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TABLE OF CONTENTS:

CONTENTS PAGE NUMBER

1. Introduction --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 3 2. Differences between Ipv4 and Ipv6 ------------------------------------------------------ 4 3. Support of Ipv6 for Existing Routing rotoco!s --------------------------------------- " 3.1 RI v2 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ " 3.2 #S $ ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- " 3.3 IS-IS -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- " 3.4 EI%R ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6 3." &% v4 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 6 3.6 IDR -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 4. I v6 Routing rotoco!s ---------------------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.1 RI ng ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.1.1 ()aracteristics of RI ng ----------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.2 (isco EI%R ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.3 #S $v3 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.3.1 ()aractersistics of #S $v3 -------------------------------------------------------- ' 4.4 * &% -4 --------------------------------------------------------------------------------- + 4.4.1 ()aracteristics of &% -4 ------------------------------------------------------------ + ". (onc!usion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- , 6. References -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ,

LIST OF FIGURES:
1. $igure 1.1- Datagra. for.at for I v4 ------------------------------------------------------- 3 2. $igure 1.2- Datagra. for.at for I v6 -------------------------------------------------------- 3

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1. Introduction:
Ip v4 and Ipv6 are t)e versions of I 9 w)ic) are used as t)e .ediu. or t)e support to co..unicate wit) ot)er )osts. 6)ese versions are .ain reason for t)e routing of t)e data pac:ets a!ong t)e networ:. #SI and 6( ;I .ode!s provides t)e co..unication functions in different !a<ers. 6)ese !a<ers co..unicate wit) eac) ot)er9 !a<er co..unicates wit) t)e above !a<er. ' !a<ers in #SI .ode! are 0pp!ication9 resentation9 Session9 6ransport9 2etwor:9 Data 4in: 4a<er and )<sica! 4a<er. I protoco! be!ong to 2etwor: !a<er of #SI and in 6( ;I I protoco! be!ong to Internet 4a<er. I was t)e first proposed b< 1int (erf and &ob 8a)n in 1,'4. Ipv4 was t)e first version of I fo!!owed b< Ipv6. Ipv6 )ad additiona! i.prove.ents and .ade so.e en)ance.ents to t)e Ipv4. Ipv 4 and Ipv6 datagra. for.ats

$igure 1.1- Datagra. for.at for Ipv4

$igure 1.2- Datagra. for.at for Ipv6.

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2. Diff r nc ! " t# n I$%& 'nd I$%(:


I 14 1. 0ddress It is 32 word !ong. It is represented in octadeci.a!. 0ddress of I 14 consists of 2etwor: bits and )ost bits9 w)ic) are dependent to c!asses of address. (!asses are defined based on t)e 2etwor: bits 09 &9 (9 D and E. &ased on t)e (!ass!ess InterDo.ain Routing >(IDR? address a!!ocation are .ade. 0nd a!so address are assigned as per (!asses of t)e networ: I 16 It is )exadeci.a! word consisting of 12+ bits. I 16 a!so consists networ: and )ost bits but are of fixed si=e 64 bits. &ut t)e )ost bits are eit)er *0( address or interface nu.ber;idenntifier. I 16 adress representation is co.p!icated t)an I 14 Internet 0rc)itecture board >I0&? and Internet Engineering 6as: $orce >IE6$? .ade so.e reco..endations to organi=ations and individua!s a!!owed a subnet of ;4+ as prefix !engt). DoesnAt support for

2. 0ddress 0!!ocation

3. D@(

I 14 supports D@( . #btains I 16 I address auto.atica!!< or D@( d<na.ica!!<

4. $6

I 14 supports $6 . $i!es and $6 is disab!ed i.e.9 doesnAt ot)er infor.ation can be support $6 transfered to and fro a!ong t)e networ: using $6 $rag.entation of pac:ets are a!!owed w)en t)e pac:et si=e is big for t)e data !in: on w)ic) to be send. ac:ets are $rag.ented b< Sender I 16 a!so a!!ows frag.entation. &ut frag.entation )eader is not supported. $rag.entation of pac:et done at source address and reasse.b!ed at destination address on!<.

". $rag.entation

6. Internet (ontro! *essage $or co..unication infor.ation I 16 a!so uses for t)e rotoco! >I(* ? I 14 uses I(* co..unication infor.ation of networ:. &ut t)e version of I(* is upgraded to I(* v6 wit) additiona! attributes a!ong wit) basic attributes. '. 0ddress *as: +. 0ddress 6<pes ,. 0dress Reso!ution >0R ? 3sed for designation networ: bits fro. )ost bits Supports 3nicast9 and .u!ticast of 2o address .as: is used Supports an< cast9 3nicast9 *u!ticast

&roadcast

rotoco! 6o find p)<sica! address !i:e 0R functions are e.beded !in: address9 interface address wit) in t)e I(* 16 . 2o
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or *0( address9 I 14 uses support for 0R . $unctions t)at 0R are inc!uded in I(* 16 are 2eig)bour discover< and state!ess auto configuration. 15. I )eader I )eader si=e is variab!e. I 16 )eader is of fixed si=e. 2o 4engt) of 25 to 65 b<tes based options for t)e )eader. I 16 on options in I )eader is .uc) si.p!er t)an t)e I 14

). Su$$ort of IP*( for E+i!tin, Routin, Protoco-!1. Interior Routing rotoco!s 6o .anage routing wit) in networ:s w)ic) are ad.inistered b< a uniBue ad.in. Interior routing protoco! )ave 1. RI v2 2. #S $ 3. IS-IS and EI%R 2. Exterior Routing rotoco!s 6o route t)e pac:ets between autono.ous s<ste.s 1. &% v4 2. IDR ).1 RIP%2 RI uses distance-vector .etrics. 6)e basics of RI in Ipv4 is sa.e in RI 12 wit) additiona! )eader. 6)is additiona! )eader is extension of t)e RI 9 w)ic) .a:es eas< to i.p!e.ent for Ipv6 networ:. RI wor:s t)at eac) node s<ste.atica!!< sends a CdistanceC to ot)er node fro. itse!f. *etrics are used to .easure t)e distance is si.p!< b< t)e nu.ber of )ops. RI routers use t)e .etrics infor.ation are sent to bui!d routing tab!es to a!! networ: nodes. &asica!!<9 find ing t)e networ: topo!og<9 e.ission of successive iterations of routing infor.ation. ).2 OSPF #S $ is a !in: State rotoco!. It uses s)ortest pat) a!gorit). for routing based on t)e !in: state records w)ic) are updated auto.atica!!< fro. ti.e to ti.e interve!. #S $ avoids inconsistent data or corrupted infor.ation for instance #S $ routing pac:ets contains seBuence nu.ber b< w)ic) o!d pac:ets are re.oved. It a!so provides securit< against ot)er .a!icious routers. #S $ for I 16 wi!! co..unicate between I 16 capab!e routers9 since Data base of !in: state are not distributed a.ong t)e I 14 database. 1. !in: state data base are 12+ bits as in I 14 32 bits. 2. (o..unicates on!< wit) I 16 enab!ed routers. 3. 2etwor: areas are grouped b< t)eir prefix. 4. Instead of .as:9 a sing!e integer used as prefix ).) IS.IS IS-IS is a!so a !in: state protoco! and is an interna! routing protoco! w)ic) was designed b< t)e IS#. 0 bit si.i!ar to #S $ protoco! w)ic) contains )e!!o protoco! for finding t)e neig)bour nodes 9 f!ooding protoco! for distributing !in:or node infor.ation.
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SeBuence nu.ber in .essages is .aintained b< t)e IS-IS w)ic) wi!! be incre.ented b< .essage b< .essage. 6)e on!< prob!e. wit) IS-IS is t)at w)en t)e seBuence nu.ber reac)es )ig) point t)en IS-IS router fai!s and re.oves a!! t)e eisted infor.ation. I.p!e.entations in IS-IS of I v6 use t)e I v6 autoconfiguration features were c!ose to t)e action of t)e #SI .ode!. 6ec)nica! prob!e.s9 !i:e IS-IS uses a few s.a!! .etrics >6 bits?9 !i.it t)e infor.ation t)at can be trans.itted 9 and t)e a.ount of space for a !in: is on!< +-bit va!ue 9 to reduce t)e nu.ber of records is a router can announce 2"6. 2ext is a tec)nica! prob!e. t)at de.and for t)e iS-IS is bound #SI9 is a .uc) s!ower growt) and respond to c)anges suc) as #S $. ).& EIGRP EI%R is a distance vector protoco! and is a interna! routing protoco! i.p!e.ented b< (isco S<ste.s. EI%R is a successor version of I%R . EI%R wor:s in a !ow freBuenc< and )as .an< .etrics to .easure. 0!!ows .u!tipat) routing wit) four distinct .etrics 1. de!a< 2. bandwidt) 3. re!iabi!it< 4. !oad fina! .etric is for.u!ated wit) a!! t)ese .etrics toget)er for t)e data !in:. 6o configure pac:et transfering t)ese .etrics a!!ow t)e de!iver< based on t)e .etrics preferenced. EI%R i.p!e.ents a D304 a!gorit). 9 DD %arcia-4una-0ceves deve!oped on wor: done in 1,+5 and is based E7DiE:stra (SSc)o!ten. 6)is i.proves t)e distance-vector a!gorit). t)at uses t)e version of RI and I%R ear!ier9 .ain!< due to t)e e!i.ination of t)e !oop routing. &< t)is cost co.p!exit< wi!! be raised. EI%R is not co.patib!e wit) I%R and is .ore co.p!icated9 bot) in ter.s of protoco! and service !eve!. )./ BGP%& &order %ate wa< rotoco! is E% standard R$(1''1. &% v4 rotuing a!!ows to broadcast a!! its avaia!b!e pat)s between t)e node a!!owing t)e service wit) !oop detection. 6( !a<er was used b< &% w)ic) a!!ows .essage de!iver< gaurentee. 3sing t)is on!< disadvantage is t)at !in: to node is visib!e eit)er a!ive or dead. 7)en node wants connection wit) &% first c)ec:s 6( connection to standard &% port >1',?. 6)e first )ands)a:e is .ade9 in w)ic) identification nu.bers9 credentia!s9 version nu.bers9 protoco!9 etc. are s)ared or transfered to eac) ot)er. 7)en t)ere is difference in protoco! nu.bers t)en connection is cance!ed and can be repeated wit) t)e !ower rotoco! 2u.ber. If successfu!!< aut)enticated9 t)e nodes begin to s)are t)e update pac:ets to eac) ot)er for t)e record and aut)entication. ).( IDRP Inter-Do.ain Routing rotoco! was first i.p!e.ented for t)e #SI protoco!s deve!oped b< IS# >Standard 15'4'?. IDR is best t)an t)e new version &% 1. IDR doesnAt depend on t)e #SI networ:ing9 t)oug) it was .ade for #SI networ:. 2. &ased on t)e pat)-vector design.
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3. supports .u!tiprotoco! routing. IDR s)are .essages using t)e si.p!e datagra. services w)ere IDR a!so a!!ows .u!tip!e protoco!s co.pared to &% it supports sing!e address protoco!s.

&. IP*( Routin, Protoco-!:


1. Interior Routing rotoco!s 1. RI ng 2. (isco Eigrp 3. #S $13 2. Exterior Routing rotoco!s 1. * -&% 4 &.1 RIPn,Ripng is a distance vector routing protoco!s based on t)e &e!!.an-ford a!gorit).. Ripng ca!cu!ate routes b< s)aring of its infor.ation. Router discover< .ec)anis.s are provided b< t)e Ipv6. Routers connected to RI ng router are referred as direct!< connected routers. *etric used in RI ng is an integer9 w)ose va!ue is in between 1 to 1". If .etric va!ue is 169 w)ic) indicates not reac)ab!e destination . S<ste. ad.inistrators are a!!owed to set va!ue of to t)e networ:. #t)er t)an .etric9 t)ere are destination address prefix and its !engt) w)ic) are specified b< t)e s<ste. ad.inistrator. &.1.1 ()aracteristics of RI ng. 1. 2. 3. 4. ". 6o ever< destination routing a!gorit). se!ects best pat). Routing infor.ation is s)ared over 3D 9 so s)aring of infor.ation is unre!iab!e route origin cannot be identified. 4oop routes are not identified $or routing pac:ets t)ere is no aut)entication.

&.2 Ci!co EIGRPEI%R ". 6. '. +. for Ipv6 is sa.e as EI%R for I v4 but a few c)anges to be noted It was in s)utdown state9 w)en protoco! is configured on interface. In routing process .ode on!< assive interfaces are configured. 6)ere is no sp!it-)ori=on because EI%R I v6 uses .u!tip!e prefixes. 0s of Ipv4 t)ere is no auto su..ari=ation.

&.) OSPF%)Since #S $ is a !in:-state protoco!9 it .aintains routing database :nown as 4in:-state database>4SD&?. #S $v2 and v3 )ave sa.e features a!.ost !i:e neig)bor discover< .ec)anis.9 interface t<pes9 4S0 f!ooding9 e!ection but t)ere are additiona!. #S $v3 are assigned to two !in:-!oca! .u!ticast addresses i.e.9 0!!S $Routers address and 0!!DRouter address. 6)ese routers uses t)e 0!!S $Router address group and accepts t)e pac:et fro. t)at .u!ticast group. &ased on t)e pac:et t<pe use of .u!ticast groups are depended. &.).1 ()aracteristics of #S $v36 S/0* R01EE2 &0&3 2044I *Sc 2E67#R8 (#* 36I2% 25134,20

+. v3 supports protoco! processing er-4in:. 2ot b< per I -subnet in v2 ,. supports .u!tip!e instances per !in:. 15. ()ange in aut)entication .et)ods9 A0u6<peA and A0ut)enticationA fie!ds are discarded in t)e )eader. 11. 0ddress se.antics are discarded in 4S0 )eader9 so t)at networ: is a protoco!-independent. 12. $or neig)bor discover< and auto-configuration !in:-!oca! addresses are used. 13. @and!ing un:nown 4S0 t<pes. &.& MP BGP.&&% -4 is a pat) vector routing protoco! and is defined in R$( 2+"+. 6)e difference in I v6 and Ipv4 is t)at I v6 uses scoped unicast address. &% -4 )ave t)e &% non-transitive attributes * FRE0(@F24RI and * F32RE0(@F24RI. 6)ese attributes are used to announce and wit)draw t)e announced infor.ation. &.&.1 ()aracteristics of &% -4 14. Se!ects t)e best pat) for ever< destination b< pat) infor.ation wit) t)e routing po!icies. 1". Re-advertising t)e routes to t)e ot)er routes w)ic) are not connected direct!<. 16. S)aring of infor.ation is done over 6( 9 so infor.ation is re!iab!e 1'. origin can be identified. 1+. Routing !oops are detected and are re.oved.

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/. Conc-u!ion:
Ipv6 is si.p!er t)an subnetting. It is easier since )ave separate )eader and for .u!ticast address. I 14 uses on!< broadcast addresses to broadcast a!! adresses w)ere as in Ipv6 uses an< caast to broadcast t)e adresses. 0 router running I 16 is a state!ess t)erefore it gaurentee t)e pac:et de!iver<.

(. R fr nc !:
G1H *i!!er9 *. Implementing IPv6: Supporting the Next Generation of Protocols. Second edition. *I6 &oo:s9 25559 $oster (it<9 (0- fro. pages 3"-"5. G2H $ro. t)e internet source acessed )ttp-;;ipv6int.net;s<ste.s;ciscoFiosFrouter-ipv6.)t.!. G3H S. Deering (iscoJ KInternet )ttp-;;www.ietf.org;rfc;rfc2465.txt. on 1" *arc) 2512

rotoco!9 1ersion 6 >Ipv6? L Dece.ber 1,,+ R$( 2465

G4H 4i9 6.J Re:)ter9 /. Estrin9 D C Unified Routing Requirements for IpngC 0ugust 1,,49 R$( 166+ )ttp-;;www.ietf.org;rfc;rfc166+.txt G"H /. Re:)terJ 6. 4i C )ttp-;;www.ietf.org;rfc;rfc1''1.txt !order Gate"a# Protocol $ %!GP&$'C 53;21;1,,"9

G6H &ates9 6.9 ()andra9 R.9 8at=9 D. and /. Re:)ter9C*u!tiprotoco! Extensions for &% -4C9 R$( 22+39 $ebruar< 1,,+ )ttp-;;too!s.ietf.org;)t.!;rfc22+3 G'H Deering9 S. and R. @inden9 CInternet rotoco!9 1ersion 6 >I v6? SpecificationC9 R$( 24659 Dece.ber 1,,+.)ttp-;;www.ietf.org;rfc;rfc2465.txt G+H %. *a!:in9 R. *innear9 )ttp-;;www.ietf.org;rfc;rfc25+5.txt KRI ng for Ipv6L9 R$( 25+5 Danuar< 1,,'

G,H (. @opps9 (isco S<ste.s KRouting I v6 wit) IS-ISL R$( "35+ #ctober 255+ )ttp-;;too!s.ietf.org;)t.!;rfc"35+ G15H R. (o!tun9 D. $erguson9 Duniper 2etwor:s9 D. *o<9 K#S $ for Ipv6L Du!< 255+
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)ttp-;;too!s.ietf.org;)t.!;rfc"345

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