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Introduction to Management Control System: Goals, strategies, key variables, performance measures, responsibility centres and transfer price, investment centre, reporting systems, management by objectives, budgeting and control, strategic and long range planning. Goal Meaning- A goal is a desired result a person or a system envisions, plans and commits to achieve. Goal is a personal or organizational desired end-point in some sort of assumed development. Many people endeavour to reach goals within a finite time by setting deadlines. It is roughly similar to purpose or aim. Goal is the anticipated result which guides action, goal can be an end, which is an object, either a physical or an abstract object that has intrinsic value. In financial accounting goal may be to ascertain profit for a particular period and to have a vivid financial position at a particular point of time. In cost accounting goal may be to find out cost of production per cost unit or to control or to reduce the cost of production. Cost accounting also aims at collecting and presenting cost data in such a way that it enables management to take appropriate decisions. In financial management the goal may be profit maximisation or wealth maximisation. Strategies: Strategy is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty. Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these goals are usually limited. Strategy is also about attaining and maintaining a position of advantage over competitors through the successive exploitation of known or emergent possibilities rather than committing to any specific fixed plan designed at the outset. Strategy may also be called as "a pattern in a stream of decisions" to contrast with a view of strategy as planning. "Strategy is about shaping the future" and is the human attempt to get to "desirable ends with available means". In cost accounting strategy may e to sell below total cost per unit in order to maximise total profit by using behavioural analysis of cost. In financial management strategy may be to trade on equity to maximise EPS. In financial accounting strategy may be to revalue the assets to nullify the effect of inflation. Key variables: While conducting an experiment there are some things that you change; they are called variables and some things you measure; they are called results. In production, units of material or hours of labour or hours of production facilities or time are the variables and output in units are the results. The key variable is the thing you change that directly affect the experiment i.e. production. Normally key variable is a limiting variable or a scarce variable. When a single manufacturing process can produce different alternative products requiring materials, labour and production facilities in different quantities and if some of the factors of production are in short supply then that scarce factor of production is known as key factor and a contribution

per unit of key factor for each alternative product is calculated to determine optimum product mix. Performance measures: Performance measures quantitatively tell us something important about our products, services, and the processes that produce them. They are a tool to help us understand, manage, and improve what our organizations do. Performance measures let us know: How well we are doing If we are meeting our goals If our customers are satisfied They provide us with the information necessary to make intelligent decisions about what we do. A performance measure is composed of a number and a unit of measure. The number gives us a magnitude (how much) and the unit gives the number a meaning (what). Performance measures are always tied to a goal or an objective (the target). Performance measures can be represented by single dimensional units like hours, meters, nanoseconds, dollars, number of reports. Number of errors, number of CPR-certified employees, length of time to design hardware, etc. They can show the variation in a process or deviation from design specifications. Single-dimensional units of measure usually represent very basic and fundamental measures of some process or product. More often, multidimensional units of measure are used. These are performance measures expressed as ratios or two or more fundamental units. These may be units like miles per gallon (a performance measure of fuel economy), number of accidents per million hours worked (a performance measure or the companies safety program), or number of on-time vendor deliveries per total number of vendor deliveries. Performance measures expressed this way almost always convey more information than the single-dimensional or single-unit performance measures. Ideally, performance measures should be expressed in units of measure that are the most meaningful to those who must use or make decisions based on those measures. Most performance measures can be grouped into one of the following six general categories. However, certain organizations may develop their own categories as appropriate depending on the organization's mission: Effectiveness: A process characteristic indicating the degree to which the process output (work product) conforms to requirements. (Are we doing the right things?) If our processes are in statistical control If and where improvements are necessary

Efficiency: A process characteristic indicating the degree to which the process produces the required output at minimum resource cost. (Are we doing things right?) Quality: The degree to which a product or service meets customer requirements and expectations. Timeliness: Measures whether a unit of work was done correctly and on time. Criteria must be established to define what constitutes timeliness for a given unit of work. The criterion is usually based on customer requirements. Productivity: The value added by the process divided by the value of the labor and capital consumed. Safety: Measures the overall health of the organization and the working environment of its employees. The following reflect the attributes of an ideal unit of measure: Reflects the customer's needs as well as our May be interpreted uniformly own Provides an agreed upon basis for decision making Is understandable Applies broadly Is compatible with existing sensors (a way to measure it exists) Is precise in interpreting the results Is economical to apply

Performance data must support the mission assignment(s) from the highest organizational level downward to the performance level. Therefore, the measurements that are used must reflect the assigned work at that level. responsibility centres: A responsibility centre is an organizational unit that is headed by a manager who is responsible for its activities and results. In Responsibility Accounting revenues and costs information are collected and reported by responsibility centres. Responsibility accounting is a method of dividing the organizational structure into various responsibility centres to measure their performance. In other words responsibility accounting is a device to measure divisional performance measurement may be stated as under: To determine the contribution that a division as a sub-unit makes to the total organization.

To provide a basis for evaluating the quality of the divisional managers performance. Responsibility accounting is used to measure the performance of managers and it therefore, influence the way the managers behave. To motivate the divisional manager to operate his division in a manner consistent with the basic goals of the organization as a whole. Problems in Responsibility Accounting While implementing the system of responsibility accounting, the following difficulties are likely to be faced by the management: 1. Classification of costs: For responsibility accounting system to be effective a proper classification between controllable and non-controllable costs is a prime requisite. But practical difficulties arise while doing so on account of the complex nature and variety of costs. 2. Inter-departmental Conflicts: Separate departmental pursuits may lead to interdepartmental rivalry and it may be prejudicial to the interest of the enterprise as a whole. Managers may act in the best interests of their own, but not in the best interests of the enterprise. 3. Delay in Reporting: Responsibility reports may be delayed. Each responsibility centre can take its own time in preparing reports. 4. Overloading of Information: Responsibility accounting reports may be overloading with all available information. This danger is inherent in the system but with clear instructions by management as to the functioning of the system and preparation of reports, etc., only relevant information flow in.

5. Complete Reliance will be deceptive: Responsibility accounting cant be relied upon completely as a tool of management control. It is a system just to direct the attention of management to those areas of performance which required further investigation.

Transfer price: The price at which divisions of a company transact with each other. Transactions may include the trade of supplies or labour between departments. Transfer prices are used when individual entities of a larger multi-entity firm are treated and measured as separately run entities. In managerial accounting, when different divisions of a multi-entity company are in charge of their own profits, they are also responsible for their own "Return on Invested Capital".

Therefore, when divisions are required to transact with each other, a transfer price is used to determine costs. Transfer prices tend not to differ much from the price in the market because one of the entities in such a transaction will lose out: they will either be buying for more than the prevailing market price or selling below the market price, and this will affect their performance. Investment centre: A business unit that can utilize capital to directly contribute to a company's profitability. Companies evaluate the performance of an investment centre according to the revenues it brings in through investments in capital assets compared to the overall expenses. An investment centre is different than a cost centre, which indirectly adds profit and is evaluated according to the money it takes to operate. Moreover, unlike a profit centre, investment centres can utilize capital in order to purchase other assets. Because of this complexity, companies have to use a variety of metrics, including return on investment (ROI), residual income and economic value added (EVA) to evaluate performance. An investment centre is a classification used for business units within an enterprise. The essential element of an investment centre is that it is treated as a unit which is measured against its use of capital, as opposed to a cost or profit centre, which are measured against raw costs or profits. The Investment Centre takes care of Revenues, Cost and Assets -while Profit Centre deal just with revenues and costs and Cost Centre with cost only. This is a clear sign of how the span of control and span of accountability grow from Cost Centres to Investment ones. The advantage of this form of measurement is that it tends to be more encompassing, since it accounts for all uses of capital. Reporting systems: A reporting system provides information that organizations require to manage themselves efficiently and effectively. The term is commonly used to refer to the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations evaluate, design, implement, manage, and utilize systems to generate information and its reporting appropriate level of management to improve efficiency and effectiveness of decision making, including systems termed decision support systems, expert systems, and executive information systems. Reporting involves collection of authentic data which is relevant to the given objectives. It also includes analysis of data in such a way that it will help taking appropriate is a feedback system that keeps doers on the track leading to the goals. It is a presentation style that communicates without pollution or noise. Drafting of appropriate format of report containing appropriate information catering the needs of various levels of management is an art. Reporting system is a control tool. Reporting system normally includes upward ward, downward and lateral communication channels. Success of the organisation depends among many things on vibrant and effective reporting system. Management by objectives (MBO): Management by objectives (MBO) is a process of defining objectives within an organization so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they need to do in the organization in order to achieve them. The term "management by

objectives" was first popularized by Peter Drucker in his book The Practice of Management in 1954. The essence of MBO is participative goal setting, choosing course of actions and decision making. An important part of the MBO is the measurement and the comparison of the employees actual performance with the standards set. Ideally, when employees themselves have been involved with the goal setting and choosing the course of action to be followed by them, they are more likely to fulfil their responsibilities. Management by objectives can also be described as a process whereby the superior and subordinate jointly identify its common goals, define each individual's major areas of responsibility in terms of the results expected of him, and use these measures as guides for operating the unit and assessing the contribution of each of its members. Features of Management by Objectives MBO:Superior-subordinate participation: MBO requires the superior and the subordinate to recognize that the development of objectives is a joint project/activity. They must jointly agree and write out their duties and areas of responsibility in their respective jobs. Joint goal-setting: MBO emphasizes joint goal-setting that are tangible, verifiable and measurable. The subordinate in consultation with his superior sets his own short-term goals. However, it is examined both by the superior and the subordinate that goals are realistic and attainable. In brief, the goals are to be decided jointly through the participation of all. Joint decision on methodology: The superior and the subordinate mutually devise methodology to be followed in the attainment of objectives. They also mutually set standards and establish norms for evaluating performance. Makes way to attain maximum result: MBO is a systematic and rational technique that allows management to attain maximum results from available resources by focussing on attainable goals. It permits lot of freedom to subordinate to make creative decisions on his own. This motivates subordinates and ensures good performance from them. Support from superior: When the subordinate makes efforts to achieve his goals, superior's helping hand is always available. The superior acts as a coach and provides his valuable advice and guidance to the subordinate. This is how MBO facilitates effective communication between superior and subordinates for achieving the objectives/targets set. Budgeting and control: a) Budget: A formal statement of the financial resources set aside for carrying out specific activities in a given period of time. It helps to co-ordinate the activities of the organisation.

An example would be an advertising budget or sales force budget. b) Budgetary control: A control technique whereby actual results are compared with budgets. Any differences (variances) are made the responsibility of key individuals who can either exercise control action or revise the original budgets. There are a number of advantages to budgeting and budgetary control: Compels management to think about the future, which is probably the most important feature of a budgetary planning and control system. Forces management to look ahead, to set out detailed plans for achieving the targets for each department, operation and (ideally) each manager, to anticipate and give the organisation purpose and direction. Promotes coordination and communication. Clearly defines areas of responsibility. Requires managers of budget centres to be made responsible for the achievement of budget targets for the operations under their personal control. Provides a basis for performance appraisal (variance analysis). A budget is basically a yardstick against which actual performance is measured and assessed. Control is provided by comparisons of actual results against budget plan. Departures from budget can then be investigated and the reasons for the differences can be divided into controllable and noncontrollable factors. Enables remedial action to be taken as variances emerge. Motivates employees by participating in the setting of budgets. Improves the allocation of scarce resources. Economises management time by using the management by exception principle. A good budget is characterised by the following: Participation: involve as many people as possible in drawing up a budget. Comprehensiveness: embrace the whole organisation. Standards: base it on established standards of performance. Flexibility: allow for changing circumstances. Feedback: constantly monitor performance. Analysis of costs and revenues: this can be done on the basis of product lines, departments or cost centres. In organising and administering a budget system the following characteristics may apply:

a) Budget centres: Units responsible for the preparation of budgets. A budget centre may encompass several cost centres. b) Budget committee: This may consist of senior members of the organisation, e.g. departmental heads and executives (with the managing director as chairman). Every part of the organisation should be represented on the committee, so there should be a representative from sales, production, marketing and so on. Functions of the budget committee include: Coordination of the preparation of budgets, including the issue of a manual Issuing of timetables for preparation of budgets Provision of information to assist budget preparations Comparison of actual results with budget and investigation of variances. c) Budget Officer: Controls the budget administration. The job involves: liaising between the budget committee and managers responsible for budget preparation dealing with budgetary control problems ensuring that deadlines are met educating people about budgetary control. d) Budget manual: This document: charts the organisation details the budget procedures contains account codes for items of expenditure and revenue timetables the process clearly defines the responsibility of persons involved in the budgeting system. Types of budget Fixed budget Flexible budget Functional budget production budget, purchase budget, materials budget, sales budget, cash budget, research and development budget. Master budget Quantitative budgets. Capital investment budget.

Whilst budgets may be an essential part of any marketing activity they do have a number of disadvantages, particularly in perception terms. Budgets can be seen as pressure devices imposed by management, thus resulting in: a) Bad labour relations b) inaccurate record-keeping.

Departmental conflict arises due to: a) Disputes over resource allocation b) departments blaming each other if targets are not attained. It is difficult to reconcile personal/individual and corporate goals. Waste may arise as managers adopt the view, "we had better spend it or we will lose it". This is often coupled with "empire building" in order to enhance the prestige of a department. Responsibility versus controlling, i.e. some costs are under the influence of more than one person, e.g. power costs. Managers may overestimate costs so that they will not be blamed in the future should they overspend. Strategic and long range planning: Long-range planning is usually considered to assume present knowledge about future conditions. It looks to make certain the plan's exact results over the period of its implementation. Long range planning involves creation of long range vision. It also involves creation of many short range plans and their linkage with each other so as to evolve a medium range plan and creation of many medium range plans and their linkage with each other in an appropriate sequence so as to evolve a long range plan. Long range plan is a matter of vision and short range plan is a matter of doing. Strategic planning, however, assumes that your organization must be quick to respond to a dynamic, changing environment, which may require changes in the future. Strategic planning, then, points out the importance of making decisions that will ensure your organization's ability to successfully respond to changes in the environment and the threats created by the changes. Long range planning indicates stability in objectives and goals. Strategic planning indicates flexibility in decision making. Both the concepts help the organisation to strike a balance between stability and flexibility. Six Key Steps in Strategic Planning 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Evaluate the Situation Articulate a Vision Decide on a Mission Statement Propose and Select Goals Develop a Strategic Implementation Plan Periodic Assessment and Update