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# 3-70 A 50-m long section of a steam pipe passes through an open space at 15C.

## . The rate of heat loss from

the steam pipe, the annual cost of this heat loss, and the thickness of fiberglass insulation needed to save 90
percent of the heat lost are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since there is no indication of any change with time. 2 Heat transfer is
one-dimensional since there is thermal symmetry about the center line and no variation in the axial direction.
3 Thermal conductivity is constant. 4 The thermal contact resistance at the interface is negligible. 5 The pipe
temperature remains constant at about 150C with or without insulation. 6 The combined heat transfer
coefficient on the outer surface remains constant even after the pipe is insulated.
Properties The thermal conductivity of fiberglass insulation is given to be k = 0.035 W/mC.
Analysis (a) The rate of heat loss from the steam pipe is

2
m 71 . 15 m) 50 ( m) 1 . 0 ( = = = t tDL A
o

W 42,412 = C ) 15 150 )( m 71 . 15 ( C) . W/m 20 ( ) (
2 2
= =
air s o bare
T T A h Q

(b) The amount of heat loss per year is
kJ/yr 10 337 . 1 s/yr) 3600 24 kJ/s)(365 412 . 42 (
9
= = A = t Q Q

The amount of gas consumption from the natural gas furnace that has an efficiency of 75% is
therms/yr 903 , 16
kJ 105,500
therm 1
75 . 0
kJ/yr 10 337 . 1
9
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
gas
Q
The annual cost of this energy lost is

\$8790/yr =
=
therm) / 52 . 0 (\$ ) therms/yr (16,903 =
energy) of cost t used)(Uni Energy ( cost Energy

(c) In order to save 90% of the heat loss and thus to reduce it to 0.142,412 =
4241 W, the thickness of insulation needed is determined from
kL
r r
A h
T T
R R
T T
Q
o o
air s
insulation o
air s
insulated
t 2
) / ln( 1
1 2
+

=
+

=

Substituting and solving for r
2
, we get
m 0692 . 0
) m 50 ( C) W/m. 035 . 0 ( 2
) 05 . 0 / ln(
)] m 50 ( 2 ( C)[ . W/m 20 (
1
C ) 15 150 (
W 4241
2
2
2
2
=

= r
r
r t t

Then the thickness of insulation becomes
cm 1.92 = = = 5 92 . 6
1 2
r r t
insulation

3-1C (a) If the lateral surfaces of the rod are insulated, the heat transfer surface area of the cylindrical rod is
the bottom or the top surface area of the rod, 4 /
2
D A
s
t = . (b) If the top and the bottom surfaces of the rod
are insulated, the heat transfer area of the rod is the lateral surface area of the rod, A DL =t .

3-28E A wall is constructed of two layers of sheetrock with fiberglass insulation in between. The thermal
resistance of the wall and its R-value of insulation are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer through the wall is one-dimensional. 2 Thermal conductivities are constant.
R
o
T
air

R
insulation
T
s

Properties The thermal conductivities are given to be k
sheetrock
= 0.10 Btu/hftF and k
insulation
= 0.020
Btu/hftF.
Analysis (a) The surface area of the wall is not given and thus we consider a
unit surface area (A = 1 ft
2
). Then the R-value of insulation of the wall
becomes equivalent to its thermal resistance, which is determined from.

F.h/Btu . ft 21.66
2
= + = + =
=

= = =
=

= = = =
83 . 20 417 . 0 2 2
F.h/Btu . ft 83 . 20
F) Btu/h.ft. 020 . 0 (
ft 12 / 5
F.h/Btu . ft 417 . 0
F) Btu/h.ft. 10 . 0 (
ft 12 / 5 . 0
2 1
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
3 1
R R R
k
L
R R
k
L
R R R
total
fiberglass
sheetrock

(b) Therefore, this is approximately a R-22 wall in English units.

3-43C Heat transfer through the voids at an interface is by conduction and radiation. Evacuating the interface
eliminates heat transfer by conduction, and thus increases the thermal contact resistance.

3-81 A 3-m diameter spherical tank filled with liquid nitrogen at 1 atm and -196C is exposed to convection
and radiation with the surrounding air and surfaces. The rate of evaporation of liquid nitrogen in the tank as a
result of the heat gain from the surroundings for the cases of no insulation, 5-cm thick fiberglass insulation,
and 2-cm thick superinsulation are to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Heat transfer is steady since the specified thermal conditions at the boundaries do not change
with time. 2 Heat transfer is one-dimensional since there is thermal symmetry about the midpoint. 3 The
combined heat transfer coefficient is constant and uniform over the entire surface. 4 The temperature of the
thin-shelled spherical tank is said to be nearly equal to the temperature of the nitrogen inside, and thus thermal
resistance of the tank and the internal convection resistance are negligible.
Properties The heat of vaporization and density of liquid nitrogen at 1 atm are given to be 198 kJ/kg and 810
kg/m
3
, respectively. The thermal conductivities are given to be k = 0.035 W/mC for fiberglass insulation and
k = 0.00005 W/mC for super insulation.
Analysis (a) The heat transfer rate and the rate of evaporation of the liquid without insulation are
A D = = = t t
2
3 2827 ( . m) m
2 2

C/W 00101 . 0
) m 27 . 28 ( C) . W/m 35 (
1 1
2 2
=

= =
A h
R
o
o

kg/s 1.055 = = = =
=

=

kJ/kg 198
kJ/s 910 . 208
W 910 , 208
C/W 0.00101
C )] 196 ( 15 [
2 1
fg
fg
o
s
h
Q
m h m Q
R
T T
Q

(b) The heat transfer rate and the rate of evaporation of the liquid with a 5-cm thick layer of fiberglass
insulation are
A D = = = t t
2
31 3019 ( . . m) m
2 2

C/W 000946 . 0
) m 19 . 30 ( C) . W/m 35 (
1 1
2 2
=

= =
A h
R
o
o

C/W 0498 . 0 0489 . 0 000946 . 0
C/W 0489 . 0
) m 5 . 1 )( m 55 . 1 ( C) W/m. 035 . 0 ( 4
m ) 5 . 1 55 . 1 (
4
2 1
1 2
= + = + =
=

=
insulation o total
insulation
R R R
r kr
r r
R
t t
T
2

R
o
T
s1

R
o
T
2

R
insulation
T
s1

R
1
R
2
R
3
L
1
L
2
L
3

kg/s 0.0214 = = = =
=

=

kJ/kg 198
kJ/s 233 . 4
W 4233
C/W 0.0498
C )] 196 ( 15 [
2 1
fg
fg
total
s
h
Q
m h m Q
R
T T
Q

(c) The heat transfer rate and the rate of evaporation of the liquid with 2-cm thick layer of superinsulation is
A D = = = t t
2
304 29 03 ( . . m) m
2 2

C/W 000984 . 0
) m 03 . 29 ( C) . W/m 35 (
1 1
2 2
=

= =
A h
R
o
o

C/W 96 . 13 96 . 13 000984 . 0
C/W 96 . 13
) m 5 . 1 )( m 52 . 1 ( C) W/m. 00005 . 0 ( 4
m ) 5 . 1 52 . 1 (
4
2 1
1 2
= + = + =
=

=
insulation o total
insulation
R R R
r kr
r r
R
t t

[ ( )]
.

.
Q
T T
R
Q mh m
Q
h
s
total
fg
fg
=

=

=
= = = =
1 2
15 196
1511
001511
C
13.96 C/ W
W
kJ / s
198 kJ / kg
0.000076 kg/ s

3-137C Radiant barriers are highly reflective materials that minimize the radiation heat transfer between
surfaces. Highly reflective materials such as aluminum foil or aluminum coated paper are suitable for use as
radiant barriers. Yes, it is worthwhile to use radiant barriers in the attics of homes by covering at least one
side of the attic (the roof or the ceiling side) since they reduce radiation heat transfer between the ceiling and
the roof considerably.

R
o
T
2

R
insulation
T
s1

3-1C
Considere conduccion de calor unidireccional en una barra cilndrica de dimetro D y longitud L
Cul es el rea de transferencia de calor de la varilla si a) su superficie lateral esta aislada y b) sus
superficies superior e inferior estn aisladas?

3-28
Esta hirviendo agua en una cacerola de aluminio (k=237W/m. C) de 25cm de dimetro a 95C. El calor se
transfiere de manera estacionaria hacia el agua hirviendo que esta en la cacerola a travez del fondo plano de
esta de 0.5 cm de espesor. A razn 800W- si la temperatura de la superficie interior del fondo es de 108C.
determine
a) el coeficiente de transferencia de calor de ebullicin sobre esa superficie interior y b) la temperatura de la
superficie exterior del fondo.

3-43- C
Una placa consta de dos capas metlicas delgadas comprimidas una contra la otra necesitamos preocuparnos
por la resistencia terminaca por contacto en la interfase en un anlisis de transferencia de calor o
sencillamente podemos imaginarla

3-70
Se transporta vapor de agua sobrecalentado, a una temperatura promedio de 200C por un tubo de acero (k-50
W/m .K. Do 8.0cm D 6.0 cm y L- 20.0m) El tubo esta aislado con una capa de 4 cm de espesor de
argamasa de yeso (k 0.5 W/m. K) y se encuentra colocado en una forma horizontal en el interior de un
almacen en donde la temperatura promedio del aire es de 10 C. Se estima que los coeficientes de
transferencia de calor del vapor de agua y del aire son 800 y 200 W/m2 . K respectivamente. Calcule
a) la tranferencia de calor por dia desde el vapor de agua sobrecalentado y b) la temperatura de la superficie
exterior del material aislante de argamasa de yeso.

3-81
Repita el problema 3-80 para un tubo hecho de cobre (k 386 W/m. C en lugar de hierro fundido

3-137
Considere un ducto de concreto (k 0.75 W/m. C) de pared gruesa de 25 m de largo y cuya seccin
transversal es cuadrada. Las dimensiones exteriores del ducto son 20 cm x 20 cm y el espesor de la pared del
mismo es de 2 cm. Si las superficies interior y exterior del ducto estn a 100C y 30C respectivamente,
determine la razn de la transferencia de calor a travez de las paredes del mismo