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INTRODUCTION Substations are designed to accomplish the following functions, although not all substations have all these

functions !" Change voltage from one level to another #" Regulate voltage to compensate for s$stem voltage changes %" Switch transmission and distribution circuits into and out of the grid s$stem &" 'easure electric power (ualities flowing in the circuits )" Connect communication signals to the circuits *" +liminate lightning and other electrical surges from the s$stem ," Connect electric generation plants to the s$stem -" 'a.e interconnections between the electric s$stems of more than one utilit$ /" Control reactive .ilovolt0amperes supplied to and the flow of reactive .ilovolt0amperes in the circuits Additional information: The Lineman's and Cableman's Handbook, Shoemaker, T. M., Mack, J. E., Tenth Edition 2 2, Mc!ra"#Hill.

Illustrated Glossary: Substations 1 substation is a high0voltage electric s$stem facilit$" It is used to switch generators, e(uipment, and circuits or lines in and out of a s$stem" It also is used to change 1C voltages from one level to another, and2or change alternating current to direct current or direct current to alternating current" Some substations are small with little more than a transformer and associated switches" Others are ver$ large with several transformers and do3ens of switches and other e(uipment" There are three aspects to substations

$i%&re '. T()ical s&bstation

Substation T$pes 1lthough, there are generall$ four t$pes of substations there are substations that are a combination of two or more t$pes" Step0up Transmission Substation Step0down Transmission Substation Distribution Substation Underground Distribution Substation Substation 4unctions Substation +(uipment

Step0up Transmission Substation 1 step0up transmission substation receives electric power from a nearb$ generating facilit$ and uses a large power transformer to increase the voltage for

transmission to distant locations" 1 transmission bus is used to distribute electric power to one or more transmission lines" There can also be a tap on the incoming power feed from the generation plant to provide electric power to operate e(uipment in the generation plant" 1 substation can have circuit brea.ers that are used to switch generation and transmission circuits in and out of service as needed or for emergencies re(uiring shut0down of power to a circuit or redirection of power" The specific voltages leaving a step0up transmission substation are determined b$ the customer needs of the utilit$ suppl$ing power and to the re(uirements of an$ connections to regional grids" T$pical voltages are 5igh voltage 6578 ac */ .7, !!) .7, !%- .7, !*! .7, #%9 .7

+:tra0high voltage 6+578 ac %&) .7, )99 .7, ,*) .7 Ultra0high voltage 6U578 ac !!99 .7, !)99 .7 Direct0current high voltage 6dc 578 ;#)9 .7, ;&99 .7, ;)99 .7 Direct current voltage is either positive or negative polarit$" 1 DC line has two conductors, so one would be positive and the other negative"

*hat is the reason for &sin% a ne&tral c&rrent transformer on a transformer+ 1 current transformer is primaril$ used at the neutral point of a transformer for earth fault protection" 1 neutral current transformer will measure an$ ground fault current which will essentiall$ flow from the star point of the transformer" 1 fault0detection device other devices is connected to the current transformer and, if the fault current e:ceeds a certain trigger value, the fault0detection device will give a trip command to an earth0fault rela$ to disconnect the suppl$ of electricit$ to the transformer"

-. S&b#Station: <1==1<>1R5 is a vital node for disbursement of power to

Northern States of India" It is located at a distance of &, ?' from D+=5I near Sama$pur village of <1==1<>1R5 6Distt" 41RID1<1D8 of 5ar$ana State" Normall$ it imports power from generating stations of SIN>R1U=I2RI51ND, 1UR1I@1, D1DRI reroute

the substations of ?1NAUR, 1>R1, D1DRI B '1INAURI respectivel$ and the same is e:ported to R1C1ST51N, 51R@1N12D+=5I via <5ID1DI S2S, <1'N1U=I S2S B ##9 ?7 <<'< S1'1@AUR" 4urther <1==1<>1R5 being one of the five nodes of &99 ?7 RIN> '1IN double circuit line around national capital of D+=5I, assumes the additional onus of responsibilit$ for ensuring uninterrupted power suppl$ to the C1AIT1=" The prestigious B ver$ first Remote Operation of S2S i"e" Remote operation of <5ID1DI S2S is being controlled from <1==1<>1R5 control room and further more, IndiaEs first indigenous 41CTS has been test charged at <allabgarh on &99 ?7 S2C <allabgarh0?anpur line" 5owever 4i:ed Series Compensation 6%)F8 on &99 ?7 <=<0?NA line e:ecuted b$ '2S <5+= is in service since Cul$E#99#" This 4i:ed Series Compensation was first proGect on an$ &99 ?7 line in India"

$EAT/0ES 1$ 2ALLA2!A0H S3S


TOT1= 1R+1 <US<1R SC5+'+ NO" O4 <1@S CO''ISSION+D No" of TR1NS'ISSION =IN+S No" of ICTs 6%!) '718 No" of <US R+1CTOR 6-9 '71R8 !%) 1cres ON+ B 51=4 C< #9/ 9& 9!

C1MM4SS41545! CH0151L1!6
H H H &99 ?7 <=<0CAR S2C 6NOD <5ID1DI8 &99 ?7 %!) '71 ICT0I &99 ?7 <=<0?NA S2C !% September !/-#* September !/-!% October !/--

H H H H H H H H H H H H H

&99 ?7 %!) '71 ICT0I I &99 ?7 -9 '71R <US R+1CTOR &99 ?7 <=<0DDR D2C &99 ?7 %!) '71 ICT IIII &99 ?7 <=<01>R S2C &99 ?7 %!) '71 ICT II7 &99 ?7 <=< I '1INAURI II &99 ?7 <=< I'1INAURI0II &99 ?7 <=<0<1'N1U=I0I &99 ?7 <=<0<1'N1U=I0II 41CTS ST1>+0I 41CTS ST1>+0II T+ST C51R>+ R+'OT+ OA+R1TION O4 <DD S2S

#* September !/-#% Cune !/-/ #) Cune !//9 ## Canuar$ !//! #* December !//! %9 Cune #99# !! 'a$ #99) 9- 'a$ #99) !- 1ug #99& #! 1ug #99% 9! Cul$ #99# #/ November #99& 9! December #99%

L45E LE5!TH 7-M8


H H H H H H H &99 ?7 <=<0?NA S2C &99 ?7 <=<0<5D S2C &99 ?7 <=<01>R S2C &99 ?7 <=<0DDR &99 ?7 <=<0>reater Noida &99 ?7 <=<0<1' D2C &99 ?7 <=<0'NA D2C %/% *9 !-! )& %/ )% #%*

$ollo"in% are the -e( E9&i)ments of the S&bstation: !" TR1NS4OR'+RS B R+1CTORS #" CIRCUIT <R+1?+RS %" CURR+NT TR1NS4OR'+R &" ISO=1TORS

)" C1A1CIT7+ 7O=T1>+ TR1NS4OR'+R *" D17+ TR1A ," =I>5T+NIN> 1RR+ST+RS -" 41CTS <+SID+S T5+R+ 1R+ OT5+R 1UJI==I1R@ S@ST+'S 4OR S'OOT5 OA+R1TION O4 T5+ SU<ST1TION !" A=CC #" 4IR+ 4I>5TIN> S@ST+' %" 1CD< 61C DISTRI<UTION <O1RD8 &" DCD< 6DC DISTRI<UTION <O1RD8 )" D> S+T *" <1TT+R@ <1N? T5+ R+=1@S SC5+'+S ARO7OD++D 4OR AROT+CTION AURAOS+S 1R+ AS UND+R $10 L45E : 2/S 2A0 !" DIST1NC+ AROT+CTION 4OR =IN+ #" O7+R 7O=T1>+ AROT+CTION %" 1UTO R+C=OS+ SC5+'+ &" <US <1R AROT+CTION )" =OC1= <R+1?+R <1C? UA *" AO=+ D+SCR+A+NC@ $10 T0A5S$10ME0S A5; 0EACT10S !" DI44+R+NTI1= AROT+CTION #" R+4 AROT+CTION %" <1C? UA O2C 1ND +1RT5 41U=T AROT+CTION &" COR+ AROT+CTION )" OTI2DTI

*" ARD

1<E0AT415 ;ETA4L
!E5E0AL
In general if ever$thing is normal then the shift staff has to fill the operation records as listed in enclosure" 1ll readings must be ta.en at proper time as per OS norms" There should not be an$ over writing or cutting on =og <oo.s"

Readings of switch $ard e(uipments, 12C plant, D> set, 424 s$stem, 1u:iliar$ s$stem must be ta.en locall$"

Normall$ there should not be an$ alarm on control panel windows in C2R, 1 2C plant control panel, D> control panel and 424 s$stem Control panel" In case an$ alarm appears then tr$ to reset the same and inform to maintenance In0charge"

1<E0AT415AL ST0ATE!6 45 CASE L45E A/T1 0ECL1SES.


H 1bout /9F of the faults on line are transient in nature because line passes through forests, other areas also" In this case fault is not of permanent nature, so an attempt is to be ta.en to reclose the line" H 1s soon as there is an$ fault in the line, 'ain0I and 'ain0II protections will operate and particular pole of C<Es 6main B tie8 will open at both ends" 1fter dead time 6! second8, which starts since the operation of 'ain0I and 'ain0II, 12R attempt is ta.en b$ 12R rela$ and if fault is cleared with0in dead time, C< at both ends will close but If fault is persisting % phase tripping will ta.es place" If fault is again repeated with in reclaim time after successful 12R of line, which is #) seconds for 12R rela$, then also % phase tripping ta.es place" 1fter #) seconds of auto 0 reclosing 12R rela$ become normal for ne:t operation"

ACT415 T1 2E TA-E5 26 SH4$T STA$$


H H H H 1c.nowledge the alarm b$ pressing 1c.nowledge push button on respective panel" Record the time and consult other end also, see time in DR, += prints" Normall$ C< auto trip and I2T 6inter trip8 signal receive facia will appear on control panel along with 'ain I 2 II Arot" Operated" Note down the flags on protection rela$ panels as below"

i8 'ain0I iv8 1n$ other rela$ H H H H H H H

ii8 'ain0II v8 4ault locator readings"

iii8 Trip Rela$"

vi8 Increment in A=CC counter" Inform S2S In0charge immediatel$ and discuss before passing the flags to CACC" Inform verball$ and b$ written message to CACC about above with flags B facias details" Reset the flags if there is no confusion as per advise of S2S In0charge" Ta.e DR print out" Ta.e +2= print and cross chec. timings" Ta.e other end flags" Inform the line staff about the fault and fault locator readings of both ends"

1<E0AT415AL ST0ATE!6 45 CASE L45E T04<S 10 A30 /5S/CESS$/L:#


The reason for unsuccessful auto0reclosure at one end or at both ends will be following 0 H H H H H H H H H H H 4ault is of permanent in nature, ma$ be due to snap of Ahase wire or earth wire" ! phase fault converted into % phase faults" C< operating mechanism oil2S4* AR+SSUR+ is low, it will bloc. auto reclose" Drong detection of fault b$ rela$" A=CC channel is not health$" 4ault is repeated on other health$ phase with in dead time on the same phase" 12R rela$ DC is not health$" Direct trip received from other end" 12R success full at one end and failed at other end, then line ma$ trip on Over voltage from other end" In case of 1=STO' s$stem, !-*1 B < will appear on auto recluse rela$ if auto reclose fails and in 1<< auto reclose loc. out rela$" In case of tripping of line, repeat Sl" No" ! to ) as above in !"! 6 line auto recloses8 but as. for the charging code from CACC after inspecting the switch $ard e(uipments and consulting other end"

H H H "

If line is open at one end onl$, s$nchroni3e after ta.ing permission from CACC" If the line is open at other end onl$, permit him to close if CACC code is there and no problem at other end" If =ine trips at both ends ta.e permission from CACC to charge from one end and s$nchroni3e at other end"

1<E0AT415AL ST0ATE!6 45 CASE L45E T04<S. ;&e to other fa&lts 713., ;3T 0ECE4.E ETC.8 The reasons other than earth fault for tripping of line are given below" !8 #8 %8 Over voltage protection operates Kvoltage goes L 6&&90&*98 ?7 for ) Seconds or *99 ?7 for instantaneous tripping8" Shunt reactor protection operates" Direct trip signal received 6-) =O in 1=STO' s$stem8"

In case of above there will not be an$ flag on 'ain0! 2 'ain0# panel B fault locator will not give an$ reading" 4ollow steps ! to ) as in the section M=ine auto recloses successfull$N" i8 In case of over voltage ta.e permission from CACC if voltage has come down" Consult other end and Charge2S$nchroni3e the line" In case over voltage stage0# operates then inform S2S In0charge for further restoration of the feeder" ii8 <us reactor has hand reset t$pe of trip rela$, so when ever <us reactor trips, clearance is to be ta.en from S2S In0charge and then reset the rela$ b$ iii8 pressing push button"

In case direct trip signal receives, consult other end if the$ find out the reason for tripping after that code ma$ be ta.en for charging and s$nchroni3ation of line"

1<E0AT415AL ST0ATE!6 45 CASE 2/S 2A0 <01TECT415 A5; L1CAL 20EA-E0 2AC- /< 7L228 <01TECT415 10 20EA-E0 $A4L/0E 0ELA6 72$08 1<E0ATES. The operation of <us <ar protection is ver$ rare" It can operate in case some earthing is left during the shut down or bus post insulator has failed" <us bar is having differential protection" It is divided into Oone0I covering <2<I ! and Oone 0# covering <2<0 # and chec. 3one covers both buses" Core0I of all CTs which are used in <us <ar protection is connected with Chec. 3one and core0# connected to 3one0! or 3one0# as per <a$ connection to <us0! or <us0#" CT cores !B# used for bus bar protection has #9992! ratio" 4or an$ tripping chec. 3one B 3one0! or 3one0# has to pic. up" This is for giving more securit$ in tripping" The rela$ setting is !997 and rela$s are located in << panel" =<< 6local brea.er bac. up8 or <4R will operate when main protection has operated and tripping has been e:tended to trip rela$ and C< fails to trip due to mechanical problem etc" It is dela$ed protection if the current to the =<< or <4R persists for #99 ms then onl$ rela$ will operate" Setting of 1<< rela$ R1IC18 is #99m1 and that of 1=STO' rela$ CTI> !"# amps for phase element B 9"& amp for neutral element with !9992! 1 CT" The tripping rela$s for both these protection are common and are located in bus bar Aanel" In case of operation of these protection either <2<0I or <2<0II connected all C<Es will trip and <2< will become dead"

STE<S T1 2E TA-E5 H H H H 1c.nowledge the alarm on control panel" In case of <2< tripping note down the flags on <2< panel" In case of =<< or <4R note down the flags on respective panels" Inform S2S In0charge and CACC immediatel$"

H H H H H

Do not charge the <us or line till clearance is given b$ S2S In0charge and CACC" 1fter inspection and clearance is accorded b$ S2S In0charge and as. for code from CACC" Reset the <2< trip rela$s b$ pressing the push button in <2< panel" Dithout resetting the <2< trip rela$s, C<Es cannot be closed because closing command for C< goes through the contact of this rela$" If code is given b$ CACC charge the <2< b$ closing C<Es and record time and other parameters

SH/T;1*5 <01CE;/0ES SE=/E5CE 1$ MA5;AT106 1<E0AT415S $10 SH/T;1*5 1$ L45E: 1 < C D 1vail permission code from CACC for shut down of the line" Aass on the same code to remote end" Note down the s$stem parameters of all lines2ICTS" Open the 'ain C< of the line" Open the Tie C< of the line" 6 If the remote end opens the line from their end, 'ain C< B Tie C< will open automaticall$8 + 4 > 5 I C ? = ' N Aut the 1uto Reclose switch 612R8 of the line in MNON 1UTON position" Open the line Isolator P-/=" Open the 'ain <a$ Isolator P-/1 B Tie <a$ Isolator P-/1 B P-/<" Open <us side Isolator P-/ B Reactor isolator P-/R" Chec. ph$sicall$ for proper opening of all Isolators done in 4, >, 5" +nsure that line Isolator at the other end is open" >et permission from other end to earth the line" Close the earth switch of the line Isolator P-/=+ and inform other end" +nsure that the line is earthed at the other end" 1ttach MDO NOT OA+R1T+N board at the control panel of the line ba$"

Issue ATD 6Aermit To Dor.8 on the line and individual e(uipment"

SE=/E5CE 1$ MA5;AT106 1<E0AT415S $10 SH/T;1*5 1$ 4CT: 1 < C D + 4 > 5 I C ? = ' N O 1vail permission code from CACC for shut down of the ICT" Aass on the same code to <<'<" Note down the s$stem parameters of all lines2ICTS" Open the &99 ?7 'ain C< of the ICT" Open the &99 ?7 Tie C< of the ICT" Open the ##9 ?7 C< of the ICT" Open the &99 ?7 line Isolator P-/= of the ICT" Open the 'ain <a$ Isolator P-/1 B Tie <a$ Isolator P-/1 B P-/<" Open <us side Isolator P-/ B ##9 ?7 side isolator =P-/" Chec. ph$sicall$ for proper opening of all Isolators done in 4, >, 5" +nsure that line Isolator at <<'< end is open" >et permission from <<'< to earth the ICT" Close the earth switch of the ICT from ##9 ?7 side Isolator =P-/+" Close the earth switch of the ICT from &99 ?7 side Isolator P-/=+" 1ttach MDO NOT OA+R1T+N board at the control panel of the &99 ?7 B ##9 ?7 ICT ba$" Issue ATD 6Aermit To Dor.8 on the ICT and individual e(uipment"

SE=/E5CE 1$ MA5;AT106 1<E0AT415S $10 THE S3; 1$ 2/S '3 2/S 2: 1" 1vail permission code from CACC for shut down of the <US !2 <US #" <" Open all the C<ES connected to <US0I2 <US #" C" Aut the 1uto Reclose switches 612R8 of all the above C<Es in MNON 1UTON position" D" Open all the Isolators of the ba$s connected to <US !2 <US #" +" Chec. ph$sicall$ for proper opening of all Isolators done in D" 4" +nsure that the <US0I2 <US0# voltage is around !9?7 6due to induction8" >" Close <us0I2 <us0# earth switch !%-/+ 2 !)-/+ <us side respectivel$" 5" +nsure that the <us selection switch of voltage 2 fre(uenc$ is on <us0II2 <us0I respectivel$" I" +nsure that the bus selection latch rela$ is correctl$ operated and 'D, '71R and Current of all feeders are matching" C" +nsure that all the energ$ meters of feeders B ICTs are running ?" Issue the ATD 6A+R'IT TO DOR?8 on individual e(uipment" CHA0!45! : S65CH0154S45! <01CE;/0ES SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415 $10 CHA0!45! : S65. 1$ L45E !E5E0AL 1<E0AT45! 45ST0/CT415S 1" +nsure all permits issued are returned and cancelled" 6i"e" =ine, Switch$ard, CA2RA 'aintenance8 <" Chec. for removal of all men and material from S2@ ph$sicall$" C" Ah$sicall$ chec. for removal of earthing done at wor.ing site, both permanent and temporar$" D" +nsure that all S2@ e(uipments of the line on which ATDES were cleared, are in operating condition"

+" Chec. for S4*2 OI= pressure of 'ain B Tie C<" 4" +nsure local2remote switch of C<Es are in MRemoteN position" >" +nsure that all rela$ flags are reset" 5" Chec. for no annunciation pending on window and do lamp test O?" I" +nsure that D2R,+2=, 42= are in service" C" During charging of the line from <1==1<>1R5 end the 12R selection switch of both <rea.er must be .ept in NON 1UTO mode to avoid auto re0closure of switch on to fault" 1fter successful s$nchroni3ing same ma$ be .ept in ! A5 mode"

SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415 $10 L45E CHA0!45!: 1" Confirm the removal of line earthing at other end" <" Close all the isolators i"e" Reactor isolator, 'ain <a$ B Tie <a$ isolators" C" Close the line isolator" D" Chec. ph$sicall$ the closing of all isolators done in <,C " +" >ive clearance to close line isolator at remote end and confirm" 4" Note down the counter reading of all A=CC channels" >" Note down the parameters of all lines and 1uto Transformers" 5" Ta.e permission from CACC for charging the line and inform other end" I" 4or the charging and s$nchronising of the line, charge the line from the end where voltage is less" C" If voltage is less at our end then charge the line and confirm s$nchronising of the line from other end" ?" If line trips during charging on SOT4 then no second attempt is to be made for charging the line and inform to S2S In0charge and CACC" =" If voltage is less at other end then line is to be charged from other end and after confirming the voltage in all the three phases line s$nchronised from our end through s$nchronising trolle$" In no case chec. s$nchronising rela$ should be b$passed"

'" 1fter s$nchronising the line note down the readings and chec. the current in all the three phases and inform to CACC" N" Chec. all the rela$ B control panels and note down the A=CC readings" If an$ abnormalities observed then inform to S2S in0charge" SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415 $10 CHA0!45! : S65CH0154S45! M.A , 322 3>>-. 4CT. 1" +nsure all permits issued are returned and cancelled" 6i"e" ICT, Switch$ard, CA2RA 'aintenance8 <" Chec. for removal of all men and material from S2@ ph$sicall$" C" Ah$sicall$ chec. for removal of earthing done at wor.ing site, both permanent and temporar$" D" +nsure that all S2@ e(uipments of the ICT B <a$ on which ATDES were cleared, are in operating condition" +" Chec. for S4*2 OI= pressure of 'ain B Tie C<" 4" +nsure local2remote switch of C<Es are in MRemoteN position" >" +nsure that all rela$ flags are reset" 5" Chec. for no annunciation pending on window and do lamp test O?" I" +nsure that +vent =ogger is in service" <0E#C15;4T415S $10 CHA0!45! 4CT@S. H H ICT shall be charged preferabl$ from ##9 ?7 side and s$nchroni3ed from &99 ?7 side in normal condition" In case of 1uto transformer has undergone maGor overhaul or oil has been e:posed to the atmosphere, values of <D7, AA' shall be ta.en before charging the transformer" !E5E0AL 1<E0AT45! 45ST0/CT415S >'?

SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415S 1" Confirm the removal of earthing at <<'< end, if an$, and give clearance for closing the ##9 ?7 line isolators at their end" <" Close ##9 ?7 side 1utotransformer isolator =P&-/" C" Close all the &99 ?7 side isolators of 'ain B Tie <a$" D" Chec. ph$sicall$ the closing of all isolators done < B C" +" Inform the readiness to CACC" 4" Ta.e permission from CACC for charging the ICT0I from ##9 ?7 side" >" Note down all parameters of ICTEs and lines" 5" Chec. ph$sicall$ the health$ ness of transformer" I" Close ##9 ?7 <rea.er of ICT" 1s such the 1uto0 transformer is charged from ##9 ?7 side" C" In case the 1uto transformer trips on fault, second attempt 'UST NOT be made until ICT is properl$ tested and reason for tripping is ascertained" ?" Close &99?7 'ain and Tie C<Es of ICT as per re(uirement" In no case chec. s$nchroni3ing rela$ should be b$passed" =" 1fter s$nchroni3ing the ICT note down the readings and chec. the current in all the three phases and inform to CACC" '" Chec. all rela$ and control panels and e(uipments in the switch $ard for an$ abnormalities and inform S2S In0charge"

SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415 $10 CHA0!45! 2/S#'3 2/S#2 !E5E0AL 1<E0AT45! 45ST0/CT415S 1" +nsure all permits issued are returned and cancelled" 6i"e" <us0!2 <us0#, Switch$ard, CA2RA 'aintenance8" <" Chec. for removal of all men and material from S2@ ph$sicall$" C" Ah$sicall$ chec. for removal of earthing done at wor.ing site, both permanent and temporar$" D" +nsure that all S2@ e(uipments on which ATDES were cleared, are in operating condition" +" Chec. for S4*2 OI= pressure of all the C<s" 4" +nsure local2remote switch of C<Es are in MRemoteN position" >" +nsure that all rela$ flags are reset" 5" +nsure that +vent =ogger is in service" >.2 SE=/E5CE 1$ 1<E0AT415: 1" Close all the isolators of the ba$s connected to <us0!2 <us0#" <" Chec. ph$sicall$ the closing of all isolators" C" Ta.e permission from CACC for charging the <us0!2 <us0#" D" Close all the C<s of the ba$s connected to <us0!2 <us0#" +" Chec. all the e(uipments in switch$ard" If an$ abnormalities observed then inform to S2S in0charge"

S"itch%ears : The apparatus used for switching, controlling and protecting the electrical circuits and e(uipment as switchgear" +ssential features of switchgear 1" Complete reliabilit$" <" 1bsolutel$ certain discrimination C" Quic. operation D" Arovision for manual control +" Arovision for instruments S"itch%ear E9&i)ment : Switchgear covers a wide range of e(uipment concerned with switching and interrupt currents under both normal and abnormal conditions" It includes switches, fuses, circuit brea.ers, rela$s and other e(uipment" 1 brief account of these devices is given below" 1" Switches 1 switch is a device which is used to open or close an electrical circuit in a convenient wa$" It can be used under full0load or no0load conditions but it cannot interrupt the fault contacts" This is particularl$ true for circuits of high voltage and large current capacit$" The switches ma$ be classified into air switches and oil switches" The contacts of the former are opened in air and that of the latter are opened in oil" i" 1ir0brea. switch It is an air switch and is designed to open a circuit under load" In order to (uench the arc that occurs on opening such a switch, special arcing horns are provided" 1rcing horns are pieces of metals between which arc is formed during opening operation" 1s the switch opens, these horns are spread farther and farther apart" Conse(uentl$, the arc is lengthened, cooled and interrupted" 1ir0brea. switches are generall$ used outdoor for circuits of medium capacit$ such as lines suppl$ing and industrial load from a main transmission line or feeder"

ii"

Isolator or disconnecting switch It is essentiall$ a .nife switch and is designed to open a circuit under no load" Its main purpose is to isolate one portion of the circuit from the other and is not intended to be opened while current is flowing in the line" Such switches are generall$ used on both sides of circuit brea.ers in order that repairs and replacement of circuit brea.ers can be made without an$ danger" The$ should never be opened until the circuit brea.er in the same circuit has been opened and should alwa$s be closed before the circuit brea.er is closed"

iii"

Oil brea.er The content of such switches are opened under oil usuall$ transformer oil" The effect of the oil is to cool and (uench the arc that tends to form when the circuit is open" These switches are used for circuit of high voltages and large current carr$ing capacit$"

<" 4uses 1 fuse is a small piece of wire of thin strip which melt when e:cessive current flow through it for sufficient time" It is inserted in the circuit in the series to be protected" Under normal operating condition the fuse element it at a temperature below its melting point" Therefore it carr$ normal load current without overheating" 5owever, when a short0circuit or overload occur, the current to the fuse element increases be$ond its rated capacit$" This raises the temperature and the fuse element is melt, disconnecting the circuit protected b$ it" C" Circuit <rea.er Circuit <rea.er is an instrument which can open or close a circuit under all conditions vi3 no load, full load, or fault condition" It is so designed that it can be operated manuall$ under normal condition or automaticall$ in fault$ condition" 4or the latter operation, a rela$ circuit is used with the circuit brea.er" The circuit brea.er essentiall$ consists of moving and fi:ed contacts enclosed in strong metal tan. and immersed in oil, .nown as transformer oil" Under normal operating conditions, the contacts remains closed and the circuit brea.er carries the full0load current consciousl$" In this condition, the emf in the

secondar$ winding of current transformer6C"T"8 is sufficient to operate the trip coil of the brea.er but the contacts can be opened b$ manual or remote control" Dhen a fault occurs, the resulting over current in the C"T" primar$ winding increases the secondar$ emf" This energies the trip coil of the brea.er and moving contacts are pulled down, thus opening the contacts and hence the circuit" The arc produced during the opening is (uenched b$ the oil" It is interesting to note that rela$ performs the function of detecting a fault whereas the circuit brea.er does the actual circuit interruption"

Current Transformers Current transformers can be used to supply information for measuring power flows and the electrical inputs for the operation of protective relays associated with the transmission and distribution circuits or for power transformers. These current transformers have the primary winding connected in series with the conductor carrying the current to be measured or controlled. The secondary winding is thus insulated from the high voltage and can then be connected to low-voltage metering circuits. Current transformers are also used for street lighting circuits. Street lighting requires a constant current to prevent flickering lights and a current transformer is used to provide that constant current. In this case the current transformer utilizes a moving secondary coil to vary the output so that a constant current is obtained.

D" Rela$ 1 rela$ is a device which detects the fault and supplies information to the brea.er for circuit interruption" It is divided into three parts vi3" i" The primar$ winding of a current transformer which in series with the circuit to be protected" The primar$ winding often consists of the main conductor itself" ii" iii" The second circuit is the secondar$ winding of C"T" connected to the rela$ operating coil" The third circuit is the tripping circuit which consists of source of suppl$, trip coil of circuit brea.er and the rela$ stationar$ contacts" Under normal load conditions, the emf of the secondar$ winding of C"T" is small and the current flowing in the rela$ operating coil is insufficient to close the rela$

contacts" This .eeps the trips coil of the circuit brea.er unenergised" Conse(uentl$, the contacts of the circuit brea.er remain closed and it carries the normal load" Dhen a fault occurs, a large current flows through the primar$ of C"T" This increases the secondar$ emf and hence the current through the rela$ operating coil" The rela$ contacts are closed and the circuit brea.er is energised to open the contacts of the circuit brea.er"

MA45TE5A5CE 1$ ,

-. S/2#STAT415

In order to ensure smooth B safe operation of the substation, it is essential to .eep all the e(uipments of switch$ard, protection rela$s and au:iliaries in health$ condition all the time so that we can attain high level of availabilit$ which is more than /-")F" There are various maintenance activities for different e(uipments in order to .eep them in health$ condition" Details of various schedule maintenance activities are as given below

M15THL6 MA45TE5A5CE ACT4.4T4ES $10 E=/4<ME5TS: 7*4TH1/T SH/T;1*58 T0A5S$10ME0 : 0EACT10 i8 Chec.ing of bushing oil level" ii8 Chec.ing of oil level in conservator" iii8 Chec.ing of oil level in O=TC conservator" iv8 Chec.ing of cooling pump B fans 6manual actuation8" v8 Chec.ing of oil lea.s" vi8 Chec.ing of Silica gel condition in breather" vii8 Chec.ing of oil level in oil seal of breather" C40C/4T 20EA-E0: i8 Chec.ing of oil lea.s from grading capacitors" ii8 Chec.ing of oil lea.s in h$draulic circuit" iii8 Chec.ing of h$draulic oil level B replenishment2 topping up of oil 6if necessar$8"

C/00E5T T0A5S$10ME0 1 c&rrent transformer 6CT8 is used for measurement of alternating electric currents" Current transformers, together with voltage transformers 67T8 6potential transformers 6AT88, are .nown as instr&ment transformers" Dhen current in a circuit is too high to appl$ directl$ to measuring instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accuratel$ proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be convenientl$ connected to measuring and recording instruments" 1 current transformer isolates the measuring instruments from what ma$ be ver$ high voltage in the monitored circuit" Current transformers are commonl$ used in metering and protective rela$s in the electrical power industr$.

1 CT for operation on a !!9 .7 grid

Design =i.e an$ other transformer, a current transformer has a primar$ winding, a magnetic core and a secondar$ winding" The alternating current flowing in the primar$ produces an alternating magnetic field in the core, which then induces an alternating current in the secondar$ winding circuit" 1n essential obGective of current transformer design is to ensure the primar$ and secondar$ circuits are efficientl$ coupled, so the secondar$ current is linearl$ proportional to the primar$ current" The most common design of CT consists of a length of wire wrapped man$ times around a silicon steel ring passed RaroundR the circuit being measured" The CTRs primar$ circuit therefore consists of a single RturnR of conductor, with a secondar$ of man$ tens or hundreds of turns" The primar$ winding ma$ be a permanent part of the current transformer, with a heav$ copper bar to carr$ current through the magnetic core" Dindow0t$pe current transformers 6a.a 3ero se(uence current transformers, or OSCT8 are also common, which can have circuit cables run through the middle of an opening in the core to provide a single0turn primar$ winding" Dhen conductors passing through a CT are not centered in the circular 6or oval8 opening, slight inaccuracies ma$ occur" Shapes and si3es can var$ depending on the end user or switchgear manufacturer" T$pical e:amples of low voltage single ratio metering current transformers are either ring t$pe or plastic molded case" 5igh0voltage current transformers are mounted on porcelain insulators to isolate them from ground" Some CT configurations slip around the bushing of a high0voltage transformer or circuit brea.er, which automaticall$ centers the conductor inside the CT window" Current transformers can be mounted on the low voltage or high voltage leads of a power transformerS sometimes a section of bus bar is arranged to be easil$ removed for e:change of current transformers.

<asic operation of current transformer

Usage Current transformers are used e:tensivel$ for measuring current and monitoring the operation of the power grid" 1long with voltage leads, revenue0grade CTs drive the electrical utilit$Rs watt0hour meter on virtuall$ ever$ building with three0phase service and single0phase services greater than #99 amps" The CT is t$picall$ described b$ its current ratio from primar$ to secondar$" Often, multiple CTs are installed as a Tstac.T for various uses" 4or e:ample, protection devices and revenue metering ma$ use separate CTs to provide isolation between metering and protection circuits, and allows current transformers with different characteristics 6accurac$, overload performance8 to be used for the devices" The primar$ circuit is largel$ unaffected b$ the insertion of the CT" The rated secondar$ current is commonl$ standardi3ed at ! or ) amperes" 4or e:ample, a &999 ) CT secondar$ winding will suppl$ an output current of ) amperes when the primar$ winding current is &999 amperes" The secondar$ winding can be single or multi0ratio, with five taps being common for multi0ratio CTs" The load, or burden, of the CT should be a low resistance" If the voltage time integral area is higher than the coreRs design rating, the core goes intosaturation toward the end of each c$cle, distorting the waveform and affecting accurac$"

S4* !!9 .7 current transformer T>4' series, Russia

Safet$ precautions Care must be ta.en that the secondar$ of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primar$, as the transformer secondar$ will attempt to continue driving current across the effectivel$ infinite impedance up to its core saturation voltage" This ma$ produce a high voltage across the open secondar$ into the range of several .ilovolts, causingarcing, compromising operator and e(uipment safet$, or permanentl$ affect the accurac$ of the transformer.

Current transformers used in metering e(uipment for three0phase &99 ampere electricit$ suppl$

1ccurac$
The accuracy of a CT is directly related to a number of factors including !urden !urden class"saturation class #ating factor $oad %&ternal electromagnetic fields Temperature and 'hysical configuration. The selected tap( for multi-ratio CTs 'hase change

)or the I%C standard( accuracy classes for various types of measurement are set out in I%C *++,,--( Classes +.-( +..s( +..( +./( +./s( - and 0. The class designation is an appro&imate measure of the CT1s accuracy. The ratio 2primary to secondary current3 error of a Class - CT is -4 at rated current5 the ratio error of a Class +./ CT is +./4 or less. %rrors in phase are also important especially in power measuring circuits( and each class has an allowable ma&imum phase error for a specified load impedance. Current transformers used for protective relaying also have accuracy requirements at overload currents in e&cess of the normal rating to ensure accurate performance of relays during system faults. 6 CT with a rating of ../$,++ specifies with an output from its secondary winding of .+ times its rated secondary current 2usually / 6 & .+ 7 -++ 63 and ,++ 8 2I9 drop3 its output accuracy will be within ../ percent.

Man( di%ital clam) meters &tiliAe a c&rrent transformer for meas&rin% AC c&rrent

Burden
The secondar$ load of a current transformer is usuall$ called the TburdenT to distinguish it from the load of the circuit whose current is being measured" The burden, in a CT metering circuit is the 6largel$ resistive8 impedance presented to its secondar$ winding" T$pical burden ratings for I+C CTs are !") 71, % 71, ) 71, !9 71, !) 71, #9 71, %9 71, &) 71 and *9 71" 1s for 1NSI2I+++ burden ratings are <09"!, <09"#, <09"), <0!"9, <0#"9 and <0&"9" This means a CT with a burden rating of <09"# can tolerate up to 9"# U of impedance in the metering circuit before its secondar$ accurac$

falls outside of an accurac$ specification" These specification diagrams show accurac$ parallelograms on a grid incorporating magnitude and phase angle error scales at the CTRs rated burden" Items that contribute to the burden of a current measurement circuit are switch0bloc.s, meters and intermediate conductors" The most common source of e:cess burden is the conductor between the meter and the CT" Dhen substation meters are located far from the meter cabinets, the e:cessive length of wire creates a large resistance" This problem can be reduced b$ using CTs with ! ampere secondaries, which will produce less voltage drop between a CT and its metering devices"

Knee-point core-saturation voltage


The knee#)oint Bolta%e of a current transformer is the magnitude of the secondar$ voltage above which the output current ceases to linearl$ follow the input current within declared accurac$" In testing, if a voltage is applied across the secondar$ terminals the magneti3ing current will increase in proportion to the applied voltage, until the .nee point is reached" The .nee point is defined as the voltage at which a !9F increase in applied voltage increases the magneti3ing current b$ )9F" 4or voltages greater than the .nee point, the magneti3ing current increases considerabl$ even for small increments in voltage across the secondar$ terminals" The .nee0point voltage is less applicable for metering current transformers as their accurac$ is generall$ much higher, but constrained within a ver$ small range of the current transformer rating, t$picall$ !"# to !") times rated current" 5owever, the concept of .nee point voltage is ver$ pertinent to protection current transformers, since the$ are necessaril$ e:posed to fault currents of #9 to %9 times rated current

Rating factor
Rating factor is a factor b$ which the nominal full load current of a CT can be multiplied to determine its absolute ma:imum measurable primar$ current" Conversel$, the minimum primar$ current a CT can accuratel$ measure is Tlight load,T or !9F of the nominal current 6there are, however, special CTs designed to measure accuratel$ currents as small as #F of the nominal current8" The rating factor of a CT is largel$ dependent upon ambient temperature" 'ost CTs have rating factors for %) degrees Celsius and )) degrees Celsius" It is important to be mindful of ambient temperatures and resultant rating factors when CTs are installed inside padmount transformers or poorl$ ventilated mechanical rooms" Recentl$, manufacturers have been moving towards lower nominal primar$ currents with greater rating factors" This is made possible b$ the development of more efficient ferrites and their corresponding h$steresis curves"

Phase shift
Ideall$ the secondar$ current of a current transformer should be perfectl$ in phase with the primar$ current" In practice, this is impossible to achieve, but phase shifts as low as a few tenths of a degree for well constructed transformers up to as much as si: degrees for simpler designs ma$ be encountered 6for the normal power fre(uencies8" K#V 4or the purposes of current measurement, an$ phase shift is immaterial as the indicating ammeter, onl$ displa$s the magnitude of the current" 5owever, if the current transformer is used in conGunction with the current circuit of awattmeter, energ$ meter or power factor meter, an$ phase shift in the measured current can affect the

accurac$ of the target measurement" 4or power and energ$ measurement, this error is generall$ considered to be negligible at unit$ power factor but increases in significance as the power factor approaches 3ero" 1t true 3ero power factor, all the measured power is entirel$ due to the current transformerRs phase error"K#V In recent $ears the introduction of electronic based power and energ$ meters has allowed the phase error to be calibrated out S)ecial desi%ns Speciall$ constructed wideband current transformers are also used 6usuall$ with an oscilloscope8 to measure waveforms of high fre(uenc$ or pulsed currents within pulsed power s$stems" One t$pe of speciall$ constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current" 1nother t$pe 6called a Rogows.i coil8 re(uires an e:ternal integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current" Unli.e CTs used for power circuitr$, wideband CTs are rated in output volts per ampere of primar$ current" CT R1TIO Standards Ultimatel$, depending on client re(uirements, there are two main standards to which current transformers are designed" I+C *99&&0! 6<S+N *99&&0!8 B I+++ C),"!% 61NSI8, although the Canadian and 1ustralian standards are also recognised" 5igh voltage t$pes Current transformers are used for protection, measurement and control in high voltage electrical substations and the electrical grid" Current transformers ma$ be installed inside switchgear or in apparatus bushings, but ver$ often free0standing outdoor current transformers are used" In a switch$ard, live tan. current transformers have a substantial part of their enclosure energi3ed at the line voltage and must be mounted on insulators" Dead tan. current transformers isolate the measured circuit from the enclosure" =ive tan. CTs are useful because the primar$ conductor is short, which gives better stabilit$ and a higher short0circuit current rating" The primar$ of the winding can be evenl$ distributed around the magnetic core, which gives better performance for overloads and transients" Since the maGor insulation of a live0tan. current transformer is not e:posed to the heat of the primar$ conductors, insulation life and thermal stabilit$ is improved" 1 high0voltage current transformer ma$ contain several cores, each with a secondar$ winding, for different purposes 6such as metering circuits, control, or protection8"K&V 1 neutral current transformer is used as earth fault protection to measured an$ fault current flowing through the neutral line from the w$e neutral point of a transformer

i8 7isual inspection of CT for oil lea.age and crac. in insulator etc" ii8 Chec.ing of oil lea.age in Terminal <o: of CT '<" iii8 Chec.ing of healthiness of gas.et of CT '<"

CA<AC4T10 .1LTA!E T0A5S$10ME0

1 ca)acitor Bolta%e transformer 6C7T8, or ca)acitance co&)led Bolta%e transformer 6CC7T8 is a transformer used in power s$stems to step downe:tra high voltage signals and provide a low voltage signal, for measurement or to operate a protective rela$" In its most basic form the device consists of three parts two capacitors across which the transmission line signal is split, an inductive element to tune the device to the line fre(uenc$, and atransformer to isolate and further step down the voltage for the instrumentation or protective rela$" The tuning of the divider to the line fre(uenc$ ma.es the overall division ratio less sensitive to changes in the burden of the connected metering or protection devices" K!V The device has at least four terminals a terminal for connection to the high voltage signal, a ground terminal, and two secondar$ terminals which connect to the instrumentation or protective rela$" C7Ts are t$picall$ single0phase devices used for measuring voltages in e:cess of one hundred .ilovolts where the use of wound primar$ voltage transformers would be uneconomical" In practice, capacitor C! is often constructed as a stac. of smaller capacitors connected in series" This provides a large voltage drop across C! and a relativel$ small voltage drop across C#" The C7T is also useful in communication s$stems" C7Ts in combination with wave traps are used for filtering high fre(uenc$ communication signals from power fre(uenc$" K#V This forms a carrier communication networ. throughout the transmission networ."

i8 Chec.ing of oil lea.age" ii8 'easurement of secondar$ voltage measurement in S2@ '<" <01TECT415 S6STEM: i8 Testing of DR2+= with Time S$nchronisation Unit"

HAL$ 6A0L6 MA45TE5A5CE 1$ E=/4<ME5TS 7*4TH1/T S3;8: T0A5S$10ME50 A5; 0EACT10: i8 Testing of oil for D>1 and other oil parameters" C40C/4T 20EA-E0S i8 'aintenance of 1ir Dr$er of Aneumatic Operating 'echanism, if

provided"

6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE 1$ E=/4<ME5TS 7S3; ACT4.4T68: T0A5S$10ME50 A5; 0EACT10 i8 Chec. 1uto Starting of cooler oil pumps and fans" ii8 'easurement of <D7 of OI=TC oil" iii8 +:ternal Cleaning of Radiator"

iv8 Cleaning of all bushings" v8 'aintenance of O=TC driving mechanism" vi8 Chec.ing of all remote indications 6DTI B Tap position indicator8 vii8 +lectrical chec.ing2testing of Aressure Relief Device, <uchhol3 rela$, O=TC surge rela$ and chec.ing2 replacement of the gas.ets of the terminal bo:" viii8 chec.ing2 testing of <uchhol3 rela$ b$ oil draining" i:8 Cleaning of '<, tightening of terminations and chec.ing of contactors, space heaters and illumination etc" C40C/4T 20EA-E0: i8 Chec.ing of 5$draulic oil pressure drop2 air pressure drop during dut$ c$cle operation chec." ii8 Chec.ing of auto0starting2 stopping of oil pump2 air compressor" iii8 Dew point measurement of operating air at the outlet of 1ir Dr$er for 1<C< brea.er" iv8 C< operating timings 6'ain, AIR, 1u:"8 v8 Chec.ing of Aole Discrepanc$ rela$" vi8 4unctional chec.s, dut$ c$cle operation including rapid re0closing 6O09"%s0CO8" vii8 Chec.ing of all operation loc.outs" viii8 Chec.ing of all interloc.s" i:8 Chec.ing of pressure settings" :8 Cleaning of <rea.er interrupter, support insulators, AIRs and grading capacitors" :i8 Chec.ing of close2trip coil currents" :ii8 Chec.ing of healthiness of Operation Counter" :iii8 Chec.ing of tightness of all cable terminations in '<" :iv8 Chec.ing of door sealing gas.ets and replacement, if necessar$"

:v8 Chec.ing of space heaters" C/00E5T T0A5S$10ME0 i8 Thermovision scanning of CT and Top dome" ii8 Chec.ing of space heaters B illumination in CT '<" iii8 Chec.ing the tightness of all connections including earthing" iv8 Cleaning of marshalling bo: and Gunction bo:" CA<AC4T10 .1LTA!E T0A5S$10ME0 i8 7isual chec.ing of earthing 54 point 6in case it is not being used for A=CC8" ii8 Chec.ing for an$ brea.age or crac.s in cementing Goint" iii8 Cleaning of C7T capacitor stac.s and tightness of terminal connections" iv8 Thermovision scanning of capacitor stac.s and +'U" v8 Chec.ing of space heaters B illumination of '<" vi8 Chec.ing and tightness of all connections including earth connections" vii8 Cleaning of '< and Gunction bo: B chec.ing the healthiness of gas.ets" 4S1LAT10S A5; EA0TH S*4TCHES i8 =in.ages including transmission gears of operating mechanism"

ii8 Stopper bolt" iii8 Cleaning of au:" switch contacts" iv8 =ubrication of operating mechanism, hinges, levers, bearing" v8 Chec.ing of all mounting bolts for tightness" vi8 Cleaning and lubrication of main B earthing blades" vii8 1lignment of main B earth contacts" viii8 Chec.ing of interloc.s"

i:8 Cleaning of support insulators and chec.ing insulator crac.s" :8 Chec.ing of earth connections of structure and 'O' bo:" :i8 Cleaning and terminal tightening in 'O' bo:" :ii8 Chec.ing of space heater B illumination and chec.ing of gas.ets"

S/0!E A00EST10: i8 Cleaning of =1 insulator" ii8 Testing of counters" iii8 Chec.ing of lea.age current 6Third harmonic Resistive current8" ," 2/S#2A0, J/M<E0S, C155ECT10S, CLAM<S ETC. i8 'easurement of station earth resistance" ii8 Thermovision scanning of all conductor Goints, terminal connectors2 clamps" iii8 Chec.ing of insulators for crac.s" iv8 Cleaning of insulators -" *A.E T0A<S i8 >eneral inspection 2 cleaning of tuning unit" ii8 Tightening B cleaning of wave trap"

/" <01TECT415 S6STEMS: i8 Chec.ing of DC logic circuit for trip and annunciations including timers b$ simulation" ii8 Chec.ing of voltage for rela$s" iii8 Reach chec.s for all & 3ones of Distance protection" iv8 Time measurement for the same"

v8 Aower swing bloc.ing chec. for Distance protection" vi8 SOT4 chec.ing for Distance protection" vii8 7T fuse failure chec. for Distance protection" viii8 Chec.ing of trip contacts and annunciations" i:8 Chec. for carrier send" :8 =<< and STU< protection testing" :i8 1uto Reclose test" :ii8 Chec.ing of DR B += initiation" :iii8 Chec.ing of fault locator initiation" :iv8 Chec.ing of Over voltage rela$" :v8 Chec.ing of all au:" rela$s" :iv8 Chec.ing of Reactor bac. up impedance" :v8 Chec.ing of <uchhol3, AR7 OTI, DTI in reactor and transformer" :vi8 Chec.ing of differential protection of reactor and transformer" :vii8 Chec.ing of R+4 Arotection of reactor and transformer" :viii8 Chec.ing of Over 4lu:ing and over load rela$ in transformer" :i:8 chec., Chec.ing of A=CC s$stem for return loss, transmitter2 receiver power suppl$ measurement and alarms"

T*1 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE 1$ E=/4<ME5TS 7S3; ACT4.4T68: T0A5S$10ME0 A5; 0EACT10S: i8 C B Ten delta measurement of bushings" ii8 7ibration measurement of reactors" iii8 Chec.ing and calibration of DTI B OTI"

C40C/4T 20EA-E0: i8 Static Contact Resistance measurement" ii8 D$namic contact Resistance measurement" C/00E5T T0A5S$10ME0: i8 'easurement of C B tan delta" TH0EE3 $1/0 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE 1$ E=/4<ME5TS 7S3; ACT4.4T68: T0A5S$10ME0 A5; 0EACT10: i8 IR measurement of transformer winding" ii8 C B Tan delta measurement of transformer winding" iii8 Dinding resistance measurement of transformer at all tap position" C40C/4T 20EA-E0: i8 C B Tan delta measurement of grading capacitor" ii8 Dew point measurement of S4* gas 6%@8" CA<AC4T10 .1LTA!E T0A5S$10ME0: i8 C B Tan delta measurement 6%@8" 4S1LAT10S A5; EA0TH S*4TCH: i8 Contact resistance measurement of main and earth contacts" S1S ACT4.4T4ES $10 E=/4<ME5TS: T0A5S$10ME0 A5; 0EACT10S: i8 'easurement of windings ratio" ii8 'easurement of short circuit impedance" iii8 4R1 measurement"

iv8 Chec.ing and cleaning of diverter contacts" v8 4iltration2 replacement of O=TC oil" vi8 4iltration2 degassing of main tan. oil" vii8 IR measurement of bushing CTs" C40C/4T 20EA-E0: i8 S4* gas2 1ir pressure lea.age test" ii8 Repainting of metallic part" C/00E5T T0A5S$10ME0: i8 IR measurement" ii8 'easurement of CT secondar$ resistance, CT ratio test" iii8 'agneti3ation characteristics" iv8 D>1 and other parameters of oil" CA<AC4T10 .1LTA!E T0A5S$10ME0: i8 Testing of +'U tan. oil for <D7 6if oil found discoloured8" 2/S#2A0, J/M<E0S, C155ECT10S, CLAM<S, S36 4LL/M45AT415 ETC.: i8 Removal of hot spots" ii8 De0weeding of switch$ard" iii8 Repainting, rust removal of all structures, e(uipments etc" iv8 Chec.ing of Switch$ard lighting" 2/S 2A0 <01TECT415: i8 Arimar$ inGection test and protection stabilit$ and sensitivit$ chec.s" 6To be done whenever the protection 1C circuits are disturbed li.e addition of new feeder8 M15THL6 MA45TE5A5CE ACT4.4T4ES $10 A/C4L4A04ES:

2ATTE04ES A5; ;C ;4ST042/T415 S6STEM: i8 'easurement of Specific >ravit$ and voltage of cell ii8 Chec.ing of electrol$te level and topping up with D' water, if re(uired" iii8 Chec.ing of +mergenc$ DC lighting to control room" iv8 Chec.ing of an$ earth fault 6if +24 rela$ not provided8" ;! SET: i8 Chec.ing of oil lea.age from lubricating s$stem" ii8 Chec. for radiator air bloc.ing and coolant level" iii8 Chec. for air lea.s for air inta.e s$stem" iv8 <atter$ voltage and specific gravit$ measurement" $40E <01TECT415 S6STEM: i8 Se(uence test for annunciation in Control room panel for fire alarm

s$stem" ii8 Smo.e test and cleaning of detectors" iii8 Chec.ing 2 replacement of air filters of compressor" iv8 Chec.ing of auto starting of diesel engine" v8 Chec.ing of oil level of diesel engine, top up if re(uired" vi8 Chec. lea.age and lubrication of all the pumps" vii8 Chec.ing of operation of all the pumps and compressor" A40 C15;4T41545! <LA5T: i8 Chec.ing of belt tension and safet$ guard alignment of compressors" ii8 Chec.ing of lea.age for refrigerant and oil of compressor" iii8 Chec.ing of oil compressor oil level, top up if re(uired"

iv8 Chec.ing of water lea.s" v8 Chec.ing operation of inlet and outlet valves" vi8 Cleaning of soft water tan. and regeneration of chemicals" vii8 Cleaning of cooling tower" =/A0TE0L6 MA45TE5A5CE ACT4.4T4ES $10 A/C4L4A04ES: $40E <01TECT415 S6STEM: i8 Chec.ing of compressor oil and replace if necessar$" ii8 'aintenance B cleaning of compressor valves, gas.ets, valve plates" iii8 Operation chec. of low oil level switch" iv8 Chec.ing of belt tightness and cleaning of oil strainer" A40 C15;4T41545! <LA5T: i8 Chec.ing of tightness of fl$wheel, bolted Goints, lea.age of oil etc" ii8 Cleaning of cooling tower no33les for clogging" iii8 4low switch performance chec.ing" iv8 Cleaning of suction air filters of 15U"

HAL$ 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE ACT4.4T4ES $10 A/C4L4A04ES: !" $40E $4!HT45! S6STEM: i8 Chec.ing of terminal connection of all motors" ii8 1dGustment of gland of all pumps for lea.ages and tightening of nuts and bolts"

iii8 >reasing of all valves" ;.!.SET: i8 Cleaning of air filters of 1ir Inta.e s$stem" ii8 Chec.ing of electrical connections for tightness of main generator"

A40 C15;4T41545! <LA5T: i8 Chec.ing of water pressure of condenser unit and cleaning of side

plates" ii8 Chec.ing operation of level switch" iii8 Chec.ing water (ualit$" iv8 =ubrication of all moving parts of motors and pumps" v8 Chec.ing of terminal chec.ing of motors"

6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE ACT4.4T4ES $10 A/C4L4A04ES: 2ATTE04ES A5; ;C ;4ST042/T415 S6STEM: i8 Chec.ing of electrical connections of charger panel B DCD< panels

for tightness and cleanliness"

ii8 Chec.ing of electrical connections for <atteries and application of petroleum Gell$ on cell terminal, if re(uired" iii8 Chec.ing control cards of charger B measurement of test point voltage values" iv8 <atter$ impedance testing" v8 Testing of DC +24 and under voltage rela$s" vi8 IR measurement of charger transformer" vii8 Discharge test of <atter$ set 6%@8"

$40E <01TECT415 S6STEM: i8 Cleaning of 5A tan." ii8 Cleaning of NR7s" iii8 Chec.ing2replacement of fuel oil filter, lub oil filter, air filter of Diesel engine" iv8 Chec.ing of alignment of all pump sets" v8 Chec.ing of pressure of the h$drant s$stem at the remotest end, auto0 starting of pumps, diesel engine etc" vi8 Operation of Deluge s$stem, chec. outlet pressure chec. alarm, chec. starting of diesel2 electrical pump" vii8 Cleaning and tightening of terminals of electrical panels" viii8 Aainting of pipes, air lines '<" ;! SET: i8 Replacement of oil filters, lub"oil filters, air filters" ii8 Chec.ing for cooling fan hub, drive pulle$ and water pump" iii8 Chec.ing of governor lin.ages, fuel transfer pump, fuel line connections"

iv8 Drain sediments from fuel tan. and clean fuel tan. breather" v8 IR measurement of Stator winding B testing of protection rela$s B alarms" vi8 Chec.ing2 cleaning of slip ring and its brushes" vii8 Chec. for air lea.s and e:haust restrictions B tight e:haust manifold"

LT S*4TCH!EA0, LT T0A5S$10ME0, LT <A5EL ETC.: i8 Cleaning and chec.ing of panels, bus bar insulators etc" ii8 Rela$ testing" iii8 Tightness of all electrical connections and all indication meters" iv8 Chec. for change0over facilit$ if provided" v8 Chec. operation2 indications in Off0load condition of 1ir C<" vi8 Chec. spring charging of C<" vii8 4unctional chec.ing 6trip, close etc8 of %%2!! ?7 C<s" viii8 Testing of =T transformer oil <D7, IR measurement and testing of DTI,OTI and <uchhol3 rela$ 6if provided8" i:8 'easurement of operating timings 6%@8"

A40 C15;4T41545! <LA5T: ii8 Chec.ing of oil pressure switch, =A25A, cut0out switches, solenoid valve, thermostat, humidistat etc of compressor" ii8 Cleaning of <us bars, insulators of electrical panels" iii8 Tightness of electrical connections"

S1S ACT4.4T4ES $10 A/C4L4A04ES: !" $40E <01TECT415 S6STEM: i8 >eneral overhaul of compressor" ii8 Overhauling of pumps B replacement of grease in pumps" iii8 Re0filling of 4ire +:tinguishers" #" A40 C15;4T41545! <LA5T: i8 De0scaling of condenser unit and cooling water circuit"

MA45TE5A5CE 1$ $ACTS: 41CTS installed on &99 ?7 <=<0?NA line is first proGect on an$ &99 ?7 lines in India" 4or the maintenance of 41CTS some precautions has to be ta.en as capacitor ban. and all other e(uipments are installed on a platform, charged at &99 ?7"

<0ECA/T415S T1 2E 12SE0.E; *H4LE *10-45! 15 THE H4!H .1LTA!E <LAT$10M 1ll e(uipment on the platform need to be de0energi3ed disconnected from the suppl$ and grounded and un0authori3ed re0enerrgisation shall be prevented before an$ wor. is started"

!" <$pass the capacitor ban. permanentl$ 6both earth switches will be closed under this condition, both capacitor isolators are open, b$pass isolator and <AC< is closed8" #" Open the fence door observing all capacitor isolator interloc. protocol" %" Using an earth rod, manuall$ earth all incoming tube connections from line for all the phases" 1lso, earth all the platforms manuall$ b$ earthing rod" ?eep the earth rod permanentl$ connected on that platform on which wor. will be underta.en" &" Do not wor. on the platform when it is dri33ling or raining or under conditions of thunder and fog" )" 1fter completing wor. on platform remove earthing rod, ladders, loose hardware and wor.ing tools l$ing on platform or inside platform mounted e(uipment" +nsure all doors of platform mounted e(uipment are properl$ closed" *" +nsure all maintenance personnel have vacated the fenced area" ," Close fence door observing all interloc. protocol" -" No isolator is to be opened or closed unless <AC< is closed"

<0E.E5T4.E MA45TE5A5CE SCHE;/LE $10 METAL 1C4;E .A04ST10 7M1.8 HAL$ 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE !" 7isual Inspection #" Chec. for an$ bulging of Aressure Relief Diaphragm %" Chec. for cleanliness of insulator surface and clean if re(uired

TH0EE 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE !" Chec. electrical and mechanical connections and re0tor(ue if re(uired Note 7isual inspection need to be carried out after each line fault at the first available opportunit$" <0E.E5T4.E MA45TE5A5CE SCHE;/LE $10 CA<AC4T10 2A56EA0L6 MA54TE5A5CE #" 7isual inspection of ban. for pollution, painting damages or lea.ing capacitor units and cleaning if necessar$" 6If capacitor is damaged and starts lea.ing, it is to be replaced" 5owever small lea.s can be repaired with epo:$ adhesive8 %" Chec. the settings and operation of the protective rela$s" &" Tightening of all connectors 6including the connectors on housing studs8 with optimum tor(ue 6#9Nm8" )" Chec. the unbalance current" 6If the unbalance current e:ceeds )9F of the tripping value, underta.e measurement of capacitance of all capacitor units in the ban. and fault$ units be replaced" 'easurement is applicable where ever provision is available"8

TH0EE 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE: I" 'easurement of Capacitance of all capacitor units" 6If the measurement of a capacitor unit indicates deviation be$ond W2X)F compared to the values stated in routine test report, the unit to be replaced8

<0E.E5T4.E MA45TE5A5CE SCHE;/LE $10 S<A0- !A<: 6EA0L6 MA54TE5A5CE I" II" Chec. for cleanliness and an$ mechanical damage to the enclosure, support insulators" Chec. for burning mar. on the surface of copper and graphite electrodes" 6In case of burning mar.s2 pitting the$ are to be smoothed b$ using a file and grinding cloth and then cleaned b$ wiping with cloth"8 III" I7" 7" 7I" Chec. for tightness of bolted connections" Chec. for oil lea.age in the voltage divider capacitor" 'easurement of capacitance of voltage divider capacitor to chec. voltage divider ratio" 'easurement of resistance of damping resistors"

$4.E 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE: I" 'easurement of flashover voltage of Trigatron"

<0E.E5T4.E MA45TE5A5CE SCHE;/LE $10 S4!5AL C1L/M5: 6EA0L6 MA54TE5A5CE I" II" 7isual inspection and cleaning of housing to remove an$ dust, dirt etc" Chec.ing of oil level"

III" I7"

Testing of oil" Chec.ing colour of silica gel and replace silica gel if discoloration is observed"

TH0EE 6EA0L6 MA45TE5A5CE: I" 'easurement of fibre optic cable attenuation"

<0E.E5T4.E MA45TE5A5CE SCHE;/LE $10 A40 C10E 0EACT10: 6EA0L6 MA54TE5A5CE I" II" III" I7" 7" 7I" 7II" 7isual inspection of the e(uipment and chec. if the arms of the top2bottom spiders have become loose from the winding" Chec. top and bottom of the winding for possible abnormalities such as carboni3ation, arc mar.s etc" Chec. top of the winding and the cooling ducts for foreign particles, in particular for birdEs nests and remove them" Chec. inside and outside surface of the reactor winding for possible trac.ing mar.s" If such mar.s are found notif$ before re0energisation" Chec. tightening tor(ue of the bolts of the support structure" If bolts are found to be loose, re0tighten all the bolts" Chec. surface of the reactor and insulators for contamination" Clean reactors if necessar$" Chec. status of the protective paint of the reactor" =ocal imperfections or paint peeling to be touched0up" 64or usual environmental conditions it is recommended that the reactor is r0coated after !9 $ears of operation8" ! # %& )*