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BASE MATERIAL: Also called the substrate THERMOPLASTIC RESINS: Synthetic resi ns !hich "elt !hen sub#ected to heat and re$ert to their ori inal solid state !hen cooled COATIN%: The a"ount o& resin de'osited and ho! it is secured on to the base &abric(

The base "aterials are 'roduced in a di$ersity o& !o$en) *nitted and non!o$en &or"s) !ith each ty'e ha$in its o!n 'articular a''lication accordin to its intended &unction on the ar"ent( The "aterials can be 'roduced &ro" natural or synthetic &ibers or &ro" blends o& each o& these &ibers( Base cloths in&luence the &ollo!in characteristics o& the &inished ar"ent: +,- Handle and bul* +.- Sha'e retention +/- Shrin*a e control +0- Crease reco$ery +1- A''earance a&ter !ashin or dry cleanin +2- 3urability

Knitted substrates 'ro$ide a de ree o& elasticity to the la"inate by yieldin ) to ether !ith the to' cloth) to body and li"b "o$e"ents( The &irst *nitted substrates !ere !ar' *nitted) and !hen !e&t inserted yarns !ere introduced into the construction) *nitted base cloths beca"e !idely acce'ted &or &usin to !o$en to' cloths( A bi ad$anta e o& a !e&t4 insert substrate is that it has a natural handle !hilst bein resilient in the !ar' direction) i(e( around the body area !here it is used( As the *nittin 'rocess is enerally &aster than !ea$in ) these "aterials are chea'er than !o$en substrates(

Nonwoven substrates
Non!o$en substrates are "ade o& a series or "i5ture o& &ibers held to ether at bond sites( The &ibers can be natural) synthetic or $arious co"binations o& the t!o) but due to the cost o& natural &ibers) "ost non!o$ens are constructed &ro" synthetic &ibers(

The three standard web for ations are:

+,- Random: The &ibers are orientated rando"ly and the resultant substrate is unidirectional( This 'ro'erty hel's !ith "aterial utili6ation but the &usible itsel& lac*s stren th and resilience in any one direction( (2) Parallel: As the name implies, the fibers are orientated to the length of substrate which makes this fusible ideal for preventing stretching. ( ) !ross"laid: #n this web, the fibers are orientated at an angle of $% degree across the substrate, which gives the opportunit& of cutting components on the true bias or on the straight.

Resins are the sole bondin a ent bet!een the to' cloth and substrate and irres'ecti$e o& the ty'e o& resin used7 they ha$e to con&or" to the &ollo!in conditions: 'pper"limit temperature: The resin should beco"e $iscous at a te"'erature belo! that !hich !ould da"a e the to' cloth( 8hilst this te"'erature $aries accordin to the co"'osition o& the to' cloth) it rarely e5ceeds ,91de ree centi rade( (ower"limit temperature: This is the lo!est te"'erature at !hich the resin starts to beco"e $iscous( :or "ost &usible this is about ,,;de ree centi rade) and &or the &usible used &or leather and suede "aterials) the te"'erature is considerably lo!er( !leanabilit&: )he adhesive properties of the resin have to be sufficientl& strong to withstand washing and*or dr&"cleaning throughout the normal life of the garment. +andle: The resin "ust contribute to the re<uired handle and not act as an un!anted sti&&enin a ent on the &inal la"inate(

Resin t!"es and a""#i$ations

The ty'es and 'ro'erties o& the "ost !idely used resins are: Pol&eth&lene: At di&&erent densities this is suitable &or !ash and !ear ar"ents or &or those !hich ha$e to be dry4cleaned only( Pol&amide: All 'olya"ide resins 'roduce &ull dry4cleanable and !ashable bonds but there is a class o& this resin !hich is dry4cleanable only( Pol&ester: These resins ha$e the sa"e eneral 'ro'erties as 'oly4a"ides but are enerally a little chea'er( P=C used e5tensi$ely &or silicones rain!ear &abrics(

Plastici,ed cellulose acetate " A "ulti4'ur'ose resin !hich is both !ashable and dry4 cleanable( Plastici,ed pol&vin&l acetate > Mainly used &or leather and &ur "aterials but is only dry4 cleanable and has $ery li"ited !ashability(


There are two as"e$ts of the $oatin&' densit! and $oatin& s!ste (
)ENSIT* > Resins are a''lied to substrates in three di&&erent densities > lo!) "ediu" and hi h and the de ree o& density re&ers to the actual "ass 'er unit $olu"e o& the resin "aterial( This 'hysical density is directly related to the "eltin 'oint o& the resin and its resistance to dry4cleanin so$ents) and as a rule the hi her the density) the better the resin stands u' to dry4cleanin (

Coatin& S!ste
This re&ers to the 'rocess !hereby the resin is de'osited and secured on the substrate( There are three 'rinci'al "ethods: -catter coating: This "ethod uses electronically controlled scatterin heads to de'osit the resin crystals on to the "o$in substrate( The dra!bac* o& this "ethod is that the substrate sur&ace is co$ered !ith resin) !hich reduces the &le5ibility o& the la"inate( .r& dot printing: In this 'rocess the resin is 'rinted on to the substrate in re ularly s'aced dots by "eans o& rollers !ith indentations !hich hold the resin crystals( This "ethod is enerally re arded as 'roducin the "ost &le5ible bond( Performed: The resin is heat 'rocessed to &or" a net !hich is then bonded onto the substrate by heat and 'ressure( 3urin heatin the lin* lines o& the net "elt) lea$in a "inute dot 'attern on the base cloth( This "ethod is also used to 'roduce 'a'er4bac*ed ta'es !hich are used &or &astenin he"s and &acin s instead o& blind stitchin or &ellin :?SIN% PROCESS Re ardless o& !hich &usible "achines are used &usin is controlled by &our 'rocessin co"'onents: Te"'erature Ti"e Pressure Coolin

Te "erature

There is a li"it ran e o& te"'eratures that are e&&ecti$e &or each ty'e o& resin Too hi h a te"'erature causes the resin to beco"e too $iscous) !hich could result in the resin bein &orced throu h to the ri ht side o& the cloth( I& the te"'erature is too lo!) the resin is not su&&iciently $iscous to disburse into the to' cloth( In eneral) resin4"elt te"'eratures ran e &ro" ,/;de ree4 ,2; de ree centi rade and the best results !ill nor"ally occur !ithin @4 9de ree centi rade o& the te"'erature s'eci&ied by the "anu&acturer o& the &usible(

Ti e
The only ti"e ele"ent o& any $alue durin the &usin 'rocess is !hen the to' cloth and &usible are under 'ressure in the heatin 6one o& the "achine( This ti"e cycle &or a 'articular &usible is deter"ined by: 8hether the &usible has a hi h or lo!4"elt resin I& a li ht or hea$y substrate is bein used The nature o& the to' cloth bein used) i(e( thic* or thin) dense or o'en( Manu&acturers o& &usible su''ly data sheets !hich i$e the ti"e cycle &or each &usible) and this re&ers to the actual &usin sta e only(

8hen the resin is $iscous) 'ressure is a''lied to the to' cloth and &usible asse"ble to ensure that: :ull contact is "ade bet!een the to' cloth and &usible Heat trans&er is at the o'ti"u" le$el There is an e$en 'enetration o& the $iscous resin into the &ibers o& the to' cloth( Most &usin "achines use t!o steel rollers or 'ressure 'lates to create 'ressure) but a &le5ible 'ressure syste" has been de$elo'ed !hich auto"atically ada'ts itsel& to $ariations in the thic*ness o& the asse"ble bein &used) !hilst "aintainin an e$en 'ressure o$er the entire asse"bly(

En&orced coolin is used so that the &used asse"blies can be handled i""ediately a&ter &usin ( Coolin can be induced by $arious syste"s) includin !ater4cooled 'lates) co"'ressed air circulation and $acuu"( Ra'idly coolin the &used asse"blies to /; de ree > /1 de ree centi rade "a*es &or a hi her le$el o& 'roducti$ity than i& o'erators ha$e to !ait &or the asse"blies to cool naturally(


A 'ress is used &or &usin and three basic ty'es are: +,- Stea" 'ress +.- :alt bed 'ress +/- Con$eyor belt 'ress Each ty'e o& "achine has its !on ran e o& ca'abilities(



Re ular stea" 'ressin "achines are not desi ned &or &usin althou h so"e &usibles are 'roduced &or use on these "achines( Pressin "achines ha$e so"e serious li"itations re ardin &usin ) includin : Inability to reach the heat le$els re<uired by the "a#ority o& resins The sha'e and si6e o& the buc*s restrict the si6e o& the co"'onents !hich can be &used Most utility "achines are not &itted !ith 'ro ra""e controls) !hich "eans that the entire 'rocess is o'erator controlled I& the resin !as ori inally acti$ated by stea" heat) the sa"e thin can ha''en !hen ar"ents are 'ressed durin their 'roduction( This situation can cause serious 'roble"s !ith the stability o& the la"inates( Re ular stea" 'ressin "achines are not the ideal "ediu" &or &usin (

F#at bed "ress

:lat bed 'resses are 'ur'ose4built &usin "achines 'roduced in a lar e $ariety o& si6es and !ith "any ty'es o& !or* aids( This ty'e o& 'ress has 'added to' and botto" buc*s !ith electric heatin ele"ents in one or both buc*s( The botto" buc* is static and the to' buc* is lo!ered to &use the asse"ble !hilst under 'ressure) and then raised a&ter coolin ( Most o& these "achines are &itted !ith ti"ers and 'ro ra""e controls and can achie$e hi h le$els o& usin <uality(

Conve!or be#t "ress

Con$eyor belt 'resses are also called continuous "achines because they can be o'erated !ithout sto''in &or the loadin and unloadin o& the asse"blies( The con$eyor belt trans'orts the asse"blies throu h all the 'rocesses and the belt s'eed is ad#ustable accordin to the ti"e cycle re<uired( This ty'e o& "achine is a$ailable in di&&erent len ths and !idths and can be &itted !ith auto"atic &eedin and unloadin syste"s( A &eature o& the "ore "odern "achines is a "icro'rocessor !hich can be 'ro ra""ed to control e$ery ele"ent o& the "achineAs o'eration( The co"'act "achine is desi ned to &use the s"all <uantities !hich are 'roduced in the sa"'le roo"( It has e5actly the sa"e ran e o& &usin characteristics as its industrial bit brother and can be &itted !ith a return &eed syste" and stac*er i& its 'roduction has to be increased( A &eature o& the "achine illustrated is that one side is o'en so as to allo! &or the 'artial &usin o& !ider co"'onents) such as coat &ore'arts(c$