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Lampiran A: Gambar Bagian- bagian dari Alat Penukar Kalor Berdasarkan Standar TEMA

(Sumber: Lit. 1 hal. 2)

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Lampiran B: Tabel Tebal Shell Minimum

(Sumber: Lit. 1 hal. 30)

Lampiran C: Tabel Diameter Ruang Bebas untuk Selongsong

(Sumber: Lit. 1 hal. 30)

Lampiran D: Tabel Standar Batang Pengikat

(Sumber: Lit. 1 hal. 36)

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Lampiran E: Tabel Pipa

(Sumber: Lit. 31)

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Lampiran - F: Tabel Flens

(Sumber: Lit. 32)

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Lampiran G: Tabel Laju Pengotoran untuk Fluida

(Sumber: Lit. 2)

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Lampiran H: Konduktivitas Termal Untuk Benda Padat

(Sumber: Lit. 4)

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Lampiran I: Parameter untuk Sifat Gas Buang SolidWorks Flow Simulation Dynamic Viscosity 85 100 200 300 400 500 800 1000 1500 2000 2300 2500 3000 K K K K K K K K K K K K K -188.15 -173.15 -73.15 26.85 126.85 226.85 526.85 726.85 1226.85 1726.85 2026.85 2226.85 2726.85
o o

C 0.000005741 Pa.s C 0.000006615 Pa.s o C 0.00001203 Pa.s o C 0,00001683 Pa.s o C 0.00002113 Pa.s o C 0.00002501 Pa.s o C 0.00003492 Pa.s o C 0.00004060 Pa.s o C 0.00005298 Pa.s o C 0.00006301 Pa.s o C 0.00006773 Pa.s o C 0.00007046 Pa.s o C 0.00007791 Pa.s

Spesific Heat 100 K 110 K 120 K 130 K 140 K 150 K 160 K 170 K 180 K 190 K 200 K 210 K 220 K 230 K 240 K 250 K 260 K 270 K 280 K 290 K 300 K 350 K 400 K 450 K 500 K

o -173.15 C o -163.15 C o -153.15 C o -143.15 C o -133.15 C o -123.15 C o -113.15 C o -103.15 C o -93.15 C o -83.15 C o -73.15 C o -63.15 C o -53.15 C o -43.15 C o -33.15 C o -23.15 C o -13.15 C o -3.15 C o 6.85 C o 16.85 C o 26.85 C o 76.85 C o 126.85 C o 176.85 C 226.85 C

1031 1030 1030 1030 1031 1031 1032 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1039 1040 1042 1043 1045 1047 1049 1051 1062 1075 1089 1103

J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K J/Kg.K

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Thermal Conductivity 83.15 K -190 K 93.15 -180 K 103.15 -170 113.15 K -160 123.15 K -150 K 173.15 -100 K 223.15 -50 273.15 K 0 373.15 K 100 K 473.15 200 K 573.15 300 673.15 K 400 773.15 K 500 K 873.15 600 K 973.15 700 1073.15 K 800 1500 K 1226.85 2000 K 1726.85 2500 K 2226.85 3000 K 2726.85

o o

C 0.008903 W/m.K C 0.009626 W/m.K o C 0.01035 W/m.K o C 0.01107 W/m.K o C 0.01179 W/m.K o C 0.01540 W/m.K o C 0.02256 W/m.K o C 0.02256 W/m.K o C 0.02965 W/m.K o C 0.03664 W/m.K o C 0.04352 W/m.K o C 0.05026 W/m.K o C 0.05687 W/m.K o C 0.06332 W/m.K o C 0.06963 W/m.K o C 0.07578 W/m.K o C 0.1003 W/m.K o C 0.1261 W/m.K o C 0.1492 W/m.K o C 0.1695 W/m.K

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Lampiran J: Report untuk Alat Penukar Kalor 1 1 Lintasan

INPUT DATA Initial Mesh Settings


Automatic initial mesh: On Result resolution level: 5 Advanced narrow channel refinement: Off Refinement in solid region: Off Geometry Resolution Evaluation of minimum gap size: Automatic Evaluation of minimum wall thickness: Automatic

Computational Domain
Size X min X max Y min Y max Z min Z max Boundary Conditions 2D plane flow At X min At X max At Y min At Y max At Z min At Z max -1.454 m 0.194 m -0.251 m 0.251 m -0.140 m 0.140 m

None Default Default Default Default Default Default

Physical Features
Heat conduction in solids: On Heat conduction in solids only: Off Radiation: Off Time dependent: Off Gravitational effects: Off Flow type: Laminar and turbulent High Mach number flow: Off Humidity: Off

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Default roughness: 0 micrometer Default outer wall condition: Adiabatic wall

Initial Conditions
Thermodynamic parameters Velocity parameters Static Pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 20.05 C Velocity vector Velocity in X direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Y direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Z direction: 0 m/s Default material: Steel Stainless 321 Initial solid temperature: 20.05 C Radiation Transparency: Opaque Turbulence intensity and length Intensity: 2.00 % Length: 0.003 m

Solid parameters

Turbulence parameters

Material Settings
Fluids Flue Gas Water Solids Steel Stainless 321 Copper Insulator

Fluid Subdomains
Fluid Subdomain 1 Thermodynamic Parameters Velocity Parameters Static Pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 20.05 C Velocity in X direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Y direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Z direction: 0 m/s Turbulence intensity and length 2.00 % 0.003 m Laminar and Turbulent Off Gas Flue Gas Face<1>@LID1-1 Face Coordinate System X

Turbulence parameters type: Intensity Length Flow type Humidity Default fluid type Fluids Faces Coordinate system Reference axis Fluid Subdomain 2

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Thermodynamic Parameters Velocity Parameters

Turbulence parameters type: Intensity Length Flow type Cavitation Default fluid type Fluids Faces Coordinate system Reference axis

Static Pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 20.05 C Velocity in X direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Y direction: 0 m/s Velocity in Z direction: 0 m/s Turbulence intensity and length 2.00 % 0.003 m Laminar and Turbulent Off Liquid Water Face<1>@LID4-1 Face Coordinate System X

Solid Materials
Copper Solid Material 1 Components Solid substance Radiation Transparency Steel Stainless 321 Solid Material 1 Components TUBE-1@APK 1-1 PASS Copper Opaque

Solid substance Radiation Transparency Insulator Solid Material 1 Components

cover-1@APK 1-1 PASS SHELL-1@APK 1-1 PASS BAFFLE-1@APK 1-1 PASS TUBESHEET-2@APK 1-1 PASS cover-2@APK 1-1 PASS TUBESHEET-1@APK 1-1 PASS Steel Stainless 321 Opaque

Solid substance Radiation Transparency

PACKING-2@APK 1-1 PASS PACKING-3@APK 1-1 PASS PACKING-4@APK 1-1 PASS PACKING-1@APK 1-1 PASS Insulator Opaque

Boundary Conditions
Inlet Mass Flow Gas Buang Type Faces Coordinate system Inlet Mass Flow Face <1> Face Coordinate System

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Reference axis Flow parameters

Thermodynamic parameters

X Flow vectors direction: Normal to face Mass flow rate normal to face: 0.0440 kg/s Fully developed flow: Yes Approximate pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 159.68 C

Static Pressure Gas Buang Type Faces Coordinate system Reference axis Thermodynamic parameters Turbulence parameters

Boundary layer parameters Inlet Mass Flow Air Type Faces Coordinate system Reference axis Flow parameters

Static Pressure Face <1> Face Coordinate System X Static pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 80.19 C Turbulence intensity and length Intensity: 2.00 % Length: 0.003 m Boundary layer type: Turbulent

Thermodynamic parameters Static Pressure Air Type Faces Coordinate system Reference axis Thermodynamic parameters Turbulence parameters

Inlet Mass Flow Face <1> Face Coordinate System X Flow vectors direction: Normal to face Mass flow rate normal to face: 0.0830 kg/s Fully developed flow: Yes Temperature: 28.00 C

Boundary layer parameters

Static Pressure Face <1> Face Coordinate System X Static pressure: 101325.00 Pa Temperature: 38.82 C Turbulence intensity and length Intensity: 2.00 % Length: 0.003 m Boundary layer type: Turbulent

Goals
Global Goals GG Max Temperature of Fluid 1 Type

Global Goal

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Goal type Calculate Coordinate system Use in convergence

Temperature of Fluid Maximum value Global coordinate system On

Calculation Control Options


Finish Conditions Finish conditions Maximum travels Goals convergence Solver Refinement Refinement: Disabled Results Saving Save before refinement Advanced Control Options Flow Freezing Flow freezing strategy On If one is satisfied 4.000 Analysis interval: 0.500

Disabled

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Lampiran J: Gambar Desain Alat Penukar Kalor 1. Penutup

Penutup Depan APK 1-1 Pass

Penutup Belakang APK 1-1 Pass

Penutup Depan APK 1- 2 Pass

Penutup Belakang APK 1- 2 Pass

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Penutup Depan APK 1 - 4 Pass 2. Sekat

Penutup Belakang APK 1 - 4 Pass

(a)

(b)

(c)

Gambar: Penutup Pelat, (a) 1 - 1 APK Pass, (b) 1 2 Pass, (c) 1 4 Pass

3. Penutup pelat Penutup pelat dan paking memiliki bentuk geometri yang sama hanya berbeda ketetebalan dan jenis materialnya.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Gambar: Penutup Pelat, (a) 1 - 1 APK Pass, (b) 1 2 Pass, (c) 1 4 Pass

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Lampiran H: Grafik Hubungan Hasil Perhitungan dan Simulasi CFD

Gambar: Hubungan penurunan tekanan pada sisi tabung terhadap jumlah pass

Gambar: Hubungan penurunan tekanan pada sisi selongsong (Metode Kern) terhadap jumlah pass

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Gambar: Hubungan penurunan tekanan pada sisi selongsong (Metode Bell Dellaware) terhadap jumlah pass

Gambar: Hubungan suhu keluar pada sisi tabung terhadap jumlah pass

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Gambar: Hubungan suhu keluar pada sisi selongsong terhadap jumlah pass

Gambar: Hubungan efektivitas alat penukar kalor (Metode Kern) terhadap Pjumlah pass

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Gambar: Hubungan efektivitas alat penukar kalor (Metode Bell Dellaware) terhadap jumlah pass

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