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REPORT

On

6 Weeks Industrial Training


At HMT Ltd. Pinjore (From ! ma" #! $ % june #! &

'u(mitted To. Mr. ). *. +ro,er 'u(mitted ("Rakes. *aus.ik MMU

A/*0OWLE1+EME0T
Firstly, I wish to express my deep gratitude to all the concerned persons without whose generous cooperation and coordination, it would
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have been very difficult for me to have a successful training experience in the organization. It would like to thank Mr. ). *. +ro,er for giving me a golden opportunity of industrial training, which would help me to enhance my technical skill and helps me a lot besides some technical skills. I am extremely grateful to the management of HM , !in"ore for giving me an opportunity to pursue four months training in their reputed organization. his provides me a wonderful and learning experience for me to go through this training. Finally, I would like to thanks all those colleagues who help me out of intensifying my technical knowledge and provide satisfactory solutions to my all #ueries.

Inde2

'r. no. I. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,. ..

Parti3ulars $ection % Introduction )ompany profile raining centre Foundry Mechanism Heavy Machine $hop 2ight Machine $hop Heat reatment 3ngine %ssembly and esting ractor %ssembly

Page no. ' *+, . &/+&' &*+&0 &,+(/ (&+(( (-+(, (.+-'

I. I0TRO14/TIO0
he country, India, is basically an agricultural country where more than 1* 4 of population population, enough food has to be produced. his cannot be produced with our conventional bullock drawn implements. $o there was need felt to invent such machine which speeds up the agricultural production. 5ue to this reason the tractor was invented.
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6efore we start, it is necessary to know how the word 7tractor8 is derived. !rior to &.//, the machine i. e. tractor is known as traction machine 9pulling machine:. %fter &.//, both the words "oined by taking 7tract8 from traction and 7tor8 from motor calling 7tractor8. he tractor is the machine which is used for applying high traction. In our country, tractors were started manufacturing in real sense after independence and at present, we are self sufficient in meeting demand of country8s re#uirements for tractors. %t present in India, there are different tractor producing factories present like Hindustan machine tools, !un"ab tractors, ;irloskar tractors, etc is directly or indirectly connected to agriculture. Moreover for increasing
.

II. /OMPA05 PROFILE


.! 6irt. o7 HMT
In &.'. the idea of public sector tools was commissioned to be a corner stone for the government8s industrial development plans. HI<5=$ %< M%)HI<3 >erlikon of $witzerland. his led to the birth of >>2$ at 6angalore in &.*- which started a single

machine tools factory to produce lathes at 6angalore, in collaboration with M?s

<ext, the company widened its product range beyond lathes by entering into technical collaboration with other international leaders in machine tools such as Fritz @erner, Herman ;olb, 3rrantly $omua, Aildermeister, 2iebherr etc. he second machine tool unit was set up in 6angalore in &.1& making use of the )ompany8s own resources. he company diversified itself when, in collaboration with )itizen @atch )ompany of Bapan, the first watch factory was setup in 6angalore in &.1( to produce hand watches. he third machine tool unit was set up in &.1- at !in"ore, Haryana to produce milling machines. In next few years, Machine ool =nits were set up at ;alamessary in ;erala and in Hyderabad. he !rinting Machinery division was attached to machine tools factory at ;alamessary to #ualities !rinting Machine. HM 8s tractor business commenced its operations in &.0& in technical collaboration with M?s M> >;>C, )zechoslovakia because of the priority given to the agriculture in the national development plan and to take advantage of the green revolution. HM started the operations with the manufacturing of (* Hp tractors. >ver the years, it has developed tractors ranging from (* D 0* Hp. he unit in Hyderabad began to make lamps and lamp making machines in &.0- to cater to the growing needs of rural. automatic watches. % third watches factory was established in $rinagar to manufacture hand wound watches for men. In &.0*, the company took over the machine tool corporation of India8s unit in %"mer, Ea"asthan and its name was changed to HM 2imited. In &.0*, a separate international scales network called HM 3urope and %merica. was set up comprising of company8s own agencies as well as other sales agents in %ustralia, his network was to handle the marketing strategy and operations of the company overseas and it also extended its services to the other leading Indians and overseas engineering companies. $ince then this international arm of the company has set up the turkey pro"ect in %lgeria, Indonesia, Ira#, ;enya, <igeria and $rilanka. his was followed by producing

. HMT8s Produ3ts

he main products produced by HM ltd are D . .! Machine tools, @atches, ractors, 6earings, !rinting Machinery, 5ie )asting Machinery. he divisions of HM are described below D 6angalore It produces lathes 9both )<) and <on )<):, milling? machining centers, grinding machines, gear cutting machineries, simple drilling machines, special purpose machines, die casting and plastic in"ection moulding. It also produces refurbishing and retrofitting like heavy duty, turret lathe, multi spindle drilling machines and fine boring machines. he other application components include the "igs, fixtures, some radar and transonic components. It also develops hinomerik control system, Hyderabad.

. .

H"dera(ad It produces the machining centers, )<), 6oring machines, milling machines,

die and mould machining centers, presses and brakes. It also produces special purpose machines like )<) tube chamfering machines, cam shaft milling machines, filament winding machines, horizontal and vertical coil winding machines, multi spindle machining centers. . .9 *alamessar" It produces )<) lathes and printing machineries.

. .:

Ajmer It produces grinders and lathes. It also manufactures some application

components like hydraulic lift mechanism for tractors, valve devices and oil priming pump.

he retrofitting includes center less grinders and double disc grinders. %fter establishing two machine factories and a watch factory in 6angalore, the !in"ore unit was established as the third machine tool factory. 6reaking the ground on (nd may, &.1(, this factory

III. TRAI0I0+ /E0TRE


In training centre, the basic machines are studied such as 2athe Machine, Milling machine, 5rilling Machine, etc.

9.! 'tru3ture o7 Training /entre


raining center is divided into four sections, &. urning section, (. Fitting section, -. Milling section, '. ractor training section.

9. Turning 'e3tion
In turning section, we have learnt about the lathe machine which is mother of all machines and play a basic role in mechanical line. 9. .! Lat.e Ma3.ine 2athe is probably the oldest machine tools. he basic idea about turning or lathe machine came out in &0 century. =ntil &00/, lathes were useless metal cutting because they lacked power and holding device, were not strong enough and accurate enough to guide the tools. For its development to the form in which we know it now, we owe much to Henry Muldsley, who developed the sliding carriage and in &,,/ built a screw cutting lathe. 9. . /lassi7i3ation o7 Lat.e Ma3.ine &. 3ngine 2athe, (. $peed 2athe, -. '. urret 2athe, oll Eoom 2athe,

*. Hollow $pindle 2athe, 1. )apstan 2athe, 0. 6ench 2athe. 2athe is also called )omplete Machine. his single machine can do number of operation. 9. .9 Fa3ing his operation is carried out to produce flat surface at the end of part, which is useful for parts that are attached to other components, or face grooving to produce grooves for >+ring seals. 9

9. .: 1rilling In this process a drilling of desire diameter is held in the tail stock and the operation of drill is carried out. 9. .; 6oring In this enlargement of hole or cylinder cavity made by previous process is done. It improves accuracy and surface finish. 9. .6 T.reading In this operation internal and external threads on the surface are prepared. 9. .< *nurling In this operation a regularly shaped roughness is prepared on the cylindrical surface for fascinating easy gripping.

9.9 Fitting 'e3tion


Fitting work is very important work in engineering. In fitting shop unwanted material is removed with the help of hand tools. It is done for mating, repair and manufacturing purpose. he person working in fitting shop is called as fitter. )ommonly used tools are hacksaw, files, chisels etc. 9.9.! Tools 4sed in Fitting '.o= &. )lamping ools (. Measuring and Marking ools -. )utting ools '. $triking ools *. 5rilling ools

9.: Milling 'e3tion


Milling machine were basically developed to machine flat surface. 6ut, the present machine can machine flat, countered and helical surfaces, cut gears and do various other "obs. 5ue to this all milling machine is one of the most useful and necessary machine tools found in the shop and it rank next to the lathe in importance. Milling machine are designed to hold and rotate milling cutter or cutters, hold the work piece and feed the work piece to the milling cutter in one several directions.

10

I). FO401R5 ME/HA0I'M'


$ince there are certain basic steps in the metal casting process, these may be used as unit of mechanism. !rocessing steps which lead them to the mechanism are, 1. $and preparation, 2. )ore making, 3. Moulding, pouring and shakeouts, '. Melting, *. )leaning. Foundry is divided into following section, &. $and plant system, 2. $and handling system, 3. )ore making and baking system, '. Moulding making and handling, *. )ore setting system, 1. Melting system, 7. Metal pouring system, 8. 10. esting lab, !ainting and printing section. 9. Fettling section,

:.! 'and =lant s"stem


he main ob"ective of it is to reuse the used lad to the installation of sand plant system. he vital task of sand plant system is to deliver well prepared sand at re#uired place that will determine the efficient working of the foundry. %fter casing are knocked out of moulding box on a vibratory shakeout box that the used sand is returned to the fixed amount of new sand, binders, catalysts and hardeners to get to the re#uired composition of the sand. Areen sand, dry sand and oil sand are being prepared in the sand plant. hese constitutes are added in Muller in which all contents are mixed thoroughly and then supplied via belt conveyor system to working stations.

11

+reen sand 3om=osition> Muller batch capacity <ew sand 6entonite @ater Eeturn sand 1r" sand 3om=osition> 0// kg -* kg 9*4: 11/ kg 9.'.'4: -.1 kg 9/.' 4: &.' kg 9/.(4:

Eeturn sand ,/4 <ew sand &/4 6entonite &.(4 5extrin &.,4 Moisture 04 /om=osition o7 oil sand (!## kg o7 sand&> 6entonite 5extrin 2inseed oil Moisture &( kg (* kg &* kg
(/ A

:. 'and .andling s"stem


For handling the sand i. e. move it from one place to another, the bucket elevator and belt conveyor are used. :. .! 6u3ket ele,ator @hen sand is to be conveyed vertically upward, a bucket is ideal. here are two pulleys, one at the top and other at the bottom which carry an endless belt. he belt carries number of buckets all around and the whole assembly is enclosed in steel casting which has two openings, one at bottom for feeding and other at top for discharge. :. . 6elt 3on,e"or It is used for transferring sand from one place to another. It consist of endless belt, two pulleys or idlers for carrying a loaded belt and returning the empty belt, a belt tightening mechanism and the belt cleaner. he angle of inclination should not be exceeding &*/ for dry sand.

:.9 /ore making and (aking s"stem

12

%s patterns are made to get to outer shape of the casting, the inner shapes are used to for whole generation core placed in the moulds. %s the core comes in contact of molten metal that must possess following characteristicsF &. )ore sand must have high strength to bear the pressure of metal when poured. (. he sand must have high refractory characteristics so that it may not fuse due to high temperature being in contact with molten metal. -. It must have high cohesive property so as to get good finish castings. Gircon paint 9alcohol base: dried "ust by lightning it up. 2arge and heavy cores are baked along with the dry sand moulds in oven. )ore drying cycles for ovenF -/// ) D & (/// ) + ( hrs. hrs.

)ooling time in oven - hrs. %fter baking, the hardness is tested by using hardness meter

:.: Mould making se3tion


Moulds are being made on moulding machine pedantically powered rammers. Metallic patterns are being used. %fter mould being made on moulding machine, it goes to sand cutter which removes extra sand present and level the mould base, from on to the power operated roller conveyor, the mould is handled using the swing type crane. )ore setting is done in drag part of mould. Gircon painting is sprayed on to the mould 9as paint is alcohol based hence get dry up by lighting fire:. :.:.! Mould (aking 5ry sand moulds are to bake to ac#uire hardness to with sand the pressure produced by the flow of molten metal. hese are baked in ovens. Mould baking cycles for ovens -//) for ( :.:. Melting se3tion It is having two types of furnace. &. 3lectric induction furnace, (. )opula furnace. hrs. and )ooling time in oven - hrs.

:.; Fettling
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%fter they are knocked out on vibrator shake, the casting head to be finished by the removal of pro"ections whether they are gets riser or runner that where there as a part of design aspect or the pro"ection which has appeared as a defect like fins or blow holes. he process that involves all these procedure of casting finish is termed as fettling. Fettling operation is divided into following stagesF &. ;nocking out of dry sand cores, (. Eemoval of gates and risers, -. 3xtraction of fins and other pro"ections, '. )leaning and smoothing of the surface, *. Eepair casting by filling of the blow holes, straightening the wrap or deformed casting.

:.6 Priming and =ainting


%fter all the cleaning process has been performed then the final step is priming and the painting casting. he machine tool castings are generally big and are handled with crane during painting. !ainting is done by brushes only.

). HEA5 MA/HI0E 'HOP


14

;.! Introdu3tion
In heavy machine shop all the heavy part of tractor are machined like gear box housing, Main transmission housing, Front cover etc. all the parts undergoes different operations like milling, boring, drilling, tapping, slotting etc. in HM$ section. he entire machines in this section are special purpose machineH it means the machine doing special or specific operation on a "ob. he advantage of special purpose machine is that it increases the rate of production. he machines are capable of machining any number of identical parts in a very less time.

;. Parts Ma3.ined in HM'


&. Aear box housing (. Main transmission housing ;. .! +ear 6o2 Housing Aear box housing is used for fitment of gears and shafts. he material used for Aear box housing is cast iron. *.(.&.& !rocess of Aear 6ox Housing
'r. no. &. O=eration Marking the gear box housing @ith help of crane, we put the housing on the surface plate and after this with the help of vernier height gigue we mark the gear box housing. Marking is done of the gearbox is done for remove the all allowances (. material. 6ottom Milling @ith help of crane we put the work piece on the milling machine 9$!M:. 6ottom milling is done for removing the extra material on the gear box -. '. housing. 5rill the location hole on the gear box housing. 2ocation holes are made for fix the housing on the different machine. op Milling !ut the housing on milling machine according to location holes.

op

*.

milling done for removing the extra material on the housing. Front and Eear )over %ccording to their location of hole we fix the work piece on the milling machine. For removing the all allowance on to the housing. 2eft %nd Eight Milling For removing the all allowance on to the housing. $lot milling In this milling we made the slots for gear forks which used for change the gears. 5imension of slot is &1mm.

1. 0.

15

,.

6oring 6oring is done for removing extra material from bores to make the bore according to their dimensions. !re 6oring of $teering 6ore !re boring is done for removing the allowance from steering bore. Heavy 5uty 5rilling It is done for making the drilling in to the housing for "oining purpose. 6ottom Milling Housing (/ drills simultaneous. apping apping is for making the internal thread in to the drilled holes and for "oining purpose. 5rill for )lutch and !edal For "oining the clutch and pedal drilling is done on both faces right and left on the gear box housing. Final bores on the all bores i. e. steering bore, reverse gear and shaft boring on the boring machine. @ashing for the gear box housing in the washing machine. Inspection of the Aear box housing according to design.

.. &/. &&. &(.

&-.

&'. &*. &1.

;. . Main Transmission Housing Main ransmission Housing is manufacturing in heavy machine shop. M. . Housing is used for setup the differential and axle assembly. Material used for M. Housing is cast iron. *.(.(.& Manufacturing procedure of M. Housing
'r. no. &. O=erations Marking M. Housing @ith help of crane we put the housing on the surface plate and after this with the help of vernier height gauge we mark the M. . Housing according (. to their dimension. @hite paint is used foe marking. Horizontal Milling. Horizontal milling is done for removing the extra material or allowances according to their drawing Eadial 5rilling Eadial drills are used for the made the location holes in the housing and these locations are used for seat the "ob on the different type of machine. Milling of M. . Housing In this operation milling of four faces is done front, rear, left and right. In operation we fix the "ob on their location and holes and after we do milling 6oring In this boring operation we do rough boring of front, left I right bores. 5imensions of boresF 2eft hand boreF (./mm. Eight hand boreF (,,I front hand boreF ./mm Horizontal milling on frontF Horizontal milling is done for remove the extra material or allowances according to their drawing. Horizontal milling is done on $!M milling

-.

'.

*. 1. 0.

16

,.

machine. 6oring finish %fter horizontal milling we put the housing on the boring machine on their location holes. it is done for finishing purpose. @ashing @ashing is done to remove chips and oil. this is done after all the operation. Inspection Inspection of work piece according to their drawing.

..

&/

)I. LI+HT MA/HI0E 'HOP


6.! Introdu3tion
%s the name suggests that in this section light parts or small parts of tractors are machined such as speed gears of tractor, sun I planet gears crown wheel, ! > shaft, clutch shaft, spline shaft, front and rear axle.

6. '=line s.a7t
% shaft with longitudinal gear like ridges along its interior or exterior surface is called spline shaft. the function of spline shaft is to transmit the power from flywheel to lay shaft. Material used for spline shaft is low carbon steel. 6. .! Pro3ess 7or s=line s.a7t &. Eaw material from vendors. (. )utting of shaft. -. Facing and centering. 4. )<) turning. *. Inspection 1. Aear hobbing. 0. Aear tooth rounding. 17

,. Fitting. .. @ashing. 10. Inspection. &&. Aear shaving. &(. 6ench drilling. %fter these process spline shaft send to heat treatment plant for hardening process. &. Aas carburizing I hardening. (. empering -. $hot blasting. '. $traightening. *. )entre grinding. 1. Internal grinding. 0. Fitting. ,. Inspection

6.9 6e,el Pinion '.a7t


6evel pinion shaft is used for transmit the power from gear box to differential. he material used for it is low carbon steel. 6.9.! Pro3ess 7or 6e,el Pinion '.a7t &. Eaw material from vender. (. Material cutting. -. Facing and centering '. urning on s+pilot machine. *. Inspection according to drawing. 1. Aear hobbing. 0. Fitting. ,. @ashing and inspection work piece. .. Aas carburizing I hardening. &/. %nnealing. &&. urning. &(. )ylindrical grinding. &-. hread rolling. 18

&'. 5rilling. &*. empering. &1. $hot blasting. &0. $traightening. 18. @ashing I inspection of the bevel pinion shaft.

6.: W.eel '.a7t


@heel shaft is assembled in axle housing and its transmit tor#ue to wheels. 6.:.! Pro3ess 7or W.eel '.a7t &. Eaw material from vender. (. Facing and centering on lathe machine. -. 5rilling. '. Eadial drilling. *. Aear hobbing. 1. Inspection according to drawing. 0. Induction hardening. ,. empering. .. )ylindrical grinding. &/. hreading. &&. Fitting. &(. Horizontal milling. &-. Fitting &'. Inspection according to drawing.

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)II. HEAT TREATME0T


%ll components 9manufactured in 2M$: after undergoing machining operation are sub"ected to heat treatment. It is done so as to improve hardness and strength of these components viz. gears and shafts. 6asic operations performed during heat treatmentF &. Hardening, (. Juenching, -. %nnealing, '. empering, *. <ormalizing, 1. )arburizing. Melting tempratureF 1'//), )arburizing media &-+ &* 4 sodium cyanide K ,* 4 6a)l K <a)l

<.! Hardening
For medium carbon steel and high carbon steel ,'//)+ ,*//) For other 00/ D ,(//) 20

Hardening is performed on the various metals and its alloys to provide them with strength and wear resistance. It is accomplished by heating the component above its hardening temperature and #uenching it in water.

<. ?uen3.ing
3mercing hot metal in desired water or oil does #uenching. Here transfer of heat is ensured at slow rate so as to remove internal stresses to permissible limit.

<.9 0ormali@ing
In this process, iron alloy casting is heated to */ D 1//) above critical temperature range. he casting is held for definite time and then allowed to cool in still air. <ormalization eliminates casting or cooling strains and resultant casting is easy to machine.

<.: /ar(uri@ing
!rocess of adding carbon to surface layer of the component is called carburizing. It is the process of casehardening, which is addition of some elements like carbon, nitrogen to the surface by diffusion for surrounding medium at high temperature the purpose of carburizing is to obtain high surface wear resistance and obtain a hard surface.

<.; Tem=ering
For medium carbon steel and high carbon steel 10// + 1,// ) for fasteners tempering to be done at -*// D '/// ) for & D ( hrs. In tempering long grains formed during #uenching are broken into smaller grains so as to improve elasticity of the material. Here heating is done at around &,// + (/// ) for around ( hrs. and then cool in air. It reduces internal stress and stabilizes the structure of metal.

<.6 Annealing
For medium carbon steel and high carbon steel 1,// D 1.// ).

<.< /ase .ardening


)arburizing K hardening. <.<.! Pro3ess used 7or (la3kening &. Bob is clean with cotton waste.

21

(. !ut the "ob in the <a>H solution for &/ to (/ min. for de+greasing or decomposition. -. @ash it with warm water. '. 5e+rust the "ob in the rust solution. *. @ash it with water. 6. $hift it to blackening furnace at &(// ) for &/ D (/ min. according to sectional area

)III. E0+I0E A''EM6L5 A01 TE'TI0+


he engines of different models are assembled and tested in this shop as per standard procedures.

A.! Engine Assem(l"


In this shop, whole of the engine is completed and ready for the tractor assembly. he various parts of engine from manufacturing section are brought in this section and they are assembled to prepare the whole engine. he engine assembly can be divided into following steps. &. @ashing of crank case with a special soap solution and drying it by means of air "ets. (. Fitting of cylinder sleeve. -. Fixing of studs and fitment of crank shaft in crank case. '. Inserting pistons in cylinder sleeve. *. %ssembling the lubrication pump and fitment of cam shaft. 22

1. Mounting of flywheel with clutch assembly. 0. Fixing of cylinder head on the top of the cylinder sleeve. ,. !utting tappets, push rods and rocker arm for opening and closing the valves. .. %ttaching the fuel filters and oil filter. &/. Mounting the fuel in"ection pump and in"ection lines. &&. Fitting the self starter and alternator. <ow the engine is ready for testing. %mong the all parts fuel in"ection system is the heart of the engine. A.!.! Fun3tion o7 Inje3tion Pum= he purpose of in"ection pump is the ensure in"ection of the flue at high pressure in to cylinder space at certain instance and in correct amount. In gallery of in"ection pump there are fitted in operates. he in"ection pump is driven from the timing gear with shaft of in"ection pump to which it is connected with dog clutch. he cams of the camshaft causes movement of plunger in their barrels by mean of roller tappet to which plunger to is pressed with which rest at the lower spring late. he barrels are secured against turning with pins roller tappet are secured with tannens of roller which mesh with the grooves of pump body. Eollers which contact the camps are fitted on pins. In the recesses of top part of roller tappets ad"usting screw with nuts are fitted by mean which the angular distribution of in"ection start of individual plunger can be ad"usted. he working space of barrel are closed with delivery valve the tappers of which are pressed in to the valve bodies by means of spring with peg. he delivery valve are tightened to the cylinder head with the cylinder neck thread union to which the in"ection line is fixed connection the in"ection pump to in"ector. he deliver amount of fuel is changed by turning plunger i. e. by length over lapping the transverse intake orifice in barrel. he plunger is provide in its bottom part with a plunger vane which mesh with recess of control sleeve. he control sleeve gear with the teeth is mounted on the top part of control sleeve the teeth engaging into gearing of common control rack. he sleeve is tightened to the control sleeve by a screw. @hen the shifting the control rack plunger are turned their barrel and helix formed on the plunger opens sooner or later the transverse 9intake: orifice in the barrel. In the plunger has been turned in such way that the transfer groove connection the face of the plunger with the helix edge flushes with transverse orifice in the barrel. he pump does not deliver any fuel and control rack is in its stop position. If the 23

control rack is in its opposite position he pump deliver the maximum amount of fuel. %t the side fuel gallery into intake parts a relief valve is mounted which maintains a constant pressure of & kg?cm( on the intake port and the excessive amount of fuel is returned by this valve back to the tank. @hen starting the engine, by making the use of excess fuel, starting spring is fitted in governor which returns the control rack is obtained for the purpose of maximum delivery of fuel at maximum in"ection delay. %t the opposite side of drive, the output governor is mounted which serves for regulating the engine output at higher performance revolutions. he range of governing is given by variable speed of engine. he governor controls the amount of in"ected fuel into the engine, with set up revolutions, in accordance with the taken of power. 5ecrease or increase of revolutions at a higher or lower load of engine is called unevenness of output governor. If the governing spring is set up from operator place to certain revolutions, the governor shift the link member of pump into such position which at a certain instantaneous load of engine corresponds to these selected revolutions.

Terminolog" /onne3ted Bit. Engine PoBer


1. (. -. 6oreF 6ore is the diameter of the engine cylinder. $trokeF It is the linear distance traveled by the piston from top dead center to bottom dead center. $troke bore ratioF the ratio of length of stroke and diameter of bore of the cylinder is called stroke bore ratio this ratio vary between & to&.'* and for tractor engine and this ratio is about &.(*. 4. $wept volumeF It is the volume 9% L 2: displaced by one stroke of the piston. @here % is the cross sectional area of the piston and 2 is the length of stroke. *. )ompression ratioF it is the ratio of the volume of the charge at beginning of the compression stroke to that at the end of compression stroke that8s mean ratio of total cylinder volume to clearance volume. 6. !owerF It is the rate of doing work. It is expressed in watt in $I unit. 24

7.

Indicated powerF it is the power generated in the engine cylinder and received by the piston. It is the power developed in the cylinder without friction or auxiliary unit.

,. 9. &/.

6reak powerF It is the powered delivered by the engine and is available at end of the crankshaft. 6elt powerF It is the power of the engine measured at the end of a suitable belt receiving drive from the ! > shaft. 5rawbar powerF It is the power of a tractor, measured at the end of the drawbar. It is the power, which is available for pulling loads at the drawbar.

11. 12.

!ower take off powerF it is the power delivered by a tractor through its ! > shaft. Frictional powerF It is the power re#uired to the engine at a given speed without producing any useful power. It represents the friction and pumping losses of an engine.

13.

Mean effective pressureF it is the average pressure during the power stroke minus the average pressure during other strokes. his pressure actually forces the piston down during the power stroke.

14.

Columetric efficiencyF It is the ratio of actual weight of air introduced by the engine on the suction stroke to the theoretical weight of air that should have been introduced by filling the piston displacement volume with air at atm. !ressure and temp.

15. 16. 17.

or#ueF % turning effect due to force applied on some point is called tor#ue. $pecific fuel consumptionF It is the #uantity of fuel consumed per k@+hr. in an engine. 6rake mean effective pressureF It is the average pressure acting throughout the entire power strokes, which are necessary to produce brake power of the engine.

18. 19.

Mechanical efficiencyF It is the ratio of brake power to indicated power. hermal efficiencyF It is the ratio of output in the form of useful mechanical power to the power value of the fuel consumed.

Engine 3om=onents
Internal combustion engine consists of number of parts which are given as below 25

1.

)ylinderF It is part of the engine which confines of the expanding gases and forms the combustion space. It provides space in which piston operates to suck the air or air fuel mixture. )ylinders are usually made of high grade cast iron.

2. 3. 4.

)ylinder blockF It is the solid casting which includes the cylinder and water "ackets. )ylinder headF It is detachable portion of an engine which covers the cylinder and includes the combustion chamber, spark plug and valves. )ylinder liner or sleeveF

It is cylindrical lining either wet or dry which is inserted in the cylinder block in which the piston slides. )ylinder liners are fitted in the cylinder bore and they are easily replaceable. he overhauling and repairing of the engines, fitted with liners is easy and economical. 2iners are classified as a. 5ry liner and b. @et liner A) 5ry liners make meal to metal contact with the cylinder block casting. 6: @et liners are come in contact with the cooling water, where as dry liners do not come in contact with the cooling water 5. !istonF it is cylinder part closed at one end which maintains a close sliding fit in the engine cylinder. It is connected to the connecting rod by a piston pin. he force of the expanding gases against the closed end of the piston , forces the piston down in the cylinder. his causes the connecting rod to rotate the crankshaft. %luminum and its alloy are preferred to made piston. Head 9)rown: of pistonF it is the top of the piston. $kirtF it is that portion of the piston below the piston pin which is designed to absorb the side movements of the piston. 26

6.

!iston ringsF it is split expansion ring, placed in the groove of the piston. hey are usually made of cast iron or pressed steel alloy. the functions of the rings are F %: It forms a gas tight combustion chamber for all positions of piston. 6: It reduces contact area between cylinder wall and piston wall for preventing friction losses and excessive wear. ): It controls the cylinder lubrication. 5: It transmits the heat away from the piston to the cylinder wall.

!iston rings are of two typesH %: )ompression ring and 6: >il ring 7. !iston pinF it is also called wrist pin or gudgeon pin . it is used to "oin the connecting rods to the piston.. it provides a flexible or hinge like connection between the piston and the connecting rod. It is usually made of case hardened alloy steel. 8. )onnecting rodF it is special type of rod. >ne end of which is connected to piston and the other to the crankshaft. It transmits the power of combustion to the crankshaft and makes it rotate continuously. It is usually made of drop forged steel.

..

)rankshaftF

It is the main shaft of an engine which converts the reciprocating motion of the piston in to rotary motion of the flywheel. =sually the 27

crankshaft made of drop forged steel or cast steel. )rankshaft is provided with counter weights throughout its length to have counter balance of the unit. &/. FlywheelF Fly wheel is made of cast iron. It stores energy during power stroke and returns back the same energy during the idle strokes .engine timing marks are usually stamped on the flywheel which helps in the ad"usting the timing of engine. 11. )rankcaseF the crankcase is that part of the engine supports and encloses the crankshaft and camshaftF it provides the reservoir for the lubricating oil of the engine. It also serves as a mounting unit for such accessories as the oil pump , oil filter, generator, starting motor and ignition components. &(. )amshaftF

It is shaft that raises and lowers the inlet and exhaust valves at proper time. he speed of the camshaft is exactly half the speed of crankshaft in four stroke engine. It is mounted in the crankcase parallel to the crankshaft. 13. iming gearF timing is a combination of gears one gear of which mounted at one end of camshaft and other gear on the end of crankshaft. as fuel in"ection timing. 14. 15. Inlet manifoldF it is that part of engine through which air or air fuel mixture enters into the engine cylinder. It is fitted by the side of the cylinder head. 3xhaust manifoldF it is that part of engine through which exhaust gases go out from engine cylinder. It is fitted by the side of the cylinder head. iming gear controls the timing of ignition, timing of opening and closing of valves as well

A. Engine testing
%fter assembly, engine is brought to engine testing section. In this section, practical checking of engine is done on engine. Firstly the water supply is given to the engine and then started it with external 5) supply. 5uring running the engine, the 28

load is varied and various terms are checked such as lubricating oil pressure, load capacity, fuel consumption, tor#ue, operating temperature, etc. hen proper operating of valves is checked. A. .! Pro3edure 7or Engine Testing 1. <ote starting time of engine and also bed no. which it is being tested. (. )heck oil level of engine and FI!. -. )heck clearance of valve tappets for inlet and exhaust. '. )heck oil pressure at idle and rated rpm. *. )heck any unusual sound. 1. )heck idle and fly up rpm. 0. )heck leakage of water, fuel and oil at rated rpm. ,. )heck load and tor#ue at rated rpm, fuel timing in seconds for &//cc and recheck oil pressure. .. )heck outlet water temp. &/. )heck leakage in front and rear oil seal. &&. )heck visible blow hole in component, if any. &(. !ix >; sticker. 13. )heck engine no. punched on engine. It is to be same as on sticker. he engine is kept running for ( hours. For proper working, load capacity is checked by applying load on the shaft of engine through water. he lubricating oil pressure in the engine should be -., to '.( ;g? cm(. he maximum E!M of the engine are kept ((//. $upplying a measured #uantity of fuel, the fuel consumption is checked. For this test, &// cc 9cm-: fuel is supplied to the engine.

)orr. !ower M

@here, ). F. M !M atm. !ress. 9mm of Hg : M ambient temp. 9/c: 29

)orr. $F). M Colume of fuel is &//cc or (//cc and fuel time is in sec. A. . Engine testing 3"3le time Eunning time 9min: &/ (/ -/ -/ &/ * * A.9.! Model ; E!M 0// &/// &'// &0// &1// &,// Eated (&//?((// 2oad, l <il (/ */ 0* 0* &// &//

A.9 '=e3i7i3ations o7 HMT Tra3tors

'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,.


..

Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:
In"ection pressure 9bar:

'=e3i7i3ations .* L &&/ (&// (-// K 1/ &' /./.' /./1 + /.&( /.0* K /.' (.( D (.*
&./ K ,

&/.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring 30

/.( D /.' /.' D /.1 /.(* + /.*

&&. &(. &-.

<ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

* L /.( L &*/ 1 L &., L *// =tility green

A.9. Model 9#

'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,.


..

Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:
In"ection pressure 9bar:

'=e3i7i3ations &/( L &&/ (&// (-// K 1/ (( /.(* /.(* /./( + /./1 /.0 + /..11 -.&,
((/ K ,

&/.

&&. &(. &-.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring <ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

/.-* D /.** /.-* D /.* /.-* + /.* ' L /.- L &1/ 1 L &.* L '// Aolden yellow

A.9.9 Model 9; 'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 31 '=e3i7i3ations .* L &&/ (&// ((0/ K 1/ (( /./.' /./1 + /.&(

0. ,.
..

6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:


In"ection pressure 9bar:

/.0* K /.' (.( D (.*


&./ K ,

&/.

&&. &(. &-.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring <ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

/.( D /.' /.' D /.1 /.(* + /.* ' L /.(& L &*/ 1 L &.* L *// =tility green

A.9.: Model :#

'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,.


..

Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:
In"ection pressure 9bar:

'=e3i7i3ations .* L &&/ (&// ((0/ K 1/ &' /./.' /./1 + /.&( /.0* K /.' (.( D (.*
&./ K ,

&/.

&&. &(. &-.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring <ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

/.( D /.' /.' D /.1 /.(* + /.* ' L /.(& L &*/ 1 L &.* L *// =tility green

32

A.9.: Model :%

'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,.


..

Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:
In"ection pressure 9bar:

'=e3i7i3ations &/( L &&/ ((// ('// K 1/ &' /./.' /./1 + /.&( /.0* K /.' (.( D (.*
&./ K -

&/.

&&. &(. &-.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring <ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

/.( D /.' /.' D /.1 /.(* + /.* ' L /.(& L &*/ 1 L &.* L'*/ Aolden yellow

A.9.; Model 6;

33

'r. no. &. (. -. '. *. 1. 0. ,.


..

Parti3ulars 6ore L $troke 9mm: 3ngine rated speed 9rpm: 3ngine fly up rpm $tatic in"ection timing 9/ 6 5): appet clearance + Inlet valve 9mm: 3xhaust valve 9mm: Height of cylinder liner above cylinder block 9mm: 6umping clearance 9mm: In"ection tip 9mm:
In"ection pressure 9bar:

'=e3i7i3ations &/( L &&/ (((/ ('// K 1/ &' /./.' /./1 + /.&( /.0* K /.' (.( D (.*
&./ K ,

&/.

&&. &(. &-.

!iston ring end gap 9mm: + First ring $econd ring hird ring <ozzle spray holes H. !. pipe size 9mm: Eing colour on in"ector

/.( D /.' /.' D /.1 /.(* + /.* ' L /.(* L &*/ 1 L &.* L'*/ Aolden yellow

IC. TRA/TOR A''EM6L5 'HOP


I0TRO14/TIO0>D
In this shop, whole of the tractor is assembled and completed for testing and displacement various components of tractors are manufacture in light machine shop and heavy machine shop. 3ngine from engine assembly, lift from lift assembly and other component from 2M$, HM$ are made to assemble here

Tra3tor Assem(l" Pro3edure>D


%.! +ear 6o2 'u( Assem(l">D First gear box housing is put on the trolley and different type of the shaft and the gear assemble in the gear box. %. /lut3. Assem(l">D

34

)lutch is device used to connect and disconnect the tractor engine from the transmission gears and the drive wheels. )lutch transmits power by mean of friction between driving members and driven members. Aenerally dual clutch is used in the HM ractors. %.9 MT Housing Assem(l">D In this housing the differential unit and the hydraulic pump is fitted also it provide the special arrangement of gears. %.: Rear A2le Mounting>D Mount brake shoes, brake shoes holder, expander unit, retractor spring wheel shaft along with flange, tapered roller bearing, a bull gear along with spring and locked device to prevent axial movement off bull gear, on the porter housing. %ssemble rear axle housing on the portal and then assemble the crown on the differential shaft around the brake shoes. %.; Li7t Mounting>D %fter mounting of axle on the differential lift is mounted on the main transmission housing which is used for the load up to &(// kg and &'// kg. %.6 Engine Mounting>D %fter then engine is mounted on gear box and M housing and portal assembly with the help of bolts.

%.< Front A2le Mounting>D %ssembly front axle wheel hub, pivot, king pin, track record on the extension along with locking devices, bush and bearings. )onnect these two extensions with each other by the extension tube. %.A 'teering Assem(l">D 'teering>D the system governing the angular movement of front wheel of tractor is called steering system. his system minimizes the efforts of the operator in turning the front wheel with the application of leverages. %.% 6rake '"stem Assem(l">D 6rake is used to stop or slow down the motion of tractor. It is mounted on the driving axle and operated by two independent pedals. 3ach pedal can be operated 35

independently to assist the turning of tractor during the field work or locked together by means of a lock. %.!# Was.ing Eone- 1r"ing O,en and Painting>D %fter mounting all the parts on the body it sends to washing zone for remove the unwanted material like dust and machining material. %fter washing of the body, it sends to oven for drying the body where we dry it. %fter drying the body painting is done on the body. Arey paint is used for painting the body and the chassis. %.!! +reasing Eone Areasing is done all the greasing points with the help of pneumatic gun. he following are the grease pointsF &. Front wheel hub (. Front axle extension -. Front axle pin '. )lutch shaft *. Eight hand stud 1. 0. hree point linkage ie rod end

hree free play of foot brake is maintained (mm. %.! Air /leaner- Radiator and Fuel Tank %fter washing and painting air cleaner and radiator mount on the tractor body. Heavy duty type of air cleaner is used in the tractors. his is of oil bath type cleaner. It consists of a filter element saturated with oil. %t the bottom there is separate oil pun. he air from atmosphere enter in to the gap and when air takes turn it leaves the impurities there and after it impinging on the surface of oil and leaves the impurities there and at last air pass through the filter and cleaning of air is done. %.!9 Air /leaner %fter fitting the air cleaner radiator is attached with engine. he main purpose of radiator is providing the cooling to the engine i.e. the remove the heat from engine. @ater and alcohol is used as coolant in the radiator. %.!: T"re Mounting %fter attached all parts tyre is attached with tractors. %fter assembly the tyre alignment of wheel is done. 36

%.!; FolloBing ele3tri3al items are mounted&. Horn (. Head 2ight -. 6rake 2ight '. !arking 2ight *. !lough 2amp 1. 5irection Indicator

'E/TIO0 6 PROFE/T WOR*


O(je3ti,es>
&.$tudy and documentation of stage wise assembly procedures in assembling tractors of different models . (. ime and work force re#uirement study for assembling &,// units of (*((, -1// unit of -*((, &,// unit of '/((, .// unit of */((, .// unit of 1*(( totaling ./// unit per annually. . -.%ction re#uired to be taken for increasing productivity and reduce in rework ? re"ection at final ? different stages.

37

TRA/TOR A''EM6L5
Introdu3tion
. %ll the tractors (*((, -*((, '/((, '*((, */(( and 1*(( are assembled here.

Tra3tor Assem(l" Pro3edure


he detailed procedure of tractor assembly is given below.

+ear 6o2 'u( Assem(l"


First gear box housing is put on the trolley and different type of the shaft and gear assembled in the gear box. Following parts are assembled in the gear box housingF &. 2ay shaft. (. Eeverse gear. -. Eeduction shaft. '. )lutch. *. 6ended gear. 1. Front cover. 0. ! > $pline. In HM tractors sliding mesh type gear box is used. It contains &. $plined shaft. (. 2ay shaft. -. $peed gears. '. Eeduction gears. *. ! > shaft. 38

1. )lutch shaft. 0. )lutch. ,. 6ended gear. i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. vii. Main drive gear )ounter shaft Main shaft I gear II gear III gear op speed engaging dogs

I0P4T 'HAFT A''EM6L5> Input shaft consist of spiral gear on one end splines on the other end. $plined part is attached to the clutch and geared part 9G+&.: is attachNd the constant mesh gear of lay shaft i. e. G+'*. Input is put in to the gearbox with the bearing, which is locked by circlip. MAI0 'HAFT A''EM6L5> Main shaft assembly is solid shaft with splines on outer surface. he shaft is placed in to gearbox with both end supporter by bearing and locked by circlip. he back part of shaft is pro"ected outside the gearbox to get drive from it. he assembly of shaft consist of gears (', -& and -' gear. he sliding gear -' is used for first and reverse gear, sliding gear -& is used for second gear and sliding gear (' used for third and fourth gear. hese gears are provided with grooves on one side to attached gear shifter fork. Intermediate shaft assembly. >utput shaft assembly. 2ay shaft and connecting shaft assembly 9 along with power transmission gears:. LA5 'HAFT A''EM6L5> he lay shaft is hollow shaft with spling on outer surface. he one end of the lay shaft is threaded 9 in case of single clutch: and tightened from front side of gear box with a hexagonal nut. he whole assembly consist of gear G+'* i. e. 39

9 constant mesh gear with input shaft gear: spacer &*mm, gear -*, gear G+(., spacer -/mm, gear G+(,, spacer (*mm bearing with circlip. he whole assembly is washed. In case of dual clutch tractors model the drive shaft is placed through the hollow lay shaft. he drive shaft consist of splines on one end and the gear 9G+*(: on the other end. he constantly meshed with the gear of intermediate shaft. he main function of the lay shaft is to rotate fixed gear on it from where we can get different speed with the help of sliding gear on drive shaft.

/lut3.

In HM , all the tractors have spring loaded dry friction type dual clutch various parts of clutch areF pressure plate, clutch plate and spring. Eelease bearings mounted on ! > shaft are always in contact with shaft when the clutch is pressed the release bearing depress with release level with further produce tension in compression springs and as a result of this the gap is produce between pressure plate and flywheel and disc become free on pressing the clutch up to 0cm, the drive to clutch shaft is stopped and when full clutch is pressed drive to ! > as well as clutch shaft is also stopped. 6ut in first position ! > rotates and wheels are in standstill position. he main function of clutch is to engage or disengage the power coming from the engine. >n the basis of working there are two type of clutches. $ingle clutch 5ouble clutch 40

Aenrally double clutch is used in HM 1O46LE /L4T/H>+

ractor

his clutch is provided with two clutch plates one for the

main transmission I the other for !. .> drive. In b?w the two clutch plates, an intermediate plate is provided. <ormally, six release levers the purpose of disengaging the clutch plates >ut of six three are for engine disengaging I the rest of three are for disengaging the !. .> drive.

MT Housing Assem(l"
It is the rear part of the tractor cheesy. he main function of the differential in tractor to reduce final speed and also turn the drive around at ./ degree. he reduction of the speed is done two stages. he first stage is reduction in tail pinion and crown wheel meshing and second stage is reduction in bull gear meshing with left and right 6.!. shaft. Its also consisting the !. .>. shaft, which is used to the threshers, pumps, rotavator and other accessories components with the help of pully attached on it. Following are main parts of differential housingF+ &. )rown wheel. (. 6evel pinion. -. 5ifferential assembly. 9 with sun and star gear: '. !. .>. shaft. *. 6ull gear. 1. 6evel gear. 0. 6earing. ,. Half shaft. .. 6rakes housing. 1i77erentialF it is the a special arrangement of gears to permite one of the rear wheel of the tractor to rotate slower or faster than the other. @hile turning the tractor on curved path, the inner wheel has to travel lesser distance than the outer wheel.

41

he bevel pinion is in mesh with large bevel wheel known as crown wheel. he main function of crown wheel is to transmit power through right angle drive to suit the tractor wheel. %ssembling of different component in M. . Housing. &. )lean M housing with dry air and cloth. (. Mount hydraulic pump and link brackets on M housing. -. %ssemble the differential kit on the M housing. It consist of crown wheel, two sun gears, four planet gears, two planet pins, left and right cages, taper bearing and tail pinion with two roller bearing and flanges. $hims are used for maintaining proper backlash between pinion and crown wheel. '. %ssemble hydraulic pump lift gear. *. %ssemble hand brakes in the M housing and gear shifting rods with forks on the gear box. 1. %ssemble pump shaft and ! > shaft in M housing and gear shifting rods with fork for pump shaft. 0. %ssemble top cover on gear box with reduction gear change lever, pump shaft change lever hand brake, pin and plug etc. $him is provided to increase or decrease the distance of the bevel pinion shaft. '.im T.i3kness and 6a3klas. $him and thickness M !KJKEK$ !M Eeading of bevel pinion in sub assembly or the fixture it is always negative with respect to the setting gauge block its nominal position valve must always be taken account. JM Eeading as given on M housing, it gives the variation of the bevel pinion mounting face from the two coaxial flange bores with respect to the theoretical valves. EM Eeading as given on crown wheel. It gives the variation in the mounting distance for smooth running as determined in the lapping machine. $M Eeading as given on the bevel pinion. It the thickness on the bevel pinion from theoretical vales, it is always negative. 6acklash to be maintained for all models /.(* to /.(0. 42

Portal and 1ire3t A2le Mounting


%ssemble differential shat with two roller bearings, wheel shaft along with flange, tapered rolling bearing, a bull gear along with spring tube and locking device to prevent axial movement of bull gear, on the portal housing. Rear a2le .ousing assem(l" Mount brake shoes, brake shoes holder, expander unit, refractor springs on the rear axle housing. %ssembly rear axle housing on the portal and then assembly the crown on the differential shaft around the brake shoes. &. %ssembly this rear axle and portal assembly on the M housing such that hand brake shoes are on the brake drum. (. %ssembly brackets on the M Oork. -. %ssembly the lift assembly on the M housing. '. %ssembly brackets to mount master cylinder arrangement and differential lock pedal. hen engagements on and make the linkage to connect these arrangements to the respective systems. *. Fill gear box housing and portal with lubricating oil and assembly the rear cover on M housing and portal. 6. %ssembly tailor end coupling, channel hook, lower and upper linkages, hinges on the rear of M housing. 7. %ssembly clutch linkage in the gear boxes. It consists of clutch pedal and thrust bearing, release fork, fork lever, spring and ad"usting nuts etc. Li7t Mounting housing and portals and connect these by a

43

%fter mounting of axle on the differential lift is mounted on the main transmission housing which is used for lift the load up to &(//kg and &'//kg. 5rive is given with the help of hydraulic pump which is set bottom of the M housing. %fter mounting left and right hand portals on the sides of differential housing, hydraulic lift is mounted on the top of the differential housing hydraulic lift mainly consist of kinematics systems that operates the distributor unit. he oil from the distributor unit. hen, it follows two paths, inner circuit and outer circuit. he inner circuit is used for lifting the plough as the putter circuit is used for trolley purpose for automatic loading and unloading. he lift permits the simultaneous use of outer and inner circuit for three positions, whereasH !F !osition control, 5F 5epth control and MF Mixed control. Position 3ontrolG in this system, constant depth of ploughing is maintained by automatic ad"ustment of draft of tractor. In this system the control valves can be operator directly by the driver to raise lower or hold an implement mounted on the linkage at any chosen height. 1ra7t 3ontrol> in this system the working depth of any implement can be controlled continuously without the need for a depth wheel on the implement. Mi2ed 3ontrol> it is the combination of position control and draft control. >il is sent to ram cylinder for lifting the arms of the lift oil is entered in distribution box and enters a gallery. From where oil goes to differential shaft through binder valve and outer and inner valve at the same time from outer circuit valve, it enters inner circuit gallery. Inner circuit gallery sends oil other gallery which has three opening for Free circuit, %nti slip circuit and 2owering circuit. Free circuit means, no work is being done and pump is working i. e throwing oil with pressure. $o free path circuit is provided to discharge oil and to protect the pump from bursting. %nti slip circuit is provided so that when the oil reaches the gallery having differential bush, different #uantity of oil is supplied for outer and inner circuit fort lifting the arms of the lift. @hen the lift is lowered, the inner circuit valve changes its position and allows the oil to go through lower circuit hole. Engine Mounting he tested ok engine after trial is send to the assembly shop, where it is mounted on the gear box, and M housing and portal assembly with the help of bolts. 44

Front A2le Mounting &. %ssembly front axle wheel hub, pivot, king pin, track record on the extension along with locking devices, bush and bearings. 2. )onnects these two connections with each other by the extension tube. -. %ssemble front axle bracket on the above arrangement with help of center pin. 4. %ssemble all the parts with the tractor body. 'teering Assem(l" 'teering>D the system governing the angular movement of front wheel of tractor is called steering system. his system minimizes the efforts of the operator in turning the front wheel with the application of leverages. )omponent of steering systemF+ &. $teering wheel. (. $teering shaft. -. $teering gear. '. !itman arm 9 drop arm:. *. 5rag link. 1. $teering arm. 0. ie rod. ,. ;ing pin. $teering is used in tractor is screw and nut type steering. %fter mounting all the accessories, steering is assembled on gear box. here are two types of steering system are used in HM &. Mechanical steering system. (. !ower steering system. ractors.

'teering geometr">
Carious angles in steering geometry are 1. )aster angleF it is the angle between the centre line of the king pin of the vertical line (. )amber angleF it is the angle between the center line of the tyre and vertical line. -. ;ing pin inclination angleF it is the angle between the vehicle line and the king pin centre line is known as king pin inclination angle. 45

'. *.

oe DinF it is the difference in the distance of the centre lines of the back end and front end of front wheels of tractor. oe+outF toe+out is the spreading apart of the front wheels on turns. excessive tyre wear. he purpose of toe+out is to give correct turning alignment and to prevent

6rake assem(l">D
his tractor having heavy duty self+energizing, water sealed disc with spherical roller and ventilation pipe which gives better cooling. he ventilated results in reduction of about -/4 pad temperature. 6rake housing cover containing two disc made of asbestos base non+metallic. he max. temp. resistance about -// degree ) between this two disc plate a cast iron plate is fixed which contain steel spherical roller and hold by spring. @henever brake is applied the spherical roller move are left from there place in the plate and try to expanded the plate. 5uring expanding of plate the disc are strongly mounted on 6.! left and 6.! right shaft stop the speed of differential. he also having actuators and link with rubber seal. here are two types of brake system used in HM &. Mechanical brake 2. Hydraulic brake H"drauli3 6rake and Floor Assem(l" Hydraulic brake system is based on the principal of pascal8s law he brake fluid which is usually a mixture of gylcerine and alchol is filled in the master cylinder .when in the master cylinder is forced into the cylinder and the entire system turns to a pressure system.Immediatly the piston of the wheel cylinder slides outward which move the break shoes to stop the rotating drum. @hen the pedal is released,the return spring of the a sudden pressure drop in the the line. he retracting spring of the break shoe bring them back to their original position. hus the piston of the wheel cylinder returns back. %fter assemble various accessories on the body Master cylinder and floor is attached with body. Master cylinder is used for apply the force in the brake pads. he basis component of hydraulic system. @heel cylinder Maser cylinder !iston rod 46 ractor.

Eetraction spring 6rake drum

Was.ing Eone- 1r"ing O,en and Painting


%fter mounting all the parts on the body it sends to washing zone for remove the unwanted material like dust and machining material. %fter washing of the body, it sends to oven for drying the body where we dry it. %fter drying the body painting is done on the body. Arey paint is used for painting the body and the chassis. Pro=erties o7 =aint 6ase painting of chassis 6ase hardness Ciscosity hinner F 0F& F (/+(' sec. F (/+-/4

>perating pressure F *+1 ;gcm-

+reasing @one
Areasing is done all the greasing points with the help of pneumatic gun. he following are the grease pointsF ,. Front wheel hub .. Front axle extension &/. Front axle pin &&. )lutch shaft &(. Eight hand stud &-. hree point linkage &'. ie rod end hree free play of foot brake is maintained (mm.

Air /leaner- Radiator and Fuel Tank


%fter washing and painting air cleaner and radiator mount on the tractor body. Heavy duty type of air cleaner is used in the tractors. his is of oil bath type cleaner. It consists of a filter element saturated with oil. %t the bottom there is separate oil pun. he air from atmosphere enter in to the gap and when air takes turn it leaves the impurities there and after it impinging on the surface of oil and leaves the impurities there and at last air pass through the filter and cleaning of air is done. 47

Air /leaner %fter fitting the air cleaner radiator is attached with engine. he main purpose of radiator is providing the cooling to the engine i.e. the remove the heat from engine. @ater and alcohol is used as coolant in the radiator. T"re Mounting %fter attached all parts tyre is attached with tractors. %fter assembly the tyre alignment of wheel is done. Alignment =arameter oe in of wheel ' mm i. e. from front distance is constant and from the back side the distance is increased ' mm. ( to - deg. camber is given to wheel. Pur=ose o7 alignment 1. It provides good balancing to the tractor. (. It prevent from wear and tear of tyres. -. It helps in steering system. %fter this, bonnet and electrical items are attached to the tractors. Following electrical items are mounted, 0. Horn ,. Head 2ight .. 6rake 2ight &/. !arking 2ight &&. !lough 2amp &(. 5irection Indicators &-. 5ashboard pilot lamp. %fter this, tractor is completed up to bridge out stage.

TRA/TOR TE'TI0+
&. $inking (. Berking -. 5rafting '. Hand brake setting up to forth teeth. *. Foot break to be checked combined and individually. 1. 5ifferent locks to be checked for its normal function at*//+0//E!M. 0. ractor to be checked for any unusual sound from. ,. Eoad testing. 48

.. Eoller testing.

Time and Work For3e ReHuirement 'tud" 7or Assem(ling Engine 4nits o7 1i77erent Models
$r. no. Model ime re#uired to <o. assemble one unit units &. (. -. '. *. otal (*(( -*(( '/(( */(( 1*(( 9hr.: 0 && && && &* &,// -1// &,// .// .// ./// of otal time @ork force re#uired 9hr.: &(1// -.1// &.,// ..// &-*// .*'// re#uirement &1,/ *(,/ (1'/ &-(/ &,// &(0(/

'uggestion 7or ?ualit" Im=ro,ement o7 Tra3tor >


i. ii. iii. Feedback to defects in tractor to concerned department must be given immediately to curb the faults at manufacturing level. @ash all the parts on the body in washing zone for remove the unwanted material like dust and machining material. otal material distribution system on tractor assembly line 9stage wise should be handled totally by !. !. ). to avoid the wastage of time and wastage of material:.

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iv. v.

o avoid delays on assembly line, every component should be given after complete inspection to tractor assembly line. ractor assembly store like A.6. housing, M. . housing I shifting of engine etc. should be properly handled by expert person concerned to avoid the wastage of material and proper accounting automatically.

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