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The Study of Relationships Between Organizational

Culture and
Interpersonal Self-Efficacy with Job Performance in Socso,
Ipoh.
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UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA

THESIS:

“The Study of Relationships Between


Organizational Culture and Interpersonal
Self-Efficacy with Job Performance in Socso,
Ipoh.”

PREPARED BY:

AMIR AZROS BIN ABDUL AZIZ

FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION


(HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT)

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The Study of Relationships Between Organizational
Culture and
Interpersonal Self-Efficacy with Job Performance in Socso,
Ipoh.
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1.0 INTRODUCTION

This study deals with workers in the non-profit sector. The growth of non-profit

organizations and the number of individual hired by the organizations have been clearly

obvious in the past two decades (Najam, 2000; Ruckle, 1981, 1993; Salamon, 1999,

2001, 2002). It is estimated that non-profit growth will continue due to the demand of the

services provided by this sector.

As the non-profit sector has grown, so have research studies about the nature of

these organizations. The range of the topics studied has included volunteer

management, accountability, and financial issues (Stone, Hagger, & Griffin, 2001). The

topic of this current research falls in the category of human resource development, as it

focuses on individual performance (Swanson, & Holton, 2001). Discussion on empirical

studies regarding organizational culture, self-efficacy, and job performance is presented

below.

This study involved two variables that are dependent variable (job performance)

and independent variables (organizational culture and interpersonal self-efficacy). All

independent variable in this study are the elements that manager may add in their

performance appraisal system to increase its value.

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship among

organizational culture and interpersonal self-efficacy with job performance of workers in

participating human service organization in SOCSO, Ipoh.

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1.1 OVERVIEW OF SOCIAL SECURITY ORGANIZATION (SOCSO)

The Social Security Organization (SOCSO) was formed as a government

department on 1 January 1971 to enforce the Employees’ Social Security Act, 1969. It

became a Statutory Authority effective 1 July 1985. SOCSO has been separated from

the government’s New Remuneration System since 1 January 1992.

Consequently, SOCSO’s new remuneration system was introduced. SOCSO

administers two social security schemes: the employment injury insurance scheme and

the invalidity pension scheme. These schemes provide protection for workers against

the contingencies of employment injury including commuting accidents, and

occupational diseases as well as invalidity and death.

The objective of the social security schemes is to guarantee timely and adequate

benefit payments workers and their dependants in the event of a mishap. SOCSO

arranges for medical care, physical and vocational rehabilitation, besides promoting

accident prevention measures and instilling greater awareness with regard to

occupational safety and health at the work place. Rehabilitation services are provided

with the view to enable injured workers to return to active employment.

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The objective of SOCSO is to ensure and guarantee the timely and adequate

provision of benefits in a socially just manner to insured workers and their dependants

and to promote occupational health and safety. SOCSO was established in 1971 to

enforce, administer and implement Social Employee’s Security Act 1969 and Social

Employee’s General Safety Regulation 1971.

The coverage provided by SOCSO includes medical treatment, cash payment,

supply of artificial limp and rehabilitation. SOCSO has 45 offices nationwide reaching to

employees providing the best services, giving fast and accurate information and

maintaining good relationship with employees and employers.

SOCSO'S VISION

"IDEAL AND EXCELLENT SOCIAL SECURITY LEADER"

SOCSO'S MISSION

Socso is committed to ensure socio-economic security of all working Malaysian citizens

including their dependants through Schemes of Social Security and enhance

occupational safety and health awareness for employee’s well being.

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CORPORATE GOAL AND OBJECTIVE

Corporate Goal

To provide comprehensive social security protection for Malaysians.

Corporate Objective

To ensure and guarantee the timely and adequate provision of benefits in a socially just

manner and to promote occupational health and safety.

SOCSO'S QUALITY POLICY

Socso strives to provide an excellent and fair service to all clients through the

development and advancement of Socso's staff.

SOCSO'S STRATEGIES:

1. Giving top priority to the interest of the nation and the organization.

2. Providing quality, fair, precise, speedy and economical services to the clients

3. Improving the skills and expertise of the personnel besides utilizing advanced

technology to upgrade services.

4. Maintaining and ensuring the viability of the Socso's fund in order to further

strengthen it.

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5. Fostering goodwill and noble values amongst Socso's personnel.

6. Cooperation with all the parties involved in Social Security.

SOCSO'S SAFETY AND HEALTH POLICY

SOCSO commits to ensure it will be a healthy and highly secured organization based

on the principle that safety and health is a common responsibility.

The management and staff commit to create and maintain a safer and healthier work

place that will prevent work injuries and damages to property and life.

The organization guarantee the success of the policy based on: -

1. Developing staff training programs on health and accident prevention measures.

2. Instill the relevant social values necessary to control the action of an individual

that may jeopardize his personal health and safety including other people.

3. Constantly keep abreast to changes in safety standards, health care trends and

techniques.

4. Regular inspection on office equipments to identity and correct irregularities from

the health and safety perspective.

5. Review plans for new location including the facilities for the office to guarantee

the designing, contraction; installation and operation are within the stipulated

government guidelines.

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6. Management commits to ensure every person in the organization understands

and accepts that he has role and responsibility towards his safety and health as well

as that of his surroundings.

CLIENT CHARTER

To provide social security protection and a just, accurate, timely and quality service

economically to all employees and their dependants as well as the employers. SOCSO

hereby pledges that upon receiving all the relevant information together with completed

claims, SOCSO will undertake to: -

1. Pay temporary disablement benefit (first payment) to injured employees

within a month.

2. Pay permanent disablement benefit (first payment) and constant

attendance allowance to all injured employees within 3 months.

3. Pay dependant's benefit (first payment) to dependants within 3 months.

4. Pay invalidity pension (first payment)/invalidity grant/constant attendance

allowance to employees who qualify within a period of 3 months.

5. Pay survivor's pension (first payment) to dependants within a period of 3

months.

6. Pay funeral benefits to eligible dependants of deceased persons within 15

days.

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7. Register new employers and employees and inform employer of their

code number and employees social security registration number within 1

month.

8. Re-investigate and provide information on every complaint regarding

benefit claims within 2 week.

1.2 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

1.2.1 JOB PERFORMANCE

K. Rajkumar (2002) stated Performance Management is the process of

identifying, evaluating and developing the work performance of employees in the

organization, so that organizational goals and objectives are more effectively

achieved, while at the same time benefiting employees in terms of recognition,

receiving feedback, catering for work needs and offering career guidance.

Job performance can be defined as the performance of the specific

requirements of a job in terms of task elements that must be completed

(Broadwell, 1985). Other than that, job performance also can be defined as the

degree of accomplishment of a task that makes up an individual’s job (L.W.Rue).

In other source, job performance is defined as “…Productivity multiplied by

quality – it is made up of both the amount of work completed and the value of the

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work to the customer…the ability to deliver the right output in the right way, on

time and in one effort” (Philip Ricciardi, 1996).

A worker’s performance on the job is highly related to both the skills of the

individual worker and the interpersonal supports available within the organization.

Motowidlo and Van Scotter (1994), for example, studied the association among

task, contextual, and overall performance in a military setting. They found that

task performance and contextual performance contributed independently to

overall performance.

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The need to possess good interpersonal skills is essential for the optimal

performance of non-profit workers. For example, Gallagher and Weinber (as

cited in Alvarez, Santos & Vasquez, 2001) stated that, while for-profit users pay

for the product or service, the non-profit users pay for only a part of the cost of

the service and the donors pay the rest. This implies that non-profit

organizations partly depend on the relationship with individuals such as

contributors and not only clients. When surveying managers from public

organization and non-profit organizations, Berman (1999) found that cultures of

social service organizations as opposed to public organizations encouraged a

more open and frequent communication that was directed more toward

excellence rather than compliance.

Another feature that has been found to be including in some job

performance studies is the association between demographic variables and job

performance. Bhanthumnavin (2003), for instance, found gender to be correlated

to performance ratings. In another study, age was found to be correlated with

career commitment in human service professionals (Cherniss, 1991). Other

explanatory variable is potentially having a large effect of job performance in

ethnicity. Elvira and Town (2001), for example, reported race made a difference

in the job ratings received by workers from their supervisors.

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1.2.2 INTERPERSONAL SELF-EFFICACY

To perform successfully, workers need the knowledge and the belief of

being able to perform well. Non-profit human service workers have direct

personal related jobs which means that their main task is to assist their clients

physically, psychologically or socially (Dollard, Boyd and Winefield, 2003). This

is why perceived interpersonal self-efficacy becomes a key skill for non-profit

workers. In this study, interpersonal self-efficacy for human service worker is

defined as the perceived belief in the ability to interact, provide feedback and

provide support to other workers and clients, in other words to master their

interpersonal environment (Brouwers & Tomic, 2001; Poulin & Walter, 1993;

Snyder & Morris, 1978)

A number of investigations in a variety of workplace settings have

identified elements such as social support (Bhantumnavin, 2003), leadership

(Jeffreys, 2001), problem solving (Wolf, 1997), feedback (Early, 1990),

environment (Felfe & Schyns, 2002) and job involvement (Tudor, 1997), among

others, as contributors to increase individual self-efficacy. As high levels of self-

efficacy are strongly associated with high performance (Bandura, 1986), the

association between interpersonal self-efficacy and perceived job performance of

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non-profit workers in Malaysia is investigated in this study, relationships not

examined in previous studies.

1.2.3 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

A number of researchers have identified the organizational culture or

same manifestation of culture, like climate (Jones, 1998), as having an impact on

workers. Organizational culture refers to patterns of belief, symbols, rituals,

values and assumptions that evolve and are shared by the members of the

organization (Pettigrew, 1979; Schein, 1992). Organizational culture influences

how workers see themselves and affects their level of involvement and

commitment (Cherniss, 1991). Organizational culture has also been found to

influence worker’s perceptions of support given by the organization (Rhoades &

Eisenberger, 2002).

Lent and Lopez (2002) highlighted the importance of studying self-

efficacy within organizational cultures. For that reason, the current study

examines worker interpersonal self-efficacy related to understanding and

supporting individuals in need of assistance. Several gaps in the association

between organizational culture and self-efficacy of the non-profit human service

workers are addressed in this study as well.

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To identify gaps in organizational culture research that may need to be

addressed, it would be helpful to examine a broader view of culture in

organization. Deal and Kennedy (1982) stated that people are a company’s

greatest resources, and the best way to manage them is through the subtle cues

of a culture. The added that a strong culture is a system of informal rules that

spelled out how individuals are to behave most of the time, and this culture

enabled individuals to feel better about what they did, so they were more likely to

work harder. Although for-profit organization may also use enabling and

supporting skills with customers, their focus is not to provide a human service like

non-profit organization, but to increase their profits.

In the case of a non-profit agency, workers assist other individuals to

function better with a social, economic or physical challenge. Geary (1989)

found that these non-profit workers, especially human service workers have

different roles. Among these roles, the enabler role and the supporter role were

ranked as most needed. This research implies that the organizational culture of

a human service agency supports strongly and value enabler and supporter skills

more than other. Other skills needed refer to facilitation skills to create a

dialogue among the key stakeholder to come out and recognize performance

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criteria, outcomes and other elements that may contribute to the effectiveness of

the organization (Herman & Renz, 1998). Thus, if workers are to help and to

assist other individuals, they need to show the necessary skills to assume the

different roles they have.

1.3 PROBLEM STATEMENT

With increase in number of human service agencies and therefore their services,

it becomes more important to learn more about these agencies. Human service workers

find themselves how to deal with clients and situations. But they must also deal with

other situations like how to get professional development while on the job (Lait &

Wallace, 2002).

Most of the empirical information of organizational culture and performance has

been based on studies on private business companies or public companies (Amsa,

1986; Hofsted, 2000; Schein, 1992). Unlike other studies examining task and contextual

performance (Motowidlo & Van Scotter, 1994), the focus of this study relied on workers

judgments of performance. Little research has been based on non-profit organizational

culture and job performance, especially on the non-profit human service sector, thus the

need on this study. Based on extensive search of the literature, little empirical research

has been conducted to explore the relationships and differences among organizational

culture, interpersonal self-efficacy, and perceived employee job performance variable

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within the non-profit sector. This research investigated the relationship among these

variables.

1.4 HYPOTHESES

According to Uma Sekaran (2006), a hypothesis can be defined as a logically

conjectured relationship between two or more variables expressed in the form of a

testable statement. Relationships are conjectured on the basis of the network of

associations established in the theoretical framework formulated for the research study.

By testing the hypothesis and confirming the conjectured relationships, it is expected

that solutions can be found to correct the problem encountered (Sekaran, 2006).

This study was designed to investigate the relationship among organizational

culture and interpersonal self-efficacy with job performance of workers in participating

human service organization in SOCSO, Ipoh.

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The study’s framework and its relationship to the reported questions were used

as the basis for developing hypothesis that was examined during the research.

Hypotheses were made operational in terms of the criterion and its potential correlates

as defined by the instruments that were used to obtain data about the variables.

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Hypothesis 1: There is relationship between interpersonal self-efficacy and job

performance.

There has examined interpersonal self-efficacy dimensions (interaction, feedback

and social / peer support) and its relationship with performance. In reference to social

support within an organization, Cunningham, Woodward, Shanon & MacIntosh (2002)

examined factors influencing readiness for healthcare organizational change. A sample

of 654 employees was surveyed. Among the workplace contributors to readiness for

organizational change, social support was weakly associated to readiness for

organizational change, but strongly associated with lower emotional exhaustion, implying

that if the worker felt supported, he or her level of stress and tiredness would be lower.

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Hypothesis 2: There is relationship between organizational culture and job

performance.

Sheridan (1992) examined the retention rates of 904 college graduates employed

in six public accounting firms. Through a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA),

organizational culture differences among firms were examined. Finding suggested that

cultural values varied among companies and that these values will influence

organizational effectiveness by improving the quality of outputs or reducing labor costs.

This study shows that there is a relationship between fit and performance since strong

performer stayed longer that weaker performer in cultures highlighting work task values.

However, this study also reveals that strong and weak performer remained

longer in organizations that emphasize interpersonal relationships that in the work task

culture. It seems that organizational cultures encouraging interpersonal relationships

are more attractive to workers. Therefore, since one assumptions of this study is that

human service agencies need to foster positive relationships, this study examined the

relationship between organizational culture and job performance.

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1.5 OBJECTIVE OF STUDY

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships and differences

among organizational culture and interpersonal self-efficacy with job performance in a

multioccupational sample within non-profit organization. The non-profit human service

agencies used in this study were formally constituted; non governmental; not-profit

distributing; self-governing; voluntary, and beneficial to the public (Salamon, 1992)

The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship among

organizational culture and interpersonal self-efficacy, with job performance of workers in

participating human service organization in SOCSO, Ipoh. Due to the increasing

number of human service agencies, more information is needed to learn how these

organization functions and how their workforce performs and perceives the organization.

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1.6 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY

This study contributed with empirical data to discussions on the impact of

non-profit culture on interpersonal perceived self-efficacy of human service workers and

whether these self-efficacy beliefs contributed to their job performance.

This research was exploratory in nature and was designed to provide information

to better understand the non-profit culture and workers in several ways. As the number

of non-profit human service organization continues to grow, this research addressed a

critical gap in the literature and may have helped employee and employers better

understand the predictors of positive job performance that may have been linked to

better quality community services (Ducker, 1989). The research findings may have also

had implications for policy formation, supplying empirical data on multiple topics to non-

profit decision makers, where voices of frontline workers have not been traditionally

considered (Gummer & Edwards, 1988).

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And the last contribution of the study was that it would add to the literature of

non-profit human resource development (HRD) by providing empirical accounts of

worker’s perceived self-efficacy and organizational culture, and its relationships to their

job performance. This study addressed a gap in the research literature by examining the

effects of two known predictors of job performance. The findings could assists in the

design and delivery of appropriate opportunities to learn and develop necessary skills to

meet workers’ job demand (Desimone, Werner & Harris, 2002). The result of this study

may be generalized to other organizations with similar characteristics as the ones

surveyed.

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1.7 SCOPE OF STUDY

The scope of the study will concern on the employees in Social Security

Organization (Socso), which are contain female and male employees. The scope of the

study will only focus on the relationship among organizational culture and interpersonal

self-efficacy, with job performance of workers in participating human service

organization. All employees including officer, temporary staff, contract officer, contract

staff and others staff that work in Socso Ipoh.

1.8 LIMITATION OF STUDY

There are some limitations; which will give some impact on this study.

Nevertheless, every effort has been made to overcome the limitations.

Time is very limited in completing this project paper. The researcher has to

complete the research proposal, the journal and the report writing as well. In addition,

the respondent’s time must also be considered, in which their time is very limited to be

divided between study, responsibilities, activities and others. So, the probability to get

the feedback on the estimated time is very difficult to be achieved.

The researcher has to sacrifice savings in order to cope with the cost incurred in

completing the research. The costs incurred are the transportation costs, the stationary

costs, preparing the research proposal and report, costs for photocopy and printing and

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others. So, the higher cost, the bigger problem faced by researcher to complete the

research.

1.9 DEFINITION OF RELATED TERMS

Below are presented the operational definitions that will be used in the current study.

Job Performance: Ability to perform effectively in the job requires that the

staffs have and understand a complete and up-to-date job

description for position and that the staff understand the

job performance requirements and standards that the

personnel are expected to meet. The supervisor should

review job description and performance requirements.

Interpersonal Self-Efficacy: Perceived belief of worker to successfully interact, provide

feedback, and provide support with other workers

(Brouwers & Tomic, 2001).

Organization Culture: patterns of belief, symbols, rituals, values and assumptions

that evolve and are shared by the members of the

organization (Pettigrew, 1979; Schein, 1992).

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2.0 OVERVIEW

This chapter presents a review of related literature pertinent to this study.

Research was conducted to obtain information documented in the literature regarding

interpersonal self-efficacy, organizational culture and job performance of workers in

participating human service organization in SOCSO, Ipoh. .

To gain a deeper understanding of non-profit organizations and three variables to

be observed, this chapter reviewed literature concerning the growth and relevance of

non-profit organization and established a theoretical framework that explored

self-efficacy, organizational culture, and job performance.

The first goal of this chapter was to review the literature related to growth of non-

profit organizations and its relevance. The second goal was to provide description of

organizational culture, interpersonal self-efficacy, and job performance empirical

research. The final goal was to briefly summarize the research that describes the

findings of the reviewed literature, and to provide evidence supporting the need of this

study.

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2.1 JOB PERFORMANCE

Performance can be defined as the degree of accomplishment of task that makes

up an individual’s job (L. W. Rue, 1994). The productivity multiplied by quality, it is made

up of both the amount of work complete and the value of the work to the customer.

Performance means both behaviors and results. Behaviors emanate from the

performer transform performance from abstraction to action. Not just the instruments for

results, behaviors are also outcomes in their own right. The product of mental and

physical effort applied to tasks and can be judged a part from results (Brumbrach, 1988).

According to Bernadin (1995), performance should be defined as the outcomes

of work because they provide the strongest linkage to the strategic goals of the

organization, customer satisfaction and economic contributions.

Performance was typically seen as a result of the interactions between

individual’s ability and motivation (Derek, Laura and Taylor, 2002). Increasingly,

organizations recognize that planning and enabling performance have a critical effect on

individual performance. So that, the clarity of performance goals and standards

appropriates resources, guidance and support from the individual’s manager all become

central.

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Examining and improving performance has been a current topic of interest for

many researchers and practitioners. Gilbert (1996) developed model to diagnose,

prioritize and plan performance improvement initiatives. He developed general

principles of engineering human competence where he defined human competence as

“ a function of worthy performance, which is the function of the ratio of valuable

accomplishments to costly behavior” (p.18). He also described five types of systems

within an organization: organization (group departments) departments (groups of

functions) functions (group of processes), processes and worker systems. The current

study focuses on the worker’s performance.

On the other hand, Motowidlo (2003) defined job performance “as the total

expected value to the organization of the discrete behavioral episodes that an individual

carries out over a standard period of time” (p.39). This definition has two important

considerations. First, is the idea that performance is a property of behavior that occurs

over a period. Second, is the idea that performance refers an expected value to the

organization. Motowidlo develop these two ideas by explaining that behavior refers to

what people do, therefore, performance is the expected organizational value of what

people do.

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Through a study in military setting, Borman and Motowidlo (1993) identified two

types of performance: task performance and contextual performance. These types were

based on previous types were based on previous types of performance requirement

research (Borman, Motowidlo, Rose and Hanser, 1985 in Borman & Motowidlo, 1997)

aimed to identify performance models necessary to have an effective unit but are outside

technical proficiency organization’s tangible resources.

Task and contextual performance are correlated with different personal

characteristics (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). The variation in task performance will

depend on individual differences in knowledge, skills and abilities. Conservesely,

individual difference in interpersonal skills and motivation will predict contextual

performance (Borman & Motowidlo, 1993). This theory states that individual difference

in personality and cognitive ability, together with learning experiences, cause variability

in characteristic adaptations that mediate effect of personality and cognitive ability on job

performance (Motowidlo, Borman & Schmit, 1997).

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Frayne and Geringer (2000) have shown that by implementing mechanisms such

as self-management, individuals will see an increase in their job performance. Self-

management is “an effort by an individual to exert control over certain aspects of his of

her decision making and behavior” (Frayne & Geringer, 2000, p. 361). Job performance

“has been measured in many ways” (Scullen, Goff & Mount, 2000, p. 956). Job

performance “refers to the effects of the actual performance of the rate on observed

performance ratings” (Scullen, Goff & Mount, 2000, p. 957). From the previous

research, (Frayne and Geringer, 2000) found that self-monitoring of goal progress

predicted performance. A practical implication of this study is that people who set goals

for themselves are more likely to perceive better performance (Frayne and Geringer,

2000).

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2.2 ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

Research related to the study of organizational culture has increased over the

past several decades (Sims, 2000). While there is no agreement on a precise definition

of organizational culture, this study will define terms to describe different types of

organizational culture to enhance clarity of the discussion.

Organizational culture may be defined as a common set of value and beliefs that

are shared by members of an organization which influence how people perceive, think

and act (Schein, 1990). Culture becomes a basic set of assumptions that guides an

organization’s cultural assumptions and is often social relationships and are moderated

by ban unspoken socialization process, which is often taken for granted by vested

members. Organizational culture may be displayed at three levels; artifacts that guide

perceptions, feelings and behaviors (Schimmoeller, 2006). Additionally, an

organization’s culture may be described as being its personality (Sims, 2000). Literature

exploring organizational culture often has reoccurring reference to a shared value

system by the organizational members (Lamond, 2003).

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Organizational culture is important as the center from which management

influences organizational member’s perceptions of commitment, motivation, morale and

satisfaction (Harris & Mossholder, 1996). These perceptions of the organizational

members are those that leaders often attempt to influence. Sheridan (1992) examined

the retention rates of 904 college graduates employed in six public accounting firms.

Finding suggested that cultural values varied among companies and that these values

will influence organizational effectiveness by improving the quality of outputs or reducing

labor costs. Therefore, since one assumptions of this study is that human service

agencies need to foster positive relationships, this study examined the relationship

between organizational culture and job performance.

Culture is one of the most stable and influential forces in an organization and

critical to organizational effectiveness (Lamond, 2003). Moreover, organizational

performance has been directly linked to organizational culture (Berrio, 2003). However,

there is little agreement on the characteristic of effective organizations in the literature

and how culture influences the performance of organizational members (Cooper &

Quinn, 1993).

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2.3 INTERPERSONAL SELF-EFFICACY

Bandura (1998) refer to self-efficacy as one’s beliefs in his or her capabilities to

organize and execute actions needed to produce given goals. When referring to the

relevance of self-efficacy, he stated that one’s motivational level and personal efficacy

belief could make an important contribution to acquiring the knowledge needed for

optimal skills. He added that personal efficacy beliefs also regulate motivation by

shaping aspirations and the outcomes expected for one’s efforts. In addition to personal

efficacy, Bandura (1998) examined the efficacy impact on groups.

According to Bandura, efficacy beliefs as they relates to performance vary in

level, strength and generality. Each structure contains significance performance

implications.

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Level refers to the degree of task difficulty. The tasks can go from simple

demands to moderately difficult demands, or include the most tough performance

demand within a particular domain of functioning. This range of perceived efficacy is

measured against levels of task demands. What matters is not if the individual believes

he can perform the task, but the belief that he can do it on a regular basis (Bandura,

1998). For instance, an officer may think he cannot only manage one case, but he might

also be able to manage more than one case under pressure.

Strength refers to the persistent belief individuals have in their capabilities to

overcome difficulties and obstacles. Weak perceived self-efficacy is related to

discomforting experiences, whereas strong perceived self-efficacy beliefs are related to

stronger effort to overcome challenging situations (Bandura, 1998). The stronger the

self-efficacy belief, the more challenging tasks individuals will choose to perform, and the

more likely they will be successful. For example, an athlete with strong self-efficacy will

not pay attention to discomforting events such as bad weather, bad shoes and traffic to

go training every day. On the contrary, he will choose to train despite these obstacles.

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Generality refers to an individual’s own judgment across a wide range of

activities or only in certain domains of functioning. Generality can vary in different

dimensions, including the level of similarity of activities, the modalities in which

capabilities are expressed (behavioral, cognitive and affective), qualitative

characteristics of situations and the characteristic of the individual toward whom the

behavior is directed (Bandura, 1998). For instance, individuals may judge themselves

efficacious only in certain tasks (talking to people, writing paper, using a computer), but

they might not feel as efficacious in other activities such as leading meetings or

providing feedback.

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2.4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

(Sekaran, 2003:97) Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire

research project is based. The theoretical framework is a logically developed, described

and elaborated network of interrelationships between variables which are relevant to the

problem situation and identified through analysis of journals as well internet sources.

The theoretical framework is designed in order to find the relationships between one

variable and another to answer all research questions.

Normally, theoretical framework is designed in a diagrammatic method to show

the interrelationships between independent variables and dependent variables.

Researcher’s findings suggested that the area of study for this research purpose covers

three area of studies which namely are, the recruiting and selecting of manpower,

strategic human resource development and performance management.

ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE

(Schein, 1990),
(Schimmoeller, 2006),
(Lamond, 2003). JOB PERFORMANCE

INTERPERSONAL
SELF-EFFICACY

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Bandura (1998),
(Dollard, Boyd and Winefield, 2003),
Tudor (1997).

Figure 1: Theoretical Model of the Study

2.5 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ORGANIZATION CULTURE VARIABLES AND


JOB PERFORMANCE

Sheridan (1992) examined the retention rates of 904 college graduates employed

in six public accounting firms. Through a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA),

organizational culture differences among firms were examined. Finding suggested that

cultural values varied among companies and that these values will influence

organizational effectiveness by improving the quality of outputs or reducing labor costs.

This study shows that there is a relationship between fit and performance since strong

performer stayed longer that weaker performer in cultures highlighting work task values.

However, this study also reveals that strong and weak performer remained

longer in organizations that emphasize interpersonal relationships that in the work task

culture. It seems that organizational cultures encouraging interpersonal relationships

are more attractive to workers. Therefore, since one assumptions of this study is that

human service agencies need to foster positive relationships, this study examined the

relationship between organizational culture and job performance.

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Most of the empirical information of organizational culture and performance has

been based on studies on private business companies or public companies (Amsa,

1986; Hofstede, 2000; Schein, 1992; Glaser, 1987; Zamanou, 1994). Little research has

been based on non-profit organizational culture and job performance, thus the need for

this study. Although organizational culture research methods were mainly qualitative in

earlier times, a new organizational culture approach allows quantitative research only if

comparisons rely on underlying value dimensions (Denison, 1996).

Furthermore, this study aims to include more data on the supervisory-supervisee

relationship and examine if the proposal culture dimensions can fit a non-profit

organizational culture. In addition to the study of organizational culture and job

performance, this study contributes to the literature by not only examining non-profit

organizational practices but also by adding to the knowledge base of the non-profit

human resource development initiatives.

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2.6 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN INTERPERSONAL SELF-EFFICACY AND


JOB PERFORMANCE

Few studies have examined interpersonal self-efficacy. For instance,

interpersonal self-efficacy has been defined as the “degree to which a person

has a high or low need for mastering his interpersonal environment by changing

the behavior or attitudes of other persons” (Snyder & Morris, 1978, p. 239), and

as the perceive belief of the worker to successfully interact with coworkers,

interact with supervisors, and manage their work (Brouwers & Tomic, 2001;

Poulin & Walter, 1993). The dimensions referring to the perceived belief to

successfully interact with coworkers, supervisors and manage their work, were

found through previous literature review and empirical research.

This interpersonal self-efficacy can also be linked to Bandura’s discussion

(1997) on perceived self-efficacy and its relationship to what people choose for

their work, to how individuals prepare themselves to perform their job and the

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level of success they achieve in their daily work. Bandura refers to this

relationship organizational functioning. For instance, a person interested in

working, as a family counselor will need to prepare himself/herself with the skills

job is done when receiving feedback or support.

The following section reviews empirical work that has examined

interpersonal self-efficacy dimensions (interaction, feedback and social / peer

support) and its relationship with performance. In reference to social support

within an organization, Cunningham, Woodward, Shanon & MacIntosh (2002)

examined factors influencing readiness for healthcare organizational change. A

sample of 654 employees was surveyed. Among the workplace contributors to

readiness for organizational change, social support was weakly associated to

readiness for organizational change, but strongly associated with lower emotional

exhaustion, implying that if the worker felt supported, he or her level of stress and

tiredness would be lower.

Cunningham et al. (2002) found positive correlation among active jobs,

active approaches to job problem solving and higher job change self-efficacy.

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This study also implied that job-related interpersonal relationship did not

contribute to the prediction of readiness for organizational change. Workers that

felt more confident with their ability to deal with job change reported to be more

ready for an organizational change.

Regarding factors contributing to self-efficacy at work, Hall (2000)

identified two situational primary factors contributing to building self-efficacy in

the workplace: personal and environmental. The personal factors that impact

participants’ self-efficacy involve self-directing or self-determining behaviors,

such as utilizations of learning opportunities, personal organization, peer or co-

worker feedback, reflection and self-awareness, and after-work activities.

Environmental factors that impact the participants’ self-efficacy involve

expectations of managers or supervisors, organizational structure, and

organizational support for learning new skills.

In a study investigating self-efficacy and workplace stress perceptions,

Tudor (1997) found a significant relationship between self-efficacy and the

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stressors of role conflict and work frustration, and the strains of work anger and

work anxiety. He found that self-efficacy buffered the relationship between the

stressor of communication climate and the tension of organizational commitment.

His findings suggested that self-efficacy was among the self-beliefs that could

help deal with the direct causes of workplace stress perceptions.

Furthermore, Tudor’s research (1997) suggests a link between workplace

specific perceptions and self-efficacy beliefs with a sample of manufacturing

workers. Data were collected through a self-report survey. Data were analyzed

through descriptive statistics and hierarchical regressions. Among the findings

were the significant relationships between self-efficacy and the stressors of role

conflict and work frustration, and the stress of work anger and work anxiety.

Self-efficacy was found to buffer the relationship between the stressor of

communication climate and the strain of organizational commitment. However, a

more comprehensive approach might be to examine the workplace

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characteristics in the form of organizational culture and its relationship with more

specific self-efficacy beliefs, such as interpersonal self-efficacy, to examine the

link and potential impact between the organization and a specific individual’s self-

efficacy instead of a more general self-efficacy belief referring to a number of

skills (Bandura, 1999).

Other studies found a relationship between performance and feedback

(Early, 1990), and performance and interpersonal characteristic (Conway, 1999;

Wright, 2000). Feedback is related to one of the efficacy’s sources, verbal

persuasion which helps affirming to the individual that they have the abilities to

perform successfully (Bandura, 1997). Feedback, especially feedback source

and feedback specificity, were found to the related to overall performance.

Feedback source refers to where the feedback came from. The source could be

the organization, supervisor, peers, and task, self-generated. The finding

suggested that the individual had to trust the feedback source in order to

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consider the feedback and thereby could affect performance (Earley, 1990). On

the other hand, feedback specificity referred to the provision of specific feedback

rather than general feedback. He also found that feedback sign (positive or

negative) was found to indirectly effect performance through the meditating effect

of worker’s self-efficacy expectations. In regards to performance and

interpersonal facilitation, Conway (1999) found that interpersonal facilitation did

not contribute to task performance, but to contextual performance. Interpersonal

facilitation was organizational goals (Van Scotter & Motowidlo, 1996). Wright

(2000) found that commitment had a significant relationship with contextual

performance dimensions (e.g. interpersonal citizenship, loyalty).

2.7 SUMMARY ON ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE, INTERPERSONAL SELF-


EFFICACY AND JOB PERFORMANCE

Among the gaps are the need to expand the performance domain to include

behaviors, values and belief outside job performance (Goodman, 1995, Mohammed,

Mathieu and Barlett, 2002); the need to investigate more the relationship between

contextual and task performance in organizations (Hattrup et al., 1998), especially in

non-profit organizations; and the need to conduct more research in non-profit

organizational settings (Mohammed et al., 2002). Performance was also linked to

organizational characteristics, which suggests the need to examine organizational

culture and job performance. Climate characteristics had significant positive relationship

with supervisor and team commitment (Wright, 2000), while perceptions of

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organizational culture had an impact on the like hood of engaging in contextual

performance, but little effect on overall job performance (Goodman, 1995).

In the above-mentioned studies, an element that needs to be explored more is

the relationship among self-efficacy, job performance, specifically in the non-profit sector

and organizational culture, a feature recognized by Bandura (1998) by saying that the

social environment plays an important role in the individual. Therefore, this study

examined interpersonal self-efficacy, which refers to the belief by a person that she or he

could successfully interact and provide feedback. Self-efficacy beliefs can be high or

low.

In this finding, this proposed research study examined the relationship among

organizational culture, interpersonal self-efficacy, and job performance of human service

workers because the research evidence suggests that self-efficacy might be positively

related to performance and that the organization itself may affect this efficacy belief.

The chapter has presented a literature review supporting the purpose of this

study. It presented the theoretical framework that this study is based on, and empirical

research discussing the variables to be explored (organizational culture, interpersonal

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self-efficacy, and job performance). The next chapter describes the methods that were

used in this study.

3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research methodology meanwhile is defined as a discussion and analysis within the

body of a research report of the research design, data collection methods, sampling

techniques, fieldwork procedures when executing the research and data analysis efforts

(Zikmund, 2003). This research is conducted is to see how relationship between

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demographical variable, self-efficacy and organizational culture perceived with job

performance at Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan.

For the purpose of this study, basic research will be used as it is meant to (Sekaran,

2003; p. 414) generate knowledge as well as having a wide scope of understanding that

would add to the existing area of knowledge by combining theoretical and the real world

aspects to support the study conducted. Researcher believes that by having this

research done, researcher will be able to relate as well as expanding the parameters of

study as well as testing the acceptability of a given theory in this research (Zikmund,

2003).

Summarily, this chapter discusses on the variables that are being used in this

research. It includes the measurement of each variables used in this research, the type

of questionnaires as well as the type of scales used in the questionnaire too will be

discussed in depth in this chapter. Included in this chapter are the population and the

sample of the population involved in this research. The determination of sample size and

sampling techniques too will be explained further here in this chapter.

3.1 VARIABLES

The study determined the degree of the relationships among the organizational

culture, interpersonal self-efficacy and perceived job performance. The independent

variables in this study were interpersonal self-efficacy and organizational culture while

the dependent variable was job performance.

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3.2 MEASUREMENT

Sekaran (2003; p. 174) measurement of variables in the theoretical framework is

an integral part of research and an important aspect of research design. Variables used

in this study is segregated into four different section of the questionnaire used in this

study.

A questionnaire is a written set of questions to which the respondent records the

answers, usually within rather closely delineated alternatives (Sekaran, 2003; p. 422). It

is found as the most efficient data collection methods as researchers know precisely

what they need and how to measure those variables of their interests. It can either be

administered personally, mailed to respondents or distributed it through the electronic

media such as e-mail. For this study, the questionnaires are not derived from the

previous research but it adapts several questions from the General Self-Efficacy (GSE)

Survey Scale and Organizational Culture Survey (Glaser, Zamanou & Hacker, 1987).

These questionnaires contain 38 questions; mostly open ended questions to make it

easier for respondents in responding to the questionnaires distributed to them.

3.3 SAMPLING

This section describes how sample was identified and chosen. There are two

sections: Target Population and Sample Size.

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3.3.1 Population

Sekaran (2003) defines population as an entire group of people, events or

things of interest that triggers the interest of researcher wishing to

investigate and study. For the purpose of this study, researcher will be

focusing in the all staff in Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Ipoh,

Perak Darul Ridzuan. Not only management team but also all staff and

even temporary staff. There is over 60 staff from different department

managing the operations of Social Security Organization (SOCSO) Ipoh,

Perak Darul Ridzuan.

3.3.2 Sample Size

For the purpose of this study, the researcher has selected 40 out of 60

staff from various departments of Social Security Organization (SOCSO)

Ipoh, Perak Darul Ridzuan to be the respondents for this research. A

sample size refers to the actual number of subjects selected to represent

the actual population characteristics (Sekaran, 2003).

3.4 SOURCE OF DATA

This study was descriptive in nature. A descriptive study is undertaken in order

to ascertain and be able to describe the characteristics of the variable of interest

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in a situation. The collection of data in this study was based on two types of data

are primary and secondary data.

3.4.1 Primary Data

Primary data refer to the information obtained firsthand by the researcher.

The first primary data for this study was collected from research

questionnaires. The proposition of the research questionnaires is divided

into four part which are Part A (Job Performance), Part B (Organizational

Culture), Part C (Self-Efficacy) and Part D (Demographic Variables).

Those entire research questions are relevant with each variable.

Besides, the second source of primary data was obtained from informal

interviewing with the Administration’s Officer at SOCSO, Ipoh.

3.4.2 Secondary Data

Secondary data refer to the information gathered from the existing

sources. For this study the information that obtained from secondary data

are consists of Internet, Socso’s website, journal, books, etc.

3.5 DATA ANALYSIS

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As for the data analysis, researcher will be using the Statistical Package for

Social Science (SPSS) version 13.0 to code the data derived from the questionnaires

returned back from respondents. Data processing and analysis stage is defined as the

stage where researchers perform several interrelated procedures to convert the data into

a format that will answer managements’ questions (Zikmund, 2003; p. 718). The

Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 13.0 is software designed in

making data analyses for the research to be more accurate. As the data has been keyed

in the SPSS, there are a few analyses that will be conducted by researcher.

3.5.1 Frequency Distribution

Frequency distribution is a set of data arranged by synthesizing the

number of times a value of a variable occurs (Zikmund, 2003). Frequency

distribution is done in order to gain the number of responses pertaining to

the different values of variables and the counting are thence interpreted in

percentage terms.

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3.5.2 Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Analysis

Cronbach Alpha Coefficient Analysis refers to the reliability testing that

test the reliability of the instrument used for this research. Sekaran (2003)

recommended the criterion for acceptability of the reliability for this

analysis. Sekaran (2003) suggested that the closer the reliability

coefficient to 1.0 is the most reliable, where else, reliabilities which is less

than 0.60 is considered to be poorly reliable and on the other hand, those

standing within 0.70 range is acceptable and beyond 0.80 is said to be

good.

3.5.3 Descriptive Statistics

Zikmund (2003) defined descriptive statistics as a description used to

describe that obtains the information about a population or sample.

Sekaran (2003) added that descriptive statistics for frequency distribution

is gained for all the personal data or classification variables. (Sekaran,

2003; Zikmund, 2003) Another descriptive statistics such as maximum,

minimum, means, standard deviations and variance were obtained for the

nominal-scaled independent and dependent variables. Mean refers to a

set of data scores divided by the number of scores which stands as the

central data and on the other hand, median is the middle point of the

scores.

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3.5.4 Pearson Correlation

Pearson correlation indicates and studies the direction, strength and

significant of the vicariate relationship of all variables in the study

(Sekaran, 2003). It tells how would these variables are interrelated to

each other. Zikmund (2003) a simple correlation coefficient is a statistical

measure of the co variation, or association between variables and it

ranges from +1.0 to -1.0. Provided that the value is +1.0, thus it is a

perfect positive linear relationship but on the other hand, if the value is

-1.0, therefore it is a negative linear relationship. Summarily, correlation

analysis is done to trace the relationship of variables to other variables.

3.5.5 Multiple Regressions

Sekaran (2003) multiple regressions are a statistical technique, which is

used to predict the variance in the independent variable by regressing

one variable to others.

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3.6 SUMMARY

Holistically, this chapter discussed clearly and precisely what are going to be

studied in this research how variables will be measured as well as the questionnaire that

will be used to gain information from respondents. Sample sizes within population too

were clearly expressed as respondents were randomly selected for this research

purpose. There were 50 staffs ranging from Administration Department, Operation

Department, and Finance Department was chosen to be respondents for this research.

The primary data, questionnaire were used while conducting this research

meanwhile, secondary data ranging from various of articles, journals, books, magazines

were used in this research. Questionnaires were distributed to all chosen staff and

researcher has been monitoring the progress in gaining data throughout the process in

obtaining data.

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4.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

As for the data analysis, researcher will be using the Statistical Package for

Social Science (SPSS) version 13.0 to code the data derived from the

questionnaires returned back from respondents. Data processing and analysis

stage is defined as the stage where researchers perform several interrelated

procedures to convert the data into a format that will answer managements’

questions (Zikmund, 2003; p. 718). The Statistical Package for Social Science

(SPSS) version 13.0 is software designed in making data analyses for the

research to be more accurate. As the data has been keyed in the SPSS, there

are a few analyses that will be conducted by researcher.

4.2 FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION

Frequency distribution is a set of data arranged by synthesizing the number of

times a value of a variable occurs (Zikmund, 2003). Frequency distribution is

done in order to gain the number of responses pertaining to the different values

of variables and the counting are thence interpreted in percentage terms.

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4.2.1 Distribution by Position

From the Table 4.1, show the largest respondents are from the ‘Clerical

Staff’ category that is 12 respondents and the percentage is 35.3%. The

‘Middle Management’ category however contributed 17.6%. ‘Contract

Officer’ and ‘Part Time Staff’ contributed 14.7% that show each category

is 5 respondents. For ‘Upper Management’ position, there are 4

respondents and the percentage is 11.8%. And the lastly is ‘Others’

category, show that 2 respondents and the percentage is 5.9% from the

sample size of 34 respondents. The full result of descriptive statistic by

position is as seen on Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 (Appendices).

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Upper Management 4 11.8 11.8 11.8
Middle Management 6 17.6 17.6 29.4
Clerical Staff 12 35.3 35.3 64.7
Contract Officer 5 14.7 14.7 79.4
Part Time Staff 5 14.7 14.7 94.1
Others 2 5.9 5.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.1: Distribution by Position of Respondents

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4.2.2 Distribution by Job Related Experienced

From the Table 4.2, respondent who have job related experienced more

than 6 years are 21 and the percentage is 61.8%. For respondent who

have job related experienced for 3 to 4 years, they are 7 people and the

percentage is 20.6%. While respondent who have experienced for 5 to 6

and respondent who work below 2 years are each 3 person and the

percentage for each categories are 8.8%. Table 4.2 show that the full

statistic of respondent’s job related experienced.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Below 2 years 3 8.8 8.8 8.8
3-4 years 7 20.6 20.6 29.4
5-6 years 3 8.8 8.8 38.2
More than 6
21 61.8 61.8 100.0
years
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.2: Distribution by Job Related Experienced

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4.2.3 Distribution by Experience in the Current Organization

Most of the respondents are working in Socso, Ipoh for more than 6

years. There are 20 respondents are work more than 6 years and the

percentage is 58.8%. 6 respondents who work in this organization for 3 to

4 years and the percentage of this category are 17.8%. Five respondents

who work below 2 years are 14.7%. And for the respondents who work 5

to 6 years, only 3 people and the percentage is 8.8%. Table 4.3 shows

the full result of descriptive statistic by respondents who have experience

in the current organization.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Below 2 years 5 14.7 14.7 14.7
3-4 years
6 17.6 17.6 32.4
5-6 years
3 8.8 8.8 41.2
More than 6
20 58.8 58.8 100.0
years
Total
34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.3: Distribution by Experience in the Current Organization

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4.2.4 Distribution by Experience in the Current Level

Referring Table 4.4 below, most of the respondents have more than 6

years working in the current position that are 17 respondents and the

percentage is 50%. 7 respondents who have 3 to 4 years and below 2

years working in the current position that is each category are 7 people

and percentage of each category is 20.6%. Respondent who have

working 5 to 6 years for current level is 3 people and the percentage is

8.8%.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Below 2 years 7 20.6 20.6 20.6
3-4 years 7 20.6 20.6 41.2
5-6 years 3 8.8 8.8 50.0
More than 6 years 17 50.0 50.0 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.4: Distribution by Experience in the Current Level

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4.2.5 Distribution by Age of Respondents

In Table 4.3, it can determine that the largest percentages (41.2%) of the

respondents are 21 to 30 years old and 41 years old and above. These

groups of age show those 14 respondents of each group. Meanwhile,

respondent who are 31 to 40 years old are in 17.6% and show that there

are 6 respondents in this group.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid 21-30 years 14 41.2 41.2 41.2
31-40 years 6 17.6 17.6 58.8
41 years and
14 41.2 41.2 100.0
above
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.5: Distribution by Age of Respondents

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4.2.6 Distribution by Gender of Respondents

From the figure 4.1, show the largest respondents are from the ‘Female’

category that is 19 respondents and the percentage is 55.9%. The ‘Male’

category however contributed 44.1% from the sample size of 34

respondents. The full result of descriptive statistic by gender is as seen

on Table 4.5.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Male 15 44.1 44.1 44.1
Female 19 55.9 55.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.6: Distribution by Gender of Respondents

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4.2.7 Distribution by Race of Respondents

In Table 4.7, it can determine that the largest percentage (92.1%) of the

respondents is ‘Malay’ categories and it show that 32 are Malay among

respondents in this research. 2.1% of respondents are from Chinese’s

respondents that are 1 person. Followed by Indian’s respondents, which

is 2.1% and that is 1 person

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid Malay 32 94.1 94.1 94.1
Chinese 1 2.9 2.9 97.1
Indian 1 2.9 2.9 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.7: Distribution by Race of Respondents

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4.2.8 Distribution by Education Level of Respondents

Table 4.8 shows the level of education obtained by staff at Socso, Ipoh.

Based on the frequency table as at table 4.8, 23.5% of staff at Socso,

Ipoh graduated with SPM Level and 20.6% have STPM Level.

Meanwhile, on the other hand, 20.6% of the staff at Socso, Ipoh

graduated with diploma from their universities. 20.6% of the staff at

Socso, Ipoh graduated with Bachelor Degree from their universities and

14.7% are others and it showing that staff graduated with Master Degree

and some of them have certificate.

Cumulative
Frequency Percent Valid Percent Percent
Valid SPM Level 8 23.5 23.5 23.5
STPM Level 7 20.6 20.6 44.1
Diploma Level 7 20.6 20.6 64.7
Bachelor Degree 7 20.6 20.6 85.3
Others 5 14.7 14.7 100.0
Total 34 100.0 100.0

Table 4.2.8: Distribution by Education Level of Respondents

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4.3 Reliability Test

Sekaran (2003) Cronbach Alpha is an analysis conducted by most researchers in

analyzing the reliability of an instrument to be used in the research. Earlier, he (Sekaran,

2003) mentioned that any figure that is below 0.60 is regarded as a poorly reliable

instrument, on the other hand, those within 0.70 range is acceptable range and over

0.80 is considered as good.

4.3.1 Reliability for Dependent Variable (Job Performance)

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's
Alpha Based
on
Cronbach's Standardized
Alpha Items N of Items
.921 .924 10

Table 4.3.1: Reliability for Dependent Variable (Job Performance)

According to Table 4.3.1, the dependent variable for this study, that is job

performance consist of 10 questions. The result from the Cronbach Alpha

Coefficient analysis is therefore 0.921. Those lies below 0.6 is said to be a poorly

reliable variables meanwhile those within 0.80 is said to be good and 0.70 is said

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to be acceptable. For this case, the reliability for the job performance is said to be

good because, 0.921 is very close to 1.

4.3.2 Reliability for Independent Variable (Organizational Culture)

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's
Alpha N of Items
.843 10

Table 4.3.2: Reliability for Independent Variable


(Organizational Culture)

According to Table 4.3.2, the independent variable for this study, that is

organizational culture consist of 10 questions. The result from the

Cronbach Alpha Coefficient analysis is therefore 0.843. Those lies below

0.6 is said to be a poorly reliable variables meanwhile those within 0.80 is

said to be good and 0.70 is said to be acceptable. For this case, the

reliability for the job performance is said to be good because, 0.843 is

very close to 1.

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4.3.3 Reliability for Independent Variable (Self-Efficacy)

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's
Alpha Based
on
Cronbach's Standardized
Alpha Items N of Items
.886 .887 10

Table 4.3.3: Reliability for Independent Variable (Self-Efficacy)

According to Table 4.3.3, the independent variable for this study, that is

self-efficacy consist of 10 questions. The result from the Cronbach Alpha

Coefficient analysis is therefore 0.886. Those lies below 0.6 is said to be

a poorly reliable variables meanwhile those within 0.80 is said to be good

and 0.70 is said to be acceptable. For this case, the reliability for the job

performance is said to be good because, 0.886 is very close to 1.

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4.4 Descriptive Statistics

Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation


JobPerformance 34 1.00 2.80 1.5206 .49530
OrganizationalCulture 34 1.00 3.00 2.0000 .51405
SelfEfficacy 34 1.00 2.40 1.5441 .41793
Valid N (listwise) 34

Table 4.4.1: Descriptive Statistics

Table 4.1 shows the list of means and standard deviation conducted in this study.

The scale for the means is based on a 5 point scale points. The mean for the

Organizational Culture is 2.0000 (2.0000 on a 5 point scale) and Self-Efficacy is

1.5441. The mean for the Job Performance is at 1.5206. Based on this result, it

can be assumed that respondents agreed that Organizational Culture acts as the

tools for job performance followed by self-efficacy.

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4.5 Pearson Correlation

Pearson correlation indicates and studies the direction, strength and

significant of the vicariate relationship of all variables in the study (Sekaran,

2003). It tells how would these variables are interrelated to each other. Zikmund

(2003) a simple correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the co variation,

or association between variables and it ranges from +1.0 to -1.0. Provided that

the value is +1.0, thus it is a perfect positive linear relationship but on the other

hand, if the value is -1.0, therefore it is a negative linear relationship. Summarily,

correlation analysis is done to trace the relationship of variables to other

variables.

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Correlations

Job Organizatio
Performance nalCulture SelfEfficacy
JobPerformance Pearson Correlation 1 .462** .673**
Sig. (2-tailed) .006 .000
N 34 34 34
OrganizationalCulture Pearson Correlation .462** 1 .440**
Sig. (2-tailed) .006 .009
N 34 34 34
SelfEfficacy Pearson Correlation .673** .440** 1
Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .009
N 34 34 34
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed).

Table 4.5.1: Correlations

As expected, the self-efficacy affects the job performance in Socso, Ipoh;

the result shows a positive correlation between variables such as self-

efficacy (r= 0.67, p<0.01), ethics (r= 0.664, p<0.01) and organizational

behavior (r= 0.673, p<0.01). This means that the self-efficacy have the

relationship with job performance in Socso, Ipoh. Thus the hypotheses for

these studies are supported with these correlations. Meanwhile for

Organizational Culture (r=0.462, p<0.01) show that there have positive

relationship but not strong enough with job performance.

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4.6 Multiple Regressions

Sekaran (2003) multiple regressions are a statistical technique, which is used to

predict the variance in the independent variable by regressing one variable to

others.

Standardized
Model Coefficient Significant
Beta
(Constant) .843
Organizational Culture .205 .163
Self-Efficacy .583 .000
a. Dependent Variable: Job Performance
b. R Square: 0.487

Table 4.6.1: Coefficients

Multiple regressions have been conducted on the variables in the study. The

interpretation of the regression analysis is based on the standardized coefficient

beta and R square (R2), which provide evidence whether to support or not to

support the hypotheses stated earlier in the early chapter.

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Based on the result presented above, the two independent variables explained that

48.7% of the variance is in job performance. The relationship (R) between the

dependent variable and all independent variables is positive as it more than 0.5.

The model is acceptable because the whole model contributes the variance in

brand equity explained by independent variables.

However, based in the standardized beta coefficient, only Self-Efficacy

(Beta = .583, p<. 05) significantly predicted Job Performance. Organizational

Culture (Beta = .205, p>.05) is not significant predictors of Job Performance. Thus,

only hypothesis 1 is supported.

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5.1 CONCLUSION

A benefit of studying workers’ perceptions is that research suggests that if

professional feel more competent and efficacious in their work, it is more likely

that they will feel more committed to the job.

Findings in the present study indicate that self-efficacy is a strong

predictor of performance. This study found that to perform more effectively at the

interpersonal level, nonprofit human service workers might require more

expertise, resource, organizational and supervisor support, self-efficacy and the

opportunity to engage in interpersonal interactions on job-related matters.

Furthermore, the results support the utility of examining the two

categories of job performance: task and contextual performance, and individual

differences among workers.

In conclusion, the result of this study may be generalized to other

organizations with similar characteristics.

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5.2 RECOMMENDATION

Although research has shown that perceptions of organizational culture,

result of the current study can be interpreted as suggesting that organizational

culture is neither a necessary nor a sufficient conditions for excellence in job

performance, nor does organizational culture foster negative preemptions of job

performance. Nevertheless, previous organizational culture, this knowledge will

guide their behavior toward performing well.

Therefore, although organizational culture added the least variance in this

study, it might be still important, worker interactions, and performance within the

nonprofit human service organizations, since research in this particular setting

has shown that support at work was a very significant aspect of the psychological

environment linked to strain. Previous research may help explain why

organizational culture was the weakest predictor of job performance.

For the second variable entered, interpersonal self-efficacy, the finding of

this study is comparable to other research that showed that self-efficacy beliefs

correlate with performance scores (Robertson & Sadri, 1993). Although the

results of the current study concerning interpersonal self-efficacy and job

performance showed a significant relationship, causality has not been tested or

found.

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In this study, interpersonal self-efficacy added the most variance to the

equation. While there may be different individual characters related to the

development of efficacy beliefs it is important to recognize the sources of

information of self-efficacy.

First recommendation is provide more opportunities to structure work so

that individuals work in groups and teams and interact with others with a common

goal. Allowing workers to get involved with projects is a means to have a

productive working relationship with not just coworkers, but also management.

This practice can foster a more positive work atmosphere through feedback and

opportunities to involve workers. This has important implications for preventing

professional secrecy and departmental conflicts. A clear, well-communicated

practice of teamwork and groups can help to develop a sense of involvement and

tolerance.

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Second recommendation is the organization needs to implement formal

and informal practices to acknowledge individuals’ potential, work and

contribution within the organization. Based on self-efficacy sources such as

enactive and vicarious experiences, recognizing individuals’ abilities and skills to

succeed might yield a stronger self-efficacy and a stronger job performance

belief. Individuals may feel more confident and have the belief they can be more

respected in their work group and the rest of the organization, as well as have

the feeling they are involved in decisions affecting their work. This might result in

workers having higher levels of organizational support and acknowledgement

Next is, organization or management need to provide adequate channels

of communication for information relevant to individuals work that meet the needs

of the workers at different job level to strengthen and verbal sources of worker’s

self-efficacy. Workers need to know how to be efficient and productive, and why

changes are made. Offering clear and relevant pieces of information regarding

an individual’s job and their relationship and impact on other jobs will supply the

necessary tools to function more effectively within the organization.

Last but not least, the recommendation of this study is to promote a work

climate where workers and supervisors feel comfortable working and

communicating among themselves. Moreover, management could promote

teamwork and organizational support that could enhance worker’s efficacy belief.

Research has shown that a culture embedding supervisory support may enhance

the worker’s behavior to the benefit of the using and the organization.

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