this worksheet, if you want to enter
fluid properties obtained elsewhere

FLUID VISC

Fluid Viscosity Result:

8.076E-06

lbf-sec/ft2

(from menu selection)

(This is the viscosity value that will be used in all of the other worksheets.)

SPECIFIC HEAT

Specific Heat from above menu selection:


Btu/lbm-oF

0.43
Temperature Range (oF):

-139 to 440
OR

Choose "Other Fluid" (at the bottom


Enter a Fluid Specific Heat Obtained Elsewhere
Fluid Sp. Heat (Btu/lbm-oF)

of the list in the menu near the top o


this worksheet, if you want to enter
fluid properties obtained elsewhere

o
0.43 Btu/lbm- F

Fluid Specific Heat Result:

(from menu selection)

13.890 Btu/slug- F

Unit Conversion:

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY

(This is the specific heat value that will be used in all of the other worksheets.)

Thermal Conductivity from above menu selection:


Btu/hr-ft-oF

0.0716
Temperature Range (oF):

OR

Choose "Other Fluid" (at the bottom


Enter a Thermal Conductivity Obtained Elsewhere
Fluid Th. Cond. (Btu/hr-ft-oF)

Fluid Thermal Conductivity Result:


Unit Conversion:

of the list in the menu near the top o


this worksheet, if you want to enter
fluid properties obtained elsewhere

o
0.0716 Btu/hr-ft- F

(from menu selection)

1.9879E-05 Btu/sec-ft- F

(This is the thermal conductivity value that will be used in all of the other worksheets.)

Thermal Exp. Coeff. from above menu selection:

THERM EXP COEFF

6.432E-04

R-1

OR

Choose "Other Fluid" (at the bottom


Enter a Thermal Expans. Coeff. Obtained Elsewhere
Thermal Exp Coeff (oR-1)
Thermal Expansion Coeff:

6.432E-04

of the list in the menu near the top o


this worksheet, if you want to enter
fluid properties obtained elsewhere
o

R-1

(from menu selection)

(This is the thermal expansion coefficient value that will be used in all of the other worksheets.)

DT =

0.2

r1 =

T1 =

139.8

r2 =

T2 =

140.2

Equations and References

The equations used to calculate the fluid properties in this worksheet are shown below.
The source for these equations and the constants in the Lookup Table used to make
the calculations came from:
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Ch. 2, Physical and Chemical Data

Links to the tables for each fluid property are given at the top of the worksheet.
Density of water:

r = 0.062428(MW)(17.863 + 58.606t0.35 - 95.396t2/3 + 213.89t - 141.26t4/3)


T is in K

t = 1 - T/647.096

r is in lbm/ft3

Density of liquids other than water:

r = 0.062428(MW)(C1 + C2T + C3T2 + C4T3)

T is in K

r is in lbm/ft3

The density of air is calculated with the Ideal Gas Law


Viscosity of Liquids:

m = 0.0209 exp[C1 + C2/T + C3(lnT) + C4(TC5)]

T is in K,

m is in lbf-s/ft2

Viscosity of Air:

m = 0.0209(C1TC2)/(1 + C3/T)

T is in K,

m is in lbf-s/ft2

Specific Heat of Air:


2

Cp = {C1 + (C2[(C3/T)/sinh(C3/T)] + C4[(C5/T)/cosh(C5/T)] }/28.9


Cp is in Btu/lbm-oF

T is in K

Specific Heat of Liquids:


2

Cp = (C1 - C2T + C3T - C4T + C5T )/18.015


T is in K

Cp is in Btu/lbm-oF

Thermal Conductivity of Air

k = 0.000239C1TC2/(1 - C3/T + C4/T2)

T is in K

k is in Btu/hr-ft-oF

Thermal Conductivity of liquids

k = 0.000239C1TC2/(1 - C3/T + C4/T2)

T is in K

k is in Btu/hr-ft-oF

Thermal Expansion Coefficient of Liquids

b = (1/V)dV/dT = (1/v)dv/dT = rd(1/r)/dT ~ rD(1/r)/DT = r[(1/r2) - (1/r1)]/(T2 - T1)


T is in oR, b is in oR-1

The values of r come from the equations at the top of this section.

The thermal expansion coefficient of air is calculated as b = 1/T, where T is in oR.

The source for the data in the tables below used to calculate fluid density, viscosity, sp
Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, Ch. 2, Physical and Chemical Data
Air Viscosity: Table 2-312

Liquid Viscosity: Table 2-313

Air Specific Heat: Table 2-156

Liquid Density: Table 2-32

Air Thermal Cond.: Table 2-314

Liquid Sp. Heat: Table 2-153

(Enter Values in
yellow cells only)

Excel Vlookup resu


-139 to 606
51.8839
Range, F

0.8792

1,1,2-Trichloroethane
1,2-Butadiene

-33 to 624
-215 to 354

0.9062
1.187

0.25475
0.26114

1,2-Propylene glycol

-76 to 666

1.0923

0.26106

1,3-Butadiene
1-Butanol
1-Octanol

-164 to 306
-128 to 554
5 to 714

1.2346
0.98279
0.48979

0.27216
0.2683
0.24931

1-Propanol

-195 to 507

1.2457

0.27281

2-Butanol
2-Octanol
2-Propanol
Acetic acid
Acetic anhydride
Acetone
Acetonitrile
Acrylic acid
Air

-175 to 504
-23 to 675
-126 to 455
63 to 604
-99 to 631
-139 to 455
-47 to 523
55 to 648
32 to 932

0.9682
0.50726
1.1799
1.4486
0.86852
1.2332
1.3064
1.2414
8.3145

0.26244
0.25972
0.2644
0.25892
0.25187
0.25886
0.22597
0.25822

Benzene

43 to 552

1.0259

0.26666

Benzoic acid

252 to 892

0.71587

0.24812

Bromobenzene
Butyl acetate
Carbon disulfide

-24 to 747
-99 to 576
-169 to 534

0.8226
0.67794
1.7968

0.26632
0.2637
0.28749

Carbon tetrachloride

-9 to 541

0.99835

0.274

Chlorobenzene

-49 to 678

0.8711

0.26805

Chloroform
Chloromethane
Cumene

-81 to 505
-144 to 298
-141 to 676

1.0841
1.817
0.58711

0.2581
0.25877
0.25583

Calculations:

Other Fluid" (at the bottom


if you want to enter fluid
obtained elsewhere.

(from menu selection)

c1

0.27136
Variables for Density Calculation
c2

Other Fluid" (at the bottom

Cyclohexane

45 to 538

0.88998

0.27376

in the menu near the top of


sheet, if you want to enter
erties obtained elsewhere.

Cyclopentane
Decane

-213 to 945
-20 to 651

1.1035
0.41084

0.27035
0.25175

Dibutyl ether

-144 to 592

0.55941

0.27243

Diethanol amine

(from menu selection)

84 to 867

0.68184

0.23796

Diethyl ether

-177 to 381

0.9554

0.26847

Dimethyl sulfoxide
Diphenyl ether
Dodecane
Ethanol
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl benzoate

66 to 853
81 to 921
16 to 725
-173 to 466
-117 to 482
-31 to 797

1.1096
0.52133
0.33267
1.6288
0.8996
0.48864

0.25189
0.26218
0.24664
0.27469
0.25856
0.23894

9 to 837

1.315

0.25125

Ethylenediamine

54 to 608

0.7842

0.20702

Fluorobenzene

-44 to 549

1.0146

0.27277

Formamide

37 to 928

1.2486

0.20352

Heptane
Hexadecane

-130 to 512
64 to 842

0.61259
0.23289

0.26211
0.23659

Hexane
Hydrazine

-139 to 455
36 to 716

0.70824
1.0516

0.26411
0.16613

Isopropyl amine

-139 to 390

1.2801

0.2828

Methacrylic acid

59 to 732

0.87025

0.24383

Methanol

-144 to 464

2.3267

0.27073

Methyl acetate

-144 to 453

1.13

0.2593

Methyl methacrylate
Methyl tert-butyl ether

-54 to 559
-162 to 435

0.7761
0.928

0.25068
0.289

Methylcyclohexane
Methylethyl ketone
Methylisobutyl ketone

-233 to 570
-125 to 505
-119 to 574

0.73109
0.93767
0.71687

0.26971
0.25035
0.26453

m-Xylene

-54 to 651

0.68902

0.26086

Nonane

-63 to 610

0.46321

0.25444

Octane

-71 to 565

0.5266

0.25693

Octanoic acid

63 to 790

0.48251

0.25196

o-Xylene
Pentadecane

-13 to 675
50 to 815

0.69962
0.25142

0.26143
0.23837

Pentane
Phenol

-202 to 387
106 to 790

0.84947
1.3798

0.26726
0.31598

Phthalic anhydride

268 to 964

0.5393

0.22704

Propionic acid

-6 to 622

1.0969

0.25568

Propylbenzene

-146 to 689

0.57233

0.25171

p-Xylene

55 to 649

0.67752

0.25887

Styrene

-22 to 685

0.7397

0.2603

Tetrahydrofuran
Toluene

-162 to 513
-139 to 606

1.2543
0.8792

0.28084
0.27136

Ethylene glycol

Other Fluid" (at the bottom

in the menu near the top of


sheet, if you want to enter
erties obtained elsewhere.
(from menu selection)

Other Fluid" (at the bottom

in the menu near the top of


sheet, if you want to enter
erties obtained elsewhere.
(from menu selection)

Triethyl amine

-175 to 504

0.7035

0.27386

Undecane

-13 to 691

0.36703

0.24876

Vinyl chloride

-245 to 318

1.5115

0.2707

32 to 176

-13.851

0.64038

Water
Other Fluid

Other Fluid" (at the bottom

in the menu near the top of


sheet, if you want to enter
erties obtained elsewhere.
(from menu selection)

he other worksheets.)

51.89060
51.87725

et are shown below.


able used to make

Chemical Data

e worksheet.

89t - 141.26t4/3)

r is in lbm/ft3

r is in lbm/ft3

m is in lbf-s/ft2

Preliminary calculations for calculating the thermal expansion coefficient, b , from:

b = rd(1/r)/dT ~ rD(1/r)/DT = r[(1/r2) - (1/r1)]/(T2 - T1)

Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. All rights reserved.

m is in lbf-s/ft2

k is in Btu/hr-ft-oF

k is in Btu/hr-ft-oF

- (1/r1)]/(T2 - T1)
the top of this section.

re T is in oR.

alculate fluid density, viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are the tables itemized below from:

al and Chemical Data

Viscosity: Table 2-313

Liquid Thermal Conductivity: Table 2-315

Density: Table 2-32

Sp. Heat: Table 2-153

Excel Vlookup results based on selected fluid:


591.75
0.29241
Variables for Density Calculations:
c3
c4

92.138
Mol. Weight

-139 to 232
8.076E-06
Range, F

-226.08

602
452

0.31
0.3065

133.404
54.09

-33 to 237
-212 to 52

0.388
-10.143

736.5
472.79

-1.7063
-0.028241

626

0.20459

76.094

-76 to 442

-804.54

30487

130.79

425
563.1
652.3

0.28707
0.25488
0.27824

54.09
74.122
130.228

-9 to 261
181 to 246
45 to 383

17.844
0.87669
-19.907

-310.2
1602.9
2791.7

-4.5058
-2.1475
0.94296

536.8

0.23994

60.095

-195 to 207

23.467

116.07

-5.3372

535.9
629.8
508.3
591.95
606
508.2
545.5
615

0.26749
0.22
0.24653
0.2529
0.31172
0.2913
0.28678
0.30701

74.122
130.228
60.095
60.052
102.09
58.079
41.052
72.063
28.96

-175 to 212
-26 to 356
-126 to 180
63 to 244
-81 to 284
-117 to 133
-47 to 325
55 to 369
-315 to 3141

-16.323
16.792
-8.8918

3141.7
1353.6
2357.6

-4.6357
-0.91376

-9.03

1212.3

-0.322

-14.164
-14.918
-10.906
-28.12
1.425E-06

1350.3
1023.4
872.02
2280.2
0.5039

0.4492
0.5961

562.05

0.28394

78.112

43 to 522

7.5117

294.68

-2.794

752

0.2857

122.121

253 to 621

-12.947

2557.9

670.15
575.4
552

0.2821
0.29318
0.3226

157.008
116.16
76.141

-24 to 313
-9 to 259
-168 to 336

-20.611
-17.488
-10.306

1656.5
1478.2
703.01

1.4415
0.91828

556.35

0.287

153.823

-9 to 360

-8.0738

1121.1

-0.4726

632.35

0.2799

112.557

-9 to 513

0.15772

540.5

-1.6075

536.4
416.25
631

0.2741
0.2833
0.28498

119.378
50.488
120.192

- 81 to 176
-144 to 266
-99 to 261

-14.109
-25.132
-24.988

1049.2
1381.9
1807.9

0.5377
2.0811
2.0556

553.8

0.28571

84.159

45 to 338

-33.763

2497.2

3.2236

507
617.7

0.28699
0.28571

70.133
142.282

-54 to 126
21 to 118

-3.2612
-10.115

614.16
1111.9

-1.156
-0.015659

584.1

0.29932

130.228

-144 to 286

10.027

206

-3.1607

c1

6805.7
37.542
Variables for Viscosity Calculations:
c2
c3

2.3956
108.3

736.6

0.2062

105.136

68 to 601

-375.21

17177

66.66

466.7

0.2814

74.122

163 to 212

10.197

-63.8

-3.226

729
766.8
658
514
523.3
698

0.3311
0.31033
0.28571
0.23178
0.278
0.28421

78.133
170.207
170.335
46.068
88.105
150.175

66 to 376
68 to 644
12 to 487
-99 to 333
-63 to 392
-9 to 417

-37.347
-12.373
-7.8244
7.875
14.354
-40.706

2835
2017.5
1191.9
781.98
-154.6
3035

3.7937
-0.49963
-3.0418
-3.7887
4.2655

720

0.21868

62.068

9 to 577

-20.515

2468.5

1.2435

593

0.20254

43.068

52 to 410

-53.908

4030.8

5.9704

560.09

0.28291

96.102

- 42 to 356

-10.064

1058.7

-0.17162

771

0.25178

45.041

32 to 428

40.153

-912.39

-7.5664

540.2
723

0.28141
0.28571

100.202
226.441

-135 to 318
64 to 556

-9.4622
-20.182

877.07
2203.5

-0.23445
1.2289

507.6
653.15

0.27537
0.1898

86.175
32.045

-144 to 271
34 to 482

-6.3276
-75.781

640
4175.4

-0.694
9.6508

471.85

0.2972

59.11

-9 to 356

-31.157

1926

2.925

662

0.28571

86.089

59 to 322

-14.527

1497.7

0.51747

512.5

0.24713

32.042

-144 to 149

-25.317

1789.2

2.069

506.55

0.2764

74.079

-9 to 306

13.557

-187.3

-3.6592

566
497.1

0.29773
0.286

100.116
88.148

9 to 261
-162 to 351

-0.099
-6.921

496
790.773

-1.5939
-0.654

572.1
535.5
574.6

0.29185
0.29984
0.28918

98.186
72.106
100.159

-195 to 365
-125 to 505
-119 to 241

-11.358
-1.0598
-11.394

1213.1
520.68
1168.7

-1.4961
-0.007539

617

0.27479

106.165

-54 to 284

-11.91

1094.9

0.13825

594.6

0.28571

128.255

-67 to 608

-68.54

3165.3

9.0919

568.7

0.28571

114.229

-80 to 360

-7.556

881.09

-0.52502

694.26

0.26842

144.211

63 to 464

-60.795

4617.8

7.028

630.3
708

0.27365
0.28571

106.165
212.415

-13 to 293
50 to 520

-15.489
-19.299

1393.5
2088.6

0.63711
1.1091

469.7
694.25

0.27789
0.32768

72.149
94.111

-202 to 378
64 to 540

-53.509
-43.335

1836.6
3881.7

7.1409
4.3983

791

0.248

148.116

268 to 545

195.25

-11072

-29.084

600.81

0.26857

74.079

-6 to 286

-23.932

1834.6

1.9124

638.35

0.29616

120.192

-99 to 318

-18.282

1549.7

1.0454

616.2

0.27596

106.165

55 to 284

-7.381

911.7

-0.54152

636

0.3009

104.149

-22 to 293

-22.675

1758

1.6701

540.15
591.75

0.2912
0.29241

72.106
92.138

-162 to 212
-139 to 232

-10.321
-226.08

900.92
6805.7

-0.069128
37.542

535.15

0.2872

101.19

-9 to 187

-3.7067

585.78

-1.0926

639

0.28571

156.308

-13 to 460

52.176

-4951.9

-8.5676

0.2716

62.498

-225 to 261

0.26297

276.55

-1.7282

18.015

32 to 703

-52.843

3703.6

5.866

432
-0.00191

on coefficient, b , from:

LLC. All rights reserved.

1.8211E-06

d below from:

-0.060853
r Viscosity Calculations:
c4

1
c5

-139 to 440
4.317E-01
Range, F

140140
-152.3
0.695
0
0
Variables for Specific Heat Calculations:
c1
c2
c3
c4
c5

-33 to 81
-213 to 63

103350
135150

159.3
-311.14

0.97007

-0.00015
0.000032

-0.15449

-76 to 370

58080

445.2

3.387E+22
2.304E+24

-9.9231
-10.09

-162 to 171
-128 to 244
-9 to 381

128860
191200
571370

-323.1
-730.4
-4849

1.015
2.2998
19.725

2.88E+09

-4.0267

-195 to 261

158760

-635

1.969

-175 to 210
-126 to 356
-195 to 180
63 to 244
-9 to 171
-139 to 133
-47 to 179
55 to 215
-279 to 252

426790
319198
471710

-3694.6
-1042.21
-4172.1

13.828
3.52943
14.745

139640

-320.8

0.8985

36600
135600
97582
55300
28958

511
-177
-122.2
300
9390

42 to 176

129440

-169.5

252 to 350

-5480

647.12

68 to 431
77 to 259
-170 to 534

121600
111850
85600

-9.45
384.52
-122

-9 to 240

-752700

-49 to 188

2.666E+31

-4.5E-27

-13.039

10

-0.02155
-0.0135
-0.0144

0.2837
0.34085

0.000689

3012

7580

1484

0.5605

-0.00145

2.01E-06

8966.1

-30.394

0.034455

-1307500

15338

-53.974

0.063483

- 40 to 200
-144 to 212
-141 to 306

124850
96910
61723

-166.34
-207.9
494.81

0.43209
0.37456

0.000488

44 to 260

-220600

3118.3

-9.4216

0.010687

-177 to 368
-21 to 368

122530
278620

-403.8
-197.91

1.7344
1.0737

-0.0011

-144 to 350

270720

-259.83

0.95427

0.64781
0.358

-3.6367

3.957E+23

2.5E+12

0.5

-10

-5

82 to 515

184200

286

163 to 212

44400

1301

-5.5

65 to 320
80 to 566
15 to 134
-173 to 242
-118 to 272
-30 to 416

240300
134160
508210
102640
226230
124500

-595
447.67
-1368.7
-139.63
-624.8
370.6

1013

9 to 428

35540

436.78

-0.18486

52 to 243

184440

-150.2

0.37044

- 28 to 116

-21

11734

-40669

0.047333
-2547.9

3.1015
-0.03034
1.472

0.008763

0.00203

1.687E+24

-10

65 to 428

63400

150.6

1.402E+22

-10

-131 to 476
65 to 548

61.26
370350

314410
231.47

1824.6
0.68632

5.688E+21
-7.27E-09

-10
3

-140 to 368
35 to 716

172120
79815

-183.78
50.929

0.88734
0.043379

-139 to 116

-32469

1977.1

-7.0145

59 to 322

146290

-58.59

0.3582

-144 to 260

105800

-362.23

0.9379

-4 to 212

61260

270.9

-55 to 213
-164 to 131

255100
134300

-938.4
94.356

2413
-0.0032

-196 to 116
-124 to 212
-119 to 241

131340
132300
183650

-63.1
200.87
-79.862

0.8125
-0.9597
0.001953
0.60769

-69 to 513

133860

78754

0.52265

-64 to 125

383080

-1139.8

2.7101

-70 to 368

224830

-186.63

0.95891

62 to 463

205260

44.392

0.8956

-13 to 292
50 to 519

36500
346910

1017.5
219.54

-2.63
0.65632

-202 to 242
106 to 305

159080
101720

-270.5
317.61

0.99537

268 to 545

145400

252.4

-5 to 286

213660

-702.7

1.6605

-147 to 319

174380

-101.8

0.79

56 to 620

-35500

1287.2

-2.599

0.002426

-23 to 293

113340

290.2

-0.6051

0.001357

-163 to 151
-139 to 440

171730
140140

-800.47
-152.3

2.8934
0.695

-0.0025

4.634E+22

-1.96E-05
3.055E+24

-0.060853

-10

2
-10

0.008691

0.00098

0.00302

-10

570980

-2

-5.879E-29

10

-100 to 192

111480

368.13

-14 to 320

293980

-114.98

-100 to 260

-10320

322.8

32 to 500

276370

-2090.1

0.96936
8.125

-0.01412 9.37E-06

Parameters for Heptane Specific Heat Calculation:


T in K
333.2
t for heptane
0.38328

-139 to 396
7.156E-02
Range, F

0.20463
-0.00024252
0
0
Variables for Thermal Conductivity Calculations:
c1
c2
c3
c4

1,1,2-Trichloroethane
1,2-Butadiene

-34 to 408
-213 to 52

0.20731
0.21966

-2.4997E-04
-3.436E-04

1,2-Propylene glycol

-76 to 1341

0.214

-1.834E-04

1,3-Butadiene
1-Butanol
1-Octanol

-164 to 25
-128 to 246
5 to 1341

0.22231
0.2136
0.214

-3.664E-04
-2.034E-04
-1.834E-04

1-Propanol

-99 to 1341

0.214

-1.834E-04

2-Butanol
2-Octanol
2-Propanol
Acetic acid
Acetic anhydride
Acetone
Acetonitrile
Acrylic acid
Air

-175 to 212
-26 to 1341
-123 to 1341
63 to 244
-99 to 284
-139 to 158
-47 to 55
55 to 412
-333 to 3141

0.22787
0.214
0.214
0.214
0.23638
0.2878
0.33192
0.24410
3.1417E-04

-3.0727E-04
-1.834E-04
-1.834E-04
-1.834E-04
-2.4263E-04
-4.27E-04
-4.3243E-04
-2.904E-01
0.7786

Benzene

43 to 284

0.23444

-3.0572E-04

Benzoic acid

252 to 613

0.2391

-2.325E-04

Bromobenzene
Butyl acetate
Carbon disulfide

-24 to 426
-99 to 358
-170 to 115

0.16983
0.21721
0.2333

-1.981E-04
-2.6563E-04
-2.75E-04

Carbon tetrachloride

-9 to 171

0.1589

-1.987E-04

Chlorobenzene

-49 to 270

0.1841

-1.917E-04

Chloroform
Chloromethane
Cumene

- 83 to 261
-144 to 171
-141 to 284

0.1778
0.41067
0.1855

-2.023E-04
-8.478E-04
-2.0895E-04

Cyclohexane

45 to 178

0.19813

-2.505E-04

Cyclopentane
Decane

-137 to 345
-22 to 345

0.2066
0.2063

-2.696E-04
-2.5E-04

Dibutyl ether

-144 to 482

0.19418

-2.2246E-04

-0.7116

2121.7

Diethanol amine

82 to 752

0.0218

1.0315E-03

Diethyl ether

-177 to 320

0.2495

-4.07E-04

Dimethyl sulfoxide
Diphenyl ether
Dodecane
Ethanol
Ethyl acetate
Ethyl benzoate

81 to 496
81 to 496
14 to 421
-173 to 176
-119 to 171
-31 to 529

0.3142
0.18686
0.2047
0.2468
0.2501
0.20771

-3.0809E-04
-1.4953E-04
-2.326E-04
-2.64E-04
-3.563E-04
-2.1265E-04

Ethylene glycol

9 to 387

0.088067

9.4712E-04

Ethylenediamine

52 to 243

0.36434

-4.433E-04

- 31 to 176

0.20962

-2.8034E-04

Formamide

37 to 428

0.38470

-1.065E-04

Heptane
Hexadecane

-132 to 210
64 to 549

0.21500
0.20749

-3.03E-04
-2.1917E-04

Hexane
Hydrazine

-139 to 207
36 to 662

0.22492
1.3675

-3.533E-04
-1.5895E-03

Isopropyl amine

-139 to 90

0.237

-3.320E-04

Methacrylic acid

59 to 495

0.2306

-2.5201E-04

Methanol

-144 to 149

0.2837

-2.81E-04

Methyl acetate

-144 to 235

0.2777

-4.17E-04

Methyl methacrylate
Methyl tert-butyl ether

63 to 194
-164 to 131

0.2583
0.2253

-3.79E-04
-3.7273E-04

Methylcyclohexane
Methylethyl ketone
Methylisobutyl ketone

32 to 214
-125 to 176
-119 to 352

0.1791
0.2197
0.2301

-2.291E-04
-2.505E-04
-2.8899E-04

m-Xylene

-54 to 284

0.20044

-2.3544E-04

Nonane

-63 to 304

0.209

-2.64E-04

Octane

-71 to 259

0.2156

-2.9483E-04

Octanoic acid

63 to 464

0.203

-2E-04

o-Xylene
Pentadecane

-13 to 291
50 to 520

0.19989
0.20649

-2.299E-04
-2.1911E-04

Pentane
Phenol

-202 to 342
106 to 360

0.2537
0.18831

-5.76E-04
-1E-04

Phthalic anhydride

268 to 545

0.2295

-2.1345E-04

Propionic acid

-6 to 518

0.1954

-1.64E-04

Propylbenzene

-148 to 590

0.18707

-1.9846E-04

p-Xylene

54 to 284

0.20003

-2.3573E-04

Styrene

-24 to 293

0.20215

-2.201E-04

Tetrahydrofuran
Toluene

-162 to 151
-139 to 396

0.19428
0.20463

-2.49E-04
-2.4252E-04

Fluorobenzene

-1.355E-06

1.173E-07

3.44E-07

Triethyl amine

-175 to 410

0.1918

-2.453E-04

Undecane

-15 to 385

0.20515

-2.3933E-04

Vinyl chloride

-245 to 162

0.2333

-3.92E-04

32 to 680

-0.4320

5.73E-03

Water

-8.08E-06

1.861E-09

Limits of Temperature Range (oF)


Density

Viscosity

Specific Heat

Thermal Conductivity

-139

606

-139

232

-139

440

-139

396

-33
-215

624
354

-33
-212

237
52

-33
-213

81
63

-34
-213

408
52

-76

666

-76

442

-76

370

-76

1341

-164
-128
5

306
554
714

-9
181
45

261
246
383

-162
-128
-9

171
244
381

-164
-128
5

25
246
1341

-195

507

-195

207

-195

261

-99

1341

-175
-23
-126
63
-99
-139
-47
55
32

504
675
455
604
631
455
523
648
932

-175
-26
-126
63
-81
-117
-47
55
-315

212
356
180
244
284
133
325
369
3141

-175
-126
-195
63
-9
-139
-47
55
-279

210
356
180
244
171
133
179
215
252

-175
-26
-123
63
-99
-139
-47
55
-333

212
1341
1341
244
284
158
55
412
3141

43

552

43

522

43

176

43

284

252

892

253

621

252

350

252

613

-24
-99
-169

747
576
534

-24
-9
-168

313
259
336

68
77
-170

431
259
534

-24
-99
-170

426
358
115

-9

541

-9

360

-9

240

-9

171

-49

678

-9

513

-49

188

-49

270

-81
-144
-141

505
298
676

-81
-144
-99

176
266
261

-40
-144
-141

200
212
306

-83
-144
-141

261
171
284

45

538

45

338

44

260

45

178

-213
-20

945
651

-54
21

126
118

-177
-21

368
368

-137
-22

345
345

-144

592

-144

286

-144

350

-144

482

84

867

68

601

82

515

82

752

-177

381

163

212

163

212

-177

320

66
81
16
-173
-117
-31

853
921
725
466
482
797

66
68
12
-99
-63
-9

376
644
487
333
392
417

65
80
15
-173
-118
-30

320
566
134
242
272
416

66
81
14
-173
-119
-31

376
496
421
176
171
529

837

577

428

387

54

608

52

410

52

243

52

243

-44

549

-42

356

-28

116

-31

176

37

928

32

428

65

428

37

428

-130
64

512
842

-135
64

318
556

-131
65

476
548

-132
64

210
549

-139
36

455
716

-144
34

271
482

-140
35

368
716

-139
36

207
662

-139

390

-9

356

-139

116

-139

90

59

732

59

322

59

322

59

495

-144

464

-144

149

-144

260

-144

149

-144

453

-9

306

-4

212

-144

235

-54
-162

559
435

9
-162

261
351

-55
-164

213
131

63
-164

194
131

-233
-125
-119

570
505
574

-195
-125
-119

365
505
241

-196
-124
-119

116
212
241

32
-125
-119

214
176
352

-54

651

-54

284

-69

513

-54

284

-63

610

-67

608

-64

125

-63

304

-71

565

-80

360

-70

368

-71

259

63

790

63

464

62

463

63

464

-13
50

675
815

-13
50

293
520

-13
50

292
519

-13
50

291
520

-202
106

387
790

-202
64

378
540

-202
106

242
305

-202
106

342
360

268

964

268

545

268

545

268

545

-6

622

-6

286

-5

286

-6

518

-146

689

-99

318

-147

319

-148

590

55

649

55

284

56

620

54

284

-22

685

-22

293

-23

293

-24

293

-162
-139

513
606

-162
-139

212
232

-163
-139

151
440

-162
-139

151
396

-175

504

-9

187

-100

192

-175

410

-13

691

-13

460

-14

320

-15

385

-245

318

-225

261

-100

260

-245

162

32

176

32

703

32

500

32

680

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations


Natural Convection from an Isothermal Vertical Plane - (U.S. units)

PRELIM. CALCULATIONS

(Enter Values in yellow cells only)

Enter the indicated input data:


Height of Surface, L =

1.50 ft

Preliminary Calculations:
Temperature Diff, DT =

Prandtl Number, Pr =

70

5.643

Grashof Number, Gr =

1.949.E+11

Rayleigh Number, Ra =

1.100E+12

NOTE: Go to the Fluid Properties worksheet to change fluid

H.T. COEFF.

temperature, surface temperature, or fluid pressure values

Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation


Nusselt Number, Nu =
Convective H.T. Coeff., h =

1413.7
2 o
67.4 Btu/hr-ft - F

Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. All rights reserved.

Discussion and References


The definitions of the dimensionless numbers and the correlation used for Nusselt number are shown
below. For more discussion of natural convection and correlations for Nusselt No., see:
Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 8th Ed. - Sect 5.3.2 Natural Convection

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations


Natural Convection from an Isothermal Horizontal Plane - (U.S. units)

(Enter Values in yellow cells only)

PRELIM. CALCULATIONS

Enter the indicated input data:


Area of Plate, A =

2
0.50 ft

Perimeter of Plate, P =

3.60 ft

Preliminary Calculations:
Temperature Diff, DT =

Char. Length, L = A/P =

Prandtl Number, Pr =

70

0.139

5.643

Grashof Number, Gr =

1.548.E+08

Rayleigh Number, Ra =

8.732E+08

NOTE: Go to the Fluid Properties worksheet to change fluid


temperature, surface temperature, or fluid pressure values

ER COEFFICIENT

Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation

Case I: H.T. from upper surface of hot plate or from


lower surface of cool plate.
4

A. for 10 < Ra < 10 :


Nusselt Number, Nu =

92.8

HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIE

Convective H.T. Coeff., h =

2 o
47.83 Btu/hr-ft - F

B. for 107 < Ra < 1011:


Nusselt Number, Nu =

143.4

Convective H.T. Coeff., h =

2 o
73.87 Btu/hr-ft - F

Case II: H.T. from upper surface of cool plate or from


lower surface of hot plate.
( for 105 < Ra < 1010):
Nusselt Number, Nu =

46.4

Convective H.T. Coeff., h =

2 o
0.59 Btu/hr-ft - F

Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. All rights reserved.

nt Correlations

ane - (U.S. units)

Discussion and References


The definitions of the dimensionless numbers and the correlations used for Nusselt number are
shown below. For more discussion of natural convection and correlations for Nusselt No., see:
Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 8th Ed. - Sect 5.3.2 Natural Convection

Correlation #1: (for heat transfer from the upper surface of a hot plate to a cooler fluid above it
or from the lower surface of a cool plate to a warmer fluid below it)

Nu = 0.54 Ra1/4 ( 104 < Ra < 107 )


Nu = 0.15 Ra1/3 ( 107 < Ra < 1011 )
Correlation #2: (for heat transfer from the upper surface of a cool plate to a warmer fluid above it
or from the lower surface of a warm plate to a cooler fluid below it)

Nu = 0.27 Ra

1/4

( 10 < Ra < 10

10

. All rights reserved.

ed for Nusselt number are


ions for Nusselt No., see:

te to a cooler fluid above it

ate to a warmer fluid above it

Natural Convection Heat Transfer Coefficient Correlations


Natural Convection from an Isothermal Horizontal Cylinder - (U.S. units)

PRELIM. CALCULATIONS

(Enter Values in yellow cells only)

Enter the indicated input data:


Pipe Diameter, D =

2.00 ft

Preliminary Calculations:
Temperature Diff, DT =

Prandtl Number, Pr =

70

5.643

Grashof Number, Gr =

4.621.E+11

Rayleigh Number, Ra =

2.608E+12

NOTE: Go to the Fluid Properties worksheet to change fluid

H.T. COEFF.

temperature, surface temperature, or fluid pressure values

Heat Transfer Coefficient Calculation


Nusselt Number, Nu =
Convective H.T. Coeff., h =

1838.5
2 o
65.78 Btu/hr-ft - F

Copyright McGraw-Hill Global Education Holdings, LLC. All rights reserved.

Churchill Equation
Initial estimate of f

#REF!

Colebrook Equation
1st iteration with Colbrook;
2nd iteration with Colbrook;
3rd iteration with Colbrook;
4th iteration with Colbrook;
5th iteration with Colbrook;
6th iteration with Colbrook;
7th iteration with Colbrook;
8th iteration with Colbrook;
9th iteration with Colbrook;
10th iteration with Colbrook;
11th iteration with Colbrook;
12th iteration with Colbrook;

#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!
#REF!

Discussion and References


The definitions of the dimensionless numbers and the correlation used for Nusselt number are shown
below. For more discussion of natural convection and correlations for Nusselt No., see:
Perry's Chemical Engineer's Handbook, 8th Ed. - Sect 5.3.2 Natural Convection

hts reserved.