Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

29 tayangan

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Efect of Brazier
- Compression Members
- Buckling and Post Buckling of Imperfect Cylindrical Shells, G.simitses
- 9 References
- 1-s2.0-S0020740317330370-main.pdf
- Quikport - Results
- CT3121_Selection of Clauses NA-EC3 and TGB 1990 Steel Structures - April 2010
- SAAD Papers
- Unsteady Simulations
- Chapter 6
- Structural Analysis
- 616-624_2
- Wallace-Slender Walls FINAL V5 Present Handout
- Structural Analysis
- IES Civil Engineering Paper I 2013
- c2220 PDF Toc
- 7.pdf
- 425-ch09-Lec.S12.ppt
- Mat Chapter 25
- Mat Chapter 40

Anda di halaman 1dari 205

2 ENCLOSURES

CCB-CIMPOR CIMENTOS DO BRASIL LTDA CAXITU CEZARINA

Project No:

Revision B : Revision A : Date: Made : LSB 11.05.12 24.02.12 Checked: SHKU As per Amendment - 1 LSB Made Approved : RGB SHKU Checked RGB Approved

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

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Enclosures

Rev:

1. Genral 2. Loads 1.A 2.A 2.B 2.C 2.D 2.E 2.F 2.G 2.H Structural design and erection, 749500 Pressure and force coefficients and reference height Dynamic effects coefficients Roof shape coefficients Criteria for structural integrity Earthquake response spectra Design bearing capacities, foundation depths and inclination factors Pile sizes and design capacities Wind additional shape factors

3.Reinforced concrete

3 3.A

4. Structural steel

4.A 4.B 4.C 4.D 4.E 4.F 4.G 4.H 4.I 4.J 4.K 4.L 4.M 4.N 4.O 4.P 4.Q 4.R 4.S 4.T 4.U 4.V 4.W

Classification of cross sections Global Analysis and second-order effects Load factors and combinations Guide values for deflections Available sections and plates Light weight sections Figures for deductions of holes Resistance to shear and shear buckling Tension Member Capacity Calculations Buckling resistance of member and buckling curves Effective length of frame members Interaction factors - Bending and compression Buckling resistance of bending member - Slender Webs Buckling resistance of bending member - Non Slender Webs Web bearing , buckling and stiffeners Column bases on concrete foundations Symbols and stresses for welded connections Design resistance of fillet welds Distance of bolts Bearing capacities of bolts Grating details Sliding bearings Profiled metal sheeting

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

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CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 6123 Forces due to Wind on Structures Pages 5-32,42-49 No of sheets: 36

5

4.2.3 Coefficients of force The overall strength of the wind on a building or part (Fg, is obtained by the vector sum of wind forces that act there. The component of the global force in wind direction, strength drag Fa - is obtained by: Fa = CaqAe Where: Ca = drag coefficient A = Effective front area: area of the orthogonal projection of building, structure or structural element on a plane perpendicular to the wind direction ("Shadow area") In general, a component of any overall strength is obtained by: F=CfqA C = coefficient of force, specified in each ca only: Cx Cy etc. A = reference area, specified in each case 4.3 determination of the dynamic effects of the wind To determine the dynamic effects due to the atmospheric turbulence, see calculation in Chapter 9 and examples in Annex 1. 5 Characteristic speed of the wind 5.1 Basic Speed of the wind, Vo The basic wind speed, V is the velocity of a burst of 3 s, exceeded on average once in 50 years, 10 m above the ground in the open and flat. Note: Figure 1 presents the graph of isopleths of the basic speed in Brazil, with Intervals of 5 m/s (see Annex C). 5.1.1 As a general rule, it is assumed that the wind can blow from any horizontal direction. 5.1.2 In case of doubt as to the basic speed selection and works of exceptional importance, is recognized a specific study to determine Vo. In this case, preferential directions can be considered for the wind basic, if properly justified

NBR 6123/1988

5.2 The topographical factor S1 The topographical factor S1, takes into account variations of the topography of the land and is determined as follows: a) Flat or slightly uneven: S1 = 1.0; b) slopes and hills: Slopes and hills which can be elongated in a twodimensional air flow blowing in the direction indicated in Figure 2; - At point A (hills) and points A and C (slope): S1 = 1.0 - in the point B: [S1 is a function S1 (z)]: 3 : S1 (z) = 1,0 6 < <17: S1 (Z) = 1, 0 + + ( 2.5 z/d) tg ( - 3 )1 45S1 (z) = 1.0 + + ( 2.5 z/d) 0.31 1 [to interpolate lineally for 3 < < 6 <17 <8 <45] Where: z = height measured from the ground surface in point considered d = difference in level between the top and bottom of the slope = average slope of the hill slope or hillside Note: Between A and B and between B and C, the factor S, is obtained by interpolation linear. c) Deep valleys, protected from any wind direction: S1 = 0.9. The values given in 5.2-b) and 5.2-c) constitute a first approximation and should be used with caution. If we need a more precise knowledge of the flow of relief, or if the application of these statements become difficult by the complexity of the relief, is recommended to give the use of topographic models in tests wind tunnel or at the very measures anemometric the ground (land).

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Vo = in m/s Vo = maximum average velocity measured over 3 s, which may be exceeded on average once in 50 years to 10 m above ground level in an open and plan Figure 1 Isopleths Basic velocity Vo (m / s)

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a) b)

Slope Hill

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5.3 Roughness of the land, size of the building and height above the ground: Factor S2. The factor S2 considers the combined effect of roughness of ground, the variation of wind speed with height above the terrain and the dimensions of the building or part the building into consideration. In strong winds in neutral stability, the speed of wind increases with height above the ground. This increase depends on the roughness of the terrain and the range of time considered in determining the speed. This time interval is related to the dimensions of the building, for building small and elements of buildings are more affected by short bursts of duration than large buildings. For these, it is more appropriate to consider the wind with a calculated average longer period of time. 5.3.1 Roughness of the land For purposes of this Standard, the roughness of the terrain is classified into five categories (2): Category 1: Large smooth surfaces with more than 5 km in length, measured in the direction and sense of wind incident. Examples: - Calm seas (3); - Lakes and rivers; - Wetlands without vegetation. Category II: Ground-level open or approximate level, with few isolated obstacles such as trees and low buildings. Examples: - Coastal plane areas; - Wetlands with sparse vegetation; - Airfields; - Grasslands and heaths; - Farms without fences or walls. The mean elevation of the top obstacles is considered in inferiority or equal to 1.0 m. Category III: flat or wavy with obstacles, such as hedges and walls, few windbreaks trees, buildings, low and sparse. Examples: - Farms and cottages, with the exception of parts with weeds; - Farms with hedges and / or walls; - The suburbs at a considerable distance from the center, houses low and sparse. The mean elevation of the top obstacles is considered equal to 3.0 m. Category IV: Land covered by numerous obstacles resources and spaced in the forest zone, industrial or urbanized. Examples: - Areas of parks and woodlands with many trees; - Small towns and their surroundings; - Densely built suburbs of large activities; - Industrial areas fully or partially developed The mean elevation of the top obstacles is considered equal 10 m. This category also includes areas with larger obstacles and still can not be considered in the category V. Category V: Land covered by numerous obstacles, big, tall and spaced. Examples: - Forests with tall trees of hearts isolated; - Centers of large cities; - Well developed industrial complexes. The mean elevation of the top obstacles is considered equal or greater than 25 m. 5.3.2 Dimensions of the building The wind speed varies continuously, and its value medium can be calculated over any interval time. It was found that the shortest interval of usual measures (3s) bursts whose size corresponds to conveniently involve obstacles up to 20m in average wind direction. The longer the time interval used in the calculation of average speed, the greater the distance covered by the burst. To define the parts of the building to be considered in determining of the actions of wind, it is necessary to consider constructive or structural features that originate or non structural continuity to the throughout the building (construction), such as: - Buildings together with the structure in which separate lot of two or more structurally independent; - Buildings with little stiffness in the direction perpendicular to the wind direction and, therefore, with little capacity of redistribution of loads.

(2)

(3)

At the discretion of the designer, intermediate categories, conveniently interpolating the values of p and b, can be considered as featured in S2 or 5.3.3 or in Annex A. In rough seas, the value of the exponent p for 1h can reach 0.15, in heavy winds. In general, p = 0.12.

9

NBR 6123/1988

They were chosen the following classes of buildings, parts of buildings and their elements, with intervals time to calculate the average velocity, respectively, 3 s, 5 s and 10 s: Class A: All sealing unit, its elements and fixing individual pieces of structures without sealing. Every building in which most the horizontal or vertical dimension does not exceed 20 m. Class B: Any building or part of building for which the larger horizontal or vertical front surface is between 20 m and 50 m. Class C: Any building or part of building for which the larger horizontal or vertical front surface exceeds 50 m. For every building or part of building to which the larger horizontal or vertical front surface exceed 80 m, the corresponding time interval can be determined according to the indications of Annex -A. 5.3.3 Height above the ground The S2 factor used in calculating the wind speed in a height z above the general level of the land is obtained by expression: and the factor F is always burst the corresponding category II.The above expression is applicable to all structure, which defines the upper boundary atmospheric layer. The parameters for determining S2 for five categories of this standard are presented in Table 1. The S2 values for the various categories of roughness Land classes and sizes of buildings defined in this Standard are given in Table 2. To study the sealing elements, it is recommended to use S2 factor corresponding to the top of the building. This recommendation is based on the fact that the facade windward side and on the facades wind is deflected low, with consequent increase in dynamic pressure bottom of the building. For the same reason, the factor S2 is considered constant up to 10 m high in category V. 5.3.3.1 Annex A indicates the determining factor for S2 time intervals between 1s to 3 h and for any roughness the ground.

S2 = b Fr (z/10)p,

Category I zg (m) 250 b 1,10 0,06 b Fr p III 350 b p IV 420 b p V 500 b p 0,74 0,15 0,73 0,16 0,71 0,175 0,86 0,12 0,85 0,125 0,84 0,135 0,94 0,10 0,94 0,105 0,93 0,115 1,00 1,00 0,085 1,11 0,065 1,00 0,98 0,09 1,12 0,07 1,00 0,95 0,10 Parameter A Classes B C

p II 300

10

Table 2-Factor, S2 Category

, ] P ,, ,,, ,9

NBR 6123/1988

&ODVV

&ODVV

&ODVV

&ODVV

&ODVV

&

&

&

&

&

5.4 Statistical Factor

considers the degree of security required and the durability of building. According to definition 5.1, the basic speed Vo is the speed of the wind that has a period average recurrence 50 years. The probability that V is the velocity in this period equaled or exceeded is 63%. The level of probability (0.63) and lifetime (50 years) results are considered suitable for normal buildings eg. homes, hotels, offices, etc.. (Group No. 2).

In the absence of a specific safety in buildings or in the corresponding directions standard structure, the minimum values of the factor S3 are in products listed in Table 3. 5.4.1 Annex B indicates the determining factor for S3 or probability levels and for other periods of exposition of the building by the wind.

*URXS

'HVFULSWLRQ

S3

1,10

1 Buildings whose total or partial destruction may affect the safety or ability to rescue people after a destructive storm (hospitals, barracks fire and security forces, central communication, etc.). 2 Buildings for hotels and residences. Buildings for commerce and industry with a high load factor 3 Buildings and plants with low factor occupation (tanks, silos, farm buildings, etc.) 4 Seals (tiles, windows, fence panels, etc.) 5 Temporary buildings. Structures 1 to 3 groups during construction

11

5.5 Change of land roughness 5.5.1 If the category of field change with the length roughness from Z01 to Z02, the wind will travel to a certain distance before they fully established a new profile of average velocity with height zg. Changing the profile begins near the ground, and the new profile increases its height Z x, as it grows the distance x measured from the line of change of category. This profile of average speeds is determined according to the following. 5.5.1.1 Transition to higher roughness category (z01 < z02)

NBR 6123/1988

5.5.1.2 Transition to lowest category of roughness (z01 > z02) Determine the height zx by the expression:

zg = A z02 (x/z02)0,8

Where: A = 0,73 - 0,03 in (z01/z02) The mean velocity profile (S2 factors) is well defined (see Figure 3-b): a) The height zx up, the factors are considered S2 corresponding to the field farthest from the building (z01); b) the height zx down factors are considered S2 corresponding to the terrain surrounding the building, but without exceeding the value of S2 determined at the time zx for the roughness land z01. 5.5.2 The heights of the boundary layers, zg, speed profiles in medium-sized cities fully developed and the follow roughness elements z0, are as follows:

zx e zi Heights shall be determined by the expressions: zx = A z02 (x/z02)0,8 zi = 0,36 z02 (x/z02)0,75

Where:

The profile of average speeds (factor S2) is well defined as (see Figure 3-a): a) The height zx up, the factors are considered S2 corresponding to the field farthest from the building (z01); b) The height zi down factors are considered S2 corresponding to the land surrounding the building (z02); c) in the transition area between zi and zx, to consider one linear variation of the factor S2 .

Category I

II 300 0,07

IV 420 1,0

V 500 2,5

zg(m): z0(m):

250 0,005

12

6. Aerodynamic coefficients for buildings currents (see also Annex E and F) 6.1 6.1 pressure coefficients and external form, 6.1.1 Coefficient values of pressure and external form, for various types of buildings and directions for critical wind directions are given in Tables 4 to 8 and Figures, Tables and Annexes E and F. Surfaces in which they occur considerable variations of pressure were subdivided and coefficients are given for each part. 6.1.2 Areas with high suctions appear along the edges of walls and roofs and are depending on their location of the angle of incidence of the wind. Therefore, these high suctions do not appear simultaneously in all these zones, for which the tables present average values of external pressure coefficients (cpe average). These coefficients should be used only for calculation of wind forces in their areas, applying to the design, verification and anchoring of the sealing elements and secondary structure. 6.1.3 For the calculation of sealing elements and their fixings to structural parts the factor corresponding S2 to class A, should be used with the value of Ce o cpe applicable to the area where it is their element. For the calculation of the main structural parts S2 should be used, the factor corresponding to the class A, B or C, with the value of Ce applicable to the area where it has its Structural parts. 6.1.4 For the determination of the external pressures in a cylindrical construction of circular section, the values c should be used as given in the Table 9. These coefficients apply only in flux above the critical region, this is, for Reynolds number Re> 420,000, windy incident perpendicular to the axis of the cylinder, diameter- d. The Reynolds number is determined by expression:

NBR 6123/1988

6.2 Coefficients of internal pressure 6.2.1 If the building is totally impervious to air, pressure inside will be time-invariant and independent on the speed of the airflow outside. But usually walls and / or coverage of buildings are considered as closed, under normal service or as a result of accidents, allow air flow by modifying the ideal conditions given in tests. While the permeability not to exceed the limits specified in 6.2.3, can be taken as the external pressure is not modified by permeability and the internal pressure is calculated in accordance with the specifications given below. 6.2.2 For purposes of this Standard, are considered impervious the following building elements and seals: curtains and slabs of reinforced concrete or prestressed; walls masonry, stone, brick, concrete block and the like, without doors, windows or any other apertures. The other building elements and seals are considered permeable. The permeability should be the presence of openings such as joints between panels. Sealing and between tiles, cracks in doors and windows, vents and roof tiles, gaps open doors and windows, chimneys, skylights, etc. 6.2.3 The rate of permeability of a part of the building is defined by the relationship between the openings and the total area of this part. This index should be determined with all possible accuracy. As a general statement, the typical permeability index of a building for housing or office, with all windows and doors, is between 0.01% and 0.05%. for application of items 6.2, except for the opening event of dominant the index of permeability of any wall or Water coverage exceed 30%. The determination of this index should be undertaken with care in order that changes in permeability during the life of building, can lead to values of more harmful loading. 6.2.4 For the purposes of this Standard, the opening is dominant an aperture whose area is equal to or greater than the total area of other openings that are considered the permeability over the entire outer surface of the building (including coverage, if there is air permeable liner or in the absence of lining). This ruling may open occur by accident, such as broken windows caused fixed by wind pressure (pressure or suction), by objects thrown by wind or other causes. 6.2.5 For buildings with permeable internal walls, the internal pressure can be considered uniform. in this case the following values must be used for the coefficient of internal pressure cpi. a) two opposite faces are also permeable, the other impermeable surfaces: - perpendicular wind to a permeable face:

Re = 70000 Vk d,

Where - Vk is in meters for seconds and d in meters. 6.1.5 The coefficients in Table 9 are applicable to cylinders of vertical axis (chimneys, silos, gas meters, tanks, etc..) or horizontal (tanks, pipes air, etc..), since in the latter case, the distance clearance between the cylinder and the ground is not smaller than the diameter of the cylinder. These coefficients depend on the ratio h/d between the length of the cylinder and its diameter in case Wind is passing freely only by one end of the cylinder. In the case of wind passing freely, the two ends of the cylinder, consider the value h to calculate the ratio h/d should be half the length of the cylinder. 6.1.6 The coefficients in Table 9 are also applicable to cases in which the land is replaced by surfaces of horizontal or vertical plane, sufficiently long respect to the cross section of the cylinder, in way to originate flow conditions similar to caused them for the land.

cpi = + 0,2;

- perpendicular wind to an impermeable face:

cpi = - 0,3;

13

b) four faces equally permeable: cpi = - 0,3 or 0 (to consider the most harmful value);

c) dominant opening in a face; the other faces of equal permeability: - dominant opening in windward side. Ratio between the area of all openings in windward side and the total area of openings in all surfaces (walls and roof, under the conditions of 6.2.4) subject to external suctions:

NBR 6123/1988

6.2.6 For buildings with windows and effectively sealed still having a negligible probability to be broken by accident, consider the most harmful following values:

cpi = - 0,2 or 0

6.2.7 When it is not considered necessary or when can not be determined with reasonable accuracy the permeability ratio of 6.2.5-c) must be adopted for coefficient of internal pressure equal to the value of the coefficient of external form, Ce (for incidence of Wind from 0 and 90 ), indicated in this Standard for the zone, where it is located in dominant opening, both wall as in coverage. 6.2.8 Gaps in coverage will affect the efforts where the walls lining are permeable (natural porosity, trap doors, light boxes, non-sealed units, etc.) or non-existent. Otherwise, these openings will interest only to study the structure of the roof, its supports and coverage, as well as to the study of the own lining. 6.2.9 The value of cpi, can advantageously be limited or controlled to deliberate distribution of permeability walls and roof, or the aerator that acts as a dominant in open position with appropriate value of external pressure. examples of such devices are: - Vented roof gables subjected to suction for all the directions of the wind, causing reduction of buoyancy on the roof; - Permanent openings in the walls parallel to wind direction and located near the edges of windward (areas of high external suction), causing considerable reduction of the buoyancy on the roof. 6.2.10 In the scope of Table 9, for the calculation forces due to wind on the wall of a cylindrical building when it is top (s) open (s) the following values should be adopted for cpi:

1 ........................................... cpi = + 0,1 1,5 ........................................ cpi = + 0,3 2 ........................................... cpi = + 0,5 3 ........................................... cpi = + 0,6 6 or more ............................. cpi = + 0,8

- Opening in the face of dominant downwind. Adopting the value of the coefficient of external form,

Ce,

, corresponding to this face (see Table 4). - Opening a dominant face parallel to the the wind. - Dominant opening area not located in high external suction. Adopting the value of the coefficient of external form, Ce, corresponding to the location of the opening on the face (see Table 4). - Opening located in an area of dominant high external suction. - Ratio of the dominant area of the opening (or area of openings located in this area) and area Total other openings located on all faces subjected to external suctions:

0,25 ............................................... cpi = - 0,4 0,50 ................................................... cpi = - 0,5 0,75 ................................................ cpi = - 0,6 1,0 ................................................. .cpi = - 0,7 1,5 ................................................. .cpi = - 0,8 3 or more ......................................... ..cpi = - 0,9

Areas of high external suction areas are given in Tables 4 and 5 cpe average).

h/d 0,3 ......................................... cpi = - 0,8 h/d < 0,3 .......................................... cpi = - 0,5

6.2.11 For cases not considered in 6.2.5 to 6.2.7, the coefficient of internal pressure can be determined according to the wording of Annex D.

14

Table 4 - Coefficients of pressure and form, external walls for buildings of rectangular plan

NBR 6123/1988

Altura relative relative height, Valores de Ce para - Values for Ce, mdio average, porem however, (o menor dos dois) (the lesser of two),

Notes: a) For a / b between 3 / 2 and 2, interpolate linearly. b) To wind at 0 , parts A3 and B3, the coefficient of form Ce has the following values: - For a / b = 1: same value of lots A2 and B2; - For a / b 2: Ce = - 0.2; - For 1 <a / b <2: interpolate linearly. c) For each of the two effects of the wind (0 or 90 ), the average external pressure coefficient Cpe average is applied to the windward part of the parallel walls of the wind, at a distance equal to 0.2 h and b, considering is the lesser of these two values. To determine the drag coefficient, Ca, the graph in Figure 4 should be used (low wind turbulence) or Figure 5 (high wind turbulence - see 6.5.3).

15

NBR 6123/1988

Table 5 - Pressure coefficients and external form, with two roof slopes, symmetrical, in buildings of rectangular plan

Altura relative relative height, Valores de Ce para - Values for Ce, mdio average, porem however, (o menor dos dois) (the lesser of two),

Details 1 Notes: a) The coefficient of Ce form on the underside of the eaves is equal to the corresponding wall. b) In the areas around the protruding parts of buildings roof (chimneys, tanks, towers, etc..) should be considered as a coefficient of Ce = 1.2, to a distance equal to half the size of the diagonal. Projection in plan view. c) On the roof of skylights, cpe mean = - 2.0. d) To wind at 0 , in Parts I and J as the coefficient of Ce has the following values: a / b = 1: share the same value of F and H, a / b 2: Ce = - 0.2. Linearly interpolated for intermediate values of a / b.

(o menor dos dois) - (the lesser of two), porem however

16

NBR 6123/1988

Table 6 - pressure coefficients and form for external roof with water, in buildings of rectangular plan, with h/b < 2

D W

Vento wind y = h or 0.15b (taking the smaller of the two values) The surfaces H and L refer to its entire quadrant. e Values RI Ce IRU angle of incidence of the wind: 90 (C) H

5o 10 15 20 25 30 -1,0 -1,0 -0,9 -0,8 -0,7 -0,5 L -0,5 -0,5 -0,5 -0,5 -0,5 -0,5

Corte - Section

45 H

-1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -0,9 -0,8 -0,7 -0,6 -0,6 -0,6

-45 HeL (B) -0,5 -0,5 -0,5 -0,5 -0.5 -0,5 H -0,9 -0,8 -0,6 -0,5 -0,3 -0,1 L -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -0,9 -0,6

-90 H L -0,5 -0,4 -0,3 -0,2 -0,1 0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -1,0 -0,9 -0,6

H1 -2.0 -2.0 -1.8 -1.8 -1.8 -1.8 H2 -1,5 -1,5 -0,9 -0,8 -0,7 -0,5

Cpe Average L1 -2,0 -2,0 -1,8 -1,8 -0.9 -0,5 L2 -1,5 -1,5 -1,4 -1,4 -0,9 -0,5 He -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 Le -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0 -2.0

5o 10 15 20 25 30

(A) (B) (C)

to a depth equal to b/2. of b/2 to a/2. Consider symmetric values across the axis of symmetry parallel to the wind.

Note: For wind at 0 , in Parts I and J, which refer to their respective quarters, the coefficient of the form Ce has the following values: a / b = 1, shares the same value of H and L a / b = 2 - Ce = - 0.2. Linearly interpolated for intermediate values of a/b.

17

NBR 6123/1988

Table 7 - Pressure coefficients and external form, multiple roof, symmetrical in equal spans, with h a'

tomar o menor dos dois valores - take the smaller of the two values tomar o menor dos tres valores - take the smaller of the three values c Inclination of Angle of Other the roof incidence of First scheme First intermediate intermediate the wind (stretch) scheme scheme e a* b* c* d* m* n* o -0,9 0 -0,3 -0,3 -0,3 -0,4 -0,6 5o -1,1 -0,3 -0,3 -0,3 -0,6 10 -0,4 -0.7, -0,3 -0,3 -0,3 -0,6 20 -0,4 -0,2 -0,3 -0,3 -0,2 - 0,6 -0,4 30 +0,3 -0,4 -0,2 -0,4 -0,6 -0,4 45 Inclination of the roof, <45 Ce at the distance b1 b2 b3

Last scheme X* -0,3 -0,3 -0,3 -0,2 -0,2 z* -0,3 -0,4 -0,5 -0,5 -0,5

Cpe Average

-2,0

-1,5

-0,8

-0,6

-0,2

Notes: a) Friction forces: - For = 0 , the horizontal forces of friction values are already considered in the Table; - For = 90 , the horizontal forces of friction shall be determined according to section 6.4. b) Information on multiple roofs is still incomplete. Cases other than those considered in Tables 7 and 8 and Annex F should be specifically studied.

18

NBR 6123/1988

Table 8 - Pressure coefficients and external form for multiple roofing, asymmetrical, in equal spans, with water slope less than 60 and h a '

E E

y = h or 0.1 b (taking the smaller of the two values) y '= h or b or 0.26 to 0.1' (take the smallest of three values)

Cpe Average

-2,0

-1,5

90

-0,8

Notes: a) Friction forces: - For = 0 , the horizontal forces of friction values are already considered in the Table; - For = 90 , the horizontal forces of friction shall be determined according to section 6.4. b) Information on multiple roofs is still incomplete. Cases other than those considered in Tables 7 and 8 and Annex F should be specifically studied.

19

Table 9 - Distribution of external pressures on buildings of cylindrical circular section External pressure coefficient Cpe

Rough surface or protrusions h / d = 10 h / d <2.5

NBR 6123/1988

+1,0 +0,9 +0,7 +0,4 0 -0,5 -0,95 -1,25 -1,2 -1,0 -0,8 -0,5 -0,4 -0,4 -0,4

+1,0 +0,9 +0,7 +0,4 0 -0,4 -0,8 -1,1 -1,05 -0,85 -0,65 -0,35 -0,3 -0,3 -0,3

+1,0 +0,9 +0,7 +0,35 0 -0,7 -1,2 -1,4 -1,45 -1,4 -1,1 -0,6 -0,35 -0,35 -0,35

+1.0 +0.9 +0.7 +0,35 0 -0,5 -1,05 -1,25 -1,3 -1,2 -0,85 -0,4 -0,25 -0,25 -0,25

9HQ

6.3 coefficients of drag The drag coefficients is shown in this section, they are applicable to bodies of constant section or faintly variable. 6.3.1 For each incident perpendicular to the wind one of the facades of a building rectangular in plan and based on the ground, we should use the graph or, in the exceptional case of high turbulence wind (satisfied the requirements of 6.5.3), the graph of Figure 5. The drag coefficients are given in these Figures, according to their relationship h/I1 and L / L. 6.3.2 The drag coefficients are given in Table 10, depend on the relationship h/11 between the length of the body and the reference dimension 11 and in several cases, the Reynolds number, expressed as:

6.3.4 If the wind can pass freely through the two ends from the body, the value of ha for calculating h/I1 the relationship should be half the length of the body. If the body is constrained at both ends by surfaces sufficiently long in relation to cross section of the body, the ratio h / I is considered infinite. If the confinement under the above conditions exist at one end only, consider the value of ha to calculate the ratio h / I must be the actual length the body. 6.3.5 Although the values given in Table 10 refer to the closed bodies, they can be applied to bodies with an open end, such as chimneys, provided that the h/I1 relationship is greater than 8. 6.3.6 The drag force is calculated by the expression:

These coefficients are applicable to the bodies of the vertical axis and anchored in the ground on a flat surface with sufficient length (over the cross section body) to create conditions similar to flow caused by the land. 6.3.3 The coefficients in Table 10 are also applicable to the case of bodies of the horizontal axis, since the distance clearance between body and ground (or equivalent area) not less than the reference dimension I1. The wind focusing is considered perpendicular to the axis of body length h.

Fa = Ca q Ae

In cases where the coefficient depends on the number of Reynolds may result more favorable to adopt a speed less than the characteristic velocity as the decrease in dynamic pressure can be by increasing the drag coefficient Ca.

20

NBR 6123/1988

Vento wind

Figure- 4: Coefficient of drag, Ca parallel piped for buildings in low-turbulence wind 6.4 Coefficient of friction 6.4.1 In certain buildings, a strength friction should be considered (the force and direction of the wind, caused by roughness and ribs), as well as the calculated as per 6.1 and 6.2. 6.4.2 For buildings current rectangular plan, this friction force should be considered only when ratio I2 / h or I2/I1, is greater than 4. For these buildings, the friction force F is given by: In each formula, the first term of the second member corresponds to the friction force on the roof, and the second term, the friction force on the walls. The terms are given separately to allow the use different values of Cf and q in the various surfaces. . 6.4.3 The values of Cf, are as follows: a) Cf = 0,01 for surfaces without transverse ribs to the wind direction; b) Cf, = 0,02 for surfaces with round ribs (undulations) traverse to the direction of the wind; c) Cf, = 0,04 for rectangular ribbed surfaces homes cross to the direction of the wind. 6.4.4 For single coverage, the friction force is determined according to the instructions of 8.2.

and for:

21

6.5 Reductions in form and coefficients of drag 6.5.1 In general, the aerodynamic coefficient data, in this standard were obtained from tests in which the flow of air was moderately smooth, about the type of wind that appears in the open and flat (wind low turbulence). In high wind turbulence that appears in large cities, there is a decrease in suction network parallel piped of buildings with consequent reduction of the corresponding coefficients, except for buildings with a relative depth / width of 1 / 3 or less. 6.5.2 For buildings parallel piped exposed to winds of high turbulence, the following reductions are allowed: a) coefficient of leeward wall of form: consider 2 / 3 the value given in Table 4 (Wall B = 90 and wall D for = 0 ); b) drag coefficient: Use the graph of the figure 5. 6.5.3 A building may be considered in wind high turbulence when its height does not exceed two times the average height of buildings in the vicinity, these extending in the direction and wind direction incident, a minimum distance of: - 500 m, for a building of up to 40 m height; - 1000 m, for a building of up to 55 m of height; - 2000 m, for a building of up to 70m of height; - 3000 m, for a building of up to 80 m height . . 6.6 Eccentricity of drag forces 6.6.1 The effects of the eccentricity of the drag force, should be considered, where necessary 6.6.2 In the case of buildings parallelpiped the design should take into account the following: - Due to wind forces acting perpendicular each one of the facades, according to the specifications of this Standard; - The eccentricities caused by wind acting obliquely or neighborhood effects. The effort vices torsion then are calculated from these forces acting, respectively, with the following eccentricities, in relation to the vertical axis geometry; - Buildings without neighborhood effects: and a = 0.075 to 0.075 and b = b - Buildings with neighborhood effects: and a = 0.15 to 0.15 and b = b, and being measured in the direction of the next largest, and b measured toward the smaller side, b. The effects of proximity will be considered only to the height of the top (s) of building (s) located (s) in close within a circle of diameter equal to height of the building under study, or equal to six times the side smaller building, b, whichever is the lesser of two values.

NBR 6123/1988

7 Coefficients of forces for prismatic bars lattices 7.1 Prismatic bars 7.1.1 The force coefficients refer to light bars characteristics of infinite length (two-dimensional flow). To prismatic bars of finite length, the coefficients of force must be multiplied by a factor K that depends on the ratio I/c , as follows: I = length of the prismatic bar ca = width of the prism as the direction perpendicular to the wind (the orthogonal projection section of the bar on a line perpendicular to wind direction - see Note b) of Table 12) Note: Values of reduction factor K are given in Table 11. 7.1.2 When a prismatic bar is connected to a plate or wall to prevent the free flow of air around this end of the bar, the ratio I/c should be doubled to determination of K. When both ends of the bar prism are so clogged, the ratio I/c should be considered infinite. 7.1.3 Bars which, by its size and speed characteristic of the wind, are in the flow mode above the critic may require additional calculations to verify to become greater forces do not occur at speeds below the maximum of the wind, with the subcritical flow mode. 7.2 Flat faces of prismatic bars The force coefficients Cx and Cy given in Table 12 refer to two mutually perpendicular directions, x and y, as shown in Fig. The force coefficients refer to wind acting perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the bar. Forces respondents are calculated by: - Force in the x direction: F x = Cx q K I c; - Force in the y direction: Fy = Cy q K I c. 7.3 Prismatic bars of circular section For prismatic bars of circular section, the coefficients drag Ca depends on the value of Reynolds number, Re, and are provided in Table 13. The values of Ca data in this table apply to all surfaces roughness uniformly distributed to height less than 1/100 the diameter d of the bar, ie. They are valid for all the finishings of normal surface. 7.3.1 The drag force is calculated by:

Fa = Ca q K I d

22

Table 10 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, for bodies of constant section

NBR 6123/1988

Continued Planta - Plan , liso (metal, concreto, alvenaria rebocada) - smooth (metal, concrete, masonry plastered), com rugosidade ou salincias - with roughness or projections, Todos valores - All values, ELIPSE ELLIPSE

23

Continuation.

NBR 6123/1988

24

Continuation.

NBR 6123/1988

OCTOGONO OCTOGONAL, Todos valores - All values (A) Interpolate linearly for intermediate values of Re: Re = 70000 Vk I1 (Vk in m/s; I1 in m)

Figure 5 - Drag coefficient, Ca, parallelpiped for buildings in high wind turbulence

25

Table 11 - Values of reduction factor, K, for bars of finite length I/ca or I/d Section of prismatic bars circular under sub critics (Re < 4,2 . 105) Section of prismatic bars circular under the above critics (Re > 4,2 . 105) Faces of prismatic flat bars

2 0,58 0,80 5 0,62 0,80 10 0,68 0,82 20 40 0,74 0,82 0,90 0,98 50 0,87 0,99

NBR 6123/1988

100 0,98 1,0 oo 1,0 1,0

0,62

0,66

0,69

0,81 0,87

0,90

0,95

1,0

Table 12 - Coefficients of strength, Cx and Cy, for prismatic bars of flat faces of infinite length

Vento wind Notes: a) In this table, the force coefficients Cx e Cy are given in relation to the size C and not as in other tables in relation to the effective front area. b) The size c is used to determine the reduction factor K (See Table 11).

26

Table 13 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, for prismatic bars circular cross section and infinite length

Flow mode (Re = 70000 Vk d) [Vk in m/s; d in m ] Sub critical Re < 4,2 . 105 Ca 1,2

NBR 6123/1988

Above 4,2 . 105 Re < 8,4 . 105 of 8,4 . 105 Re < 2,3 . 106 critical Re 2,3 . 106 7.4 Wires and cables For wires and cable, the drag coefficients depend on Ca, the value of the Reynolds number Re and are given in Table 14, as follows: r = radius of wire or cable side of the layer external cable d = diameter of the circular section of the wire or cable I = length of wire or cable 7.4.1 For wire and cable perpendicular to the direction of wind, the drag force is calculated by:

Fa = Ca q I d

If the wind direction (supposed is horizontal) form an angle with the wire rope or cable, the force F, perpendicular to the rope, is calculated by:

0,6 0,7 0,8 Where: Ae = effective front area of the lattice: the projection area of orthogonal grid of bars on a plane perpendicular to the wind direction. The graph in Figure 6 gives values of the coefficient. Ca to drag a plane formed by lattice bars prismatic plane faces, and the graph in Figure 7 is the values of Ca to a lattice plane formed for bars of circular section. The exposed area index is equal to the effective front area divided by the lattice of front area of the surface bounded by the contour of the lattice. In lattices composed of rods of circular section, the Reynolds number is given by:

Where: d = diameter of the bars of the truss. In the case of lattices consisting of prismatic bars the flat faces and / or bars of circular section of or more different diameters, the respective coefficients are applied in proportion to the frontal areas of respective bars (areas of the orthogonal bars on a plane perpendicular to the wind direction - "Shadow area"). The index refers to the exposed area whenever the set of all lattice bars.

Fy = Fa sen2

The force Fx in the direction of the rope, can be neglected. 7.5 Lattices of individual plans For the purpose of this Standard is considered to be reticulated the whole structure consisting of straight bars. 7.5.1 The drag force is calculated by:

Fa = Ca q Ae

Table 14 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, for wires and cables with I/d = 60 Flow regime (Re = 70000 Vk d) [Vk in m / s, d in m] Re 2.5. 104 Re 4.2. 104 Re 2.5. 105 Re 4.2. 105 Drag coefficient for Ca Wire moderately Twisted smooth (Galvanized) or cables fine painted) wire 1.2 0.9 1.2 1.2 0.5 0.7 For Re and r / d intermediate Ca values are obtained by interpolation Flat wire

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Figure 6 - Drag coefficient, Ca, for lattices plane formed by prismatic or slightly rounded corners bars 7.6 Lattices multiple planes This section applies to a structure consisting of two or more lattice planes parallel and equidistant parallel banks, where the lattice the windward may have a protective effect on other lattices. The lattice windward and all other parts of lattices are protected by the first and should be calculated as indicated in 7.5. The wind forces in protected parts of the lattices should be multiplied by a factor of protection n (see Figure 8), which is depend on exposed area index of the grid located immediately upwind of the lattice under study, and for their removal e/h. 7.6.1 In the case of n lattices and also equal apart, the drag coefficient of all the n lattices, Can, is given by: Where: A = effective front area of one side of the tower and cross linked: the area of the orthogonal projection of on one side of the cross linked tower of a plane parallel to this face. 7.7.2.1 Cross link towers consist of prismatic flat faces bars with sharp corners or slightly rounded the coefficient of drag, Ca, focusing perpendicular windward side, are provided in the graph of figure 9. For crosslinked towers of square section, the coefficient of wind drag with a focusing angle in relation to the perpendicular to the windward side, the Ca, is given by:

Ca = K Ca Can=Ca1 [1 + (n-1) ]

Where: C = drag coefficient of a lattice isolated hand, determined in accordance with 7.5 7.6.2 The drag force of the set of lattices is calculated by: Where:

For towers cross linked in equilateral triangular section, the wind may be allowed for constant any angle of incidence of the wind. 7.7.2.2 Cross link towers consist of prismatic circular bars section, the values of the coefficients of drag, Ca, are provided in the graphs of Figures 10 to12. 7.7.2.3 In the case of towers made of cross linked prismatic bars of flat faces and / or circular section bars of one or more different diameters, the respective coefficients are applied proportionally to the front areas of the respective bars. The index of exposed area always refers to the group of all the bars on one side of the tower. 7.7.2.4 The components of drag force, F, in faces of the tower, are obtained by multiplying F by the values given in Table 15.

Fan = Can q Ae

7.7 Cross linked towers 7.7.1 Towers cross linked to triangular portion can be calculated in accordance with 7.6, focusing for wind perpendicular to each pair of parallel faces. The force of the wind on their faces parallel to the direction of wind is considered null. 7.7.2 Towers cross linked to square or triangular equilateral, with the same lattices in all faces, are special cases for which can be convenient to determine the overall strength of the wind directly. For these cases, the drag force is calculated by:

Fa = Ca q Ae

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Figure 8 - Drag Factor Ca, for for cross linked plane formed by bars of circular section

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Vento wind, trelica isolada - isolated lattices Figure 8 - Protection Factor t, for two or more equally spaced lattice planes parallel

Vento de qualquer direcao - Wind of any direction, Vento wind Figure 9 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, for towers cross linked equilateral triangular and square section, bars formed by prismatic or slightly rounded corners

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Figure 10 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, cross linked for towers of square section, made up of circular section bars - focusing Wind perpendicular to two parallel faces

Figure 11 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, cross linked for towers of square section, , made up of circular section bars - Wind focusing a second diagonal.

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Figure 12 - Coefficient of drag, Ca, for towers crosslinked equilateral triangular section made up by circular section bars Wind from any direction Table 15 - Components of drag force on the faces of towers crosslinked equilateral triangular or square section

- Wind direction, n: component perpendicular to the face (side) t: a component parallel to the face. Note: The components of drag force, Fa, are obtained by multiplying Fa, the values in this table, where n is the protection factor defined in 7.6.

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8 Coefficients of forces to walls, slabs and insulated roofs 8.1.1 The force F, acts perpendicular to the plane of the wall or plate. 8.1 Walls and rectangular plates Wind forces on a wall or rectangular plate is calculated by: F = CfqA Where: C = coefficient of strength, as shown in Table 16 q = dynamic pressure of the wind on top of the wall or plate A = face area:A = I h I = length of the wall or plate h = height of the wall or plate

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8.1.1 The force F perpendicular to the plane of the wall or plate. 8.1.2 Table 16 classifies the wall or plate according to flow conditions at its edges. Except for wall board or twodimensional flow, the incidence of worst wind is oblique. This incidence and the point of application of F are given in this table. 8.1.3 The wall or plate is considered in two-dimensional flow when l / h> 60, in the absence of plates or walls - Placed parallel to the flow at their ends or when l / h 10, where the presence of plates or walls or under the conditions indicated above. 8.1.4 For intermediate values of l / h - no plates or walls at the ends - and for removal of the soil between 0 and 0.25 h, values Cf. is obtained by inter linear polation.

Table 16 - Coefficients of strength, Cf, for walls and rectangular plates without side plates

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ANNEX - A - Standard Speed S2 and time interval A.1 Fator S, The factor S2 can be considered as a dimension less speed, normalized in Vo: Where: i = Category of roughness of the terrain (land)

Vt,i (z) = medium speed, at the time z above the ground to the category I (Without considering the factors S1 and S3

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Vk,i= VoS1 S2 S3

Regardless of the categories defined roughness of this Standard, the factor S can be obtained by the expression:

S2 = b Fr,II(z/10)p

Values of parameters b, Fr,II and p, for various intervals time and for the five categories are presented in this standard as givens in Table 21. The corresponding values of S are given in Table 22.

Table 21 - Parameters b, p, Fr,II Cat. 1 II t(s) b P b P b P b P b P 3 1,10 0,06 1,00 0,085 1,00 0,94 0,10 0,86 0,12 0,74 0,15 5 1,11 0,065 1,00 0,09 0,98 0,94 0,105 0,85 0,125 0,73 0,16 10 1,12 0,07 1,00 0,10 0,95 0,93 0,115 0,84 0,135 0,71 0,175 15 1,13 0,075 1,00 0,105 0,93 0,92 0,125 0,83 0,145 0,70 0,185 20 1,14 0,075 1,00 0,11 0,90 0,92 0,13 0,83 0,15 0,69 0,19 30 1,15 0,08 1,00 0,115 0,87 0,91 0,14 0,82 0,16 0,67 0,205 45 1,16 0,085 1,00 0,12 0,84 0,90 0,145 0,80 0.17 0,64 0,22 60 1,17 0,085 1,00 0,125 0,82 0,90 0,15 0,79 0,175 0,62 0,23 120 1,19 0,09 1,00 0,135 0,77 0,89 0,16 0,76 0,195 0,58 0,255 300 1,21 0,095 1,00 0,145 0,72 0,87 0,175 0,73 0,215 0,53 0,285 600 1,23 0,095 1,00 0,15 0,69 0,86 0,185 0,71 0,23 0,50 0,31 3600 1,25 0,10 1,00 0,16 0,65 0,85 0,20 0,68 0,25 0,44 0,35

III IV V

A.2 Time Interval To determine the time interval t, use in obtaining the average wind speed which in a building or part of the building with larger horizontal or vertical front surface exceeding 80 m, the expression can be used:

Where: L = Height or width of the front surface of the building or construction part of study, adopting the larger of the two values

at the top of the building or part of the building study - Vt(h) = S1 S2 (h) Vo The calculation of Vt(h) can be done by successive approximations

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Table 22 Standard velocity (speed)

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Continued

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Continuation

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ANNEX B S3 statistical factor for the probability Pm and lifetime of building m years Let V+ o - wind speed which has a probability Pm to be exceeded at the site into account, at least once in a period of m years. This speed corresponds to bursts of 3 s duration under the conditions of roughness category II (see 5.3.1), the height of 10 m above the ground. The relationship between V+ o and the base speed is set in 5.1 and Therefore:

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In the absence of specific regulations on safety in buildings, or related information in the standard structural use, it is likely the designer to fix the P m and life according to the characterictics of building. Table 23 shows typical values of the factor S3, whose mathematical expression is: -0.157 S3 = 0.54 (In (1- Pm/m)

V+ o = S3 Vo

Table 23 - Statistical Factor S3 S3 values for Pm,

m 2 10 25 50 100 200 0,10 0,66 1,10 1,27 1,42 1,56 1,77 0,20 0,76 0,98 1,13 1,26 1,41 1,57^ 0,50 0,64 0,82 0,95 1,06 1.16 1,31 0,63 0,60 0,78 0.90 1,00 1,11 1,24 0,75 0,57 0,74 0,85 0,95 1,06 1,18 0,90 0,53 0,68 0,79 0,88 0,98 1,09

In any case a factor can be adopted S, smaller than the suitable in the Table 3 (see 5.4).

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ANNEX C - - Location and elevation of meteorological stations Numbers next to circles that appear in full Whose records were the basis for the preparation of Figure 1 identifies the meteorological stations of Service isopletas of this figure. The following table contains the Flight Protection, the Ministry of Aeronautics, alphabetical relationship of these stations and their geographical coordinates.

Sl. No.

Station

Latitude

Longitude

Height [m)

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ANNEX D - Determination of the coefficient of internal pressure The flow of air through a small opening of area A is given by:

NBR 6123/1988

Q = K ApV (D1)

Where: K = flow coefficient V = air velocity at the opening:

p = density of air, assumed to be constant (ie. the air is considered incompressible) For n number of openings as established the balance, the mass of air entering the building will be equal to what comes out. That is: Q=0 According to (D.1) and (D.2): (D.3) As (D.1) and (D.2):

Experience shows that the expression above can be applied to larger openings (windows, doors, gates, ventilation, permeability, disseminated, etc..), from coefficients that are considered medium pressure the peripheries of the openings. These average rates, to be designated by (Ce * and Ci*), can be both coefficients of form ((Ce and Ci) as the averages of pressure coefficients, supplied or obtained in this Standard other sources. With this generalization (D.4) is:

The root is considered positive for all terms match with air inlet openings (and C *> C * i) and negative output gaps with air (and C * <C * i). That is the root will have the same sign * and C - C * i. It can be calculated by successive approximations, arbitrating values of C*i. Examples: 1) Determination of cpi on a middle floor of a building dimensions a x b x h = 40 x 15 x 60 m. The permeabilities average coefficients and external (Ce, Table 4) are given in Figure 19.

(D.3) it is:

Vento wind

Figure 19 - Internal pressure of passing by building

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Local/ Place Open Area (m2) Ce

+ 0,4 Ce - C i

A B

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C, + 0,7

A.. +3,79 -0,60 -0,27 -0,23 +2,69 Ce - C i +0,1 -1,3 -1,7 -1,3 A.. +1,90 -0,68 -0,30 -0,26 +0,66 Ce - C i +0,05 -1,35 -1,75 -1,35 + 0,75 A.. +1,34 -0,70 -0,30 -0,27 +0,07

C1e D1 C2 e D2

By the sign of the last sum and considering a home decimal cpi = + 0.8.

2) Determination of cpi in an industrial building, with the geometric and aerodynamic characteristics indicated in Figure 20. Coverage is considered impervious.

By the sign of the last sum and considering a home decimal cpi = + 0.1.

It is valid to apply the expression (D5) when the dynamic pressure only for reference or so can be considered at all openings. Otherwise, it will be necessary river work with the effective pressure pi, The constant being inside the building.

Vento wind

Corte - section

Actual heirght of ventilation: - The lantern (I): 0.20 m - Fixed Venetians (blinds) (2): 1.00m Figure 20 - Internal pressure in industrial building

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3 ) The second example of the same pavilion, but with only the gateway to windward. Local/ Open Place Area (m2)

Ce -0,4 Ce - C i A B EF GH 20 80 16 16 = +0,7 -0,5 -1,2 -0,4 +1,1 -0,1 -0,8 0 A.. +21,0 -25,3 -14,3 0 -18,6 -0,6 Ce - C i +1,3 +0,1 -0,6 +0,2 A.. C, -0,5 Ce - C i +1,2 0 -0,7 +0,1

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-0,45 A.. +21,9 o -13,4 +5.1 Ce - C i +1.15 -0,05 -0,75 +0,05 A.. +21,4 -17,9 -13,9 +3,6 -0,8

+13.6

For the sign of the last sum and considering a decimal place, C = - 0.5. 4 ) The second example of the same pavilion, but the facade with fixed louvers doors, located at windward. Local/ Place Open Area (m2) 80 16 16 = Ce

To get the greatest value of internal pressure, the gates are considered closed.

C, +0,4 +0,5 A.. +43,8 -20.2 -14,3 +9,3 Ce - C i +0,2 -1,7 -0,9 A.. +35,8 -20,9 -15,2 -0,3 Ce - C i +0,3 -1,6 -0,8 -

A EF GH

For the sign of the last sum and considering a decimal place, Cpi = - 0,5. Notes: a) Improved accuracy is obtained if it is possible to determine the average coefficient of pressure outline of each opening (gates, doors, windows, fixed shutters, louvers, special tiles of ventilation, etc.). b) The fourth example shows the beneficial effect of lantern (Open), which reduces the coefficient of 0.2 in internal pressure, which would no ridge vent, equal to coefficient of external shape in the region of the opening:

+ 0.7. 6.2.5 The value indicated is slightly larger (+ 0.8), as opening provided therein may be dominant in a region of higher pressure than the average (+ 0.7). c) Tests have shown that in both halls rectangular plan as in domes, the existence lantern in open because of a decrease in the coefficient aware of support, which is between 0.2 and 0.3.

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8.2 Isolated coverings of plane water 8.2.1 In isolated coverage, that is, on the small scale roof supports and for this reason are not significant obstacle to the flow of air, wind action is exerted directly on the faces top and bottom coverage. 8.2.2 For the coverage to one or two isolated water plane where the clear height between the floor and the level of the edge lower horizontal coverage satisfies the conditions of 8.2.3 and focusing perpendicular to the wind generatrix of the cover, apply the coefficients indicated in Tables of 17 and 18. These tables provide the value and the senses of pressure coefficients, which include the actions that are exerted perpendicular, the two sides of the cover. In cases that are suitable products listed for shipments, the two situations of forces respectively should be considered considered independently 8.2.3 The coefficients of Tables 17 and 18 apply only applied when the following conditions are met: - coverings to a water (Table 17): 0 tg 0,7, h 0,5 I2; - coverings to two waters (Table 18): 0,07 tg 0,6, h 0,5 I2; Where: h = clearance between the floor and the level of the horizontal edge drop of the covering. I2 = depth of the covering 8.2.4 For cases where the height h is below the set limit in 8.23, or where obstructions may be placed under cover or close to it, it must resist the action. Wind in the area of obstruction, and closed the same coverage, with Cpi = + 0.8 obstructions on the leeward edge, and Cpi = - 0.3 for obstructions on the windward edge. 8.2.5 For parallel wind to the generatrix of the coverage, must be considered horizontal forces of friction calculated by the expression:

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8.2.7 In the case of lattices directly exposed to wind, should be adopted as outlined in 7.5 (Isolated lattice planes) and 7.6 (multiple lattice planes). 8.2.8 In tabs, flat or nearly flat, existing along the edges of the coverage must be considered a pressure evenly distributed, with the resultant force calculated by the expression: F = 1,3 q Ae - the tab for the windward; F = 0,8 q Ae, the tab to the leeward,

elements forming the flap in the study. The previous expressions are valid for flaps that form the vertical one maximum angle of 30 . The forces thus calculated include the pressures acting on both sides of tabs perpendicular to the direction of the wind. 8.2.9 In tabs parallel to the wind direction horizontal forces of friction should be considered and calculated by expression:

Fat = 0,05 q Ae

and applied at mid-height of the tabs. These forces include the action of wind on the two faces of the tabs. 8.2.10 Each sealing element shall be calculated

Cp = 2,0.

9 Dynamic effects due to atmospheric turbulence 9.1 General considerations In the natural wind, the magnitude and direction of the velocity have instantaneous air velocity fluctuations around average V, called bursts. It is assumed that the average speed remains constant during the time of intervals of 10 less or more, producing purely static effects, designated below average response. Since the fluctuations of the velocity are induce very flexible structures, especially in buildings tall and slender, major fluctuations in direction of average speed, designated as floatings. In buildings with fundamental period equal to or T1 less than 1s, the influence of fluctuating response is small, Its effects are already being considered in determining the time interval adopted for the factor S2. However, buildings with fundamental period greater than 1s, in particular those weakly damped, may have important response floating in the medium wind. The total dynamic response equal to the superposition of the responses average and fluctuating, can be calculated according to the specifications of this chapter. Examples of calculations are given in Appendix I.

Fat = 0,05 q a b

a and b are the dimensions in plane coverage. These forces include the action of wind on two sides of the coverage. 8.2.6 Horizontal forces due to the action of wind on plates placed above or below the roof are calculated according to 8.1 (walls and rectangular plates) being the face of the cover plate closer to the considered as the land.

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Table 17 - Coefficient of pressure in isolated coverings to plane water

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Table 18 - Coefficient of pressure covers for two isolated symmetric to plane water

9.2 Input data for the determination of the response momentum in the direction of the wind 9.2.1 Speed design Vp The speed design corresponding to speed averaged over 10 min to 10 meters above the ground, having Category II is obtained by the product: Vp = 0,69 Vo S1S2 9.2.2 Dynamic characteristics of the structure 9.2.2.1 Simplified continuous model A simplified continuous model can be adopted when the construction has constant section and distribution at least approximately uniform mass. The simplified method is applicable to you structure supported exclusively in the base and less than 150 m, being considered in the dynamic response of these only the contribution in the fundamental way. In general, the alone retention in the first way in the solution leads to less errors than 10%. It is admitted that the first vibration way can be represented accurately by the equation:

xi - coordinate displacement corresponding to the i; Ai - influence area corresponding to the coordinate i; mi - mass corresponding to the discrete coordinate i; Cai - - drag coefficient corresponding to coordinate i zi - height of the element i on the ground level; zr - reference height: zr = 10 m;

n - Number of degrees of freedom (i = 1, 2,... n). In the case of vertical structures with symmetry plan, n is also equal to the number of elements in which the structure is divided (see Figure 13). In general, a model with n = 10 is sufficient to be obtained an adequate accuracy in the results. Larger number elements may be required to submit building along its important variations in their characteristics. Once the model structure, should be determined using methods of the theory vibration of structures, the natural frequency fj (Hz) and modally Xj, corresponding to the mode for j = 1,2, .... r, where r < the number of modes that will be retained in the solution. As stated in 9.2.21, the retention of single mode (r = 1) is usually sufficient, except very slender buildings and / or stiffness strongly variable. In these cases, should be computed successive mind the contributions of modes 1, 2, etc. Until the associated with the latter mode equivalent calculated (J = r) are negligible. The critical damping ratio is shown in Table 19, depending on the type of building. Other values may be adopted, if properly justified.

x = (z/h)

Table 19 presents approximate values of j and equation, too close together, allowing the calculation straight from the fundamental frequency f1 (Hz) for various types of unusual buildings. Alternatively, f1 and j can be obtained employing methods of the theory of vibrations of structures. The damping ratio is also critical as indicated in Table 19, depending on the type of structure. 9.2.2.2 Discreet model In the general case of a building with properties variables with height, it must be represented by a discrete model, in accordance with the scheme of figure 13, in which:

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Table 19 - Parameters for the determination of dynamic effects T1 = 1 / f1 Construction type Buildings with concrete structure, without curtains 1,2 0,020 0,05h + 0,015h (h in

Buildings with concrete structure, with curtains for the absorption of horizontal forces Concrete towers and chimneys, variable section Towers, masts and chimneys concrete section uniform Buildings with structural welded steel Towers and steel chimneys, uniform section Wood structures 1,6 2,7 1,7 1,2 1,7 -0,015 0,015 0,010 0,010 0,008 0,030 meters) 0,05h + 0,012h 0,02h 0.01 h 0.29h-0.4

Figure 13 - Schematic model for dynamical discrete 9.3 Calculation of dynamic response in the direction of wind 9.3.1 Simplified method The variation of the dynamic pressure with the height is expressed by the equation: The exponent p and the coefficient b depend on the category of roughness of the ground, as indicated in Table 20. The coefficient of dynamic amplification function dimensions of the building, the damping ratio critical, the frequency f (through the dimension less ratio Vp / f L), is shown in the graphs of Figures 14 to 18, for the five categories of terrain roughness considered in this Standard. The pressure q (z) is a continuous function of height z on the the ground. The equivalent static force, which includes the static and dynamic actions of wind, per unit time results equal to q(z) I1 Ca,being the width or diameter of the building. The internal forces are calculated in the structure of the usual form.

In which the first term within the brackets correspond of the average response and the second represents the maximum amplitude response of floating, being: q0 = 0,613Vp2 (qp in N/m2, Vp in m/s)

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9.3.2 Discreet model 9.3.2.1 Determination of the modal contributions For each vibration mode j, with components (xi)i = xi, Xi is the total force due to wind direction in the coordinate i is given by:

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9.3.2.2 Combination of the modal contributions When r modes are retained in solution (r >1), the effect of combination can be computed by the root criteria of squared sum of squares. After obtaining the response for each mode j (j = 1 ,.... r) must be determined all variables of interest associated with each way. Indicating a static variable to any Qj (strength, bending moment, stress, etc..) or geometric (deformation, displacement, rotation), corresponding to the mode j, the superposition effect is calculated by: The precedent equation is applicable when the natural frequencies fj (j = 1, r) are reasonably spaced, or when there are not very close frequencies. 9.4 Calculation of cross-wind dynamic response The random fluctuations of the orientation of the velocity instanstaneous with respect to the average wind speed is responsible for vibrations of the structure in the direction perpendicular to the direction of medium flow. Resulting respeonse Y in the direction perpendicular to the wind directioncan be calculated from the effective forces in the direction of the wind through the expression: Where appropriate, the response must be in the lateral direction added to the response due to vortex shedding. 9.5 Calculation of maximum accelerations for verification comfort In the case of buildings intended for human occupation, oscillations induced by fluctuating forces can cause discomfort to occupants. If uj denotes the level z displacements due to the fluctuating response mode j, the maximum amplitude of acceleration at this level can be calculated by the expression: As a general indication of the maximum amplitude should not exceeds 0.1 m/s2. The verification must be done from the comfort should be made for wind speeds for the most likely to occurrence than the speed of structural design, to be defined by the designer. It is conceivable that the maximum amplitude of acceleration is exceeded, on average days, once every ten years.

Xi = Xi + Xi

in which the average force is equal to Xi (symbols: see 9.2.2.2):

being: qo = 0,613 V" (q0 in N/m2, Vp in m/s) 3 - b, p - - shown in Table 20. The floating component Xi is given by: In the equations above, mo and Ao denote the mass of an arbitrary reference area is the coefficient of dynamic amplification, shown in Figures 14 to 18 for the five categories of land of this Standard. For situations no meditated in these figures, it can be certain for interpolation or extrapolation.

Table 20 - Exponent p and parameter b Roughness category p b I 0.095 1.23 II 0.15 1.00 III 0.185 0.86 IV 0.23 0.71 V 0.31 0.50

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ANNEX I - Determination of dynamic response due to atmospheric turbulence

I.1 Simplified Method It will be the action of the wind speed in the direction of average speed of a square section of building 120.00 m high and 24.00 m on a side, located in land category IV, with the speed Vo = 45 m / s and the parameters S1 = 1,0 and S3 = 1,0. The following alternatives will be analyzed: - If: building with concrete structure, in which the horizontal forces are resisted only by porticoes. - Case b: same, with sturdy of steel structure (welded joints). i.1.1 It is estimated first (see 9.2.1): Vp = 0.69 x 45 x 1 x 1 = 31.05 m/s I.1.2 The fundamental periods, for both cases, were based on measurements made in similar buildings. The modal form (parameter y) and damping ratio of criticism were obtained from Table 19: - Case a: T1 = 1, 85 s, = 1, = 0,02; - Case b: T1 = 2,8 s, = 1, 0,01. 1.1.3 Determination of the coefficient of dynamic amplification : - Case a: V /f L 31,05 x 1,85 x 1800 0,032 From Figure 17, we obtain, for I1/h = 24/120 = 0.2 and = 0.02: h (m): 25,100,300 1.69,1.16, 0.62 - Case b: V /f L 31,05 x 2,8/1800 0,048 FromFigure 17, we obtain for I1/h = = 24/120 = 0,2 and = 0.01: h (m): 25,100,300 1.50,0.88 The corresponding values h = 120 m can be determined by interpolation, as illustrated in Figure 25, resulting in: - If a: = 1.07 (concrete); - Case b: = 1.40 (steel). Calculate the following (see 9.3.1):

NBR 6123/1988

The dynamic pressure variation with height is given by expression (q in N/m2, z in m): Case a:

At the top of the building (z = 120 m), the dynamic pressure results equal to 1693 N/m2 in the case of building with concrete structure and 1925 N/m2 in the case of building with steel structure. The static method leads to a single value of 1557 N/m2 (category IV, class C, low wind turbulence):

I.1.4 The equivalent static force per unit of time is obtained by the expression (see 9.3.1): q (z) I1 Ca I1 is the width of the building, equal to 24.00 m. The coefficient trawling, Ca, is obtained from the graph in Figure 4, or, for rare cases of high wind turbulence, the graph of Figure 5, its value being considered vary with Z. I.2 Discrete model It will be the action of the wind speed in the direction of average speed of a reinforced concrete chimney with characteristics shown in Table 34. The properties the model adopted in the dynamic analysis are indicated in Table 35. The properties of the model adopted in the dynamic analysis are given in the Table 35, adopting a damping ratio critical = 0.01. The drag coefficient is Ca = 0.6, and in view of the Reynolds number and roughness surface water of the chimney. As V0 = 39.4 m / s, S1 = S3 = 1, the design speed results equal to:

The land has roughness Category III. Figure 16, up to V / f L = 0.58, values of for h = 25, 100 and 300 m and relationships I / h = 0 and 0.2. By interpolation, come to = 1.43. From Table 20, we obtain p = 0.185 and b = 0.86. Next, it is estimated (see 9.3.2):

The interpolation is it possible to determine as given in Figure 26, while Table 36 shows work of calculation for determining the forces in chimney to the fundamental mode of vibration (j = 1).

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Formulas (see 9.3.2.1) and the auxiliary values:

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Concrete structure Steel Structure Category IV Figure 25 - Determination of graphical dynamic amplification coefficient of

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Table 34 - Characteristics of the chimney - height h = 180 m

External Diameter Wall Thickness Mass

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Moment of inertia

Table 36 - Determination of average strength and total floating in the chimney for the fundamental mode (j = I)

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ANNEX- E - Aerodynamic coefficients for roof curves E.1 circular section of cylindrical vaults E.1.1 The external pressures on curved surfaces of hang from the locations of separation flow, which varies with wind speed, characteristics of its turbulence, and relationship dimensions between the dimensions of the building, surface curvature outer cover and roughness, etc.. E.1.2 The pressure coefficients presented in Table 24 to 26 are based on tests on flow approximately uniform and low turbulence, with subcritical Reynolds numbers, but with coverage model endowed with rough outer surface. These values, therefore, are not entirely valid for actual buildings, but can be considered with guidance to the project. Special studies should be made in the case of large buildings or which deviate from the simple form shown in Figure 21.

NBR 6123/1988

The pressure coefficients in Table 24 correspond to the wind blowing perpendicular to the generatrix of covering. The arch is divided into six equal parts, the pressure coefficient assumed constant in each one of six parts. The pressure coefficients in Table 25 correspond to Wind blowing parallel to the generatrix of the coverage. Coverage is divided into the wind, in four equal parts and the pressure coefficient considered constant in each of the four parts. Suction tips can occur with oblique wind. The corresponding pressure coefficient is given in Table 26.

Vento wind

a) Wind perpendicular to generatrix covering

Corte - section

b) Wind parallel to generatrix covering

Figure 21 - Vaults circular cylindrical section 0.5 I2 < I1 < 3 I2 (I1 and I2 of the part "a" of this figure)

51

E.1.3 The pressure coefficients shown in Tables 27 to 29 are based on tests on flow turbulent air, with the outer surface roughness coverage of the model defining points of separation flow corresponding to Reynolds numbers above the critical region. These values should be considered with caution, since the distribution of pressures curved surfaces depends on several factors, such as indicated in E.1.1.The models were tested in a smaller plant, b, equal to 20 m (S1 series) and 50 m (S2 series). The characteristics of the simulated winds are as follows: - Series S1 - I1, = 11 % and L1/b = 1,5 (constant with height) Where: l1 = the longitudinal component of turbulence L1 = macroscale of this component

NBR 6123/1988

The value of these tests I1 corresponds to wind on ground category between l and ll. - Series S2 - l1 = 15,5% e l1/b = 1,6 (top cover) The simulated wind is between the categories lll and IV (P = 0.23). The pressure coefficients in Table 27 correspond to wind blowing perpendicular to the generatrix of the coverage. The arch is divided into six equal parts, with the pressure coefficient assumed constant in each one of six parts (see Figure 22-a). The pressure coefficients in Table 28 corresponds the wind blowing parallel to the generatrix of the coverage. The Coverage is divided into the wind, in four parts, as shown in Figure 22-b, and the coefficient considered constant pressure in each of the four parts. The pressure coefficients of Table 29 correspond to suction tips that can occur with oblique wind. These coefficients are assumed constant in respective tracks (see Figure 22-c).

Table 24 - External pressure coefficients, Cpe,for wind blowing perpendicular to the generatrix of the covering Cpe for a part f/i2 h/l2 0 1/8 1/5 1/4 1/2 1 5 1/8 1/10 1/4 1/2 1 1 +0,3 -0,5 -0,9 -1,2 | -1,4 -1,8 ! -1,0 -1,2 -1,5 -1,6 2 -0,3 -0,5 -0,6 -0,7 -0,8 -1,0 -0,4 -0,5 -1.0 -1,0 3 -0,6 -0,7 -0,8 -0,9 -0,9 -1,1 -0,4 -0,4 -0,7 -0,8 4 -0,7 -0,7 -0,8 -0,8 -0,9 -1,2 -0,4 -0,4 -0,5 -0,6 5 -0,6 -0,5 -0,4 -0,3 -0,4 -0,8 -0,4 -0,4 -0,4 -0,4 6 -0,2 -0,2 -0,2 -0,2 -0,4 -0,7 -0,3 -0,3 -0,3 -0,3

Table 25 - Coefficients of external pressure, Cpe for wind blowing parallel to the generatrix of covering

Part of the covering

Table 26 - Coefficients of external pressure, Cpe obliquely to the wind blowing generatrix of covering

Part of the covering

Table 27 - Coefficient of external pressure, Cpe and for wind blowing perpendicular to the generatrix covering for a part

52

NBR 6123/1988

Table 28 - Coefficient of external pressure, Cpe for wind blowing parallel to the generatrix of covering

53

NBR 6123/1988

Table 29 - Coefficient of external pressure, Cpe for wind blowing obliquely to the generatrix of covering Serial for a srip (band)

For a Series S2: hb/b. Where: E.2 Domes In the same way that as for the cylindrical vaults of circular section, only approximate values of Cpe can be given to the domes, due to the variation of distribution of pressure with the characteristics of the wind, the relationship between the dimensions of the building and outer surface of the dome. Special studies should be made in the case of large domes. E.2.1 Domes on the ground Typical distributions of isobars (lines of equal Cpe) dome based directly on the ground are given in Figure 23, for f/d = 1 / 2 and 1 / 4. E.2.1.1 Limit values of the coefficients of external pressure the positive (over-pressure) and negative (suction) are given in Table 30 for various relationships arrow / diameter (f / d). For intermediate relations, the coefficients are obtained by interpolation. The same table shows the values the lift coefficient, Cs, being the sustentation force made calculations by the expression: q = dynamic pressure of the wind on top of the dome d = diameter of the circle of the base of the dome E.2.1.2 The lift (sustentation) force acts in the vertical direction of bottom up. E.2.2- Cylindrical dome walls A dome on a cylindrical wall has a wider range of values of the pressure coefficient outside than when based directly on the land. Typical distributions of isobars are given in Figure 24. No pressure area in the domes with f / d less than 1 / 5 and the wall height from d / 4. E-2.2.1 Limit values of the coefficients of external pressure positive (overpressure) and negative (suction) are given in Table 31. For intermediate relations f /d and h/d, the coefficients are obtained by interpolation

54

NBR 6123/1988

a)Elevation

Wind

Figure 23 - Dome on the ground (land), isobars Table 30 - Limit values of the coefficients of external pressure, Cpe, and lift coefficients, Cs - Domes on the ground Overlay Suction

55

NBR 6123/1988

a)Elevation

Wind

Figure 24 Dome on cylindrical walls - isobars Table 31 - Limit values of the coefficients of external pressure, Cpe - Domes on cylindrical walls The windward side at the top

Note: For pressure coefficients in the cylindrical wall, the values as given in Table 9 should be adopted.

56

NBR 6123/1988

ANNEX-F - Additional Information Results of recent trials are presented in this Annex, which For areas with high suctions, figures are average pressure are applicable to buildings with relations between the coefficients (C average), which should only be used for the dimensions indicated in the respective tablaes. calculation of forces. Extrapolations can be made for proportions next to them. Wind in the respective areas, applying the scaling The tests were conducted with simulation of the main verification and anchoring elements suction and secondary characteristics of natural winds and can be applied to any structure. category of land, with tolerable error. Surfaces in considerable variations that occur pressure Valid observations are given in 6.1.3. were subdivided and coefficients C are given to each part.

Table 32 - Pressure coefficients and form, external, with gable roof, symmetrical, central trough, in buildings of rectangular plan (use S2 corresponding to the height h)

57

Table 33 - pressure coefficients and form, external, multiple roofs with equal water vertical legs

NBR 6123/1988

y-h or 0.1 b (taking the smaller of the two values) y = h or 0.1 O2fb or O,0.25a (taking the smaller of three values) bf = b 2 = h

The tracks parallel to the long side of the pavilion (width y) include the vertical faces (a *, c *, m * x *)

Inclination of roof / Angle of incidence of wind / First stretch/ First intermediate stretch / Intermediate spans / Last stretch/ average

* Ce = -0.3 in the second leg between: * Ca - 0.5 in the last stretch between.

Angle incidence Wind / Inclination the roof / Ce in the distance

Notes: a) The relationship between the dimensions of the models axbxh is checked as follows: - For = 10 and 15 : 2 x 1 x 1 / 4 and 2 x 1 x 1 / 8; - For = 30: 4 x 1 x 1/2, x 4 x 11/3, 3 x 1 x 1/4 and 10 x 1 x 1/3. b) Friction forces: - For = 90 horizontal friction forces must be determined in accordance with 6.4; - For = 0 and 180 : F '= C'q ab, and C' = 0.1 for = 0 and C '= 0.0018 to 0.02 for =180 (8 : angle 8 in degrees).

58

ANNEX- G - Effects of neighborhood

There are certain situations where it is necessary to consider the influence of buildings located in the vicinity of that in study. These buildings can cause increased wind forces in three different ways: G.1 For the Venturi Neighboring buildings for their size, shape and guidance, may cause a "bottleneck" of the wind, accelerating air flow, with consequent change in pressures. This effect appears mainly in buildings of very close, if they have been observed coefficients of negative pressure (suction) exceeding, in module, the value 2.0. These suction tips were verified in bordering on the walls of two buildings, near the windward edge. G.2 For wind deflection in the vertical direction Tall buildings deflects downward part of the wind focuses on the windward facade, increasing the speed in close areas close to the ground. Building more low, located in these areas, may have loads of Wind increased by this effect, with the coefficients form reaching values between 1.5 and - 2.0, G.3 For the wake turbulence A building located in the lee of another can be significantly affected by the turbulence generated in this area of the windward building, may cause Dynamic (effects "blow"), and considerable changes in the pressures. These are particularly important in buildings with roofs and fence panels made of lightweight materials G.4 Determination of the effects of neighborhood It is not possible to specify numerical values for the neighborhood of a generic way and normative. These effects can be determined by tests of wind tunnel, which reproduce the conditions of neighborhood and the characteristics of natural wind can influence the outcome. The problem is compounded the possibility of unfavorable changes of conditions neighborhood during the life of the building in the study. A rough indication of increases which may suffer the effects of aerodynamic coefficients for neighborhood will be given below. it is: S= distance between the planes of the faces bordering two high neighboring buildings,axb, being in plan dimensions of buildings (ax b between 1 x 1 and 4 x 1) d * = the smaller of the two dimensions: - smaller side b; - semi diagonal a2+b2

NBR 6123/1988

FV = factor of effect of neighborhood, defined by relationship: FV: C in the building with the neighborhood / C in the isolated building C = drag coefficient under study ((Ce, cpe medium, Ca) The representative values of VF are: - For drag coefficient, Ca (see Figures 4 and 5); for form coefficient, Ce and average value of and pressure coefficient, c average wall Standing confrontational (faces parallel to the wind as given in Table 4): s/d* 1,0 .......... FV = 1,3 s/d* 3,0 .......... FV = 1,0 - To form coefficient, Ce - the average value of pressure coefficient, Cpe - secondary covering (See Table 5): s/d* 0,5 .......... FV = 1,3 s/d* 3,0 .......... FV = 1,0 Linearly interpolated for intermediate values of s / d *. The effects of neighborhood factors are considered to height of the top of the surrounding buildings. The tests are based on the recommendations before owners were made with two or a few models approximately equal heights. For the case of many neighboring buildings in these conditions, the factors of neighbouring will generally be smaller and may be below 1.0. However, there may be effects of wind FV cause values close to those indicated above mind, especially when there are "gaps" in the vicinity of the building under study. Neighborhood effects in torsion coefficient, Ct, were considered in 6.6.

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Page 34 & 35 No of sheets: 2

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 If Ssec is less than ST, STb will be negative, indicating that the torsional restraints of the beam are not effective due to inadequate stiffness to the distortion of the web. When the stiffeners are required, they should be extended to the full height of the restrained bar and it should be restrained and fixed to the flange if the torsional restraints is also fixed to the flange. Alternatively, it is allowed to place the stiffeners at intervals by distance equal to 4tw to any flange of the beam that is not directly attached to the torsional restraints. When the spacing of the restraints points is less than Lqb, then Lbb can be taken equal Lqt. 4.11.3.8 For the continuous torsional restraints, the same expressions should be used as given in 4.11.3.7, taking L/n equal to 1,00, the moment and the stiffness per unit of length and the stiffness to the distortion of the web, Ssec, is given by:

4.12 Structural integrity 4.12.1 The structural design, provide a structure capable to meet the ultimate and service limit states for the period of intended useful life for the construction, it should allow the fabrication, transportation,handling and assembly of the structure in an appropriate way and in good conditions of safety. It should still take into account the need of future maintenance, demolition, recycling and reutilization of materials . 4.12.2 The basic anatomy of the structure for the which the actions are transmitted to the foundations should be clearly defined. Any characteristics of the structure with influence of its global stability should be identified and properly considered in the design. For effective use of this subsection, each part of a building between expansion joints should be treated as single building. 4.12.3 The structure should be designed as a three-dimensional entity and should be robust and stable under normal loading conditions and in the event of occurence of accident or used inadequately should not suffer this disproportionate damages to their causes. To meet these strict requirements, in the absence specific studies, one can follow the requirements given in 4.12.4 to 4.12.8. 4.12.4 Each columns of a building shall be effectively supported by means of horizontal braces (restraints) at least in two directions, preferably orthogonal, at each level supported by that columns including roofs, according to the Figure-3. 4.12.5 Continuous Lines of braces should be placed closest to edges of the floors or roofs and in each columns line, and the reentrant corners must be appropriately connected to the structure, in accordance with the Figure-3.

34

Figure-3 - Example of bracing of the columns of a building 4.12.6 The horizontal braces can be made of steel profiles, including those used for other puposes such as floor beams and roofing or the slabs connected to the columns and the remaining steel structure. . 4.12.7 The horizontal braces and their respective connections should be compatible with the other elements of the structure of the which they are part of and designed for the calculated actions and also to withstand tension, which should not be added to other actions, least of 1% of the calculated force on the columns or 75 kN, which ever is greater. In the case of roofs or floors without concrete slabs, the bracing should be designed to withstand the calcualted compressive or tensile force, which should not be added to the other action, at least 75 kN. In addition the braces should also meet the applicable requirements as given in 4.11. 4.12.8 In the buildings of multiple floors, when the rules require that the accidental faliure of the columns doesn't cause progressive collapse, the beams and their connections to the columns should be designed to withstand the the isolated action of the tensile force corresponding to vertical reaction of calculation obtained from ultimate combination of permanent actions and the direct results of use and occupancy of the construction. It is permitted, in that case, a more rigorous analysis, considering large displacements and large deformations. Additionally the amendments of columns should be able to withstand tensile force corresponding to the highest reactions calculated, obtained from the combination of the direct and permanent actions arising from the use and occupancy of the construction, applied to the columns of a floors located between the considerable location and positioned subsequently. 5 Specific conditions for the design of steel elements 5.1 Conditions general 5.1.1 Applicability This section deals with design of structural steel elements subjected to static actions. For structural elements subjected to the fatigue, see additional requirements in 9.2.

35

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 15421 Design of seismic resistant structures - Procedure Page 9 & 10 No of sheets: 2

6.3. Definition of the Design Response Spectrum The design response spectrum, Sa (T), for horizontal accelerations, corresponding to the elastic response of a system of one degree of freedom with a fraction of critical damping equal to 5%, is defined from the horizontal seismic acceleration characteristic ag and the soil class, using the following equations:

where: agso and ags1 are the spectral accelerations for periods from 0.0 to 1.0 s, respectively, already considered the effect of seismic ground amplification; are the amplification factors of seismic ground for the periods from 0.0 to 1.0 s, respectively, as shown in Table 3, depending on the design feature acceleration ag and soil class; is the natural period, in seconds, associated with each mode of vibration of the structure.

C and Cv

The design response spectrum is considered to be applied to the base of the structure. In cases where a structure or part of a structure has a fraction of critical damping other than 5%, a correction factor, duly justified, may be applied by the designer to design response spectrum. Table 3 Seismic Amplification Factors for Soil

For values of 0.10 g ag 0.15 g, values of Ca and Cv can be obtained by linear interpolation. For the Soil Classification F, a specific study of amplification in the soil should be developed. The design response spectrum, Sa(T) is presented graphically in Figure 2 and defined numerically in three time periods, in seconds, by the expressions:

When it is necessary to define a spectrum for vertical accelerations, the accelerations of the spectrum can be taken as 50% of accelerations defined in the spectra corresponding to horizontal accelerations.

Figure 2 Variation of the design response spectrum (Sa/agso) as a function of the period (T) 7. Categorization of structures for seismic analysis 7.1. Seismic Categorization Criteria A seismic category must be defined for each structure, according to 7.3. The seismic categories are used in this Standard to define the permissible structural systems, limitations in the irregularities of the structures, components of the structure must be designed for resistance to earthquakes and the types of seismic analysis to be performed.

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Enclosure-2F Content: Design bearing capacities, foundation depths and inclination factors

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Nos. of sheets: 1

Enclosure-2H

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of Structural concrete building code (ACI 318-11) and commentary Pages 437 to 442 and 475 No of sheets: 7

437

CODE

COMMENTARY

For Section 9.2. the average lood faclor of 1.4 (from I.W + J.6L) divided by the highesl ffactor (0.75 for tension) results in a limit of/u/(/J;'(l of 1.4/0.75 = 1.87. For Appendix C, the average load faclor of 1.55 (from 1.40 + 1.7L). divided by the highesl ;'faclOr (0.80 for tension). results in a limil of IU/{/~'Q of I.S5/0.8 = 1.94. For consistent results. the serviceability limitalion of IUIQ was laken as 1.9~'Q' If Ihe ratio of lura tof)'Q exceeds this value. the anchoring may be subjecled to service loads above 1;'Q under service loads. Although not a concern for slandard struclural sleel anchors (maximum value of fu,r/1;'Q is 1.6 for ASTM A307). the limitation is applicable 10 some slainless Sleels. For posi-insialled anchors having a reduccd crosssectional area anywhere along the anchor length. such as wedge-Iype anchors. the effeclive cross-seclional area of lhe anchor should be provided by the manufacturer. For threaded rods and headed bolts. ANSIIASME B 1.1 0.1 defincs As~.N as

U.l'I

,= ~(d

4

Q

_0.9743)' ,

II

0.5.2 -

RD.S.2 -

0.5.2.1 - The nominal concrete breakout strength in tension, Ncb of a single anchor or N cbg of a group of anchors, shall nol exceed: (a) For a single anchor

RD.5.2.1 - The effects of multiple anchors. spacing of anchors, and edge diSlance on lhe nominal concrete breakout strength in lension are included by applying Ihe modification factorsANt-/ANt-o and VI~d.N in Eq. (0-3) and (D-4). Figure RD.5.2.I(a) shows ANt-o and the developmenl of Eq. (0-5). A Nco is Ihe maximum projected area for a single anchor. Figure RD.5.2.1 (b) shows examples of Ihe projected areas for various single-anchor and multiple-anchor arrangemenls. Because A",," is the tOlal projecled area for a group of anchors. and AN"o is the area for a single anchor. there is no need to include fl. the number of anchors. in Eq. (D-3) or (D-4). If anchor groups are posilioned in such a way that their projected areas overl3p. lhe value of A Nc is required 10 be rt.'duced accordingly.

Factors 'l/ec,No 'l/ed,No 'l/c.No and 'l/CP,N are defined in D.5.2.4, 0.5.2.5, 0.5.2.6, and 0.5.2.7, respectively. A Nc is the projected concrete failure area of a single anchor or group of anchors that shall be approximated as the base of the rectilinear geometrical figure that results from projecting the failure surface outward 1.5hef from the centerlines of the anchor, or in the case of a group of anchors, from a line through a rCIN of adjacent anchors. ANc shall not exceed nA Nco , where n is the number of anchors in the group that resist tension. A Nco is the projected concrete failure area of a single anchor with an edge distance equal to or greater than 1.5hef

(D-5)

II

438

CODE

c., 1.5h"

1.5h The critical edge distance for headed

studs, headed bolts, expansion anchors,

COMMENTARY

X-

1.5h

F0

1.5h.,

1.5h.f

1.5hef

hoi

C"

$1

1.5h

1.5h

~

L

A Hc

I~

I3J

(c.., + $1 + 1.5h.,)(2 x 1.5h.,) $1 < 3h.,

1.5hlJl

-'..

- 11.5h.f

C.,

s, 1.5h.f

I

-\

1.5 hoi

IA

+ $2 + 1.5h.,)

1.5h.f

Plan

1.5hef

.1

c.2

U 11

ANt: = (e" +

A Nco = (2

Ie

if C.1 and

and (b)

ra)

Fig. RD.5.2. J---{a) Calculation of A Nco : alld (b) calculation of Ai'lc for single al/chors allli groups oftI/lchors.

0.5.2.2 ~ The basic concrete breakout strength of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete, Nb , shall not exceed

RD.5.2.2 - The equation for the basic concrete bit strength was dcrivedD.18.19.D.23.D.24 assuming :I clJtldlll failure prism wilh an angle of about 35 degrees. COll! fracture mechanics concepts.

The values of k( in Eq. (0-6) were detennined ~,I database of test results in uncracked concreteD 5 ~rcent fmctilc. The values were adjusted to """"""': k c values for cracked concrelc.o19.D.33 Tests ha\'C lhat the values of k( applicable to adhesive 3pproltimately equal to those derived for anchors.o 20.O.34 Higher k( values for post_installed

where k c = 24 for cast-in anchors; and k c = 17 for post-installed anchors.

(0-6)

The value of k c for post-installed anchors shall be permitted to be increased above 17 based on ACI

439

CODE I 355.2

or ACI 355.4 product-specific tests, but shall in no case exceed 24.

COMMENTARY

may be pennilted. provided they have been delermined from testing in accordance with ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4. For anchors with a deeper embedment (h,,> II in.). test evidence indicates the usc of can be overly conservative for some cases. An alternative expression (Eq. (0-7)) is provided using h,fSfJ for evaluation of cast-in headed studs and headed bolts with II in. s: lI,f:S; 25 in. This expression can also be appropriate for some undercut post-installed anchors. However. for such anchors. the use of Eq. (0-7) should be justified by lest results in accordance with 0.4.2. Experimental and numerical investigations indicate that Eq. (0-7) may be unconservative for II,!> 25 in. where bearing pressure on the anchor head is al or near the limit permitted by Eq. (0_14).0.35

Alternatively, for cast-in headed studs and headed bolts with 11 in. ;5; h ef ;5; 25 in., Nb shall not exceed

h,/5

(0-7)

0.5.2.3 - Where anchors are located less than 1.5hef from three or more edges, the value 01 hef used tor the calculation of A Nc in accordance with 0.5.2.1, as well as in Eq. (0-3) through (0-10) shall be the larger of ca,maxl1.5 and 513, where 5 is the maximum spacing between anchors within the group.

RD.5.2.3 -

CCO Method. which is the ba."is for Eq. (0-3) to (0-10), gives

overly conservative results. D.36 This occurs because the ordinary definitions of ANclANcD do not correctly renectthe edge effects. This problcm is corrected by limiting the v::llue of h,fused in Eq. (D-3) through (0-10) to ca.mull.S. where clI,mu is the largest of the innuencing edge distances lh::lt are less than or equ:L1to the ::Ictual I.Sh,/. In no case should ca,m,,Jl.S be Hlken less than one-third of the maximum spacing between anchors within the group. The limit on h,! of m least one-lhird of the maximum spacing betwcen anchors within the group prevelllS the use of a calculaled strength based on individual breakout prisms for a group anchor configurn.lion. This approach is illustrated in Fig. RD.5.2.3. In this example. the proposed limit on the value of ",flo be used in the computations where h" = ca.masll.S. results in h'f = II:! = 4 in. For this example. this would be the proper value to be used for II,! in computing the resislance even if the actual embedment depth is larger. The requirement of D.5.2.3 may be visualized by moving the actual concrete breakout SUiface. which originates al the actual h,f. loward the surface of lhe concrete parallel to the applicd tension load. The value of h,fused in Eq. (D-3) to (010) is detcrmined when either: (a) thc outer boundaries of the failure surface first intersect a free edge: or (b) the intersection of the breakout surface between anchors within Ihe group first interseclS the surface of the concrelC. For the example shown in Fig. RD.5.2.3. Point "A" defines the intersection of the assumed failure surf::lce for limiting h,! wilh the concrete surface.

American Coocrele

440

CODE

COMMENTARY

.......... ............

Jot Irniling " ..

6 in.

PointA

N

0'

IN

AdulIl

5,5 in.

Side section

I.SN.

--'. ......

"'''''+

--'\_

The actual"of" 5.5 in. but three edges ere s 1.511", lherefote !he Iimiling value of h.. (thown . . h' . . in !tie figure) ilthe Iar(Ier 01 (..-/1.5 ilI'lCl On&-Ihird of Ihe maximlm spacing !of an anchor group: 1(,.- max (611.5. 913) "' .. in. 1lleAltore. UIIlI II.. " .. in. lor lhe ...... 01 II.. i'l Eq. (0.3) l:l (0.10) ~ Ihe calo:UIition of A.,: A;" z (6 .. 4)(5.9" [1.5 4D" 2OOin. '

..... "~

(8)

Centroio;l 01 ~ ~

~l

I~

.;,

~l

-Rl,!$I,Il\atll tension load

T,l

Il>&<led In.. tension Y """"" """"" Only anchors that are

in tension lire (;(lfl$idered when delefm;nmg .~

f,.r,T)

!." /1~

!

I

T.l

E"l$vsrion

fb)

.......

r .. T

'

I

len$IM bad

Elevation

~

0.5.2.4 - The modification factor for anchor groups loaded eccentrically in tension, 'l'ec N, shall be computed as '

RD.5.2.4 - Figure RD.5.2.4(a) shows a group of anchors thai are all in tension but the resultant force is eccentric with respect to the centroid of the anchor group. Groups of anchors can also be loaded in such a way that only some of Ihe anchors are in tension (Fig. RD.5.2.4(b)). In this case, only the anchors in tension are 10 be considered in the determination of The anchor loading has 10 be determined as the rcsultam anchor tension al an eccemricity with respect to the center of gravity of the anchors in tension.

'l"ec,N

(D-8)

e,v .

but lJIec,N shall not be taken greater than 1.0. If the loading on an anchor group is such that only some anchors are in tension, only those anchors that are in tension shall be considered when determining the eccentricity eN for use in Eq. (0'8) and for the calculation of Ncbg according to Eq. (0-4).

Amencan Concrete

441

CODE

In the case where eccentric loading exists about two axes, the modification factor, V'ec,N' shall be computed for each axis individually and the product of these factors used as V'ec,N in Eq. (0-4). 0.5.2.5 - The modification factor for edge effects for single anchors or anchor groups loaded in tension, lJ'ed,N' shall be computed as

COMMENTARY

If Cs,mln ~ 1.5hef

then V'ed,N= 1.0 (D-9)

RD.5.2.5 - If anchors are located close to an edge so that there is not enough space for a complete breakout prism to develop, the strength of the anchor is further reduced beyond that renectcd in ANcIANt'o' If the smallest side cover distance is greater than or equal to 1.511 t/_ a complete prism can fonn and there is no reduction ('i'm.,\' = 1). If the side cover is less than 1.5h,{) the factor 'Vtd.N is required to adjusl for the edge effect. .18

then V'ed,N= O.7+ o . 3 1.5h

cs, min

ef

(D-'O)

0.5.2.6 - For anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no cracking at service load levels, the following modifICation factor shall be permitted:

V'c.N = 1.25 for cast-in anchors; and V'c N = 1.4 for post-installed anchors, where the value

of

Where the value of k c used in Eq. (0-6) is taken from ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 product evaluation report for post-installed anchors qualified for use in both cracked and uncracked concrete, the values of k c and I V'c,N shall be based on the ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 product evaluation report.

RD.5.2.6 - Post-installed anchors that have not met the requirements for use in cracked concrete according to ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 should be used only in regions that will remain uncracked. The analysis for the determination of crack formation should include the effects of restrained shrinkage (see 7.12.1.2). The anchor qualification tests of ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 require that anchors in cracked concrete zones perform well in a crack that is 0.012 in. wide. If wider cracks are expected. confining reinforcement to control the crack width to <Jbout 0.012 in. should be provided. The concrete breakout strengths given by Eq. (D-6) and (0-7) assume cracked concrete (that is, 'l'c,N = 1.0) with Vlc.Nkc = 24 for cast-ill-place, and 17 for post-installed (cast-in 40 percent higher). When the uncracked concrete Vlc.N factors are applied (1.25 for cast-in, and 1.4 for post-installed). thc results are Vlt',Nk c faclOrs of 30 for cast-in and 24 for postinstalled (25 perccllt higher for cast-in). This agrees with field observations and tests thai show cast-in anchor slrength exceeds lhat of post-inslalled for both cracked and ullcracked concrete.

I the

I the

Where the value of k c used in Eq. (0-6) is taken from ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4 product evaluation report for post-installed anchors qualified for use in uncracked concrete, 'l'c,N shall be taken as 1.0.

When analysis indicates cracking at service load levels, V'c,N shall be taken as 1.0 for both cast-in anchors and post-installed anchors. Post-installed anchors shall be qualified for use in cracked concrete in accordance with I ACI 355.2 or ACI 355.4. The cracking in the concrete shall be controlled by flexural reinforcement distributed in accordance with 10.6.4, or equivalent crack control shall be provided by confining reinforcement. 0.5.2.7 - The modification factor for post-installed anchors designed for uncracked concrete in accordance with 0.5.2.6 without supplementary reinforcement to Control splitting, "'cp,M shall be computed as follows using the critical distance c sc as defined in 0.8.6

American Concrete Institute

RD.5.2.7 - The design provisions in D.5 are based on the assumption that the basic concrete breakout strength can be achieved if the minimum edge distance. ca.,";"- equals 1.5htf However. test results D.J7 indicate thai many torque~ controlled and displacement-controlled expansion anchors

Copyrighled Material-www.conc:rete.org

..

475

(22-7) (22-9)

Vn

Mu _ PUS4l0.42'A.jf{ 8 m Ag

Su_....!:!ST1.33),~ m Ag

M P ....!L...2< 415AJfI 8 A C g m

Vn =-3- bwh Vn

V n =0.11AJfI bwh

Vn=O.3SA~ bwh

4Ajf;

= 0.11[1 +~JAJfIboh

:::;0.22A~boh

Vn

S 0.71 A.R boh

S2.66A~boh

(22-10)

(B-1)

Pb -

Pb -

Nb = kJ'a~ h~i5 kc = 100r7

Pb

= O.SSPl

fy Nb =

f~( 87,000 )

87,000 +fy

Nb =

kJ.aJ'{ h~;5

kJ.aJ'{ h~.,5

k c =10or7 Nb =3.9f.. a

k c = 24 or17 Nb = 16A a

JiI h':(

Nb =5.8)" a

hs:?

h':l

(t

15 Af.. a K(C s1 )

C t d

(t

Ct

jd;,f.. a K(c s1 ) 15

Vb = 3.7f.. s K Vb =0.66..!

Ct

d.

(Ca1 {5

=3.8f.. aK

Vb =2.1 de

15 ~)'aK(Cal)'

C t d

15 fi!a"sK(C s1 )'

..

American Concrete Institute Copyrighted Material-www.concrele,org

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 121 & 134 No of sheets: 14

Elements Group Description of elements - Flanges or webs of rectangular tubular sections - Splice plates of diaphragms between lines of bolts or weldings - Webs of sections I, H or U - Flanges or webs of section-box - All the other elements that don't integrate the Group 1 - Brims of angles or multiple provided by working plates Some examples with indication of b and t

(b/t) lim

AA

AL

- Flanges of sections I, H, T or U rolled Brims of continued connecting angles or design of sections I, H, T or U rolled or welded - Designed plates of sections I, H, T or U rolled or welded

Webs of sections T

128

Mr

Mer

Sections I & H with two axes of symmetry and U sections not subjected to torsional moment, bending about the major axis of moment of inertia.

Sections I & H with only one axis of symmetry located in plane of web, major axis of moment of inertia. (see note 9)

Sections I & H with two axes of symmetry and U sections bending about the minor axis of moment of inertia.

Solid rectangular sections bending about the major axis of moment of inertia. Box sections and rectangular tubular sections, doubly symmetrical, bending about the axis of symmetry that is parallel to both sides.

Ver nota See note Viga de alma esbelta (Anexo H) - Beam of web (Annex. H)

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 118 to 120 No of sheets: 3

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Annexture-D (Normative) Method of amplification of the applied forces. D.1 General D.1.1 This Annex presents the method of amplification of applied forces, to perform elastic analysis of approximate second-order taking into account the effects of global P- and local P-. D.1.2 When using the method given in this Annex, it shall be made to act in the structure with the appropriate combination of actions determined in accordance with 4.7.7.2, consisting of vertical and horizontal actions, if any, considering the effect of initial geometric imperfections and the initial material imperfections as given in 4.9.7. D.2 Use of the method D.2.1 On each floor of the structure analyzed, the bending moment and axial force applied are calculated, Msd and Nsd. Must be determined by (Figure D.1):

where B1 and B2 are given, respectively, in D.2.2 and D.2.3; Mnt and Nnt .are respectively the calculated applied bending moment and axial force, obtained by analysis of elastic first orders, with the nodes of the structure are prevented from moving horizontally (Using, in the analysis, fictitious horizontal restraints on each floor - Structure nt - Figure D.1-b); Mlt and Nlt are respectively the calculated applied bending moment and axial force, obtained by analysis elastic first order, corresponding only to the effect of horizontal displacements of structure nodes (effect of the reactions of the fictional restraints applied in the opposite direction on the same points where such restraints were placed lt structure - Figure D.1-c); D.2.2 The coefficient is given by:

where: Ne is the axial force that causes the elastic buckling of the bar by bending in the plane of action of the bending moment calculated on the actual length of the bar, considering, if applicable, the initial imperfection of material as in 4.9.7;

118

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Nsd1 - is the applied compressive axial force on the bar calculated considered in an analysis of the first order (Nsd1= Nnt + Nlt ) Cm - is a coefficient equal to: - if there are no transverse forces between the ends of the bar in the plane of bending:

and M1 / M2 - is the relationship between the smallest and largest of the applied calculated bending moments in the structure not in the plane of bending, supported at the ends of the bar, taken as positive when it causes reverse curvature and negative when they cause a single curve, - if there are transverse forces between the ends of the bar in the plane of bending, the value of Cm should be determined by rational analysis or conservatively be taken equal to 1.0.

Original structure

If the applied calculated the axial force is tensile, then B1 should be taken equal to 1.0. D.2.3 The coefficient B2 is given by:

where: is total vertical loads acting on floor calculated considering Ultimate load combinations including loads in columns that are not part of the lateral load resisting system.

119

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Rs - is an adjustment coefficient equal to 0.85 for partially braced & moment frames & 1.0 for fully braced frames. h - is the relative horizontal displacement between the upper and lower levels (inter-floor displacements) considered on the floor, obtained from the analysis of the first order, considering Ultimate load combinations, in the original structure. If h have different values on the same floor, it should be taken a weighted value for this displacement, according to the proportion of active vertical loadings or, conservatively, the highest value; HSd - is the total shear force on the floor, produced by active calculated horizontal forces, calculated considering Ultimate load combinations, used for determining h and obtained in the original structure; h - is the height of the floor (distance between axes of beams of two consecutive floors or between axes of beams and the base, in the case of the first floor). D.2.4 Theforce cutting calculation applicant equal can be taken the one of the elastic analysis of first order, in other words, equal to the one of the structure original or same the:

where Vnt and Vlt are, respectively, the cutting forces of calculation in the structure nt and in the structure lt.

120

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 8681 Actions and safety of structures-procedure Pages 9 to 15 No of sheets: 7 + Typical load combinations sheets 3

or

If the calculation of active efforts is made by non-linear process, coefficient f is applied to the characteristic action:

It is said that there is no geometric linearity when the structural behavior is no longer linear due to alteration of the geometry of the system. When considering geometric nonlinearity, the coefficient f can be deployed in its partial coefficients by applying the coefficient to the application f3 calculated with the characteristic action multiplied by f1 0

5.1.2.2 Conditions relating to the usual service limit states The usual conditions of safety check on serviceability limit states are expressed by inequality of the type:

where:

Sd represents the values for the calculation of structural effects of interest, calculated using f = 1.0; Slim represents the limiting values adopted for these purposes.

5.1.3 Combinations of Ultimate actions

5.1.3.1 Ultimate normal combinations

where:

FGi.k is the characteristic value of permanent actions; FQ1.k is the characteristic value of variable action considered as the main action for the combination; 0j FQj.k is the reduced value of the combination of each of the other variable actions. In special cases must be considered with two combinations: one of them, it is assumed that the permanent actions are unfavorable and the other that are favorable to safety.

5.1.3.2 Ultimate combinations for special construction

The Ultimate combinations for special construction are given by the following expression:

where,

FGi.k is is the the characteristic characteristic value value of of variable permanent actions; action allowed for the main temporary situation FQ1.k considered;

0f.ef is the effective combination factor for each of the remaining variables that may act

concurrently with the main action FQ1 during the temporary situation. Factor 0j.ef is equal to the factor 0j adopted in the normal combinations, except when the main action of FQ1 has a very small time operation, in which case 0j.ef can be taken with the corresponding 2j 5.1.3.3 Ultimate exceptional combinations The Ultimate exceptional combinations are given by the following expression:

where:

FQ,exc is the temporary value of outstanding action and the other terms are already defined in 5.1.3.1 and 5.1.3.2. 5.1.4 Weighting coefficients for Ultimate combinations 5.1.4.1 Weighting coefficients for permanent combinations The weighting coefficients of the permanent actions g are adverse representative values of permanent actions that cause adverse effects and beneficial representative values of those that cause beneficial effects for the safety of the structure. For a given permanent action, all their shares are weighted by the same coefficient g, not permitting that some of its parts can be increased and other decreased. For solid materials that can cause thrust, the vertical component and a horizontal action and the other actions are considered, regardless of the primary action. The weighting coefficients g for permanent actions related to ultimate load combinations, unless otherwise indicated, expressed as a standard for the type of construction and materials considered, should be taken with the basic values as follows: a) Variability of permanent direct action: construction processes of structures, permanent non-structural building elements and fixed equipment determine the variability of the corresponding action. Controlled processes acknowledge more lower weights and less controlled processes require more coefficients. Table 1 gives values of the weighting coefficient to consider for each permanent action, taken separately. Table 2 gives the value of the weighting coefficient to consider whether in a combination, all these actions are grouped. The designer must choose one of these two tables; b) the effects of settlements and shrinkage of supporting materials: in this case take the values given in table 3.

10

Table 1-permanent direct actions considered separately Combinations Type of action Dead weight of steel structures Dead weight of precast structures Self-weight of structures fabricated on site 1) Industrial building elements Additional Industrial building elements on site 2) General elements of construction and equipment Effects Unfavorable Favorable 1.25 1.0 1.30 1.0 1.35 1.0 1.35 1.0 1.40 1.0 1.50 1.0

Normal

Special Construction

Dead weight of steel structures Dead weight of precast structures Self-weight of structures fabricated on site Industrial building elements1) Additional Industrial building elements on site General elements of construction and equipment2) Dead weight of steel structures Dead weight of precast structures Self-weight of structures fabricated on site Industrial building elements1) Additional Industrial building elements on site General elements of construction and equipment2)

1.15 1.20 1.25 1.25 1.30 1.40 1.10 1.15 1.15 1.15 1.20 1.30

1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Exceptional

1) 2)

For example, walls and precast facades, drywall. For example, brick walls and their linings, sub floor.

1)

Type of structure Major bridges 2) Buildings Type 1 and bridges in a general 3) Building type 2 Major bridges1) Buildings Type 1 and bridges in a general2) Building type 23) Major bridges1) Buildings Type 1 and bridges in a general2) Building type 23)

Normal

Effects Unfavorable Favorable 1.0 1.30 1.0 1.35 1.0 1.40 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0

Special Construction

Exceptional

1) 2)

Major bridges are those in which the weight of the structure exceeds 75% of all actions. Building Type 1 are those where the accidental loads exceed 5 kN/m2. 3) Building type 2 are those where the accidental loads do not exceed 5 kN/m2.

11

Table 3-Effects of settlements and shrinking supporting materials effects Combinations Adverse Benificial

Normal Special Construction Exceptional

= 1.2 = 1.2 = 0

= 0 = 0 = 0

5.1.4.2 Weighting coefficients for variable actions The weighting coefficients q of the actions are adverse variables representing values of variable actions that cause an adverse impact on the safety of the structure. The favorable actions cause favorable effects and are not considered in the combination of actions, assuming that they only act on the portions of structure variable actions that produce adverse effects. The variable actions that have portions favorable and unfavorable, that physically cannot act separately, should be considered together as a single action. The weighting coefficients q related to variables actions listed in the ultimate combinations, unless otherwise indicated, expressed as a standard for the type of construction and materials considered, should be taken to the default values listed in Table 4 for each of the actions considered separately or in table 5 if these actions are considered together. The designer must choose one of these two tables. Table 4- Variables actions considered separately Combinations Type of action Short Term Actions Effect of temperature The wind General variable Actions Short Term Actions1) Effect of temperature The wind General variable Actions General variable Actions

1)

Weighing coefficients 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.1 1.0 1.2 1.3 1.0

Normal

1)

Short term actions are considered as variable actions whose maximum distribution is truncated by a physical device so that the value of this action cannot exceed the corresponding limit. The weighting coefficient shown in Table 4 applies to this threshold.

Combinations Normal Type of structutre Bridges and buildings type 1 building type 2 Bridges and buildings type 1 building type 2

1)

Special Construction

General structures 1.0 Exceptional Short term actions are considered as variable actions whose maximum distribution is truncated by a physical device so that the value of this action cannot exceed the corresponding limit. The weighting coefficient shown in Table 4 applies to this threshold.

1)

12

f the weighting coefficients for the exceptional action shown in the ultimate exceptional combinations,

unless otherwise indicated, expressed as a standard for the type of construction and material in question must be taken together with the basic value.

f = 1,0

5.1.4.4 Values of factors for combination and reduction The combination of factors 0, unless otherwise indicated, expressed as a standard for the type of construction and materials considered are given in table 6, together with the reduction factors 1 and 2 relating to combinations of service. Table 6-Factor Values for combination 0 and reduction (1 and 2) for the variable actions

Actions

Accidental loads of buildings Locations where there is a predominance of weights and equipment that remain fixed for long periods of time or high concentrations of people1) Locations where there is a predominance of weights of equipment that remain fixed for long periods of time, or high concentrations of people2) Libraries, archives, warehouses, workshops and garages Wind Dynamic pressure of wind on structures in general Temperature Uniform variation of temperature with respect to Annual site average. Moving loads and their dynamic effects Pedestrian walkways road bridges Not specialized railway bridges Specialized railway bridges Supporting members of overhead cranes

0 0.5

1 0.4

2 3),4) 0.3

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.8 0.6

0.7 0.3

0.6 0

0.6

0.5

0.3

1) Residential buildings with restricted access. 2) commercial buildings, offices and public access. 3) For exceptional combinations where the main action is earthquake, it is assumed to take 2 to zero. 4) For exceptional combinations where the main action is the fire, the reduction factor 2 can be reduced by multiplying it by 0.7.

5.1.4.5 Values of reduction factors to apply to the frequent combination of fatigue verification In the absence of a load spectrum that defines the frequency of repetition of load level, allowing the application of the Palmgren-Miner rule, verification of fatigue can be made for a single load level. This load level is defined by the fatigue loading frequent 1,fad Fqk, which corresponds to the one number of load cycles. The reduction factors for frequent combination of fatigue 1,fad , and the number of repetitions of loading condition, N, which, throughout life, can cause fatigue failure are set out in Table 7.

13

Table 7-Values of the reduction factors for frequent combination of fatigue Moving Load and it's dynamic effects Pedestrian walkways road bridges Deck slab Transverse beams 1) Longitudinal Beams - ranging up to 100 m - ranging from 200 m - ranging 300 m 6) - deck top and infrastructure Special in railway bridges

Non-specialized Railroad bridges Cranes

5)

1,fad 0

0.8

2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10 6 2 x 10

2 x 10

6

1) 2)

The value of 1,fad , can be linearly interpolated between 100 m and 300 m. Where 50% of the cycles occur under full load. 3) Where 65% of the cycles occur under full load. 4) Where 80% of the cycles occur under full load. 5) In the absence of precise details of the operating cycle of the crane, it is allowed to use the figures provided in this table. 6) As long as linked only by to super-support structure is not the case, for example, cablestayed bridges or the porch 5.1.5 Serviceability combinations of actions In serviceability combinations all permanent actions are considered, including the deformations imposed permanently and variable actions corresponding to each of the types of combinations, according to what is indicated in 5.1.5.1 to 5.1.5.3.

5.1.5.1 Quasi-permanent Serviceability combinations In the quasi-permanent combinations of serviceability, all variables actions are considered with their quasi-permanent values 2 FQk:

5.1.5.2 Frequent serviceability combinations In the frequent combinations of serviceability, FQ1 the main variable action is taken with frequent value 1 FQ1,k and all other variables actions are taken with its quasi-permanent values 2 FQk:

14

5.1.5.3 Rare combinations of serviceability In the rare combinations of serviceability, The main variable action FQ1 is taken with its characteristic value FQ1,k and all other actions are taken with their frequent values 1 FQk:

5.1.6 Values of combined factors and service factors The values for factor for combination 0 for ultimate combinations and factors for the serviceability combinations, 1 for very frequent combinations and 2 for quasi-permanent combinations, are below. These values apply to actions usually considered in civil engineering structures, unless otherwise indicated, expressed as a standard for the type of construction and materials considered. 5.1.7 Conditions of safety related to loss of equilibrium as a rigid body 5.1.7.1 Terms and Conditions The ultimate limit states of loss of balance, considered as a rigid body structure, do not depend on the strength of the materials used and correspond to the beginning of the movement as a rigid body structure. The safety considerations relating to ultimate limit states of loss of balance are expressed by inequalities of the type:

where:

Snd and Ssd represent the values calculated with the effort which is expressed in the equilibrium, Snd being referring to non stabilizing actions Fnd and Sd to the stabilizing actions Fs. Fnd values and Fsd shall be determined by the same rules of combinations of actions indicated in 5.1.3. The weighting coefficients 'y' used must be adequately justified in view of the values specified in 5.1.4 and possible alterations indicated in 5.3. The safety conditions can be expressed symbolically by:

where gs and gn are the weighting coefficients corresponding respectively to stabilizing actions Gs and non stabilizing actions Gn. Permanent stabilizing actions, non stabilizing and non stabilizing variable actions, represented symbolically by Gs, Gn and Q should be determined for each type of loading, according to the rules defined in 5.1.3. 5.1.7.2 Stabilizing variable actions In principle, the variables actions considered in safety conditions must be only the non stabilizers. Where the action of a non stabilizing variable action is necessarily accompanied by the stabilizing action of a portion of another action, this should be included in the calculation of Snd, as counter action to the other. Do not allow the effect of this action as part of an stabilizing effort Ssd. The safety conditions in this case, have the following symbolic form: ABNT 2004 -All rights reserved

15

Load Case 1 Load Case 2 Load Case 3 Load Case 4 Load Case 5 Load Case 6 Load Case 7 Load Case 8 Load Case 9 Load Case 10 Load Case 11 Load Case 12 Load Case 13 EQ + X EQ + Z DL1/DL2 LL1 / LL2 / LL3 LL4 /LL5/LL6 LL7 EL1/ EL2 / EL3 / EL4 WL + X WL - X WL + Z WL - Z TEMP + VE TEMP - VE 2.0b. Also extraordinary loads like Earthquake and wind are not to be combined with LL4 to LL6 However the load LL7 shall be combined with Earthquake and Wind Load. 2.0a Extraordinary Loads EL1 to EL4 are not to be combined with LL4 to LL7. ..(During Dead + Live) Refer 749500 2.5.3 1 Extrordinary Loads EL1 to EL4 are not combined with other Extraordinary Loads like Earthquake and wind Load

1 EQ + X

2 EQ + Z

3 DL1/DL2

4 LL(1-3)

5 LL(4-6)

6 LL7

7 EL1-4

8 WL + X

9 WL - X

10 WL + Z

11 WL - Z

12

13

TEMP + VE TEMP - VE

ULS LOAD COMBINATIONS Load Comb 101 Load Comb 201 Load Comb 301 Load Comb 302 Load Comb 303 Load Comb 304 Dead + Live(LL1-7) Dead + Live(LL1-3,EL1-4) Dead + Earthquake Dead + Earthquake Dead + Earthquake Dead + Earthquake Beneficial Effect 1.00 -1.00 1.00 -1.00 1.35 1.35 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50

Load Comb 501 Load Comb 502 Load Comb 503 Load Comb 504 Load Comb 601 Load Comb 602 Load Comb 603 Load Comb 604 Load Comb 701 Load Comb 702 Load Comb 703 Load Comb 704

Dead + Live + Earthquake Dead + Live + Earthquake Dead + Live + Earthquake Dead + Live + Earthquake Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind

Adverse Effect

0.70 0.70 0.70 0.70 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40

Beneficial Effect

Adverse Effect

Load Comb 801 Load Comb 802 Load Comb 803 Load Comb 804 Load Comb 901 Load Comb 902 Load Comb 903 Load Comb 904 Load Comb 1001 Load Comb 1002 Load Comb 1003 Load Comb 1004 Load Comb 1101 Load Comb 1102 Load Comb 1103 Load Comb 1104 Load Comb 1201 Load Comb 1202 Load Comb 1203 Load Comb 1204 Load Comb 1301 Load Comb 1302 Load Comb 1303 Load Comb 1304 Load Comb 1401 Load Comb 1402 Load Comb 1403 Load Comb 1404 Load Comb 1501 Load Comb 1502 Load Comb 1503 Load Comb 1504 Load Comb 1601 Load Comb 1602

Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead+ Wind + Live + TL Dead + Live + Temperature. Dead + Live + Temperature.

Adverse Effect

1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50

1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.20 1.50 1.50

0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 0.84 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40 1.40

0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72

Adverse Effect

Beneficial Effect

Beneficial Effect

Adverse Effect

Adverse Effect

Beneficial Effect

Beneficial Effect

SLS LOAD COMBINATIONS Load Comb 1701 Load Comb 1801 Load Comb 1901 Load Comb 1902 Load Comb 1903 Load Comb 1904 Load Comb 2001 Load Comb 2002 Load Comb 2003 Load Comb 2004 Load Comb 2101 Load Comb 2102 Load Comb 2103 Load Comb 2104 Load Comb 2201 Load Comb 2202 Load Comb 2203 Load Comb 2204 Load Comb 2301 Load Comb 2302 Load Comb 2303 Load Comb 2304 Dead + Live(LL1-7) Dead + Live(LL1-3,EL1-4) Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Live + Wind + TL Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind Dead + Wind 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 0.60 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50

* The combinations list is not complete. It is the responsibility of the designer to combine the loads to obtain the dangerous load combinations.

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Extract of NBR 8681 Actions and safety of structures-procedure

Annexture C (Normative)

Maximum Displacements C.1 General

This Annex shows the values of maximum displacements required for normal situations in buildings. These displacements must be understood as practical values to be used for verifying the serviceability limit state for the excessive displacement of the structure.

C.2 Design Considerations C.2.1 The maximum values required for the vertical and horizontal displacements are given in C.3. These values are empirical and

are used for comparison with the results of structural analysis, performed according C.2.2. In some cases, more stringent limits may have to be adopted, considering, for example, the use of building, the characteristics of finishing materials, the proper functioning of equipment, financial issues and the perception of discomfort.

C.2.2 The displacements should be calculated according to 4.9.8, taking into account the possibility of the plastic deformation at service limit state. The effect of the rotation of rigid links, depending on the design evaluation, which may also be considered.

The technical person responsible for the design must carefully analyze each situation and decide whether a displacement can be considered as an extreme state reversible or not. In the absence of a better evaluation, if a structural element which support only components not subjected to cracking and their behaviour in service is elastic, it can be considered as an reversible excessive displacement at limit state. On the other hand, if the structural element support components subject to cracking or takes into account displacement due to the occurrence of plastic deformation, one must understand this displacement as irreversible excessive at limit state. C.2.4 The technical person responsible for the design must decide which service combinations should be used for the structural element considered according to the functions of the structure, characteristics of materials used to tie the structure and sequence of construction, except where indicated in Table C.1 (See notes d, e, f and j of this table). Depending on the factors mentioned above, it may be that one has to change commonly used combination of service. For example, the displacement (See C.3.1) usually related to the appearance of the structure quasi-permanent combinations as 4.7.7.3. should be used. However, in situations in which this displacement will affect the operation of equipment, causing ponding on the roof or even permanent damage to non-structural elements subject to cracking, as in partition walls and ceilings, placed before the actions considered them to act, then one should use them in primary and secondary cases and rarely in frequent combinations.

C.2.3

The maximum values of vertical displacements (arrows) and horizontal lines are given in Table C.1 and C.3.4. In the case of vertical displacements, these values are referenced to a simply supported beam, as shown in Figure C.1, where: o - is contraflexture point in the beam 1 - is the displacement due to the permanent actions, no long-term effects considered, 2 - is the displacement due to considering long-term effects of permanent actions (if any), 3 - is the displacement due to variable actions, including, if any, long-lasting effects due to quasi-permanent actions, max - is the maximum displacement of the beam in the final stages of loading taking into account the contraflexture point tot - is the sum of the 1, 2, 3 displacements The consideration of the long term effects should be made according to O.1.2.1.

115

Figure C.1 - Vertical displacements to be considered C.3.2 The calculated vertical displacements are to be compared with the maximum values given in Table C.1, we can deduce the value of the beam contra-flexure to the limit deflection from the permanent actions. (Figure C.1). C.3.3 In each situation, the technical person responsible for the design must decide which one (s) displacement (s), given schematically in Figure C.1 (s) must be compared (s) with maximum values in Table C.1 and which loading (or part thereof) will be considered in the calculation, taking into account the construction sequence. In most cases, only the part of the displacement due to variable actions (), Plus the part (If any) of long-term effects of permanent actions ( ), are responsible for causing damage to the non-structural elements. Are common, however, situations in which we should also add the part of displacement due to permanent actions (the one that became active only after the construction of the nonstructural elements) or consider the maximum displacement, (See C.2.4). It should also be assessed, in each max case, the probability of simultaneous occurrence of two or more variable actions. C.3.4 For general sheds and buildings of a floor with masonry walls, in addition to the provisions of C.3.1, the horizontal displacement (perpendicular to the wall) of the structure should be limited, so that the opening of cracks that may occur at the base of the wall does not exceed 1.5 mm, considering wall as rigid panel (Figure C.2).

Deslocamento a ser limitado Displacement to be limited Parede como painel rgido Wall as rigid panel Base da parede - Base of the wall Figure C.2 - Wall as a rigid panel

116

Description

a

L/180 cd L/120 L/180

e f b

L/120 - Roof trusses Floor Beams : -Main beams -Secondary beams - Beams supporting columns L/250

Beams bearing: i - Vertical displacement for cranes with a rated capacity less than 200 kN L/600 i - Vertical displacement for cranes with a rated capacity equal to or greater to 200 L/800 kN, except steel bridges i - Vertical displacement for steel cranes with a rated capacity equal or exceeding L/1000 200 kN - Horizontal displacement, except for steel cranes L/400 - Horizontal displacement for cranes steel L/600 Sheds in general and one-story buildings: - Horizontal displacement from at the top of the column from the base H/300 kl - Horizontal displacement of the beam at rolling from the base H/400 Buildings of two or more floors: - Horizontal displacement from at the top of the column from the base H/400 m - For horizontal displacement between two consecutive floors h/500 Composite slabs See Annex Q a L is the distance between theoretical supports or twice the theoretical length in case of cantilever. H is the total height of the column (the distance top to bottom) or the distance from the beam at rolling base, h is the height of the floor (distance between centers of beams of two consecutive floors or between centers of the beams and the base in case the first floor). b Displacement parallel to the plane of closing ties(between rows of rods, if they exist). c Displacement perpendicular to the plane of closing ties. d Considering only variable loads perpendicular to the plane of closing (wind at closing) to its characteristic value e Considering rare combination of service, using the variables action in the same direction to that of the permanent action. f Considering only the variables actions direction opposite to the permanent action (wind suction) with its characteristic value. g It should also prevent the occurrence of ponding, with special attention to small-slope roofs. h If there are masonry walls over or under a beam, in solidarity with this beam, the vertical displacement also should not exceed 15 mm. i Value is not increased by the coefficient of impact. j Consider rare combinations of service. k In the case of steel cranes, the displacement cannot exceed 50 mm. l The difference between the horizontal displacement of the porch columns that support the beams cannot overcome 15 mm. m Taking only the displacement caused by shear forces considered on the floor, ignoring the rigid body displacement caused by axial deformation of columns and beams.

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The detail design of structural steel is based on the following dimensions of steel sections and plates in steel quality E250 ( Fe 410W) - Grade 250 N/mm2

Equal Angles

L L L L L L L L ISA 50x50x6 ISA 65x65x6 ISA 75x75x6 ISA 75x75x8 ISA 90x90x8 ISA 100x100x10 ISA 110x110x10 ISA 130x130x12 UnEqual Angles L ISA150x75x10

Channels

MC MC MC MC MC MC ISMC 100 ISMC 150 ISMC 200 ISMC 250 ISMC 300 ISMC 400 MB MB MB MB MB MB MB MB MB

I Sections

ISMB 150 ISMB 200 ISMB 250 ISMB 300 ISMB 350 ISMB 400 ISMB 450 ISMB 500 ISMB 600

HEA Sections

H H H H HEA 600 HEA 700 HEA 800 HEA 900 UC UC UC UC UC UC UC UC UC

UC Sections

UC 152x152x30 UC 203x203x46 UC 203x203x60 UC 254x254x89 UC 254x254x107 UC 305x305x97 UC 305x305x137 UC 356X368X129 UC 356X368X153 PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL PL

Plates

06 MM 08 MM 10 MM 12 MM 16 MM 20 MM 25 MM 30 MM 36 MM 40 MM 45 MM 50 MM

Structural bolts:

Grade 8.8

M12 M16 M20 M24 M30

Anchor bolts:

ASTM F1554 (Grade 36)

M20 M24 M30 M36

L 50x50x6 has been removed & will not be used in Cimpor projects.

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Extract of Design Manual for Cold Formed Steel Sections of PENNAR industries Ltd

No. of sheets: 16

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Page 38 No of sheets: 1

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 5.2.3 Effective Net Area The effective net area of a bar, Ae, is given by: Ae= Ct An where: An is the net area of the bar, determined according to 5.2.4; Ct is a coefficient of reduction of the net area, determined according to 5.2.5. 5.2.4 Net area 5.2.4.1 In areas with holes for connection or for any other purpose, the net area, An of a bar is the sum of the products of the net thickness by the net width of each element and is calculated as follows: a) In bolted connections, the width of the holes should be considered 2.0 mm larger than the maximum dimension of these holes, as defined in 6.3.6, perpendicular to the direction of the applied force (alternatively, in the case if it can guarantee that the holes are executed with drill, the width can be taken equal to the maximum dimension); b) In the case of series of holes distributed across the axis of the bar,diagonal to that axis or in zigzag, the net width of that part of the bar should be calculated by deducting the gross width, the sum of the widths of all of the holes in line, and 2 added for each line connecting two holes amounting to s /(4g), where s and g respectively are the longitudinal and cross spacings (size) between those two holes (Figure-4); c) The net crtical width of the part of the bar will be obtained by the line of holes that produces the smallest of the net widths, for the different possibilities of rupture lines; d) for angles, the dimension g of the holes in opposite sides should be considered as the sum of the dimensions, measured starting from the edge of the angle minus the thickness; e) in the determination of the net area of section that contains cap welds or fillet welds in holes, the area of the weld metal should be neglected

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 49 to 53 No of sheets: 5

b) in areas with zero moment at the ends, subjected to uniform transverse force distributed, with only one flange restrainted continually against lateral displacement:

In the verification to FLT, it should be taken as bending moment calculated, the largest moment that compresses the free flange. In the case of the paragraph a), for instance, that moment is Mo. 5.4.2.5 The beams, plates with or without reinforceed flanges, even with bolts holes on the flanges, they can be designed to bensing moment based on gross section properties provided that:

where: Afn - is the net area of the tension flange, calculated in accordance with 5.2.4; Afg - it is the gross area of the tension flange; Yt - is a coefficient equal to 1.0 for fy /fu 0.8 and equal to 1.10 if fy /fu > 0.8.

The bending moment resistance calculated should be limited by the ultimate limt state of rupture by bending in the area of the holes on the tension flange, is given by:

where W1 - is the modulus of elastic resistance on the tension side of the section, relative to the bending axis. 5.4.3 Shear Force Resistance calculation From 5.4.3.1 to 5.4.3.6 the values are provided for shear force resistance calculation, VRd of the bars bendings, considering the ultimate limit states of yeilding and shear buckling. In the sections given in 5.4.3.1, 5.4.3.2 and 5.4.3.3, the element resistant to the shear force is the web (or webs); in the sections given in 5.4.3.4, the elements are the brace angles perpendicular to the bending axis; in the sections foreseen in 5.4.3.5, the resistant elements are the flanges; and, in the sections reffered in 5.4.3.6, the resistant element is the wall of the profile. Additionally, the requirements are given in 5.4.3.1.3 for placement of transverse stiffners in sections I, H and U bendings in relation to the main axis of inertia perpendicular to the web.

49

5.4.3.1 Sections I, H and U bendings related to the axis perpendicular to the web 5.4.3.1.1 In sections I, H and U bendings in relation to the main axis of inertia perpendicular to the web (axis of the greatest moment inertia), the shear force resistance calculation, VRd, it is given by:

Para for Onde where Para alma sem enrijecedores transversais, para > 3 ou para > = For webs without transverse stiffeners, for ............or for ........... para todos os outros casos = For all other cases Vpt Vp - is the shear force corresponding to the shear yeilding of the web, as given in 5.4.3.1.2; a - is the distance between center lines of two adjacent transverse stiffners (see 5.4.3.1.3); h - is the height of the web, taken equal to the distance between the inner faces of the flanges in the welded profiles and equal to this value minus the two radii of curvature between flange and web in the rolled profiles; tw - is the thickness of the web.

50

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.4.3.1.2 The shear force corresponding to the shear yeilding of the web is given by:

In this equation, Aw - is the effective of shear, that should be taken equal to: Aw = dtw where: d - is the total height of the cross section; tw- is the thickness of the web. 5.4.3.1.3 When the transverse stiffeners are required they should meet following requirements: a) the transverse stiffeners should be welded to the web and the flanges of the profile, however at the side of the tension flanges can be interrupted by the distance between the nearest points of the welds between flange and web and between stiffener and web is between 4tw and 6tw; b) the ratio between the width and thickness of the elements that form the stiffeners cannot exceed:

c) the moment of inertia of the section of the stiffener or the pair of stiffeners (one on each side of the 3 web) from the axis in plane of the web cannot be less than - at wj where

5.4.3.2 Rectangular tubular and box sections In rectangular tubular and box sections and bending about the main axis of inertia, the shear force resistantance calculation, VRd is given by the same procedure presented in 5.4.3.1.1, with kv equal to 5.0, h equal to the height of the plane part of the webs in the rectangular tubular sections and equal at the distance between the internal faces of the flanges of the box sections and tw equal to the thickness of one of the webs (the two webs should have the same thickness). The shear forrce Vpl is determined according to 5.4.3.1.2 with: 5.4.3.3 In T sections bending about the axis perpendicular to the web In T sections bending about the main axis of inertia perpendicular to the web, the shear force resistance calculation, VRd is given by the same procedure presented in 5.4.3.1.1, with kv equal to 1.2, h - equal to the total height of the cross section (d) and tw is equal to the thickness of the web, so that the ratio d/ tw doesn't exceed 260. The shear force Vpl is determined according to 5.4.3.1.2, with: Aw = d/ tw

51

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.4.3.4 Sections formed by two angles, bending about to the axis, perpendicular to the symmetry In sections formed by two angles forming T- type sections with bending about the main axis of inertia perpendicular to the axis of symmetry, the shear force resistantance calculation VRd, is given by the same procedure presented in 5.4.3.1.1, where kv equal to 1.2, h - equal to the total height of the cross section (b) and tw are equal to the thickness of the leg perpendicular to the bending axis of one of the angles (t), so that the ratio b/t doesn't exceed 260. The shear force Vpl is determined according to 5.4.3.1.2, with: Aw =2bt 5.4.3.5 Sections I, H and U bending in relation to the perpendicular axis to the flanges In sections formed by two angles I and H doublle symmetrical and sections U mono-symmetrical bending in relation to the main axis of perpendicular inertia to the flanges (axis of smaller moment of inertia), the resistant shear force of calculation, VRd, is given by the same procedure presented in 5.4.3.1.1, with kv equal to 1.2, h equal to half of the width of the flanges in the sections I and H (bf/2) and equal to the total width of the flanges in the sections U (bf) and tw is equal to the medium thickness of the flanges (tf). The shear force Vpl is determined according to 5.4.3.1.2, with:

5.4.3.6 Circular tubular sections In circular tubular sections bending about the main axis of inertia, the shear force resistance calculation, VRd, is given by:

where: D - is the external diameter of the cross section; td - is the calculated thickness of the wall of cross section, taken equal to 0.93 times the nominal thickness for tubes with seam equal to the nominal thickness of seamless tubes; Lv - is the distance between the sections of maximum shear force and zero.

52

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.4.4 Reinforcement plates placed on flanges (Cover plates) 5.4.4.1 Reinforcement plates placed on flanges, with length less than the span of the beam, they must extend beyond the section where theoretically they would not be necessary, called as transition section. The extension should be attached to the original flange by high strength bolts (with friction connection) or fillet welds, designed for the applied force calculated corresponding to the applied normal tensions in the cover plates, caused by the applied bending moment calculated at the transition section (Figure-13). 5.4.4.2 Additionally, in the case of welded cover plates, the longitudinal welds of both ends- al in the length, must be designed for calculated force applied corresponding to the results of the normal tensions in the cover plate, caused by the applied bending moment calculated at the section distant al at the end of the cover plate, with al (Figure-13): a) Equal to the width of the cover plate, when there is fillet weld the size of the leg (see 6.2.6.2) equal or more than 75% of the thickness of the cover plate, along the longitudinal edges of the cover plate in the length al and along its edges; b) Equal to 1.5 times the width of the cover plate, when it is continuous fillet weld the size of the leg (see 6.2.6.2) less than 75% of the thickness of the cover plate, along the longitudinal edges of the cover plate in the length al and along its edges; c) Equal to twice the width of the cover plate, when there is no weld along its edge, however, there is continuous fillet welds along their longitudinal edges for the length al. 5.4.5 Additional requirements related to welded sections al In the welded profiles, the welding joining flanges and web must be design to support the total horizontal shear resulting from the bending. In addition the weld must be design to transmit any force to the web applied directly on the flange, unless the transmission of such force is ensured by other means. 5.5 Prismatic Bars subjected to the combination of foces This subsection is applicable to the verification of the ultimate limit states of prismatic bars in the conditions as foreseen in 5.4.1.1, subjected to the forces of bending moment and shear force,axial force and torsional moment. In I and H sections with only one symmetry axis, located in the plane of the web, it should be the ratio of the moments of inertia of compression and tension flanges caused by the bending moment, about the axis located between 1/9 and 9 (factor in accordancce to Annexture-G). Additionally, it should also be verified applicable serviciabilty limit states. according to provisons of this Norm. 5.5.1 Bars subjected to bending moments, axial forces and shear forces 5.5.1.1 In 5.5.1.2 the condition presented should be met by the bars subjected to the combined forces of axial force and bending moment, so that torsion does not occur. In 5.5.1.3 the conditions presented are to be taken for those bars, having the effects of the shear forces.

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 37 to 42 No of sheets: 6

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 5.1.2.2.4 The width b of some of the most common elements AL should be taken as follows: a) for flanges of sections I, H and T, the half of the total width of the flange; b) for angles and flanges of U sections, the total width of the element; c) for plates, the distance between the free edges to the first line of bolts or weld; d) for web of sections T, the total height of the cross section (height of web plus thickness of the flange ). 5.2 Prismatic Bars subjected to the axial force of tension 5.2.1 General 5.2.1.1 This subsection is applied to prismatic bars subjected to the axial tension force, including bars connected by pins and round bars with threaded edges. 5.2.1.2 In the design, the following condition should be met:

Nt,sd is the calculated axial tension force; NtRd is the calculated axial tension force resistance, determined by 5.2.2, 5.2.6 or 5.2.7, which ever is applicable Established considerations related to the limitation of the slenderness should be considered as per 5.2.8. 5.2.2 Calculation of axial Resistance

The calculation of axial tension force NtRd, is to be used in the design, except for round bars with threaded ends and connected bars by pins, it is the smallest obtained values, considering the ultimate limit state of yeilding of the gross section and rupture of the net section, in accordance with the follwing suitable expressions: a) for yeilding of the gross section

b)

where: Ag is the gross area of the cross section of the bar; Ae is the effective net area of the cross section of the bar, determined according to 5.2.3; fy is the yeilding strength of the steel; fu the minimum tensile strength of the steel

37

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 5.2.3 Effective Net Area The effective net area of a bar, Ae, is given by: Ae= Ct An where: An is the net area of the bar, determined according to 5.2.4; Ct is a coefficient of reduction of the net area, determined according to 5.2.5. 5.2.4 Net area 5.2.4.1 In areas with holes for connection or for any other purpose, the net area, An of a bar is the sum of the products of the net thickness by the net width of each element and is calculated as follows: a) In bolted connections, the width of the holes should be considered 2.0 mm larger than the maximum dimension of these holes, as defined in 6.3.6, perpendicular to the direction of the applied force (alternatively, in the case if it can guarantee that the holes are executed with drill, the width can be taken equal to the maximum dimension); b) In the case of series of holes distributed across the axis of the bar,diagonal to that axis or in zigzag, the net width of that part of the bar should be calculated by deducting the gross width, the sum of the widths of all of the holes in line, and 2 added for each line connecting two holes amounting to s /(4g), where s and g respectively are the longitudinal and cross spacings (size) between those two holes (Figure-4); c) The net crtical width of the part of the bar will be obtained by the line of holes that produces the smallest of the net widths, for the different possibilities of rupture lines; d) for angles, the dimension g of the holes in opposite sides should be considered as the sum of the dimensions, measured starting from the edge of the angle minus the thickness; e) in the determination of the net area of section that contains cap welds or fillet welds in holes, the area of the weld metal should be neglected

38

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 5.2.4.2 In areas where there are no holes, the net area should be taken equal to the gross area of the cross section, Ag. 5.2.5 Reduction coefficient The coefficient of reduction of the net area, Ct, has the following values: a) when the tension force is transmitted directly to the crossesection of the elements, by welds or bolts: Ct = 1,00 b) when the tension force is transmitted by cross welds:

where Ac is the area of the cross section of the connected elements; c) In the bars with open cross sections, when the tension force is only transmitted by bolts or only by longitudinal welds or by the combination of longitudinal and cross welds for some (not all) elements of the cross section (must be taken as 0.90 as upper limit and not allowing the use of connections that the result in the value less than 0.60):

ec is the eccentric connection, equal to the distance of the geometric center of the section of the bar, G- is the plane of shear connection (in profiles with a symmetry in plan, the connection should be symmetrical in relation to the considered calculation of Ct, two fictitious and symmetrical bars, each is correspondent to a plan of shear of the connection, for instance, two sections T in the case of profiles I or connected H by the flanges or two sections U, in the case of those profiles be linked by the beam - see Figure 5); lc is the effective length of the connection (length, in the welded connections, it is equal to the length of the weld in the direction of the axial force; in the bolted connections it is equal to the distance between the first and the last bolt of the line with larger number of bolts, in the direction of the axial force);

39

de of Figure-5 - Illustration of the ec values in open sections d) in the plane plates, where the tension force is only transferred by longitudinal welds along both edges, according to the Figure-6 (see 6.2.6.2.3): Ct = 1.00, for lw 2b Ct =0.87, for 2b> lw l.5b Ct =0.75, for l.5b > lw b where: lw is the length of the weld strings; b is the width of the plate (distance between the welds on the two edges);

Figure 6 Flat plate with tension force transmitted by longitudinal weld e) as in c), bars with rectangular tubular sections, when the tension force is transmitted by means of connecting plates or concentric plates on two opposite sites of the sections provided the length of the connection, lc not less than the dimension of the section parallel to direction of connecting plates (Figure 7);

40

Figure 7 - Illustration of ec value in rectangular tubular section f) in the bars with circular tubular sections, when the tension force be transmitted by means of concentric connecting plate (Figure-8): - if the length of the connection, lc , is greater than or equal to 1.30 of the external diameter of the bar: Ct = 1,00; - as in the paragraph c), if the length of the connection is greater than or equal to the external diameter of the bar and less than 1.30 times the diameter .

Figure 8 - Illustration of ec value in circular tubular section 5.2.6 Bar connected by pin 5.2.6.1 For calculatiion of the axial tensile strength of pin connected bar consider lowest value of the following limit states: a) Yielding of the gross section due to tension, according to 5.2.2; b) Resistance to contact pressure in the projected area of Pin, according to 6.6; c) The net section rupture by tension

41

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 with Asf = 2t (a + dp l 2) where: t it is the thickness of the connecting plate by the pin; bef is an effective width, equal to 2t + 16 mm, but no more than the actual distance from the edge of the hole to the edge of the closest measured part in the perpendicular direction to the axial force acting; a it is the smallest distance of the edge of the hole to the end of the bar measured in the parallel direction to the active axial force; dp is the diameter of the pin 5.2.6.2 Should be meet the following requirements (Figure-9): a) the hole of the pin should be loacted in the mid way between the edges of the bar in the direction normal to the active axial force; b) when the pin has the function to allow relative rotations between the connected parts, the diameter of the hole, dh, can be at the most 1.0 mm larger than the pin, dp; c) the length of the plate, beyond the edge of the hole, it cannot be less than (2 bef + dp) and the distance can not be less than 1.33 bef (bef; dp - are defined in 5.2.6.1); d) the corner of the bar and section of the pin hole can be cut in angles of 45 in relation to the longitudinal axis, provided the net area of the section between the edge and edge of the hole cut in a plane perpendicular to the cutting which is not less than that required beyond the edge of the whole parralel to axis of piece.

5.2.6.3 The pin should be designed as bar subjected to bending moment and shear force, according to 5.4

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 45, 121 to 129 No of sheets: 10

Figure-11 - Value of y in function of the slenderness index o Tabela 4 - Value of y in function of the slenderness index o

45

E.1 Values of axial elastic buckling Sections E.1.1 Double symmetry or symmetric about a point The elastic buckling axial force, of a bar with cross section with doubly symmetric or symmetric and about a point is given by: a) for flexural buckling about the major axis of inertia x of the cross section:

b) for flexural buckling about the minor axis of inertia y of the cross section:

where: KxLx - is the length of flexural buckling about the x axis (the coefficient of buckling Kx - is given in E.2.1); Ix- is the moment of inertia of the cross section with respect to the x axis; KyLy - is the length of flexural buckling about the y axis (the coefficient of buckling Ky - is given in E.2.1); Iy- is the moment of inertia of the cross section with respect to the y axis; KzLz - is the length of torsional buckling (the buckling coefficientKz - is given in E.2.2); E - is the modulus of elasticity of steel; Cw - is the warping constant of the cross section;

121

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 G - is the shear modulus of elasticity of steel; J - is the torsional constant of the cross section; ro - is the polar radius of gyration of gross section about the shear center, given by:

where rx and ry - are the radii of gyration with respect to the major axes x and y, respectively, and xo and yo are the coordinates of the shear center in the direction of the major axes x and y, respectively, related to the geometric center of the section. E.1.2 Mono-symmetrical Sections except the case of simple angles provided in E.1.4 (y-axis symmetrical members) The elastic buckling axial force, of a bar with mono-symmetrical cross section, whose axis y is the axis of symmetry is given by: a) for elastic flexural buckling about the major axis of inertia x of the cross section:

where Ney and Nez - axial forces from elastic buckling as per E.1.1b) and E.1.1c), respectively. If the x-axis is the axis of symmetry, simply replace x by y in a) and y by x and yo by xo in b). E.1.3 Unsymmetrical Sections except the case of simple angles provided in E.1.4 The elastic buckling axial force, of a asymmetric cross-section bar (with no axis of symmetry) is given by the smallest of the roots of the cubic equation:

122

ABNT NBR 8800:2008 E.1.4 Angles connected by a single leg E.1.4.1 The effects of eccentricity of the compressive force acting on a single angle can be considered by means of an equivalent buckling length, provided that the angle: a) is loaded at the ends through the same leg; b) is connected by welding or by at least two bolts in the direction of the applied force; c) is not required for intermediate transverse actions. In this case, the axial force elastic buckling of angle is given by:

where: Ix1- is the moment of inertia of the cross section about the axis passing through the geometric center and is connected in parallel to the leg; Kx1Lx1 - is the equivalent buckling length, given in E.1.4.2 and E.1.4.3, whichever is applicable. E.1.4.2 For angles of equal or unequal legs connected by leg of greater width, which may be individual bars or the diagonals or parts of plane truss with plate connected to the adjacent bars on the same side of plates or nodes (see 5.3.4.1): a) when -

b) when

Lx1 - is the length of the angle, taken between working points located in the longitudinal axes of chords of the truss; rx1 - is the radius of gyration of the cross section about the axis passing through the geometric center and is connected parallel to the leg. In the angles with unequal legs ratio between the width of legs up to 1.7 and connected to the smaller leg, Kx1 Lx1 the product cannot be taken less than the value:

123

ABNT NBR 8800:200 where: rmin - is the minimum radius of gyration of the angle; be - is the width of the largest leg of the angle; bs - is the width of the smaller leg of the angle. E.1.4.3 For angles of equal or unequal legs connected by leg of greater width, which may be individual bars or the diagonals or parts of plane truss with plate connected to the adjacent bars on the same side of plates or nodes or string (see 5.3.4.1): where:

In the angles with unequal legs ratio between the width of legs upto 1.7 and connected to the smaller leg, the product cannot be taken less than the value:

E.1.4.4 Single angles with connections other than those described in E.1.4.2 and E.1.4.3, with the ratio between the widths of legs is greater than 1.7 or with transverse forces, should be treated as bars subjected to the combination of axial force and bending moments. E.2 Values of the coefficient of buckling E.2.1 Values of the Coefficients of buckling E.2.1.1 Table E.1 provides the theoretical values of the coefficient of flexural buckling, Kx Ky for six cases of ideal boundary conditions of isolated elements (see 4.9.5.3), in which the rotation and translation the ends are totally free or totally prevented. If you cannot assure the perfection of the bend it is recommended to use the values presented. E.2.1.2 In the Braced elements (see 4.9.5.2), the coefficient of flexural buckling should be taken equal to 1.0, unless you demonstrate that you can use a smaller value. E.2.1.3 In the bracing bars of substructures (see 4.9.5.1) analyzed according to the requirements of 4.9.7, the coefficient of bending buckling should be taken equal to 1.0.

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Table E.1 - Coefficient of flexural buckling of individual elements The dashed line indicates the line of elastic buckling

0,5 0,65

0,7 0,80

Free rotation, translation prevented Condition code at support Hindered rotation, translation free

Rotation and translation free E.2.2 Coefficient of torsional buckling The coefficient of torsional buckling, Kz, is function of the boundary conditions and must be determined by analyzing the structure, or, simply, taken equal to: a) 1.00, when both ends of the bar having rotation around the longitudinal axis prevented and warping free; b) 2.00, when one end of the bar have rotation around the longitudinal axis and warping free, at the other end rotating, and warping prevented.

Annex-F

(Normative) Local buckling of axially compressed bars

F.1 General F.1.1 The elements that are part of the usual cross sections, except the circular tubular sections for the effect of local buckling, are classified as AA (two longitudinal connected edges) and AL (only one longitudinal edge connected) confirming to 5.1.2.2.1. F.1.2 Bars subjected to axial compression force, in which all the component elements of the cross section have ratio between width and thickness (ratio b/t) that does not exceed the values of (b/t) lim given in Table F.1, having the total reduction factor equal to 1. F.1.3 Bars subjected to axial compression force, in which the component elements of the cross section have ratio b/t values greater than the (b/t) lim values given in Table F.1 (slender elements) have the total reduction factor given by: where Qs and Qa are reduction factors that take into account the local buckling of the elements AL and AA these values should be determined as shown in F.2 and F.3, respectively. You should also consider that: a) if the section has only elements of AL: Q = Qs b) if the section has only AA elements: Q = Qa F.1.4 The circular tubular sections must have the coefficient determined in accordance with F.4.

The values of Qs is to be used for the compressed elements AL are as follows. a) Elements of Group 3 in Table F.1:

where:

h is the height of the web; tw is the thickness of the web; b and t are the width and thickness of the element, respectively (see Table F.1). If there are two or more AL elements with different reduction factors Qs, one must adopt the least of these factors.

127

Elements Group Description of elements - Flanges or webs of rectangular tubular sections - Lamelas and plates of diaphragms between lines of bolts or weldings - Webs of sections I, H or U - Flanges or webs of section-coffin - All the other elements that don't integrate the Group 1 - Brims of angles or multiple provided by working plates Some examples with indication of b and t

(b/t) lim

AA

AL

- Flanges of sections I, H, T or U rolled Brims of continued connecting angles or design of sections I, H, T or U rolled or welded - Designed plates of sections I, H, T or U rolled or welded

Webs of sections T

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F.3 Compressed Elements AA F.3.1 The reduction factor Qs for the compressed elements of the cross sections AA, whose ratio of width to the thickness exceeds the values indicated in Table F.1, is defined as:

where Ag - is the gross area and Aef is the effective area of cross section, given by: with summation extends to all elements AA. In this expression b and t are, respectively, the width and thickness of a compressed AA element, as shown in Table F.1; bef is the effective width of a compressed element AA, as F.3.2. F.3.2 The effective width of the elements is equal to AA:

where Ca is a coefficient equal to 0.38 for the webs or flanges of rectangular tubular sections and 0.34 for all the other elements and - is the tension that can act on the element analyzed, taken equal to:

with x obtained confirming 5.3.3 as by adopting Q equal to 1.0. Optionally, a conservative can be taken:

F.4 For walls of tubular circular sections In the circular tubular sections, the reduction factor for local buckling of the wall is given by:

Para for

where: D - is the outer diameter of the circular tube section; t - is the wall thickness. F.4.2 It is not intended to be used for circular tubular sections with D/t greater than

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Please refer Enclosure- 4J its already covered.

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 130 to 137 No of sheets: 8

Annex-G (Normative)

Bending moment resistance calculation of beams with non-slender webs

G.1 General G.1.1 This Annex provides procedures for determining the bending moment resistance calculation beams of non-slender web. G.1.2 Webs of beams are non-slender for sections I, H, U, box and tubular rectangular, if these webs, when perpendicular to the axis of bending, have slenderness parameter () is less or equal to r ( & r defined in Table G.1 for the limit state FLA), for tubular circular sections ratio between diameter and wall thickness not exceeding

and for T sections, formed by two angles sections in T solid sections circular or rectangular in all sizes. G.1.3 To facilitate the use of this Annex, the symbolism used is detailed in G.3.

G.2 Bending moment resistance calculation G.2.1 For the types of section and bending axes shown in Table G.1, for the limit state FLT, bending resistance calculation is given by:

Para for

The values of bending moment resistance calculated for this limit state are valid for the transverse forces applied externally, if they exist, in the mid-height of cross section. G.2.2 For the types of section and bending axes as shown in Table G.1, to the limit states of FLM and FLA, the bending moment resistance calculation is given by:

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G.2.3 For T sections bending about the major axis of inertia perpendicular to the web: - FLT- limit state

onde where

with the positive sign used when the ends of the web are opposite to the tension flange and the negative if otherwise (if this edge is compressed at some point along the unsupported length, the negative sign should be used). - FLM- limit state (applicable only if the flange is fully or partially compressed)

Para for

with:

G.2.4 For the sections formed by two equal angles in contact and joined by continuous welding, forming a section type T, bending about the major axis of inertia perpendicular to the axis of symmetry, applies the requirements in G.2.3, taking the limit state FLM:

where b is the width and t is the thickness of the leg of a compressed angle.

131

G.2.5 For the sections formed by two equal angles with distance corresponding to the thickness of spacer plates, forming a section similar to the T, bending about the major axis of inertia perpendicular to the axis of symmetry, the limit state for FLT, the expression given in G.2.3 should used. For the state limit local buckling of the leg: a) when the legs of the angle are parallel to the axis of bending are compressed, use the procedure given in G.2.3 for FLM, with

where b is the width and t is the thickness of the compressed leg of angles; b) when the legs of the angles are perpendicular to the axis of bending with the compressed end free, we have:

Para for

with:

where b is the width and t is the thickness of the legs of angle with the compressed end free. G.2.6 For solid circular and rectangular sections bending about the axis of least moment of inertia:

132

G.2.7 For tubular circular sections for the limit state of local buckling of the tube wall, only applicable with D/t not exceeding 0.45 E/fy, we have:

Para for

with:

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ABNT 2008 - All rights reserved ABNT NBR 8800:2008 Table G.1 - Parameters related to the bending moment resistance Member

Mr

Mer

Sections I & H with two axes of symmetry and U sections not subjected to torsional moment, bending about the major axis of moment of inertia.

Sections I & H with only one axis of symmetry located in plane of web, major axis of moment of inertia. (see note 9)

Sections I & H with two axes of symmetry and U sections bending about the minor axis of moment of inertia.

Solid rectangular sections bending about the major axis of moment of inertia. Box sections and rectangular tubular sections, doubly symmetrical, bending about the axis of symmetry that is parallel to both sides.

Ver nota See note Viga de alma esbelta (Anexo H) - Beam of web (Annex. H)

where:

para sees for sections com y conforme Nota 9 a seguir- with y in accordance with Note 9, proceed 3) The limit state FLA applies only to the web of the U section, when compressed by the bending moment. In U section, FLM limit state applies only when the free end of the flange is compressed by the bending moment.

135

4) Wef is the elastic modulus of minimum strength about the axis of bending for a section that has a compressed flange (or compressed web in the case of U profile bent about the axis of least inertia) and width equal to bef given by F.3.2, with equal to fy . In compressed web of U section bent about the axis of least moment of inertia, b=h, t=tw and bef = hef 5) The compressive residual stress r in the flanges should be taken equal to 30% of yield strength of the steel used. For rolled profiles:

For welded profiles: with kc confirming to F.2. 7) The limit state FLT only applies when the axis of bending is about the highest moment of inertia. 8) b/t is the ratio between width and thickness profile applicable to the flange of a profile, in the case of I and H sections with one axis of symmetry, b/t refers to the compressed flange (for flanges of sections I and H, b is half of the total width, flange of U sections for its the total width, for rectangular tubular sections its the width of the flat part and for box profiles its the distance between free webs). 9) These sections shall be subject to the following limitations:

With

b) the sum of areas of the smaller flange and the web must be greater than the area of the larger flange. 10) For the box-sections:

G.3 Symbols For this Annex the following additional symbols are adopted: FLA - local buckling of the web; FLM - local buckling of the compressed flange;

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FLT - lateral torsional buckling; Cw - The warping constant of the cross section; D - Outer diameter of the circular tubular section; Iy - Moment of inertia of the section about the axis passing through the plane of web; Iyc - Moment of inertia of the compressed flange about the axis passing through the plane of the web (unsupported length taken if there are positive and negative moments, take lager moment of inertia of flange about the axis mentioned); Iyt - Moment of inertia of the tension flange about the axis passing through the plane of the web (unsupported length taken if there are positive and negative moments, take lager moment of inertia of flange about the axis mentioned); J - torsional constant of the cross section; Lb - Distance between two sections containing the lateral torsional buckling (unsupported length); Mcr - elastic buckling bending moment; Mpl - Bending moment of plastic cross section, equal to the product of resistance plastic section modulus (Z) and the yield strength of steel (fy); Mr - bending moment corresponding to the onset of yielding, in some cases including the influence of residual stresses; W - Resistance modulus (minimum) of the elastic section about the axis of bending; Wc - Resistance elastic modulus of the compressed side of the section about the axis of bending; Wt - Resistance elastic modulus on the tension side of the section about the axis of bending; bf - Full width of the flange (bfs and bfi represent the total width of the top and bottom flange); d - External height of the section measured perpendicular to the axis of bending; h - Height of the web, taken equal to the distance between inner faces of the flanges in welded and equal to that value minus two radii between web and flange in the rolled profiles and equal to the length of the flat parts for rectangular tubular sections; hc - Twice the distance from the geometric center of the cross section to the inner face of the compressed flange; hp - Twice the distance from plastic neutral axis of the cross section to the inner face of the compressed flange; ry - Radius of gyration of the section about the principal axis of inertia perpendicular to the axis of bending; ryc - Radius of gyration of the T-section formed by the compressed flanges and attached part of the compressed web, elastic system, about the axis through the plane of the web (if there are positive and negative moments unsupported length taken, in T- sections take smaller radius of gyration with respect to mentioned axis); tf - Thickness of the flange (tfs and tfi represent the thicknesses of the upper and lower flanges); p - Slenderness parameter corresponding to the plasticisation; r - Slenderness parameter corresponding to the onset of yield.

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 138 to 140 No of sheets: 3

Annex-H

(Normative)

Bending moment Resistance calculation of beams with slender webs H.1 General H.1.1 This Annex provides procedures for determining the bending moment resistance calculation of beams with slender webs. H.1.2 Beams with slender web are those with welded I or H section with two axes of symmetry or one axis symmetry in the plane of the web, loaded in this plane, with the slenderness parameter of the web = h/tw ,where h is the distance between the inner faces of the flanges and tw is the thickness of the web, greater than 5.70E/ fy. H.1.3 The web of slender beams covered in this Annex must meet the following requirements: a) in the case of mono-symmetrical sections, the sum of areas of the smaller flange and the web must be greater than the area of larger flange, and

where Iyc and Iyt are respectively the moments of inertia of compressed and tension flanges about the axis passing through the plane of web; b) the ratio between the area of web and compressed flange cannot exceed 10; c) the ratio h/tw cannot exceed 260 or:

Para for

H.2 Bending moment resistance calculation H.2.1 The value of the bending moment resistance calculation for the ultimate limit state of yielding of tension flange is given by:

where Wxt is the modulus of elastic resistance of tension side of the section about the axis of bending.

138

H.2.2 The bending moment resistance calculation for the ultimate limit state of lateral torsional buckling (FLT) is given by:

With:

Para for

Where: Lb - is the distance between two sections laterally restraint; Cb - is the modification factor for non-uniform bending moment diagram, as defined in 5.4.2.3 and 5.4.2.4, whichever is applicable; ryT - is the radius of gyration about the axis of smallest moment of inertia of the section formed by compressed flange with over one third of the web is compressed. ar - equal to the ratio between the area of the web and the compressed flange, and that the section cannot have this ratio more than 10; hc - equal to twice the distance from the geometric center of the cross section to the inner face of compressed flange; Wxc - is the modulus of elastic resistance of the compressed side of the section about the axis of bending.

139

H.2.3 The bending moment resistance calculation for the ultimate limit state of local buckling of the compressed flange (LWF), is given by:

Para for

With:

where kc is given in F.2 and bf and tf are the total width and thickness, respectively, of the compressed flange.

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 57 to 62 No of sheets: 6

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.5.2.3 Any Sections subjected to torsional moment, axial force, bending moment and shear forces The resistantance stress calculated for the ultimate limit state, the following should be equal to or greater than the calculated stress, expressed in terms of normal stress sd, or shear stress TSd, determined by the theory of the elasticity, by using the calculated combinations of calculation. Such as: a) for yielding limit state effects of normal stress:

5.6 Bars of variable section The design of bars of variable section should be carried out in agreement with Annexture-J. 5.7 Flanges and webs of I and H profiles subjected to local transverse forces 5.7.1 General This Subsection provides requirements for the verification of ultimate limit states caused by local transverse forces, applied on the external face of at least one of the flanges, perpendicular to its face, in sections I and H. The forces should be located centrally about the web.

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ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.7.2 Local bending of the flange 5.7.2.1 The flange of a bar, when appllied with the local force that produces tension in the web, should be checked for ultimate limit state local bending. This verification doesn't need to be done if the length of force is acting, in the perpendicular direction to the length of the bar, which is less than 0.15 bf, where bf is the width of the loaded flange. 5.7.2.2 As determined in 5.7.2.4, the local calculated force cannot be more than the resistantanec force calculate of the flange of the bar, given by:

where tf - the thickness of the loaded flange. 5.7.2.3 When the force is acting at the distance from bar end that is less than 10 times the thickness of the flange, the resistant force given in 5.7.2.2 should be reduced to half. 5.7.2.4 If the applied calculated force overcomes the calculated resistantance force, transverse stiffeners on both sides of the web should be placed in the section of performance of the force, (see 5.7.9). 5.7.2.5 If the bar consists of welded profiles, the welds between the flange and the web should be capable to transmit the local forces of tension calculated between those two elements. 5.7.3 Web local yielding 5.7.3.1 The web of a bar, applied with the tension or compression caused by local force acting on the flange, should be verified for the ultimate limit state of local yielding. 5.7.3.2 As determined in 5.7.3.3, the calculated force cannot be more than calculated resistance force of the web of the bar, given by: a) When the force is applied at the distance from the bar end greater than the height of the cross section:

b) When the force is applied at the distance from the bar end less than or equal to the height of the cross section:

Where: ln - is the length of force acting in the longitudinal direction of the beam; K - is the thickness of the loaded flange from the side of the fillet weld parallel to web, in the case of welded profiles, or the thickness of the flange plus the fillet radius of of the web, in the case of rolled profiles; tw - is the thickness of the web. 5.7.3.3 If the force applied calculated force overcomes the calculated force resistance, transverse stiffeners on both sides of the web should be placed in the section of performance of the force, (see 5.7.9). 5.7.3.4 If the bar consists of welded profiles has local tensile force, the welds between the flange and the web should be capable to transmit the calculated local force applied between these two elements. 58 ABNT 2008 - All rights reserved ABNT NBR 8800: 2008

5.7.4 Web local Crippling 5.7.4.1 The web of a bar, with compression caused by a local force acting on the flange, should be verified for the ultimate limit state of Crippling. 5.7.4.2 Unless provisions in 5.7.4.3, the calculated effective force cannot overcome the calcualted resisting force of the web, given by: a) When the compressive force is at the distance from the bar end that is greater or equal to half the height of the cross section:

b) When the compressive force is at the distance from the bar end that is less than the height of the cross section:

Para for

Where: d is the height of the cross section of the bar; tf is the thickness of the loaded flange; ln is the length of performance of the force in the longitudinal direction of the beam. 5.7.4.3 If the applied calculated force exceeds calculated force resistance, then in the section of performance of that force, transverse stiffener on one side of the web or tranverse stiffeners on both sides of the web should be placed (See 5.7.9). 5.7.5 Web sidesway Buckling 5.7.5.1 The web of a bar, has compression caused by the local compression force acting on the flange, it should be verified for the ultimate limit state of lateral buckling, the relative lateral displacement between the compression loaded flange and the tension flange is not restained at the point of application of the force. 5.7.5.2 Unless provisions in 5.7.5.3, 5.7.5.4 and 5.7.5.5, the applied calculated force cannot exceed the calculated resistant force of the web of the bar, given by: a) if the loaded flange is restrained against rotation, for (h/tw) / (l /bf )< 2.30

59

b) If the compression flange is not restrained against rotation for (h / tw) / (l / bf) <1.70

where: l is the largest laterally unbraced length, along either flange at the point of loading; h is the distance between the internal faces of the flanges less the fillet or corner radius in case of rolled profile or the ditance between the internal faces of the flanges in the case of welded profiles; Cr is equal to 32E when Msd < Mr and 16E when Msd Mr in the force section (Msd is the calculated applied bending moment and Mr is the corresponding bending moment on set of yielding, according to the Annexture-G, without considering the influence of the residual tresses). 5.7.5.3 if (h/tw) / (l/ bf) is greater than 2.30 or 1.70, respectively when the rotation of the loaded flange is not prevented, the ultimate limit state of lateral buckling of the web doesn't have possibility to occur. 5.7.5.4 If the rotation of the loaded flange is prevented and the applied calculated force overcomes the calculated resistance force, given in 5.7.5.2a), a laterally restraint tention flange of the section of performance of the force should be as per 4.11. Optionally in that section place transverse stiffeners on both sides of the web (See 5.7.9). 5.7.5.5 If the rotation of the loaded flange is not prevented and the calculated applied force overcomes the calculated resistant force given in 5.7.5.2b), lateral restraints in both flanges of the section of performance of the force should be foreseen, according to 4.11. 5.7.6 Web compression buckling 5.7.6.1 The web of a bar, having compression caused by a pair of local forces in opposite direction, acting on both flanges of the same cross section, it should be verified for the ultimate limit state of compression buckling. 5.7.6.2 Unless provisions in 5.7.6.4, the calculated applied force (value of each force of the pair) cannot overcome the calculated resistant force of the web of the bar, given by:

5.7.6.3 When the pair of concentrated forces are acting at the distance from the bar end less than the half of the height of the cross section, the resistant force given in 5.7.6.2 should be reduced in half. 5.7.6.4 If the applied calculated force overcomes the calculated resistant force of calculation, it should be palced in the section of performance of that force, a transverse stiffener on one side of the web or transverse stiffeners on both sides of the web (see 5.7.9).

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ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 5.7.7 Web panel zone shear 5.7.7.1 Reinforcement plates of web (see 5.7.7.2) or diagonal stiffeners (see 5.7.7.3) should be provided rigid connection between beam and column (web panel of the column), or similar connection, whose webs are located in a same plane, when the applied calculated shear force is transmitted to the flanges of the beam, Fsd, to exceed the calculated resistance shear force, given by:

Para for

where: VRd is the calculated resistance shear force of the panel, obtained according to 5.4.3, being taken the distance a equal at the distance between geometric centers of the flanges of the beam; tw, is the thickness of the web of the column; dc is the height of the transverse section of the column; Npt is the axial force of compression corresponding to the yielding of the transverse section of the column, equal to Ag fy. 5.7.7.2 Strengthening of the web plates is done by placing the plates parallel to the web as closest as possible, appropriately welded to the two flanges, extending for the whole length of the web panel, extending more than 150 mm beyond the sections of location of applied forces. These plates, when used are arranged on both sides of the web, they should be designed in agreement with 5.4 to absorb the portion of the total calculated shear force. 5.7.7.3 Diagonal stiffeners when used, they should be arranged on both sides of the web for the whole length of the web panel and the whole height of the web (see 5.7.9.4). 5.7.8 Unframed ends of the Beams and Girders Transverse stiffeners should be used at supports or ensd of beams that don't have any restriction to the rotation in relative to the longitudinal axis in which the webs are not connected to other beams or columns. These stiffeners should be welded to the flanges and the web in cross section, extending for the whole height of the web. 5.7.9 Additional stiffener requirements for concentrated forces

5.7.9.1 Transverse Stiffeners are required to resist the tensile forces that are produced locally in the web and are designed in accordance with 5.2, taking its gross area and effective cross sectional area of the connected flange, neglecting the shears that may exist. These stiffeners should be welded to the loaded flange and the web and extended at least until the half of the height of the web. The weld between the stiffener and the loaded flange should be capable to support the difference between the applied force and calculated resistant force. The weld between the stiffener and the web should be capable to transfer to the web that difference. 5.7.9.2 Transverse Stiffeners are required to resist forces that produce local compression in the web, for the ultimate states of local yielding of the web (see 5.7.3) and Crippling of the web (see 5.7.4), they should be extended at least the half of the height of the web, to have their ends in perfect contact with the loaded flange or welded flange and to be welded to the web. The weld between the stiffener and the loaded flange should be capable to support the difference between the applied force and the calculated resistantance force. The weld between the stiffener and the web should be capable to transfer for the web that difference. In the case ends of the stiffeners are connected to the loaded flange it should be checked for ultimate limit state for local crushing according to 6.6.2, by using contact area equal to cross sectional area of the stiffeners connected to the flange, neglecting the shears that may exist.

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5.7.9.3 The transverse Stiffeners are required to resist the forces that produce local compression in the web, for the ultimate states of lateral buckling of the web (see 5.7.5) and compression buckling of the web (see 5.7.6) and should be designed in agreement with 5.7.9.4. These stiffeners should extend over the entire height of the web, having their ends perfectly in contact with the loaded flanges or welded to flanges and welded to the web and the opposite flange. The weld between the stiffener and loaded flange in case if any should be capable to support the difference between the applied force and the calculated resistant force, for the considered limit state. The weld between the stiffener and the web should be capable to transfer this difference to the web. In this case ends of stiffeners with connected to the loaded flange must be checked for limt state of local crushing, according to 6.6.2, by using the area of contact equal to the cross sectional area connected stiffeners to the flange, neglecting the shears that may exist. 5.7.9.4 The transverse stiffeners are used to prevent the occurrence of the ultimate limit state mentioned in 5.7.9.3 should be designed as compressed bars, in agreement with 5.3, for the ultimate limit state of instability for bending in relation to an axis in the plane of the web. The cross section to be considered, is formed by the stiffeners and a strip of web of width equal to12 tw, at the ends. if the stiffeners are beyond the end equal to 25tw, they are in a section and the buckling length should be taken equal to 0.75 h. 5.7.9.5 The stiffeners transverse or diagonal should also meet the following requirements: a) The width of each stiffener plus half the thickness of the web cannot be less than one third the width of the flange or the connected plate on which the force is applied; b) The thickness of an stiffener cannot be less than the half of thickness of the flange of the bar or the connecting plate that transmits this force, nor less than width divided by 15. 5.7.9.6 When the transverse stiffeners are also used in order to increase shear resistance of the beam, they should also meet the additional requirements given in the paragraphs a), b) and c) of 5.4.3.1.3, except the the paragraph a), if the stiffeners are compressed. 6 Specific conditions for the design of metallic connections 6.1 General 6.1.1 Basis of Design 6.1.1.1 This Section deals with purely metallic (without the participation of reinforced concrete elements) subjected to static actions. For connections subjected to the fatigue, see additional requirements in 9.2. 6.1.1.2 The metallic connections consisting of connecting elements such as stiffeners, connectiing plates, angles and, and connection means such as welds, bolts, filleted rounds bars and pins. Those components should be designed so that calculated resistance for the particular ultimate limit state is equal or exceeds the applied force, determined by: (1) by analysing the structure subjected to the combinations of the actions, according to 4.7; (2) as a specified percentage of the resistance of the connected bar. In some specific situations, the design can also be based on serviciability limit state.

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Extract from AISC Design Guide 01-Base plate And Anchor Rod Design Pages 15 & 17

Anchor Bolts (for sketch refer next page) - Holding down bolts.

Bolt M20 M24 M30 M36 Ft,Rd (kN) 56 80 126 181 Abe (mm2) 236 339 530 763 Anchor Plate a * a (mm) 70 90 110 130 t (mm) 16 20 25 25

Enclosure-4P

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

11.05.12

Shear block

Vu

Vu Al

Anchor bolts/plate

Ft,Sd

L t

L>

equal. This situation occurs when the difference between B and N is equal to the difference between 0.95d and 0.8bf. In selecting the base plate size from a strength viewpoint, the designer must consider the location of the anchor rods within the plate and the clearances required to tighten the bolts on the anchor rods. Steps for obtaining base plates sizes for these cases are suggested below. Anchor rod design is covered in Section 3.2. Case I: A2 = A1 The largest base plate is obtained when A2 = A1. 1. Calculate the required axial compressive strength, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). 2. Calculate the required base plate area. A1( req ) = Pu (LRFD) 0.85 f c Pa (ASD) 0.85 f c

N = base plate length, in. B = base plate width, in. bf = column flange width, in. d = overall column depth, in. n = yield-line theory cantilever distance from column web or column flange, in. = 2 X 1 + 1 X 1

4db Pu f (LRFD) X = 2 Pp + b ( ) d f 4db Pa f X = (ASD) 2 P (d + b f ) p where PP = 0.85 f c A1 (LRFD) 0.85 f c A1 PP (ASD) = Find l max (m, n, n) tmin = l 2 Pu (LRFD) Fy BN 2 Pa (ASD) Fy BN

A1( req ) =

3. Optimize the base plate dimensions, N and B. N A1( req ) + where = then B= A1( req ) N 0.95d 0.8b f 2

tmin = l

Note that the base plate holes are not deducted from the base plate area when determining the required base plate area. As mentioned earlier in the Guide, from a practical view point set N equal to B. 4. Calculate the required base plate thickness. N 0.95d m= 2 n= B 0.8b f 2 db f 4

5. Determine the anchor rod size and the location of the anchor rods. Anchor rods for gravity columns are generally not required for the permanent structure and need only to be sized for OSHA requirements and practical considerations. Case II: A2 4A1 The smallest base plate is obtained when A2 4A1 for this case. 1. Calculate the factored axial compressive load, Pu (LRFD) or Pa (ASD). 2. Calculate the required base plate area. A1( req ) = Pu (LRFD) 20.85 f c

n =

DESIGN GUIDE 1, 2ND EDITION / BASE PLATE AND ANCHOR ROD DESIGN / 17

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Extract of AWS A2.4 Pages 106 & 107 No of sheets: 2

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Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Pages 71 to 75 No of sheets: 5

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 6.2.5 Resistance force calculation 6.2.5.1 The resistant force calculation, Fw,Rd. of the several weld types, is given in the Table-8, in the which Aw is the effective area of the weld, AMB is the area of the base metal (product of the length of the weld by the minimum thickness of the base metal, fy is to smallest yielding strength between the base metal at the joint and fw is the minimum tensile strength of the weld metal, obtained from the Tabel-A.4. Table 8 - Resistance force calculation of welds Type of application and orientation

Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis Tension or compression normal to the effective weld section Shear (vectorial sum) in the effective section

c Partial Penetration g) Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis Tension or compression normal at the effective section of the weld

Weld type

Total penetrationg)

It doesn't need to be considered Base Metal: Base Metal: It doesn't need to be considered O smaller of the two values: a) Base Metal:

Shear parallel to the weld axis, in the effective section Tension or compression parallel to the weld axis c Shear in the effective section(the required calculation is equal to vectorial resultant of all the calculation force in the joint that produces normal tensions or shear in the contact surface of the connected parts) Shear parallel at the contact surface, in the effective section

b) Weld Metal: Base Metal should be taken as 6.5. Metal weld: It doesn't need to be considered Base Metal should be taken out to 6.5. Metal weld: Base Metal should be taken out to 6.5. Metal weld:

Fillete

Plug or slot

For definition of effective areas of welds, see 6.2.2. The weld metal to be used for each base metal is given in the Table-7. Fillet welds and partial penetration welds, tying the component elements of welded profiles (flanges and webs), can be calculated without considering the tensions or compression in those elements, parallel to the weld axis. However the shear tensions caused by the shear forces and the local forces should be considered. d In welds subjected to non-uniform tensions, the applied force and calculated resistance are determined based on the unit ratio of effective lengths. e In this case, when there are two classes of resistance of weld metal as given in Table-7, only the class of higher resistance can be used.

b c

For angular and T joints, with holding plate not processed at the place of the weld, the metal weld should have a minimum tenacity of 27 J to 4 C, in the Charpy test with V cut tenacity requirement can be omitted, since the joints design is used considering the coefficient of the resistance and the nominal resistance of partial penetration weld. The same requirement of tenacity is applicable to amend welded profiles with flange or web thickness of more than 50 mm and rolled profiles with flanges of more than 44 mm thickness (in this case alternative release is not required).

g

In weld amendments of profiles welded with flange or web of thickness more than 50 mm and rolled profiles with flanges of thickness of more than 44 mm, applied preheating is equal or more than 175 C. h Also see 6.2.5.2. i The value a1 is given in 4.8.2. j The value w1 is equal to 1.25 for normal, special or construction combinations and equal to 1.05 for exceptional combinations. k The Value w2 is equal to 1.35 for normal, special or construction combinations and equal to 1.15 for exceptional combinations.

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ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 6.2.5.2 Instead of the calculated resistant force of the weld fillets given in the Table-8, the following procedure can be used: a) for a group of weld fillets placed in a same plane and subjected to actions in that plane, with the resulting from the actions passing through the geometric center of the group of fillets, the calculated resistant force with w2 is given according to Note k of the Table-8, is equal to:

where: Awefw is defined in 6.2.5.1; is the angle between the resultant of actions and the longitudinal axis of the group of fillet welds; b) for a group of fillet weld put in a same plane and subjected to actions in that plane, with the resultant of the actions not passing through the geometric center of the group of fillets, analyzed by the method of the instantaneous center of rotation, the components of the calculated resistant force are FR,d,wx and FR,d,wy with:

where: Fwi,Rd is the calculated resistant force of the fillet of number i; Fwix,Rd is the calculated resistant force in the direction x; Fwiy,Rd is the calculated resistant force in the direction y; p is i / m, in other words, the ratio between the deformation of the fillet under intermediate levels of tension, linearly proportional to the critical deformation based on the distance to the critical center of rotation ri, equal to ri u / r crit and its deformation limit in resistance equal to: dwi - is the size of the leg of the fillet i; rcrit - is the distance of the critical center of rotation of the fillet with minimum ratio u / r i ;

72

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 c) for a group of fillets loaded concentrically, formed by elements by put longitudinally and transversly in the direction of the applied force, the combined calculated resistant force Fw,Rd and is the largest value between:

where: Fwt,Rd is the total calculated resistant force of the fillet welds put longitudinally in the direction of the applied force, obtained as per Table-8; Fwt,Rd is the total calculated resistant force of the fillet welds put transversely in the direction of the applied force, obtained as per Table-8, however without taking into account the Note f. 6.2.6 Limitations 6.2.6.1 Penetration welds The minimum effective throat thickness of partial penetration welds are given in the Table-9. the dimension of the weld should be established in function of the welded thickest part, except that such dimension doesn't need to cross-sect the thickness of the less thicker part, since the necessary calculated resistant force is obtained. For that exception and to obtain weld of good quality, special cares should be taken while using preheating. Welds of partial penetration cannot be used in amendments of bending pieces. Table-9 - Minimum effective throat thickness of the partial penetration weld Smaller thickness of the base metal in the joint, in mm

Below 6,35 and up to 6,35 Above 6,35 up to 12,5 Above 12,5 up to 19 Above 19 up to 37,5 Above 37,5 up to 57 Above 57 up to 152 Above 152

See 6.2.2 for definition of effective throat.

3 5 6 8 10 13 16

73

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 6.2.6.2 Fillet welds 6.2.6.2.1 The minimum size of the leg of fillet weld, is given in the Table-10, is function of the less thicker welded part. Table 10 - Minimum Size of the leg of fillet weld Smaller thickness of the base metal in the joint, mm

Below 6,35 and up to 6,35 Above 6,35 up to 12,5 Above 12,5 up to 19 Above 19 a Carried out with only one section.

3 5 8

6.2.6.2.2 The maximum size of the leg of a fillet weld that can be used along edges of welded parts is as follows: a) along material edges with thickness less than 6.35 mm, not more than the thickness of the material; b) along material edges with thickness equal or more than 6.35 mm, not more than the thickness of added material of 1.5 mm, unless given in the drawings that weld is having reinforcement during the execution, in way to obtain the required total thickness of the throat. 6.2.6.2.3 The effective length of a fillet weld (see 6.2.2.2), designed for any calculation, cannot be less than 4 times of size of the leg and 40 mm or it can be considered more than 25% of the effective length of the weld. When only longitudinal fillet welds are to be used in the end connections of plates in tension plane, the length of each fillet cannot be smaller than the transverse distance between them. Also see the determination given in 5.2.5d). 6.2.6.2.4 Intermittent fillet welds can be used, designed to transfer the calculation requirements, when required calculation resistance is less than one of the continuous welds, it is allowed to take smallest leg size and to tie elements of composed bars. The effective length of any segment of intermittent fillet weld cannot be less than 4 times the size of the leg, nor less than 40 mm. If intermittent welds are required special care should be taken with local buckling and corrosion. 6.2.6.2.5 The minimum overlap, in overlapping connections should be equal to 5 times the thickness of the less thicken part and not less than 25 mm. Plates or bars, connected by overlapping only with transverse fillets subjected to the axial force, they should have fillet welds along the ends of both parts, except when the deformation of the overhead parts are sufficiently contained, in way to avoid opening of the connection for the effect of the calculation requirement. 6.2.6.2.6 Terminations of fillet welds can be extended to the edge or until the edges of the connected parts, or to be stopped close to these places, or to form the closed outline, except as limited as follows: a) for joints for overlap in which one of the parts extends beyond the edge, subjected to longitudinal tensiile stress, the fillets should be stopped at a distance from edge not less than the size of the leg of the fillet, dw (see Figure-14, that it also shows the suggested meaning of execution of the weld);

74

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 b) for connections of structural elements with normal cyclical forces to elements in design, frequency and magnitude that would tend to cause progressive fatigue starting from the end point of the weld, the fillet welds should outline at the angle, extending for a distance not less than twice the dimension of the leg or the width of the connected part, the one that is smaller; c) for connections whose design requests flexibility of elements in design, if required to be used at the ends of the fillets, the length should not exceed four times the dimension of the leg; d) fillet welds on opposite sides of a common plane should be stopped at the common angle of both welds.

Suggested execution of the welds to avoid defects Figure 14 Fillet welds near edges 6.2.6.2.7 Fillet welds can be used in holes or slots to transmit parallel forces to the contact surfaces in overlapping connections or to avoid buckling (or separation) of the overhead parts and to tie components of bars of composed section. For such welds the provisions of 6.2.2.2 should be met. The fillet welds in holes or slots cannot be considered as plug welds. 6.2.6.3 Plug welds in holes or slots Plug welds can be used in holes or slots to transfer forces parallel to the contact surfaces in connections for overlapping or to avoid instability (or separation) of the overlapped parts and to tie components of bars of composed section. The diameter of the holes for plug welds in holes cannot be less than the thickness of the additional part of 8 mm, not more than 2.25 times the thickness of the weld. The center to center distance of plug welds in holes should be equal or more than 4 times the diameter of the hole. The length of the slots for plug welding cannot be larger than 10 times the thickness of the weld. The width of the slots cannot be less than the thickness of the additional part of 8 mm, not more than 2.25 times the thickness of the weld. The ends of these slots should have the semicircular shape, or they should have curvature of radius not less than the thickness of the part that contain them, except those ends that extend until the edge of the welded element. The spacing between the lines of center of slots, measured in the transverse direction to the length of the slots, should be equal or more than 4 times the width of the slot. The center to center distance betwen slots measured in longitudinal line to its length should be equal or greater than 2 times the length of the slots. The thickness of plug welds in holes or located slots in same or less material of thickness than 16 mm should be equal to the thickness of the material. When the thickness of that material is larger than 16 mm, the thickness of the weld should be equal to at least half the thickness of the material, however not less than 16 mm.

75

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Sketch showing distances of bolts Extract of NBR 8800 Design of steel and composite Steel-concrete structures Page 85 No of sheets: 2

Enclosure-4S

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Minimum distances

2.7D 1.4D 2.7D 2.7D

2.7D

1.4D

1.4D

1.4D

3D 1.5D 3D 3D

3D

2D

1.5D

3D

2D

ABNT NBR 8800: 2008 Table-14 - Minimum Distance from the center of standard hole to the edge Diameter db, inch 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1 1/8 1 1/4 36

a

mm

c

16 20 22 24 27 30

> 1 1/4 >36 1,75 d b 1,25 d b is permitted to use distances less than those given in Table, provided the applicable equation of 6.3.3.3 is satisfied. b In this column, the distances can be reduced of 3 mm, when the hole is at a point where the applied force does not exceed 25% of calculated resistance force. c In the ends of angles of connection of beams and end plates for flexible connections is the distance equal to 32mm.

6.3.12 Maximum edge distance of the bolt or threaded round bars. For any edge of a connected part, the distance of the center of the bolt, or threaded round bars close to the edge, cannot exceed 12 times the thickness of the considered connected part, nor 150 mm. 6.4 Pins 6.4.1 General The bending moments on a pin must be calculated assuming that the contact stresses between the pin and the connected parts are distributed evenly along the thickness of each part. 6.4.2 Tensile Force resistantance calculation 6.4.2.1 Bending Moment resistantance calculation The bending moment resistance calculation of the pin is given by:

where W is the modulus of elastic resistance of the section of the pin and fy is the yielding stregth of the material of the pin.

85

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Steel quality: A325M ISO 4016 Bolt class 8.8: M12, M16, M20, M24, M30 Two-member joint, t = min(t1,t2)

t2 t1

t2 t1

t2

Bolt dia 12 16 20 24 30 Tension Ft,Rd 40 71 112 161 251 Shear in bolt Fv,Rd 2-mem. 27 48 74 107 168 3-mem 54 95 149 214 335 6 22 29 36 44 54 8 29 39 48 58 73

d = diameter of bolt

Bearing capacity Fc,Rdfor t (mm) 10 36 48 60 73 91 12 44 58 73 87 109 16 58 77 97 116 145 20 73 97 121 145 181 25 91 121 151 181 227 30 109 145 181 218 272 36 131 174 218 261 326

Bolt dia 12 16 20 24 30 Tension Ft,Rd 40 71 112 161 251 Shear in bolt Fv,Rd 2-mem. 27 48 74 107 168 3-mem 54 95 149 214 335 6 36 48 60 72 90 8 48 64 80 96 119 Bearing capacity Fc,Rdfor t (mm) 10 60 80 100 119 149 12 72 96 119 143 179 16 96 127 159 191 239 20 119 159 199 239 299 25 149 199 249 299 373 30 179 239 299 358 448 36 215 287 358 430 538

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No of sheets: 2

Grating for other structures with live load of 2.5 kN/m2 or 5.0 kN/m2

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ON HOLD

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No. of sheets: 1

CALCULATION GUIDE LINE

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Amendment-1

Revision - A Enclosure

2A 2B 2C 2H 3A 4B 4C 4D 4E 4P 4T 4W Date: 11.05.12

Description

NBR 6123 English translated pages replaced by NBR 6123 English version. NBR 6123 English translated pages replaced by NBR 6123 English version. NBR 6123 English translated pages replaced by NBR 6123 English version. Wind additional shape factors added Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension as per ACI 318-11 has been added. Mistakes in translation of description of variables of coefficient B2 have been corrected. In ULS combinations Temperature load factor has been changed from 0.6 to 0.72. Deflection for main floor beams (L/400) has been added. Some sections included. Anchor bolts capacities added. And unnecessary Base plate design guide pages removed. 22, 27, & 36 dia bolts has been removed and 12 dia bolts added. In Profile sheeting broacher, Brazilian words translated to English.

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