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Gemology is a geoscience, dealing with the study of gemstones.

In college, a gemologist learns to identify a stone based on color, and other factors of appearance. S/he also learns how to price the gems, and market the merchandise. Gemologists can specialize in certain gems, such as diamonds or sapphire, or they can work with a variety of gems. Gemology is a career on the rise, since it has become more and more popular to give rings as gifts or momentums, such as engagement rings or class rings. Characteristics and classification

gemstone or gem !also called a precious or semi"precious stone, a fine gem, or #ewel$ is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make #ewelry or other adornments %owever certain rocks !such as lapis lazuli$ and organic materials !such as amber or #et$ are not minerals, but are still used for #ewelry, and are therefore often considered to be gemstones as well. &ost gemstones are hard, but some soft minerals are used in #ewelry because of their luster or other physical properties that have aesthetic value. 'arity is another characteristic that lends value to a gemstone. part from #ewelry, from earliest anti(uity until the )*th century engraved gems and hardstone carvings such as cups were ma#or lu+ury art forms, the carvings of Carl -aberg. were the last significant works in this tradition.

selection of gemstone pebbles made by tumbling rough rock with abrasive grit, in a rotating drum. /he biggest pebble here is 01 mm long !).2 inches$. /he traditional classification in the 3est, which goes back to the ncient Greeks, begins with a distinction between precious and semi"precious stones, similar distinctions are made in other cultures. In modern usage the precious stones are diamond, ruby, sapphire and emerald, with all other gemstones being semi"precious.456 /his distinction reflects the rarity of the respective stones in ancient times, as well as their (uality7 all are translucent with fine color in their purest forms, e+cept for the colorless diamond, and very hard,406 with hardnesses of 89)1 on the &ohs scale. :ther stones are classified by their color, translucency and hardness. /he traditional distinction does not necessarily reflect modern values, for e+ample, while garnets are relatively ine+pensive, a green garnet called /savorite, can be far more valuable than a mid"(uality emerald.4;6 nother unscientific term for semi"precious gemstones used in art history and archaeology is hardstone. <se of the terms =precious= and =semi"precious= in a commercial conte+t is, arguably, misleading in that it deceptively implies certain stones are intrinsically more valuable than others, which is not the case.

In modern times gemstones are identified by gemologists, who describe gems and their characteristics using technical terminology specific to the field of gemology. /he first characteristic a gemologist uses to identify a gemstone is its chemical composition. -or e+ample, diamonds are made of carbon !C$ and rubies of aluminium o+ide ! l>:5$. ?e+t, many gems are crystals which are classified by their crystal system such as cubic or trigonal or monoclinic. nother term used is habit, the form the gem is usually found in. -or e+ample diamonds, which have a cubic crystal system, are often found as octahedrons. Gemstones are classified into different groups, species, and varieties. -or e+ample, ruby is the red variety of the species corundum, while any other color of corundum is considered sapphire. @merald !green$, a(uamarine !blue$, red beryl !red$, goshenite !colorless$, heliodor !yellow$, and morganite !pink$ are all varieties of the mineral species beryl. Gems are characterized in terms of refractive inde+, dispersion, specific gravity, hardness, cleavage, fracture, and luster. /hey may e+hibit pleochroism or double refraction. /hey may have luminescence and a distinctive absorption spectrum. &aterial or flaws within a stone may be present as inclusions. Gemstones may also be classified in terms of their AwaterA. /his is a recognized grading of the gem=s luster and/or transparency and/or AbrillianceA.426 Bery transparent gems are considered Afirst waterA, while AsecondA or Athird waterA gems are those of a lesser transparency.4C6 4edit6Balue Gomedha Gomeda= is the Sanskrit name for =%essonite garnet=. It is said that this gem belongs to the Dircon family. /he best of them come from Sri Eanka. Its color is like red colored smoke. Some have given its color as that of honey. /he colorless ones look like diamonds. /he ones which are transparent, not undulating, soft in touch and has luster and radiance should be considered of good (uality and auspicious. 3earing an unblemished Gomeda assures the native safety and protection from the deadliest of the enemies. It bestows health, wealth and prosperity. It is believed that keeping Gomeda in the mouth stops bleeding. It is a helpful gem for the warriors in the battlefield. t the time of hunting wild animals, it acts as protective armour. 3earing a Gomeda is said to bring success, wealth and notoriety in society, increase life span and good fortune. It is known to heal capillaries, skin elasticity, protection from pre" cancerous conditions. It is also said to heal Fad dreams, depression, anger, hormone imbalances, inflammations G se+ual disease.

/his is not a anniversary stone. Cat=s @ye Cat=s @ye is usually found in yellowish or blackish in color. Inside this gem is visible a shining band which moves when the gem is turned. Fecause of this band this is also called HSutra &aniI. /he catIs eye coming from &ogok mines of Furma are considered the best. /he one, which has yellowish radiance with a white band, belongs to the superior (uality. /he more brilliant and straight the inside band, the more superior is the gemstone. CatIs eye is a (uick acting gemstone and should always be worn after a trial. /he wearing of this gem gives happiness in the matter of children and makes the wearer wealthy. It restores lost wealth and protection from enemies. It is known to give very fine spiritual tendencies, asceticism, non"attachment and psychic powers as well. It is related to ghosts, spirits and astral forces. It is said to e+alt spirituality and psychic ability, and protect from mysterious dangers and diseases. It brings fortune to gamblers.

Cat=s @ye is the anniversary gemstone for the *th year of marriage.