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Glass

What Is Glass? The mysterious physical, optical and aesthetic properties of glass have always intrigued man. Even the most sophisticated 20th century man is amazed and bemused by this solid, which is really a rigid uncrystallized liquid. The product and the process used to manufacture it seem to smack of alchemy, for glass is nothing but coarse sand and soda ash transformed into smooth transparent forms. imply put,

when sand is heated to a very high temperature, it becomes a liquid when the liquid cools the end result of the reactionary process is glass. !rior to the melting process, other ingredients are added and

combinations of these ingredients can give an infinite variation in the quality of the finished glass,

"or e#ample, soda or potash when added to the mi#ture lowers the melting point of the glass batch, but soda tends to make a soft glass lacking in strength and structural form. $hile lime, tends to have the reverse effect % it stabilizes, hardens and makes for ease in working the molten glass. &ead gives brilliance' and bora# hardness.

(n addition to these aforementioned basic materials, it was discovered at an early date that molten glass has a much better overall quality if a certain amount of )cullet) or broken glass is added. *dvertisements for the buying of cullet were quite common in both English and early *merican newspapers of the time.

England once used crushed flint in place of sand but flint is a particularly hard stone, and rather difficult to crush. The result, however, was a glass e#ceptionally fine and brilliant in nature, and the name )flint glass) became synonymous with glass of quality and distinction. &ater, due to its ease of use, sand was substituted for crushed flint but the name continued to live on. Today, all modern flint glass is made from a mi#ture of sand lead and potash.

The Following Table Sets Out In A Basic Format, The Various Types Of Glass: and % oda % &ime+ and % !otash % &ime+ and % !otash % &ead+ -rystal .lass+ ,ottles, blown glass "ine tableware and pressed ware -ut glassware * name given to any clear glass to distinguish it from cloudy or colored glass,

History *ccording to the /oman historian !liny, who wrote in 0aturalis 1istorica in 22 *3, man first produced glass by accident about the year 4000 ,-. !hoenician sailors feasting on a beach near ,elus in *sia 5inor, could find no stones on which to place their cooking pots' therefore, they set them on blocks of soda carried by their ship as cargo. *s the fire6s heat increased, the sand and soda turned to molten glass.

!liny6s anecdote now is considered apocryphal, but it contains an accurate recipe for producing glass+ heat plus silica and soda ash.

The first dated accounts of glass producing, are believed to have come from ancient Egypt about 7000 years ago, where it was first used as a glaze to coat pottery. "or centuries glass was not regarded as a substance to be used independently on its own. Egyptians then discovered that they could use their glazing material to make very small ob8ects such as beads, these beads were so rare that they ranked in value with gold and semi%precious stones. 9rnamental glass beads dating from 2400 ,- have been found in Egypt, and glass rods from even earlier have been uncovered in ,abylon. The first useful glass ob8ects date to Egypt6s :;th dynasty, about :400 ,- Egyptians attached metal rods to silica paste cores, which they dipped repeatedly into molten glass to produce small bottles. The cores later were removed. The goblet of Thutmose (((, made about :7<0 ,- and now at 0ew =ork6s 5etropolitan 5useum of *rt, was produced in this manner.

.lassblowing, a ,abylonian discovery, probably came about when glassmakers using the core%dipped method switched to hollow metal rods to hold silica paste cores and then discovered that molten glass could be blown into shapes. *fter this discovery, which dates to about 224 ,-, glass vessels suddenly became easy and ine#pensive to produce. /omans imported yrian and ,abylonian glassmakers, and

small bowls and bottles were selling for only a /oman penny in 200 ,-. !liny the Elder noted in 2< ,that fine glass cups were replacing cups of precious metals as a status symbol among the /oman rich.

The Egyptians probably found out about the same time as the ,abylonians that they could actually make such ob8ects as vases and goblets from glass by dipping a wooden core into the molten glass and then destroying the core. *round 240 ,- it was found that by blowing into a heated tube of glass, a hollow bubble was formed at the end of the tube, which could be manipulated into various shapes to form bottles, vases, bowls and so on.

*s the Egyptian Empire declined the /omans became the ne#t large developers and users of glass and for the first time the price of glass dropped to a popular level. The /omans discovered methods of making a somewhat transparent glass for vases and bottles, since all glass prior to this had been opaque. 1owever, glass, did not replace shutters at the windows of /oman homes. The /omans tried but failed to cast transparent flat glass to enclose or ornament their homes. labs :>2) thick have been

e#cavated % including a ?2 by 77%inch piece at !ompeii % but /omans did not discover the art of grinding and polishing cast glass to make it transparent. (nstead of glass, the rich used thin, translucent sheets of alabaster to enclose wall openings.

$ith the breakdown of the /oman Empire, glassmaking technology stagnated in Europe' in fact, it almost disappeared. .othic cathedrals of the late :2th century and later featured brilliant bits of colored glass, although comple# in design, they were prohibitively e#pensive. Even the rich still shuttered their windows, and the 5iddle English word for windows % )wind eyes) % underlined the fact that wall openings enclosed in glass were, for all practical purposes, none#istent. Through the dark ages and middle ages, there was little glass used and it was not until about :200 *.3. that the glass industry was brought back

4 to life by the @enetians. 3uring the :?th and :7th centuries, glassmaking was revived in @enice as a result of that (talian tateAs trade contacts with ,yzantium. oda%&ime was developed by glassmakers of

the island or 5urano in about :740, and @enetians termed this clear, thin glass cristallo The @enetians established a monopoly on glassmaking and largely built their prosperity upon it. The secrets of manufacture of this beautiful and delicate glass were closely guarded, the glass workers were virtually prisoners and if a worker failed to turn up for his shift someone was sent out to kill him. 3espite attempts to keep their technology secret, it soon spread north over the *lps to .ermany, "rance, ,elgium and England.

(n England, where deforestation was a problem as early as the :4th century, glassmakers were required after :B:4 to use coal instead of wood in the glassmaking process. England also needed to import glass. The large amount of fuel Cthen woodD needed for glassmaking was already in short supply in England. -aptain Eohn Therefore, in :B0;

mith6s &ondon -ompany brought

along to the 0ew $orld CEamestown, @*D eight e#perienced !olish and 3utch glassmakers. They started a glass works at what they called .lass 1ouse !oint, one mile from the Eamestown settlement. They made glass and began shipping it back to England. ,ut there was trouble. The glassmakers became sick and many died from
Artists Interpretation of An Early 16 th Century European Glass House Courtesy, British Museum

the cold. The remaining survivors quit. &ater, the &ondon -ompany tried again. (n :B2:, they sent over si# (talian glassmakers. 9nce again they

began shipping glass to England. ,ut problems struck again, a storm blew the roof in on one of the si# glassmaking cabins. They were rebuilding when the massacre of :B22 struck Eamestown. (n :B27 the glassblowers threw in the towel and went home for good. *bout :B24, the English learned to add lead

' o#ide to the basic glass formula, and the resulting solid, heavy and durable vessels progressively replaced the fragile glasses of @enice.

"lat glass for windows was still rare during much of the :2th and :;th centuries.

mall panes were

made by blowing a large glob of glass, removing it from the blowing iron and then rotating the glass quickly so it would spread and flatten. uch glass had a dimple in its center, many air bubbles and a

pattern of concentric circles, but it was transparent and effective in keeping out the weather. *t the end of the :2th century, the "rench learned how to grind and polish cast glass to produce plate glass, but only the rich could afford it.

Early En lish !"et#h $f Glass Blo%ers At &or"

3uring the :;00s, glass technology improved rapidly. * hand%operated split mold developed in :;2: finally ended the age of blowing individual bottles, glasses and flasks. * semi%automatic bottle machine perfected 40 years later mass%produced bottles and turned them into the everyday miracle they are today.

The Important Names In Early American Glass


Wistarberg (n :2?<, -aspar $istar started making glass in alem county, 0ew Eersey. The small settlement that

grew up around the glassworks became known as !istarberg. (n :224 another factory was started at what is now .lassboro by two of $istarAs workmen. ,etween then and the early :;70As a great number of factories % small and short%lived for the most part % were started throughout this region and along the 5ullica /iver' most of them established by $istar workmen or their descendants, and all of them manned by workmen trained in the $istar tradition and technique.

The first output of the $istar glass works was of plain glass, chiefly window glass and bottles but later they e#celled in making many ob8ects of great beauty, both as to form and color, including snuff and mustard bottles, bowls, dishes, pitchers, canisters, preserve 8ars, sweetmeat bottles and drink% ing glasses.

(i"ely E)ample $f A &istar*er +it#her

$istar was probably the first maker of flint glass in *merica and he was able to use both clear and colored glass in one ob8ect. * common shade of $istar glass is a light and delicate blue, close to turquoise, and in addition to opalescent glass, amber and brown glass was produced.

, cent bottles were made in great varieties of shapes and colors in clear or colored glass or in combinations of two or three colors in various shapes. ome of the bottles are decorated with strips of

crimped glass on the sides' others were of a plain flask shape. There is a constantly growing market for all these pieces.

*s mentioned before, other glass works were started in 0ew Eersey after the success of $istar and his son /ichard, and it is difficult to distinguish between glass produced by these factories and $istarberg. The colors, shapes and decorative features which we believe characterize pieces blown by the individual workmen in the factory of the $istars undoubtedly were reproduced by the same and other workmen in many later factories, thus making it almost impossible to distinguish a piece from a $istarberg factory from a similar piece made years later in another factory. 5ost of todayAs collectors are an#ious to acquire one of the fine squat schnapps, gin or whiskey bottles produced by these factories in such quantities at this time. These bottles are quite rare and are commonly found in amber or a greenish% brown color.

-his map sho%s areas of early Ameri#an lassma"in alon the eastern sea*oar. of the /!, an. the routes %hi#h many of the %or"ers from these 0arious fa#tories too", as they left an. %ent out on their o%n.

(5!9/T*0T 09TE+ Please be aware that when it comes to glass there is no particular royal road to learning. It is only the occasional and exceptional piece, which may within itself tell its own story. Generally speaking it is not possible from the color, quality, form or decorative technique of a piece of glass to determine the particular factory of its origin. Fortunately for the student and collector one thing with regard to early North American blown pieces is true most of them remained in the !icinity where the factory which

produced them was located. "his is an important rule to remember when trying to disco!er where a piece originated from#

The *sheford (nstitute of *ntiques /esearch 3epartment does not identify, appraise, or evaluate pictures of glass sent to the (nstitute for student research. .lass is e#tremely difficult to identify even when itAs if front of you, and virtually impossible to do so through pictures. $e appreciate your consideration in this matter. F *.(.*. /esearch 3epartment

Stiegel $illiam 1enry tiegel, the self%styled G,aron of 5anheim !ennsylvaniaH, commenced production in

:2B4 &ancaster county, !ennsylvania, with the intent of giving *merica the finest of glass ever produced. tiegel introduced a new tradition to *merican glass making' he sought to compete with e#pensive European imports, and succeeded to such a degree that his products were virtually indistinguishable from their -ontinental counterparts. volume of glass. 9ver a ten%year period, he produced a very large variety and

The glass

tiegel used was either clear or colorless, or artificially colored, and products were usually

decorated by enameling, engraving and notably pattern molding. *mong the )small glass) produced, his salts were particularly attractive. These were in many shapes and the blue flint ones are the most tiegel glass in the 5etropolitan 5useum, 0ew =ork, and there

valuable. There is a good collection of

you may see the famous and indescribable ) tiegel blue.)

,owls were pattern molded and then e#panded by blowing or twisted by rolling on the arms of the glass%blower6s chair or by pinching in the diamond pattern. "lip glasses are much sought by the modern collector. Two shades of green were made, one fine and clear and very brilliant and the other quite pale. !urple was very common and amber was rare. * piece of tiegel glass is generally thought to be the

gem of any collection. 1owever, it must be pointed out once more that identifying and attributing a particular piece to be GaH tiegel, can be a very difficult proposition. (t was originally thought that almost all of tiegelAs products were produced solely in 5anheim, until it was learned that many of what people tiegel, was in actuality made in 9hio, in :;40 instead of :220. (n

had considered to be authentic

addition to this, many collectors make the mistake of assuming that the style of a piece can, in itself, establish a source and date. "or e#ample, the form and decoration of the sugar bowl shown in the

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!tie el !u ar Bo%l, Mol.3 Blo%n 1,6231,,4 picture to the left may indeed represent tiegelAs manner of :220 % but its style was also used in CEnglishD ,ristol glass of about the same time, and as mentioned before, in 9hio about si#ty or seventy years later.

The society glass

tiegel dealt with was typically dominated by English taste, and as a result, much of the

tiegel made was elegantly made in the English style. 1e also produced glass enameled with

peasant motifs in the .erman tradition. *s a consequence of his own e#travagances, overall rising costs and the *merican /evolution, he finally had to close the 5anheim works.

!an.%i#h +ea#h Blo% Glass Cir#a 1164

Sandwich % C*"#ent of presse" glass$ The ,oston and andwich .lass -ompany started production in :;24 8ust outside the town of andwich for two simple reasons' first, the

andwich in 5assachusetts. The factory was located in

abundance of local fuel' and secon", easy transportation. *t this time 0ew England glass factories burned wood, and easy access to timber was a chief reason for settling on -ape -od. *t andwich, too,

11 there is a tidal creek, which reaches back from the ocean for about a mile, and which is navigable for small boats. "rom andwich to ,oston by water is about fifty miles % thus, easy transportation was

assured. The factory was built on the edge of the creek, which was later widened to permit boats to come directly to the plant.

There is apparently no truth to the rumor that 3eming Earves Cborn :2<:D, and founder of the andwich .lass%works, located his factory at this location because of the sand found there. (n fact, the sand at andwich contained far too much iron, and was too coarse for making fine glass. The result

being that the materials used at the andwich factory had to be imported from 5orris /iver, 0ew Eersey, and from the ,erkshires in western 5assachusetts.

ome of the first items made at the andwich factory were cruet stoppers, molded hats, toy decanters, twisted cruets, pint pocket bottles, five%inch mold patty pans, star and ball stoppers and half%pint mold 8ugs. The records indicate that the first piece produced at the andwich factory was blown Euly 7 th :;24, by -harles $. &apham. *fter that, an entries book from the actual accounting department of the factory itself, indicates that high%blown stem%lamps, lamps on foot and peg lamps, as well as button stem short lamps, &iverpool lamp glasses, and large rose foot%lamps were all produced within the first three months of the factories initial opening.

(n contrast to the GsandH rumor however, there is much speculation that it was at this glass house that a carpenter had an idea, which revolutionized the glass industry. This was that, instead of blowing glass for manipulation or blowing glass into molds, the hot metal could be ladled into molds and then I presse"% into shape with a plunger. *lthough it is not completely clear as to who first invented the process, credit is most often given to 1iram 3illaway, who was the head mold maker at the designed most of its patterns. andwich factory, and

,y this method, the company could turn out a large variety and quantity of pressed glassware at low prices. This company produced a fine quality of flint glass. 5uch good lead was used and the result was a clear ring to the glass when struck. !roduction included cutglass bowls, salts, dishes, sugars,

12 creamers, tumblers, stemware, decanters, lamps and globes, goblets, and all kinds of wineglasses. *t one time, glass shades were being produced that covered between 70 and 40 patterns of design % many of these shades were etched. 5ost popular of all the glassware produced was the Glacy%patternedH pressed glass which became so sought after, that rather than a specific factory term. andwich glass today, has become a generic term

9ne of the most popular items was the cup%plate. (n those days, it was the height of good manners to drink your hot tea from the saucer, while this was being done, there had to be a place to stand the cup and accordingly, the cup%plate was produced.

*fter the -ivil $ar, competition in the glass industry became much more fierce. "actories in the $est held an advantage of their rivals in the east, owing to the fact that they were able to use natural gas for fuel, as well as their close pro#imity to sand and coal. (n addition to this, in :;;2 the workmen decided to form a union, and presented a list of demands to the board of directors. andwich !an.%i#h Butter 5ish Cir#a, 1122 3 1144

The company issued an

ultimatum e#plaining that they would not be able to stay in business if these demands were enforced. The workers, unbelieving of the companies issued statement, decided to strike. 9n Eanuary 2nd :;;; the furnaces were turned off and the factory was closed.

9f all the colored glass produced by the

andwich factory+ opal, ruby, and amethyst are probably the

most valuable. These colors appeared in lampshades, perfume bottles and decanters.

Amelung

13 9ne of the lesser%known, but highly respected glasshouses, was that of the ill%fated 5aryland enterprise started in :2;7 by Eohn "rederick *melung of ,remen, .ermany. *melung arrived in

5aryland in the summer of :2;7, bringing with him si#ty%eight workers and instruments for three different glass ovens.

*melung quickly established a substantial manufactory on part of a two thousand%acre tract of land, which spanned the 5onocacy /iver and e#tended almost to the !otomac. ,y :2<0 *melung had

acquired an additional one%thousand acres and had erected another glasshouse' early written accounts show that he employed between four and five hundred workers, who were turning out almost eight thousand pounds of glass product per year.

Early 5ra%in $f Amelun 6s Glasshouse At 7e% Bremen

ome of the pieces produced at the *melung glasshouse included, drawn%stemmed wineglasses Cmany with folded, rather than plain feetD, tumblers of widely varying sizes, firing and dessert glasses, tumbler or goblet lids, decanter and bottle stoppers, sugar bowls with ornamental handles, utilitarian bowls and pans, cans or mugs with handles, bottles, flasks and window glass. ome flask and tumbler

pieces were decorated with e#panded ribbed molding, also with pattern molding in diamond and diamond%daisy designs. 9f particular interest was the use of color' different shades of green were used for flasks, common bottles, bowls, and some table glass. *mber was used for molded bottles, and

14 bowls, while amethyst was used for sugar bowls, creamers, goblets, and some small bottles. ,lue was also used frequently for sugar bowls, and for the ornamental handles and rims of clear mugs or cans. *s far as the clear table glass was concerned, there were a variety of varying colors, from hints of pale green, to gray, and sometimes purple % all indicative of the fact that *melung had difficulty in producing a consistent metal for working with his glass. *ll of these pieces are e#tremely rare, and most are located in rural museums throughout the eastern coast of the Jnited tates.

(n the spring of :2<0, there was a catastrophic fire, which burned a ma8or section of the glassworks to the ground. 3uring this same time, *melung also suffered a series of financial setbacks. ,y :2<4 *melung offered up his holdings for sale, but was unable to find a buyer. ,y the end of the year, he was declared bankrupt, and the fires of the

glassworks were put out permanently.

Amelun -um*ler #8a8 1,21

1'

Synopsis O Early New !or" State Glasshouses


The Oneida Glass And Iron Company % This company, which was incorporated in :;0<, was first established at Taberg, 0ew =ork, in *nnsville Township, in the southern part of 9neida -ounty. *lthough not much is know of this glasshouse, a few items have managed to survive. The site of the old furnace was found 8ust on the outskirts of the town located at the edge of a low, but fairly steep bluff. This location was probably chosen because it allowed for easy wagon hauling of fuel, flu#, and ore to the level of the furnace%charging gate.

The products of the 9neida .lass and (ron -ompany it seems were always charcoal pig iron, and hollow ware % kettles, pots and skillets. The pig iron used was of a particularly fine grade, and it was from this e#cellent grade of metal that the billets came, which were later rolled into the sheet iron that has endured to this day as pierced lanterns, sconces, and a variety of decorated tinware.

*lthough the name implies, GglassH, it would seem that this was one glass company, which simply did not make glassK no doubt due to its success as a maker of iron ob8ects Cmany companies at this time incorporated into their charter, the right to make other items if one avenue of production proved unsuccessfulD. $hatever the final reason, the 9neida .lass and (ron -ompany, made iron, but

apparently never produced a single piece of glass.

The Oneida Glass Factory Company % This glasshouse was also formed in :;0<, and was located in @ernon, 0ew =ork, seventeen miles west of Jtica. *ccording to old historical records, the glasshouse was quickly erected, and put into operation under the guidance of $illett 1. hearman.

The items produced at the factory were marketed through an agent or dealer in Jtica, and consisted primarily of G9neida *quamarine $indow .lassH, although it is believed that some of the workers may have produced a few items of their own, such as flasks, vases, and pitchers. (t is assumed that some of these items produced by the workers, were not only for personal use, but that some may have been sold, Gunder%the%tableH so to speak, in an effort to supplement their yearly income. *ll items would have most

16 likely been produced in the standard aquamarine color, and are today considered e#tremely valuable, although virtually impossible to classify as to their source or age.

(n :;?B the directors of The 9neida .lass "actory -ompany decided to close shop and quit business. To this day, there is still no e#planation as to why this decision was taken. 1owever, the end result was the demise of one of the first, and one of the most successful early 0ew =ork glasshouses west of *lbany.

The Mount Vernon Glass Company % The 5ount @ernon .lass -ompany was formed in :;:0, 8ust north of the village of 5ount @ernon. &ocal documents attest to the fact that the glasshouse was owned and operated by the .ranger brothers, but further details as to when the brothers took control of the glasshouse are incomplete.

Mount 9ernon Glass Co8 Am*er :ailroa. ;las"

Jpon e#cavation of the ruins however, many items were found, which gave a good general idea as to the products, which were produced. aquamarine ome of these items included' cornucopia%urn flasks, a pint

unburst flask, a pint &afayette%5asonic flask, pressed salt dishes, three%part%mold

decanter, blown flint decanter, flint cruets, bottles, snuff and black bottles, aquamarine medicine and prescription bottles and a pint /ailroad flask. *s with the 9neida .lass -ompany, any GlegitimateH pieces of glass from the 5ount @ernon glasshouse would be highly prized by collectors of today.

The 5ount @ernon glasshouse is generally thought to have been in business until around :;20. *fter

1, that date there are no specific records C they were apparently destroyed by miceL D which tell of any further business being conducted by this glasshouse.

Cleveland Glass Works % 5id%nineteenth century glassmaking was undertaken in many rural districts of 0ew =ork tate. *s already discussed,

several of the important factories which were established during the latter part of this era, either bordered on, or were near &ake 9neida. *mong these factories was the -leveland .lassworks, named after its location in the village of -leveland, in 9swego -ounty. A.0ertisement ;or -he Cle0elan. Glass%or"s Cir#a 1144

(n :;70, *nthony &andgraff selected -leveland as the site for his new glassworks operation. ,orn in .ermany, he came to *merica in :;:2. oon after his arrival, he began to learn the glass trade by

associating himself with one of the glasshouses already manufacturing glass in @ernon, in the -ounty of 9neida. *t the beginning of his venture, &andgraff brought his sand for glassmaking by boat from @ernon, but in :;7: he unearthed a sand%bed close to his own works. This bed rendered sand, which was far superior to that which he had formerly been using or could obtain elsewhere, since it imparted e#ceptional brilliance to the glass of which it was an integral part. *s a result of this find, for many years large quantities of -leveland sand were shipped to distant factories in the Jnited tates and -anada.

11

The commercial output of the &andgraff works was confined mainly to window glass, as many of the other factories in this area were at the time. 1owever, as was common practice for this period, many of the workmen were allowed to occupy there off time by making a variety of pieces for themselves, family

Cle0elan. Glass< Chain, (ilies, 5arner, In Bluish Color

and friends. *lmost all of the workmen were immigrants from .ermany and the &ow -ountries, who brought with them a tremendous amount of knowledge and skill when it came to their craft. *s a result of this leisure glassmaking, many unusual articles found their way into the local homes, and were subsequently preserved and passed on down through the generations.

The color of many of these early items, was not surprisingly, aquamarine, with a strong bluish tint in the wider portions of the glass, but paling to a lighter hue where the glass was thinned. ome of these items

included pitchers and bowls Ce#tremely rareD, rolling pins, balls, stocking darners, lilies, chains, paperweights and canes. 5any of the canes were multicolored in much the same way as that of a stick of old%fashioned candy. (n addition to this, they were also shaped in many forms' round, rectangular, solid and hollow % some being as long as si# feet.

12 *nthony &andgraff and his four sons continued to run the family glass business until about :;B: when it was taken over by a succession of owners who eventually merged the business in :;22 and consolidated it with the Jnion .lass -ompany. The quality of glass fabricated during the &andgraff years is considered by todayAs collectors to be the most valuable and well crafted of all products produced by the -leveland factory.

Peterboro Glass orks & 9ne of the earliest glassworks in central 0ew =ork

tate, was that of the

!eterboro .lassworks, situated in the center of 5adison -ounty bordering on 9neida -reek. *lthough very little is known of this enterprise, it is believed to have been started by an immigrant from 1artford, -onnecticut, by the name of 3avid .off, who, accompanied by a handful of men, proceeded to set%up shop in the !eterboro area around :2;?.

*s with most glassworks of the time, .off and his workers began making window glass, which they transported by o#carts and prairie wagons to the near%by pioneer towns and as far east as *lbany. 9nce again, there were a few odd pieces created here and there by the local workers, which have survived by being passed on down to the direct descendants of the glassworkers themselves. ome of these

ob8ects, which are e#ceptionally rare, include 8ars, bottles, deep bowls, rolling pins, and a few beakers. *lmost all of the !eterboro glass can be distinguished by its deep bluish%green color, and appears much darker than ob8ects from other 0ew =ork tate glasshouses. The bottles, 8ars and bowls have pontils,

but the undersides of the pieces are quite craggy and rough.

(n :;0< a man by the name of !eter mith took over the glassworks and ran it with little success, until it eventually closed in :;22 as a result of stiff competition from a -anadian glass factory from 9ntario. COntario !or's % about which even less is knownD.

!ancaster Glass & *nother glass factory about which very little is also known, is the &ancaster .lassworks of &ancaster, 0ew =ork. This factory was established in :;4: by $illiam -urtis, and eight additional glassblowers, who accompanied the -urtis family on the trek from !ittsburgh, !ennsylvania in :;7<.

24 The glass that has been documented to have come from the &ancaster .lassworks includes a variety of beautiful pitchers in such colors as, deep cobalt blue, aquamarine, light ultramarine blue, and brilliant light turquoise blue with pale cornflower%blue threading. The range of height for these pitchers varied from 8ust under si# inches to over eight. 5any of these pitchers came with thumb%lugs Ca pronounced protrusionD upon the upper hilt of the heavily molded handles. *ll e#amples of these pitchers are

e#ceptionally rare. The final date of production by the &ancaster factory is not known.

"arato#a Glass & 9ne of the earliest recorded glass houses in the state of 0ew =ork was that of the aratoga .lass "actory, which was founded sometime between :;24 and :;?0. The factory was located on the top of a mountain about twelve miles from aratoga. The wood needed to fuel the enterprise was abundant, but all the materials for making the glass had to be hauled up the mountain, made into glass, and then hauled back down % a rather inefficient process.

,ottles were the main commodity produced' some for spring water, and others for pocket flasks. 1owever, as was common for the time, the glass%blowers were allowed to make for themselves all the dishes and small wares they desired, such as rolling%pins, canes, cans, bowls, balls, hats, darners and an assortment of table wares. *ll the pieces made came in three different colors' light green, a rich deep green and olive. 5any of these pieces, with their attractive shapes and rich coloring, are considered by todayAs collector to be of e#ceptional beauty % the workers of the factory were remarkable craftsmen, and were believed to have come from /ome and 0ew =ork. *fter the factory closed, most of the workers migrated to a second factory close by known as the -ongress about :<00. *lthough not as well known, the -ongress pring -ompany, which operated until

pring -ompany produced much of the same

quality goods as that of the original aratoga .lass "actory.

Synopsis O Early #onnecticut Glass Houses


Pitkin Glasshouse % The earliest producing glass factory in the state of -onnecticut, was run by $illiam and Eoseph !itkin at 5anchester -onnecticut between :2;? and :;?0. The product produced by this factory came in various shades of amber and olive green. 9riginally from .ermany, the !itkins

introduced a type of flask, which up until this time, had not been made in 0orth *merica. "lasks made

21 using the !itkin Ghalf%postH method of manufacture, Cthe strengthening of the glass by adding more glass to the surrounding bodyD are generally referred to today as ()it'in Flas's* Calthough they were made in many other glass factories as wellD

+int Am*er +it"in ;las"

These flasks were usually swirled and vertically ribbed, resulting in a flask that often resembled corn on the cob. *mong the other items produced were, demi8ohns % both large and small, chestnut bottles, swirled inkwells % both round and squared, and a variety of 8ars.

The !itkin factory was quite large, employing between twenty%five and thirty men, who ran on continuous day and night shifts. !itkin not only made glass for domestic use, but also for e#port,

shipping fairly large quantities to the $est (ndies. The factory continued in operation until around :;?0 when work was suspended permanently. 5ost e#perts believe the lack of local wood fuel to be the reason for the factories final demise.

22 Coventry Glass Works & This glass works factory operated in -ovenrtry between :;:? and :;7;, and is credited with producing some of the first *merican historical flasks from about :;27 to :;24. 9ne of these flasks portrayed the famous .eneral

&afayette on one side, while the reverse side portrayed 3e $itt -linton, at that time governor of 0ew =ork tate. *lso featured as historical

themes, were 5asonic arches, and a "rench liberty cap on a pole under the stars. *s with almost all of these early factories, the -oventry house also
Co0entry Ma.e =:ailroa.3Ea le An. !tars> ;las"

produced chestnut bottles, demi8ohns, inkwells,

snuff bottles, and window glass. (n addition to these articles, a number of half pint railroad flasks were also made with the inscription, (Success To The +ailroa"*, written in a half%arch over a picture of a horse pulling a cart. The predominant color used at the factory was amber.

West$ord Glass Works & "ormed in :;42, this factory produced a variety of common items from unmarked quart, pint, half%pint flasks, and flasks decorated with a sheaf of rye or wheat until about :;2?. The colors were in various shades of amber, and the flasks usually came in a rather dark amber color. * number of rare heavy dark%amber candlesticks were also produced, but are thought to be limited to a dozen or so pairs today.

Willin#ton Glass Works & @ery few pieces survive from this factory, and thus little is known of its total output. $hat is known is that the factory commenced production in :;:4 and closed in :;22. "lasks were common and were decorated with a spread eagle over a wreath, and were produced in quart, pint, and half%pint sizes. 3emi8ohns, ranging in size from two quarts to five gallons were also made. The colors ranged from olive green and olive amber to very brilliant red amber.

%e

!ondon Glass Works & This company produced a variety of glass from :;4B to :;27. (t included

not only colored glass, but also aquamarine in the form of demi8ohns, 8ars, patent%medicine bottles, lily%

23 pad pitchers with knobbed stems and slightly domed feet, as well as flasks. The standard form of decoration was the standing eagle, as well as a flying eagle.

Synopsis O Early New England Glass Houses


The %e &ampshire Glass Company & This company was formed in :;:B, in Meene, 0ew 1ampshire choolcraft. &ater, choolcraft was 8oined by 0athaniel prague, and the firm became

by 1enry /owe

known as G choolcraft and

pragueH. The factory employed over twelve workers at its inception, and,

like many of the other factories of the time, these workers were allowed to make a variety of offhand items for themselves.

The ma8ority of glass made at Meene was dark and coarse in te#ture, and primarily consisted of window glass, and bottles. ome of the bottles were decorated with * few were

crude designs, such as 5asonic or patriotic motifs.

marked with GMeeneH, but most of them had no designation whatsoever. There were however, a few odd pieces made, such as inkwells, and a small variety of flasks which were similar to other factories at the time in their theme and construction' Success To The +ailroa" flasks, )it'in&type flasks, ,agle&-ornucopia "lasks, .rn -ornucopia flasks, ?eene ;las", Cir#a 1134

Sunburst flasks and a few !ashington )ortrait flasks. ,y :;40, the factory closed and the business was moved to toddard.

"toddard Glass & There were actually three distinct glass houses which operated in outh toddard and 5ill @illage between :;72 and :;2?. The first glassworks in

toddard C/oseph Foster%s !or's D were built in :;72 by Eoseph "oster, who came from Meene, 0ew 1ampshire. &ittle is known of this enterprise e#cept that "oster built a A.0ertisement ;or !to..ar. Glass 1162

24 small furnace Cof stoneD in an old house west of what was then known as I.ilsonAs TavernA. The business was apparently poorly run, and "oster ran out of capital within a few years. 1e tried his hand one more time about two miles to the north, and by :;40 was out of business again. "osters only known products were coarsely made black bottles with no discernable markings. (n :;7B a more successful venture C 0ill Village1 Granite Glass -ompanyD was launched by .ilman cripture, Eohn 5. $hiton, Er., and -alvin

-urtice, all of whom contributed to a large factory built in 5ill @illage. The three partners were quite successful, and were listed in :;47 as making about N2400.00 annually. The company produced bottles of various sizes and descriptions, flasks, dark inkwells and some Ithree%sectioned%moldA dark%amber green pitchers with sunburst banding. The factory was run by a succession of owners until about :;22 when it closed. The third factory was the South Sto""ar" Glass -ompany, which began production in :;40. *s with the other toddard factories, this smaller factory also produced coarse glass bottles,

demi8ohns, and a few other offhand pieces. The colors varied from reddish%amber to olive%amber. The factory closed in :;2? as a result of the depression following the *merican -ivil $ar and the publicAs new found taste for clear glass.

#anadian Glass .enerally speaking, the ma8ority of -anadian glass manufacturers were grouped together in the .reat &akes region, and specialized in commercial glass and pressed glass tableware. 5ost of the -anadian glass was supplied by *merican mold manufacturers who shipped their supplies through the waterways and canals along the border. ome *merican companies were responsible for shipping as much as

N40,000.00 worth of the latest patterns across the border in one year alone. The result of this enormous importation of glass has thus made it difficult to identify authentic -anadian pieces without proper invoices and manufacturersA records.

ome of the finest crystal of the twentieth century came from the -orning area, which was very near to the -anadian border. To reduce costs locally, much of the engraving work for the *merican companies was shipped north to small engraving shops in -anada, and as a result many fine -anadian motifs can be found on so%called American&-ana"ian co%productions.

2' Other Early Glass The above are only a few of the main names in early *merican glass, however there were countless smaller glass factories in production from time to time, and many may have been so small that the historical record of their e#istence could have been easily overlooked by the passing of time. the smaller glass houses not mentioned above include' Adams Glass Company $%&%'D % *dams, 5* Albany %e 'ork Glass Co( $%&()* % *lbany, 0= ome of

)ake ell And Pa#e $%&(&* % "rederickstown, 53 )altimore Glass Works $%)+(* % ,altimore, 53 Cheshire Cro n Glass Works $%&%'* % -heshire, 5* Chester Glass Co( $%&%'* % -hester, 5* *ummer+ Geor#e And P(C( $%&',* % Eersey -ity, 0E *unbarton $%&('* % 9neida -ounty, 0= ,-celsior Co- $%&.&* % 5artinAs "erry, @* Fort Pitt Works $%&/(* % !ittsburgh, !* Gilliland $%&/(* % ,rooklyn, 0= &emin#ray Glass Co( $%&,&* % -incinnati, 91 !a )elle Co( $%&)+* % ,ridgeport, 91 !ouisville+ .y(+ Glass Wor"s $%&).* % &ouisville, M= %e Windsor $%)./* % 9range -ounty, 0=

"amuels+ A(/( $%&..* % !hiladelphia, !* Vermont Glass Factory $%&%/* % alisbury, @T

00 NOTE

!lease be aware that information pertaining to the above listed factories is e#tremely limited,

and virtually any pieces produced by these houses would be almost impossible to authenticate today with any degree certainty.

26 1ressed And 1atterned Glass Throughout most of the last two%thirds of the :<th century, mechanically pressed glass tableware was probably produced in larger quantities and was used more widely for domestic services in 0orth *merica than in any other part of the world. tarting about :;70, such tableware pressed in relatively simple

forms and patterned with bold designs broadly similar to that familiar on more e#pensive cut glass was issued in the form of complete table settings. 9ver the decades, the variety of patterns multiplied in bewildering profusion, in colored as well as clear glass. 5odern dealers and collectors have often

arbitrarily changed the names under which the patterns were originally advertised.

"or instance, the pattern known as -omet a century ago is now known as 2orn of )lenty. .lass manufacturing was highly competitive, particularly in the Jnited tates' and almost every pattern that

won popularity when it was produced by one company was quickly copied more or less e#actly by other firms in different sections of the country.

Jnlike a large number of other industries, the manufacturing of pattern glass did not need tariff protection to en8oy a large domestic market. *merican and -anadian sands produced glass of lustrous clarity and offset the high wages paid to workmen in 0orth *merica. The pressing devices in this part of the world were, on the whole, more efficient than those used abroad. (n the :;B0As, soda ash and lime were first used successfully to replace lead and other flu#es, a development that drastically reduced the cost of production. (n the :;20s, *merican glass companies that specialized in goblets and tumblers developed markets overseas, particularly in .reat ,ritain. competitive. Even with the high freight rates and labor costs, they were Am*erina +resse. Glass 7e% En lan. Glass Co8 Cir#a 1114

5eanwhile, the variety of patterns continued to multiply.

5ore than three hundred have been

identified, although their original names, in some cases, have been forgotten. &ater e#amples lost all resemblance to cut glass. 0ew patterns with impressed scenes of the far west included on covered

2, pieces, knobs in the form of crouching (ndians, and so on. The frosted or satin%finish on patterned glass was achieved by the use of acid.

*s in the case of many other industries, pressed glass manufacturers tended to drift westward, along with the general population of the nation' and as a result, the motif and design of much of the glassware changed as they settled farther west.

-arnival glass and depression glass are two of the more recent items of pressed glass that have become collectibles as of late. $ith all the patterns and volume of pressed glass produced the avid collector has a large field on which to concentrate. 2a3riIe Glass "avrile glass is the name Tiffany gave to the new medium he had created in glass. (nitially, Tiffany had concerned himself with stain%glass windows and mosaics but soon broadened his operations in favor of bowls, vases, lamps, and other decorative ob8ects' and by the :;<0s, these were adding to his international reputation as a highly gifted, creative designer. (n :<00, The 1ome ,eautiful magazine e#ulted that Tiffany6s "avrile glass, 3possesses a "istincti#ely American pro"uct that is recogni4e" where#er it is shown as an achie#ement in art 3

(n the closing years of the :<th century, Tiffany undertook the production of lamps, combining cast% bronze bases with lead%glass shades that were an obvious derivative from his stained%glass windows. The lead skeletons of the shades with their flowing unbroken lines were skillfully contrived to accommodate irregular pieces of glass selected for their harmonious, shaded colors, to suggest floral and other natural forms. These novel and varied accessories were largely designed to e#ploit the needs and possibilities introduced with the advent and the increasing popularity of lighting by electricity. The success of these ornamental lamps attracted a host of imitators on both sides of the *tlantic, until the term )Tiffany &amp hade,) ultimately degenerated into a bland cliche for pseudo elegance.

*fter :<00, Tiffany6s combinations of bronze and "avrile glass were devel oped into a variety of forms. The public not only bought his lamps but desk sets, photograph frames, smoking sets Ccigarettes were

21 becoming increasingly popularD, clocks, nut dishes, and scores of other accessories. 5ore than ten different desk sets were produced' some consisting of bronze etched to simulate a greenish patina, backed by amber or green marbleized glass. 9thers incorporated enamel and mother%of%pearl.

To produce so much and such varied ware, Tiffany depended upon a large staff of craftsmen, designers, and workmen, although his personal taste, 8udgment, and direction were virtually reflected in everything he did. The most important of these helpers, *rthur E. 0ash, a master glassworker from England, contributed a great deal to the quality and design of a Tiffany piece.

Through much of the last two decades of the :<th century, there seemed to be a strong need to discover a new direction in design before the year :<00 ushered in the 20th century. The *rt 0ouveau tyle spreading over Europe and *merica was an e#pression of that spirit of e#pectancy and e#periment. The freely flowing organic forms and ornament so typical of that style were a part of Tiffany6s "avrile glass as well. (t raised the decorative arts to parity with the fine arts.

*lthough Tiffany and "avrile glass was to lose favor with the public in the mid part of the 20th century, it has returned in popularity with a vengeance' and one only has to see the prices that these items fetch on the antique market to know that their continued popularity will last because it is truly a unique art form.

Water ord Glass $aterford glass is made in (reland. The history of $aterford crystal really begins with the !enroses' .eorge and $illiam % who petitioned !arliament in :2;? to establish the manufacture of flint glass in $aterford. ,y the following year, the factory was in full swing, making all kinds of useful and ornamental flint glass, of as fine a quality as any in Europe. The renown of $aterford cut crystal continued to grow, and soon it was entering the e#port market.

The company continued on through a series of owners until :;4:, when it appeared the present owner, .eorge .atchell, did not have sufficient capital to carry on' and the $aterford -lass -ompany was

22 closed. $aterford crystal needs no legend to e#plain its fame. Then, as now, its reputation rests on the almost silver white brilliance of the crystal and the deep cutting which imparts sparkle and life.

(n the early days, $aterford made a three%ringed decanter in great quantity, and the three rings around the neck were there, so that unsteady hands could easily grasp the decanter. 5any of the glasses had thick knobbed stems and broad feet. They also made flasks, candlesticks, 8ugs, sugar%bowls, salt%cellars, egg cups, scent bottles, wineglasses, dishes, and so on.

!erhaps, the most famous old $aterford pieces are the ,oat haped ,owl and "ooted Turnover ,owl. ,oth are reproduced today in the $aterford !eriod range. The "ooted Turnover ,owl stands ten inches high, and the elegant ,oat haped ,owl is fourteen inches high.

Therefore, for about one hundred years, the $aterford .lass -ompany was out of e#istence. (n :<4:, a new factory, which was among the most modern in Europe, was completed' and production began. *ppropriately, the first 8ob in the new $aterford .lass -ompany was the repairing and re%erecting of the old $aterford glass chandelier, which hung in $aterford6s -ity 1all.

(n the old days, most $aterford glass had been e#ported abroad, particularly to the Jnited tates and to a lesser degree to -anada. 5ore of the old crystal can be found in 0orth *merica than can be found in (reland. Therefore, it is understandable that within two years of opening its doors, the $aterford factory was e#porting e#tensively to the Jnited tates and -anada.

*ltmans of 0ew =ork was the first to feature $aterford crystal. (t now sells in every ma8or store across the Jnited tates. $aterford e#hibited at the -anadian 0ational E#hibition in :<4?' and of the four

hundred e#hibition pieces, all were sold before the e#hibition officially opened... and a new market was born.

(n :<4:, the company employed fifty people. Today, it employs over one thousand' and everywhere the beautiful hand%made pieces of $aterford crystal are appreciated, whether they are old or new.

34

1er ume4 Scent And #ologne 5ottles !erfume, scent, and cologne containers have a long history. ,ottles of perfume have been found in tombs as far back as the early 5iddle Eastern civilizations, and it is evident that the use of sweet% smelling fluids to mask unpleasant odors has been a custom for thousands of years.

!erfume was and still is used to enhance personal presence % at first by masking body odor in a day when bathing was infrequent % and today as a matter of taste. cent, or smelling salts, on the other

hand, is perfume, plus ammonia, a pungent salt whose acrid vapors are used to revive those who feel faint % a condition that 8udging from the quantity of scent containers was much more common with grandmothers than with modern women.

-ologne bottles appeared at much later dates than perfume and scent containers. -ologne is perfume diluted with alcohol. ince a larger amount is required to achieve the same effect, cologne bottles are

generally larger than perfume bottles.

(nterestingly enough, one of the ma8or sources of scent and perfume bottles was the ,oston and andwich .lass -ompany, which, as already mentioned, was active from around :;24 to :;;;. 5any other :;th and :<th century glass houses manufactured containers for smelling salts CscentD and perfume. (n the early stages, they were freely blown and often in elaborate shapes, such as the sea horse%bottle complete with tail.

The same tradition was established for the cologne bottle. *nimal and human figures were popular among colognes. 5any of these were shaped from clear glass, as well as opalescent, blue, amber, green, and several types of milk glass. !erfume bottles have been en8oying a particular vogue in recent years and have shot ahead in popularity and price, to the point where in the last few years a plethora of books ranging from price guides to general descriptions have been written covering this sub8ect e#haustively.

31 (n addition to this, it is also worth noting some of the other classifications. "irst, there are ink bottles and inkwells. There is a substantial interest in them presently, and good quality bottles are high in price for the best e#amples. "ood bottles, another category, includes, pickle 8ars, pepper sauce bottles, and various other condiment bottles sold throughout the :<th century.

"ruit 8ars or sealers, of course, are a special group unto themselves. The discovery of canning created the first fruit or canning 8ars. They range in price from twenty%five cents to hundreds of dollars for the very rare sealers. 5ilk bottles offer functional use to the collector as well. Today, many are used as wine decanters.

The embossing and labels on the bottles enhance their value, and most collectors only collect containers from their own area. The other groups which bottles fall into are snuff and blacking bottles, drug bottles, poison bottles, household bottles, barber bottles, and candy containers used in stores primarily.

(n addition to all these groups are many miscellaneous bottles, which are collected for their rarity, color, embossing, and shape. Thus, if you desire to become a bottle collector, you have a big field in which to e#plore and generally an ine#haustible supply of products.

Old 5ottles /ecently a noted antique writer, commented that while travelling in *merica through the southern states of &ouisiana, Mentucky, and *rkansas, he was reminded of how popular bottle collecting still is, and that within the relatively short span of twenty%five years collecting old or antique bottles and flasks has grown from a hobby en8oyed by the dedicated few, to one followed by people of all ages and pursuits.

$hy do people collect old bottlesO * well%known collector nicely synopsized the answer to this when he said that, (2e sought the e5traor"inary in the or"inary 3

32 ,ottles can be found in every conceivable shape and color. *n old square perfume bottle has nowhere near the appeal of a bottle in the shape of a child or other figure. Jsually, the more crudely a bottle was made, the greater is its appeal. The comparison to early *merican or -anadian pine furniture may be made here, inasmuch as the utilitarian ob8ects made by human hands possess an individuality, an aura, a folk%art quality that machine%made articles cannot match.

The words embossed on a bottle often provide information about a person, place, or time. The historical detail written on the bottle connects the collector to it in such a way that he might wonder where the bottle might have been and what the people were like who used its contents.

$ith the information available today, one can generally trace when a bottle was in production. * crudely made, pontil marked medicine bottle can speak volumes to a collector, while its perfectly formed machine%made cousin produces only silence.

(f the characteristics of age, color, rarity, condition, and shape are important to a bottle collector, then what kinds of collections are being built todayO imply accumulating old bottles that come along is not

truly collecting. The dictionary defines a collection as having some order, arrangement, or unity of effort. 5any collectors specialize in one field of the hobby. bottles, or fruit sealers or drug store bottles. ome collect only medicine bottles, others beer

,uilding a distinctive collection is largely a matter of

ingenuity, ability, and occasional luck. (t is also a bit of a game with the suspense and adventure of searching for those rare bottles which always seem to be out of reach.

!erhaps, the last and maybe even the most important point is that an individual has something in common with other individuals and can share his or her common interest % whether it be talking to bottle dealers, 8oining bottle clubs, or 8ust meeting other collectors as you make the rounds in search of more bottles for your collection. *s mentioned before, there is a plentiful variety of choices to chose from' for e#ample, there are ink bottles and inkwells' perfume, scent, and cologne bottles' bitters bottles' wine' and spirit bottles' and so on and so on...

33 6arious 5ottles !lease remember that the categories listed below are not hard and fast rules but 8ust general areas of specific collecting.

Wine 7 Spirit 5ottles % * wide variety of bottles were used to contain wine and various types of alcoholic beverages. (n about :BB0 in 0orth *merica appeared a short, squatty bottle with not much of a neck. .radually, the bottle got taller and the neck longer until by :;B0, the straight, cylindrical molded container, with a deep kick%up Cindented mold at the inside base of the bottleD and long neck had become the standard whisky and wine bottle. -hestnut bottles remained in favor during this period as well' however, they tended to be more bulbous with longer necks. The largest vessels in this form are called demi%8ohns and carboys. -arboys were more cylindrical compared to a stoneware 8ug. ,oth of these large varieties of bottles were often covered in wicker to avoid breakage. 1andled whisky 8ugs were very popular during the :<th century as containers for bourbon. ,ecause booze was cheap to produce, particularly gin and rye Cbefore the government ta#esLD, the distillers competed with each other in the design of their containers, creating bottles that looked like barrels, clocks, 8ugs, cannons, and even the shape of a woman6s body. The flat, oval container known as the flask also made its appearance as a container for whisky. These small bottles, typically a pint or half%pint in capacity, usually had a figured surface ranging from scrolled designs to an embossed portrait.

8ecanters And 5ar 5ottles % 3ecanters and bar bottles differ from other glass containers in that they are not normally used for transportation of liquid but for storage. The earliest decanters were unadorned with a matching glass stopper. 3ecorations, such as engravings and etchings, became popular in the late :;th century. 5old%blown decanters brought about the cutting of the glass to form different patterns, and as a result, the cut glass decanter is still very popular today. ,ar bottles are differentiated from decanters in that they do not have a flanged lip and are clearly designed to receive a cork rather than a glass stopper. 3ecanters and beer bottles have been made for so long and in so many different designs that the collector has a wide selection from which to choose.

34 1roprietary 9edicine 5ottles % The variety of medicine bottles is so great that they form the bulk of most collections. The first medicine bottles sold in 0orth *merica were imported from England. The companies always chose fancy names, like 6r Townsen"7s Sarsaparilla, or Spiller7s Gol"en Balsum, because, after all, they did not want the public to know that the contents were composed of nothing more than sassafras bark, molasses, and cheap rye whisky. 9pium and morphine were also thrown into many to give it that e#tra )kick) which so many small town ladies en8oyed when they bought their proprietary patented medicines in a variety of bottles running from small, two%ounce containers up to the full%gallon size % depending on how sick one wasL

5any of the early bottles contain pontil marks and are beautifully colored. (f, in addition, they are clearly embossed with the maker6s name, and it is a rare one, then the value of the bottle increases. ,y :<04, domestic patent medicine consumption had reached ?B4 million bottles a year in 0orth *merica. 1owever, the bubble burst when amuel 1opkins *dams wrote a well researched and carefully

documented article for -olliers magazine in which he revealed that most proprietary medicines contained alcohol' in fact, two hundred and forty brands on the market had such a high alcoholic content as to require a liquor license for their sale' and some were laced with such health restoratives as arsenic, opium, and morphine. The resultant outcry led to the passage in :<02 of the )ure Foo" an" 6rug Act in the Jnited tates, which restricted contents and advertising.

5itter 5ottles % The term, bitters, is generally taken to apply to an infusion of herbs, particularly quinine and others with a similar acrid taste. uch substances have been used for many years to alleviate

stomach disorders. The first commercial bitter bottles appeared in Europe during the :2th century. 3uring the reign of .eorge (( C:222%:2B0D, the government, in an effort to control the wholesale public drunkenness that had enveloped among the working class, levied a heavy ta# on gin which was the cheap spirits used by most people. 0ot to be denied a lucrative market, the liquor manufacturers simply added a few harsh tasting herbs in gin and called the resulting concoction )gripe) or )coltick water) or most commonly )bitters.) This deception was an immediate success. &abels such as ).ates &ife of

5an ,ittersH, or )@egetable ,ilious ,itters,) was really 8ust a social way around the evils of liquor % both in

3' 0orth *merica and Europe. The bottles came in all shapes and sizes and almost always mentioned the word, bitters, on the embossed lettering or on the label.

5eer 5ottles % ,eer may well be the oldest alcoholic beverage. "or many years, it was sold from hardwood kegs or barrels usually made of oak. ,eer that was bottled appears to have been sold in stoneware bottles with wired down cork tops, or in heavy black glass bottles, similar in size to the stoneware bottles. These bottles were at first called 8unk bottles and later porter bottles' and they did not have the name of the maker or the contents on them, as they were used for cider, liquor, and other beverages.

ometime around :;40, molded, embossed beer bottles appeared. The first bottles were squat' however, around :;20 a different container about ten inches high was developed with a globe top. * few of these bottles adopted a torpedo%shaped receptacle, but this type of bottle was primarily popular with carbonated drink makers. ,eer bottles came in a variety of colors, amber being the most common color used F even to this day.

9ineral 7 Soda Water 5ottles % 5ineral water may be generally defined as water artificially impregnated with mineral salts or gases. $hen carbon dio#ide is added to this fluid, it becomes

carbonated. (t has long been believed that mineral water has curative powers. 5ineral water bottles tend to be of a standard form' cylindrical, with thick walls, sloping shoulders, and tapered collars. Embossed lettering appeared on nearly all of them. The saturation of water with carbonic acid produces carbonated water or soda water. The torpedo%shaped bottle was introduced as a soda water bottle

supposedly to keep the cork from drying out, however, as a result of its shape, the bottle would not stand upright. oda bottles are common, and nearly all were embossed, and were of course, made right up to

the 20th century and are still made today.

36

Identi ying Genuine Old Glass


9f all the different antiques and collectibles available to the modern collector today, glass is probably the most difficult to identify as to its e#act period and manufacture.

ome unscrupulous dealers take modern glass pieces and synthetically GageH them by means of pumice and sandpaper, and as a result, it is really only through years of e#perience that the collector is able to detect these faked markings.

The General Tests 2or Authenticity Are As 2ollows: :. 2. ?. 7. 4. B. 2. The quality of the glass % metal. !ontil mark. $orkmanship. igns of use. -olor or tint. $eight. ound.

(n connection with the sound test, when good flint glass is tapped with a pencil, it gives forth a clear, low%pitched ringing sound. 1owever, this simple test should not be mistaken for a sign of age, but merely an indication that the ob8ect in question is an e#ample of a piece of good flint glass. * modern piece of lead glass will out%ring an ancient piece of soda%lime glass handily. The simple reason for this is

3, because lead glass is heavy and soda%lime glass is light' thus accounting for the difference in the resonance of the ring.

ometimes one is able to recognize the te#ture of a certain piece of glass, simply by the sense of touch. ,ut once again, most of the above listed tests depend on a Icomparative analysisA Cmeasuring one type of glass against anotherD, and until you have built up a strong practical working knowledge of each kind of glass, many of these rules will likely prove difficult to apply.

*bout the least risky branch in glass collecting is that of the old historic *merican flasks. These are far too difficult to imitate Cwith the e#ception perhaps of advanced computer operated machineryD and were not made abroad or e#ported to *merica.

*s shown in the earlier sections on *merican glass companies, these bottles and flasks were originally made in many different colors % olive, light and dark blue, emerald and light green, claret, rich brown and amber, and opalescent and clear glass. Today however, those that remain are generally, olive and light green and clear glass and brown. 9ne of the better books available on this sub8ect was written by teven @an /enselaer, entitled, (,arly American Bottles An" Flas's *

9ddly enough, one of the best places today to find old glass and flasks are in IdumpsitesA and at the bottom of lakes, rivers and streams. Thus, if you donAt mind scavenging through the garbage, or, if youAre an e#cellent swimmer, one can become a knowledgeable and substantial collector with very little investmentL

Cleanin# Old Glass & 9ne of the best methods for cleaning glass, sounds like an old wives%tale to many, but it is in fact one of the most effective methods available. imply takes some raw egg shells,

break them down into smaller pieces, insert them into the article to be cleaned with a little cold water or warm water if the article is greasy, and shake well. *fter about a minute or two of shaking, empty the shells out, and rinse two or three times with fresh water. =ou can also copy the above method using crushed ice instead.

31

;ecommended ;eadings 7 5ibliography

The "ollowing ,ooks ,y /uth $ebb &ee+


Early American 1ressed Glass 6ictorian Glass Sandwich Glass American Glass #up<1lates Anti=ue 2a"es And ;eproductions Handboo" O Early American 1ressed Glass 1atterns

9ther *uthors *lso (ncluded $ere The "ollowing'


American Glass, by .eorge . and 1elen 5cMearin Glass Through The Ages, by 1ayes E. ,arrington Early American 5ottles And 2las"s, by teven @an /enselaer Old Glass4 European And American , by 5oore How To Identi y English 8rin"ing Glasses And 8ecanters %>&( To %&/( , by 3ouglas *sh The Application O Art To 9anu actures , by .eorge c. 5ason Henry William Stiegel And His Associates4 by .eorge l. 1eiges ;eminiscences O Glass 9a"ing , by 3eming Earves

32 Glass #up<1lates4 by -harles ,urns

44

41

42

43

44

4'

46

4,

#hina
What Is #hina? -hina is porcelain and should not be confused with pottery. The term GporcelainH was probably coined by 5arco !olo, who called it porcellana, an (talian word for the (cowrie shell%, which it resembles in color and te#ture. *lthough it first evolved from pottery, it is beyond and apart from it, in its conception and creation. 3espite the fact that some may argue this point, china is generally considered to be the highest e#pression of the potter6s art. (t is called china or chinaware because -hina is the land of its origin and first manufacture.

In Studying 1orcelain4 Three 2undamentals Are Always 8iscussed : :. The body, of which it consists, called the (paste3

41 2. The transparent or glassy substance with which the body of the ob8ect is coated, which is called the 3gla4e3 ?. *nd the smoothness of the ob8ect.

The specific qualities that distinguish china from pottery are, first, the whiteness of its body clean through the substance Cthe degree to which the substance remains whiteD, secondly, its degree of translucency where the body is at its thinnest point. $hen a piece is held up against the light, the edges of thin plates or saucers should be translucent. Thirdly, itAs unique smoothness.

9ften, when the edge of a bowl or plate is struck, it will give forth a clear bell%like note. !orcelain is resonant when struck % this is a good test to determine if an ob8ect is actually porcelain Cpottery has a deeper IclinkingA sound when struckD. !ieces that contain even hairline cracks will not ring, and the ring of an inferior grade of porcelain will tend to be muffled. (n addition to this, it should also be apparent that when a piece is held close to the light and moved gently back and forth, the glaze will reflect the light in a uniquely distinctive manner. *lso, the surface of the piece will be singularly smooth and soft to the touch.

The qualities of translucency, whiteness and hardness are likely to be the main reasons for the dominance in popularity of porcelain over earthenware. 1owever, in addition to this, the incredibly high kiln temperatures and sophisticated techniques required to produce porcelain, Cearthenware can be manufactured by a single potterD has over time, produced a more common impression to the public at large, of porcelain being a truly precise form of art % requiring great e#pertise in order to achieve a final product.

!orcelain can be divided into three main categories+ hard%paste 8p9t: "ura$

42

porcelain, soft%paste 8p9t: ten"re$ porcelain and bone china. (n order to make

Ihard%pasteA porcelain two essential ingredients are required' the first is 'aolin Cnamed after the area in -hina where it was first discoveredD. ;aolin is fine white clay, which comes from the decomposition of weathered rocks, which contain feldspar Caluminum silicateD. $hen this substance is fired at high
+i#ture of Chinese &or"ers +a#"in China for E)port 3 British Museum, (on.on

temperatures Caround :?00 degrees -elsiusD a very hard white material is produced. ,ecause of its relative rarity, 8'aolin is found mainly in -hina, a#ony, .ermany and EnglandD, thus, these regions of

the world have had a large influence on determining the course of porcelain history.

The second ingredient required to produce hard%paste porcelain is china stone, or petuntse Ca derivative from the -hinese word pai&tun&t4u D. The translucency of hard%paste china is created by the addition of petuntse, which is a mined feldspathic stone. The addition of petuntse requires several steps in order to make it ready for use' first it must be crushed into a powdered form, then washed, and then strained, finally it is added to kaolin, and allowed to mature. This mi#ture, referred to as the bo"y or paste, is combined with water to create a plastic%like substance , which can then be shaped either by hand, in baked clay molds, or on a potters wheel.

The potterAs wheel was traditionally used to make such ob8ects as, plates, vases and pots Cthe -hinese referred to these items as roun" waresD. The baked clay molds, which were filled with the combined kaolin and petuntse substance, were used to make a variety of figures. The shaped ware was put into a kiln at e#ceptionally high temperatures Cusually :?00 to :740 degrees -elsiusD. $hile in the kiln,

porcelain will only shrink about ten to twelve percent % due to the fact that it is protected from the flames by a surrounding clay bo#, know as a sagger

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*fter porcelain has been fired, it is usually glazed. !orcelain that is not glazed is called bis<ue, or biscuit $ithout the glaze, bisque resembles white marble, and is sometimes used to simulate marble

sculptures. The gla4e is a thin glassy coating of a compound, usually alkaline or lead, and quite often containing petuntse, which has the ability to fuse with porcelain when fired to form an e#ceptionally hard surface. -olored glazes are produced by the o#ides of different metals i.e. manganese produces a violet glaze, while copper will produce a red and green glaze. The -hinese incorporated their glaze by

shaping, drying and glazing all at once, using the kiln only one time to treat everything. The European formula was slightly different+ shaping, drying, firing Cproducing bisqueD, then glazing and firing again.

(n addition to the above%mentioned steps, painted decoration can also be applied to the dried ware before glazing Cunderglaze decorationD, in which case firing is required to fi# it to the surface. 9nly such colors as cobalt blue and copper red, which can withstand the high glaze temperatures, can be used. Jnderglaze decoration is not sensitive to the touch, and therefore cannot be felt on the piece. !ainted decoration in enamels is applied over the glaze' this overglaze decoration can be felt by running ones hands over the ob8ect because the enamels are fired on at a lower temperature and do not soak into the glaze. igns of wear on overglazed pieces may become evident with e#tensive use. The choice for

overglaze decoration includes a wide range of colors.

Soft&paste, or fau5, porcelain is traditionally associated with early European factories, and particularly with the "rench and English, although it was made in many countries throughout Europe. 0ot easily discernible by the eye from hard%paste, soft%paste shows a granular surface where chipped, whereas true porcelain is flint%like in cross section. *lso, the glaze does not appear to be intrinsic with the body as in true porcelain. 9ver the centuries, many have found soft%paste porcelain to be warmer in feel and appearance than true porcelain8

Jnlike true porcelain, petuntse and kaolin were not used in the making of soft%paste. The manufacturing process of soft%paste was always time%consuming and e#pensive. and, sea salt, alum,

soda, gypsum and nitrate were brought together in a glassy mi#ture called frit, and were then melted.

'1 The formula for each factory varied, but usually included these ingredients in slightly modified mi#tures. (n some cases, soapstone was also added. The frit was beaten into a powder and mi#ed with white clay and water. (t was then left to dry, crushed and sifted, and then mi#ed again with water to create the paste. *fter it had been shaped, it was fired at about ::00 degrees -elsius, producing a biscuit, which was then over%sprayed with a lead o#ide glaze. 9nce the spraying was completed, it was fired at less than :000 degrees -elsius, and an overglaze decoration was applied' which in turn required a further firing to fi# the enamel colors on to the surface. (f gil"ing was utilized in the decoration, as was the case in many "rench and English soft%paste porcelains, yet another, final firing was needed. 5any of the pieces were destroyed in this process because of the tremendous amount of times a piece was sub8ected to Miln firings.

*lthough soft%paste has been made in large quantities over the years, it does have its shortcomings+ it can be easily chipped, reveals scratches, shows stains, and cracks when submersed in very hot water. *s a practical article, soft%paste has always been better suited for display rather than for tablewareAs, and yet, many services were created at English and "rench soft%paste fac tories. 1owever, the most likely reason for its popularity, was the e#ceptional beauty of the material and the elegant ease to which the decoration was applied so smoothly % both of these factors compensated for its fragility.

The final ma8or category of porcelain is bone china, which has been the standard English porcelain since the early nineteenth century. The name bone is appropriately used in the description, because the ash of burned animal bones was added to a basic hard%paste of kaolin and petuntse. 9ften, the bone ash would at times make up as much as half the body in the mi#ture. "rom a historical perspective, the use of bone ash in English porcelain can be traced back to the middle of the eighteenth century, but the correct combination of the mi# into the formula, credited to Eosiah pode ((, that has become

internationally famous as English bone china, did not occur until about :;00. *s a malleable substance, bone china is far more easily handled, since it is less likely to disintegrate in the kiln than the glassy frit. *s a result, it is more durable than most porcelain and takes both painted and transfer%printed decoration Can English invention whereby an engraved picture is transferred to the surface of a piece of chinaD.

'2 Historical In luences < 5rie Synopsis !orcelain was originally manufactured in -hina before the -hristian era, and as a result, little or nothing was known in Europe about making porcelain before the :Bth century.

(n the second half of the :2th century there was a rapid growth of trade with the orient. *s a result, the activities of the various East (ndia companies brought chinaware within the reach of ordinarily well%to%do people, and subsequently )china%mania) became an epidemic in Europe from then until well into the :; th century.

This remarkable substance brought delicacy, refinement, glowing brilliant colors, engaging patterns of decoration and novelty and diversity of form to a continent, which had previously endured a dark period of creative enterprises.

The habit of drinking tea, coffee and chocolate gave an impetus to the general introduction of chinaware. These beverages seemed to naturally demand the association of porcelain, both for the sake of the flavor, and also on purely aesthetic grounds.

-hina%mania was even responsible in the $illiam and 5ary period in England for the evolution of a new article of furniture % the hooded china cabinet with glass doors, this gave an opportunity to display the choice pieces of porcelain that china lovers of the time delighted in acquiring.

The *merican colonists were quick to pick up the fashion and in the early years of the :;th century, quantities of china began arriving at *merican ports. "rom the middle of the century onward, a huge vol % ume of both oriental and ,ritish porcelain was imported.

$ith the enormous demand for china, attempts were made in the west to produce the same material comparable with the eastern prototypes in substance and decoration. "rance was successful in doing this in the :2th century and in the :;th century, permanent factories were also established in England, "rance, (taly, .ermany and *ustria.

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(n *merica, attempts to produce china were made in the :;th century and although there were good technical results obtained in some cases, none were commercially successful and it was not until the early years of the :<th century that china was produced in *merica in any quantity. "rom :;70 on, -hina everywhere started into the artistic decline that was marked by the @ictorian and Edwardian periods, this general decline was shared with architecture, glass, furniture and other artistic products Cthis is not to say that some very fine pieces were not made during this time, only that overall artistic originality seemed to be lackingD.

Some General Things To ?eep In 9ind ,efore e#amining the various countries which produced -hina, below you will find a series of general guidelines to help you in discerning what to look for when investigating a particular piece of porcelain.

PP8)lease be aware that these (yar"stic's* are only meant to help gui"e you= not pro#i"e you with in"isputable proof as to the authenticity or legitimacy of an item$ >>

There Are 2i3e 9a@or 2actors To Thin" About When Audging A 1iece O #hina:

? @ A B C

The bo"y or paste of which it is ma"e The gla4e that co#ers its surface The 'in" of article an" its contour The manner of its "ecoration The mar' affi5e" by its ma'er

*lthough the properties of the paste can be studied, it is impossible to gain any sort of adequate information about china merely from reading about it and it is essential to see and to compare the various sorts of china in order to grasp the subtle variations of quality, color and te#ture. comparison is essential and touch is important as well. ight

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=ou will find it surprising how many opportunities you will find to inspect and study china. "or e#ample you can e#amine the china of friends or relatives as a start. *lso, do not forgo the chance to e#amine the china in dealers6 shops, at shows, auctions or in museums % all of these aforementioned e#amples will help build your general knowledge.

The marks of chinaware are sometimes unreliable sources of identifica tion. 5arks were forged or made to resemble marks found on products of other factories and some marks were applied at some period subsequent to the date of manufacture. 1owever, this is not to state that marks are completely unreliable, many of the forged marks have their own peculiar look, which helps in differentiating them from originals. *lso it us usually only the very valuable items which have forged marks on them, such as the crossed swords of 5eissen, the (mperial marks of erves, or the *nchor mark of -helsea.

The contours of the piece are of significance. -ertain shapes required a skillful technique for their production. -ertain national tastes are shown, some shapes being characteristic of "rance, some of England and others of -hinese Cmany of these tastes were however intermingled, i.e. an English cup decorated in a "rench style.D (n addition, the shapes tended to reflect the de sign contour of the age. "or e#ample, you have the swelling rotundity of the baroque, the sinuous whimsicalities of the /ococo and the restraint and delicacy of the 0eoclassic period.

-hinaware in 0orth *merica was largely imported and in the upcoming sections, therefore, we shall discuss some of the sources and some of the important names.

#hinaware O #hina &ike that of almost all -hinese art, the study of -hinese porcelain, is arranged along historical lines based on dynastic periods such as TAang, ung, 5ing, and 5anchu. Each piece of porcelain is usually 1owever, this

identified first by dynasty, to reference it in time, and then by the type of ware.

classification is not completely standardized. "or e#ample, some -hinese porcelains, especially those of the eighteenth century, are more likely to be referred to by the name of the ruler in whose reign they

'' were made. 1owever, this nuance aside, the dynasties that most concern the porcelain collector today are+ 8ynasty T%ang Sung !ear D?E & FGD FDG & ?@HF & FDG & ??@H

& &

Iorthern Sung Southern Sung Juan 0ing 0anchu & & &

& ??@H & ?@HF ?@EG & ?ADE ?ADE & ?DD@ ?DD@ & ?HFD

(t is generally believed that the first true porcelain was made, under the TAang dynasty, but this period is much better known to todayAs collectors for its pottery.

5any contemporary e#perts on porcelain in the world today consider the work done during the

ung

dynasty as some of the finest e#amples of porcelain ever created. These e#ceptional pieces were produced by hundreds of kilns in both northern and southern -hina.

The imperial ware 8'uan yao$, which was e#pressly made for the court of the emperor, is considered by todayAs standards a benchmark not only of porcelain art % but also of all -hinese art. notably high in the quality of its construction, with marvelous monochrome glazes. ung porcelain is

9ne of the best%known pale shadowy blue.

ung wares is ying ch7ing, which has a glaze tinged with very The

&ike much porcelain it varies a great deal in quality.

decoration, whether it be incised or molded, is very understated, with a variety of floral designs, as well as fish, ducks or human figures as added motifs. The color known as !un 9ase Cir#a 224 A5

'6 -ela"on, which may appear as green to bluish%gray was also created under the ung dynasty. This

original colored glaze is famous in ceramic chronicles, and was produced by -hinese kilns for centuries. 9nce the process of porcelain making was discovered by Europeans, -eladon became very popular among the European factories as well.

*nother renowned item produced during this time was Ting This unique white porcelain was covered with an

ivory colored glaze that imparted an orange translucency to the body. The decoration was mainly floral, and was incised or carved.

-in &are 3 Bottle !hape. 9ase, #ir#a 214 A5

The ung dynasty finally came to an end in :22< with the arrival of the 5ongrel hordes. Jnder the rule of Mublai Mhan, the Juan line was started, and lasted until :?B;. Jnder this new dynasty traditional porcelain designs continued to be made with little or no changes. 1owever, one important development was the use of underglaze painting in decoration. This use of blue from cobalt resulted in the famous -hinese blue&an"&white decoration.

!erhaps the most often used word Coften erroneouslyD in reference to -hinese porcelain is 0ing This dynasty which followed the =uan dynasty, is world famous for its polychrome painting with enamels on glazed porcelain. !ainting on porcelain became an art unto itself during this dynasty, as painters e#perimented with such Min Bo%l #ir#a 1314 A5

colors as blue, yellow, turquoise, mauve, red, brown and gold. 9ften these colors were applied in groups of GthreeH to GfiveH color schemes. 5any of the sub8ects included flowers such as lotus and peony, as well as, dragons, peacocks, and human figures. ome of the ob8ects created during this time included

', vases, bowls, flowerpots, wine pots, incense burners and temple 8ars. *ll of these items were usually elaborately painted, and many were e#ceptionally large in size.

*nother important period for -hinese porcelain was the 5anchu dynasty, :BB2 to :2<B, when there was a high development in technical perfection, grace of form, variety of output and beauty of decoration. (n addition to the oriental theme, the -hinese produced large quantities of the china

incorrectly named )&owestoftH which was made to the order and design of individual customers in England and *merica. (n some cases, a considerable quantity of undecorated chinaware was e#ported and English and continental china painters then decorated it with designs in enamel colors.

The china trade with *merica was at its height in the late :;th century and in the early years of the :<th century. 5uch of the best of -hinese )&owestoft) came in during the federal era. ,y the beginning of the :<th century, there was little left of -hinese influence other than the paste, glaze and shape in the oriental porcelain e#ported. 3ecoration and sub8ects had become almost entirely western in appearance. The e#ception being the blue and white -antonware, produced in the late :; th century, Cit retained its oriental manner and motifs of decorationD and continued to be popular in the Jnited :<th century. tates in the early

The 5ody Or 1aste ,y no means of uniform quality ranging from yellowish pastes of the very early period to pure white. (n many pieces the walls are thick so that the paste is not translucent e#cept at the thinnest parts. The body color of a good deal of old -hinese porcelain with blue decoration appears to have a slightly bluish tinge. This tinge is not the body color, but as mentioned before, is caused by the glaze.

The GlaBe The glaze is transparent and usually colorless but sometimes tinged with a greenish, bluish or yellowish tint' sometimes glazes were GcrackledH. 9n the )&owestoft) china, there is a slightly dappled or matte%like appearance to the glaze.

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Articles 9ade @ases, wine cups, trays, teapots, tea caddies, teacups, plates, platters, bowls, bottles, drum or bell% shaped garden seats, flower pots, lanterns, fish bowls, figures and statuettes, and in addition, all the special articles made for e#port to Europe and *merica.

8ecoration *s mentioned before, decoration was varied, sometimes by manipulation of the glaze, the enameled colors under the glaze or enameled colors over the glaze. /ich variety was achieved by the use of varied diaper patterns in monochrome or colors.

9ar"s 5arks usually are found on the base and are usually blue, they cannot be relied upon and it is likely that falsified marks were made to the order of e#porters. (n addition to this many of the marks were copied internally from one dynasty to the ne#t, based on the popularity of the item in the previous dynasty. (f all this sounds a bit confusing % not to worry % it is, even to the e#perts of todayL

European #hinaware
"pecial %ote0 The ne5t section of this )lan will "eal specifically with the #arious porcelain pro"ucers of ,urope 8an" later Iorth America$ ,ach maKor porcelain pro"ucing country will be e5amine" closely, as to the wares it pro"uce", the maKor porcelain factories an" their locations, the sculptors, an" the artists who create" the "ecorations for these factories The choice of subKects co#ere" in this section is base" entirely on how important each of the countries contributing factories were to the porcelain in"ustry as a whole

'2 !erhaps the greatest collector of porcelain was the European !rince, *ugustus ll, who ruled !oland until :2??. *ugustus was one of the single largest importers of -hinese and Eapanese porcelain. 1is goal was not only to have the worldAs finest collection of porcelain, but also to create EuropeAs first true china making factory. *lthough some soft%paste porcelain had already been made at /ouen, in "rance, the factory was never successful and only a few e#amples of this work are known. The first Ltrue% European hard%paste porcelain is generally considered to have been produced in "riedrich ,ottger. a#ony, by Eohann

The actual date for the first production of European porcelain is known due to ,ottgerAs kiln records, which state that on Eanuary :4 th :20;, after over twelve hours of firing, he finally managed to achieve a white translucent body. The raw material for ,ottgerAs e#periments CkaolinD had been found near -olditz, while petuntse was replaced by the locally mined alabaster.

*fter refining the process for the ne#t two years, ,ottger finally sent a few finished samples to the impatient Ming *ugustus, who it is said, became so elated at the sight of his own porcelain, that he immediately formed the /oyal a#on !orcelain 5anufactory in :2:0, against the wishes of all his

advisors. The site selected for the manufactory was 5eissen.

German #hinaware
9eissen < %)%( Today, 5eissen is a suburb located in the city of 3resden, .ermany. 3uring the time of the first porcelain manufactory, this region was known as a#ony. This porcelain is often CmistakenlyD called

6res"en Can entirely different factoryD , by English speaking people, while the "rench refer to it as porcelaine "e Sa5e The factory is still in operation today.

"rom the beginning, the body of the porcelain was as good as that coming from -hina however' the painted decoration was somewhat inferior during the factories initial run. This problem was resolved

64 shortly, as a series of master painters and potters were brought to 5eissen to increase the level of artistic and technical skill. *s a result of this importation of accomplished craftsman, many of 5eissenAs master molders are known by name and style, even though their work was not actually signed. This stresses the importance of touch and sight in distinguishing the creative lineage of certain porcelain items.

,ottger was the first modeler at the 5eissen factory, but was disorganized, and was eventually replaced by Eohann .ottlob Mirchner, after ,ottgerAs death in :2:<. *lthough not particularly efficient himself, Mirchner was responsible for some very large porcelain figures, Cthe first to emulate the -hinese when it came to sizeD, in the form of life%sized birds, lions, and tigers. These pieces today are e#ceptionally rare, and very few are known to e#ist. *s the factory grew and prospered, new modelers

were hired. 9ne such modeler, and perhaps one of the most famous names in porcelain was Eohann Eoachim Mandler. 3uring his forty%year stay with the factory, Mandler often had a hundred or more workmen under his direction. Two of his assistants, Eohann "riedrich Eberlein and !eter /einicke also gained international fame as e#pert modelers in their own right. These three names comprise some of the most sought after pieces ever created by the 5eissen factory.

(t is estimated that during his tenure with the factory, Mandler created more than a thousand different figures and figure groups Call of which have been copied endlesslyD. 1is variety of creations was The group of musician%

enormous, from birds, squirrels, parrots, swans, pug dogs and monkeys.

monkeys was particularly popular at the time, and was designed as a set of twenty%one, and often had a somewhat satirical representation, as many of the monkeys were dressed in human garb. (n addition to this, he also created a number of hunting scenes involving bears, boars, stags, and wolves. *lmost all of these hunting scenes revolved around these wild animals being dragged down by sporting dogs on the chase. 3uring the eighteenth century, designers thought mainly in groups or sets rather than individual pieces, as evidenced by the 5eissen factory.

*nother outstanding area for 5eissen was tableware. The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries brought about a new elegance when it came to the consumption of food and drink. $ith this new

61 elegance came a need for new tablewares, much of which became porcelain % although silver was still widely used. 1uge centerpieces were created for the main dining table which often depicted .reek or

classical scenes, that may have included as many as twenty piece linked together indirectly to form a complete scene. ome of the new porcelain tablewares included' plates, tureens, platters, covered

dishes, tankards, mustard pots and sweetmeat dishes. The service pieces, especially the tureens, were often created in life%like shapes of animals and vegetables. The eating utensils also underwent a

dramatic change as the fork Cwhich was relatively new on the sceneD, as well as the knives were often decorated with porcelain handles % even the kitchen items, such as cooking pans and tea kettles were now adorned with porcelain. 9ne of the more prized items from 5eissen during this period was the chocolate cup. ince chocolate was too e#pensive for the common folk, the cups were usually made

solely for the aristocracy, thus, the quality of workmanship was usually very high in these pieces. *s tea and coffee made their way to Europe in the seventeenth century, 5eissen also produced a variety of porcelain services, which included a teapot Cor coffee potD, a sugar bowl, a slop or waste bin, cups and saucers, a milk 8ug, porcelain spoons and a tea 8ar.

*nother favorite of the 5eissen factory during the eighteenth century was small bo#es Ccommon to many of the European factories during this timeD. These bo#es often came in the form of patch%bo#es Cwhich were for the patches worn over the eyeD, scent bo#es, 8ewel bo#es and of course snuffbo#es. 5eissen turned out thousands of snuffbo#es Cnone of which are apparently alikeD, all with the same degree of high quality painting on them as that of the modeling. 5any of the early motifs of these bo#es were -hinese in their painted design, even though many of the painters had no idea at all as to what plants and flowers they were painting. (n fact, these painters were so skilled in their duplication of -hinese themes, that today, many of these wares are taken as actual -hinese productsL "rom this motif, came what is known today as chinoiserie imply put, chinoiserie can be described as how the

Europeans imagined life in -hina % a simple land, where people were happy and playful, and emperors were kind and benevolent. 9f course this was not true, as -hina was constantly ravaged by invasions, floods and famine. 1owever, it seemed to make little difference to the Europeans as they continued to romanticize life there, even though they knew better. E#amples of chinoiserie can still be found today in the decoration of red or blue willoware on tables throughout the world. (t is impossible to gauge the

62 number of pieces of chinoiserie produced by the 5eissen factory, but some estimates put the number into the millions.

* 5eissen forte of painting was the Gharbor%sceneH depicted on countless pieces near the middle of the eighteenth century. These scenes generally show wharves with commodities piled up along them with a variety of small figures interspersed in between, resembling -hinese or possibly Turkish workers busy with commerce among the bales. European docks were also portrayed, and were usually referred to as 3utch harbor%scenes. $hile much of the harbor%scene painting is whimsical in nature, there were also many landscapes and townscapes that were equally brilliant in their depiction.

*lthough rare, a few decorators of 5eissen porcelain are recognized by name since a number of signed pieces do e#ist. 9ne of the best%known harbor%scene painters was Eohann .eorg 1eintze.

*lthough talented, he was e#tremely unpredictable, and as a senior member of the 5eissen team, often found himself in trouble with the authorities for long absences from the factory without the proper permission. *lso noted for their famous work were the cousins -hristian "riedrich 1erold and Eohann .regor 1erold, both of who were e#ceedingly adept at chinoiserie harbor scenes. Eohann later became Obermaler, Cor, head painterD of the 5eissen factory, and around :2?: he was promoted to the rank of overall manager of the factories workforce. Eohann .regor 1erold is one of the most famous names in the history of porcelain. *side from his own artistic abilities, he also greatly influenced, and e#panded the 5eissen palette so that it included turquoise, purple, green and red. ,lue was a later edition, but was used only sparingly due to its propensity to flake. The eighteenth century saw the development of a new form of decoration, Fon"por4ellan & pieces painted e#tensively with a background color 8the groun"$, with white spaces reserved 8the reser#es$ for decoration. This technique has been duplicated and used by many other factories since itAs inception by the 5eissen workers. The term 5eissen groun"s include, among other colors, red, yellow, purple and brown Cthus, pieces are often referred to by collectors using this name, such as, (a yellow groun" teapot,* for e#ample. The 5eissen factory also created a

remarkable decoration in monochrome black, known as Schwar4lot

63 0ot all of the decoration on 5eissen pieces was done at the factory. 9ften, undecorated porcelain pieces found their way to other cities for painting. * fairly large amount of white ware was taken home by employees, who would paint their own personal designs in their spare time. 3ecorators, who worked on their own, at home or in smaller studios, were designated as 2ausmaler Cor, home paintersD Today many of these rare pieces command e#ceptionally high prices.

$hen it comes to markings, the 5eissen factory has a long history of rather distinctive IsignaturesA on their porcelain. 9ne of the first to be used was the !seudo%-hinese marks, which were used in the early days until around :222. The ne#t most noticeable change came about in

:22? to :227 % the initials ;)0 8;onigliche )or4ellanmanufa'tur$ were painted on a variety of pieces. (n :227 the renowned crossed swords were introduced % probably the most famous mark ever created in porcelain history % and perhaps the most forged. The mark has

undergone a variety of transformations since its introduction, and there have been copious additions to the design, some of them with ambiguous meanings. 1owever, it is known that pieces marked A+ trong or his son *ugustus (llD were

8Augustus +e5, for *ugustus the

planned for royal use or as royal gifts and were thus generally made to the most e#acting of standards. "orgers both present and past have reproduced this mark e#tensively. ,y the middle of the mid%eighteenth century the grand days of 5eissen were over. The factory never really regained its glorified status after the ravages of war under the direction of "rederick the .reat of !russia, who ruled as the occupier of 3resden in :24B at the start of the Se#en Jears% L!ar. The constant bombardment of the city destroyed most of the kilns, and most of the workmen Calmost B00D quickly left as a result. "rederick, who oddly enough was a strong patron of the arts, wanted to revive the factory, and found a merchant who he instructed to rebuild everything from the ground up. The merchant rebuilt the kilns under "rederickAs watchful eye, and hired new workers as well as rehiring some of the former employees. (n order to help rebuild the 5eissen reputation, for several years "rederick

64 became 5eissenAs largest customer. *t the end of the !russian occupation, the factory had regained its notoriety, but the vitality and the quality of its porcelain were never to be quite the same.

1orcelain O Northern Europe


*s workers from the 5eissen factory left and moved on to other cities and countries, so did the secrets for the formula to true hard%paste porcelain. "requently referred to as, Bottger%s arcanum Cor, mysteryD, the formula of hard%paste porcelain was supposedly a closely guarded secret. 1owever, the 5eissen factory, as noted before, was plagued with personality, as well as ego conflicts, which eventually resulted in a high turnover of factory workers. $ith kings in central Europe looking to open their own prestigious porcelain factories, and disgruntled e#%employees of 5eissen on the loose, the stage was set for the development of a variety of new porcelain factories across the European continent.

6'

ince many of these workmen were .erman, many of these early factories first sprung up in the .erman%speaking world. ome of the more important factories are listed below+

6ienna < %)%+<%&>, *s far as history is concerned, this was probably the second true%porcelain factory to be established in Europe. "ounded by -laudius 3u !aquier and amuel tolzel Ca former worker at 5eissenD, the factory was barely able to keep afloat, as it was laden with a great deal of financial debt during its first twenty years. The *ustrian tate stepped in and took over in :277. The pieces from this factory can be tate :277%:2;7'

identified by the period in which they were produced+ 3u !aquier :2:<%:277' "irst

orgenthal :2;7%:;04' Third

tate :;04%:;B7.

The earliest pieces coming from

tolzel and 3u

!aquierAs period are the most valuable and sought after.

The @iennaAs style was quite distinctive,

despite its 5eissen lineage. 5uch of the decoration was unique, and was elaborate and baroque in fashion. * great deal of painting with gilding, often chinoiserie was also used. "ormal abstract

ornamentation is common to many of the earlier pieces. 1ausmalers Chouse paintersD produced much of the decoration. The 3u!aquier porcelain is not marked, and the traditional @ienna shield mark did not come into use until around :277.

2urstenberg

$Started

Around

%),) < To The 1resent* * troubled factory to begin with, it was located in ,runswick, and did not really begin to thrive until 8ust after :2204 when it came ;ursten*ur -eapot, Cylin.ri#al, An. In -he 7eo3#lassi#al !tyle

66 under the direction of the royal household. (t was during this royal patronage that its finest wares began to be produced. !rior to that, many of the wares and figures often had flaws, such as black specks of ash in the body, or were slightly misshapen or cracked. *fter correcting the earlier technical glitches, the factory began producing e#ceptionally good (talian -omedy figures as well as the more traditional series+ "our -ontinents, "our Elements, "ive enses, -raftsmen, .reek .ods, and other conventional designs.

5uch of the decoration was lifted from books that contained engravings. !ictures on porcelain plaques with pastoral scenes or mythological sub8ects were a "urstenberg specialty. The mark, which is still used today, is an underglaze%blue in a cursive F

Hochst <%).(<%)+& This factory was located in the /hineland, near 5ainz. The factory had its beginnings with the arrival of Eosef Eakob /ingler, who learned of the porcelain secret in @ienna, and brought it with him to the 1ochst factory near 5ainz. 1ochst porcelain is milky white. The figures are usually light and rococo, while the sub8ect matter often depicts groups of peasants, or (talian -omedy. 5ost of the figures show delicate coloring, especially those of flesh, which often have a distinguishing pinkish tone. *s time progressed, many of the designs

became sentimental' many of which were grounded in the philosophy of Eean%Eacques /ousseau, especially in the small figures showing children. 1ochst decoration incorporated a lot of chinoiserie. * color common to 1ochst is purple used with gold borders. The mark primarily used by 1ochst was often a si#%spoke wheel in red or another colored enamel. *t the closing of the 1ochst factory, the molds were sold to other factories, mainly the 3amm factory. The result was that many copies of the 1ochst wares were made at various places in .ermany during the nineteenth century. Today they are considered very collectable.

Nymphenburg $%)./ < To The 1resent*

6, 9riginally established in 0eudeck, the Elector of ,avaria moved the location of his factory closer to his palace at 0ymphenburg in :2B:. 9ften considered only second to 5eissen in importance among

.erman factories, many collectors actually prefer this factories work, especially its figures. The most outstanding products made at this factory are indisputably the figures made by "ranz *nton ,ustelli C:222%B?D, who is considered an equal to Mandler in terms of talent. 0oted for his /ococo style, he molded the Tradesmen, "our easons, and a variety of other sub8ects, but is perhaps most famous for

his series of si#teen figures of the (talian -omedy. CThe (talian -omedy was a variety of travelling actors and players who moved throughout Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, entertaining the general populace with 8okes, skits, and comedic reflections of everyday life.D Tablewares included teapots that often had double%scroll handles and long spouts in the form of a swanAs head. 9ther wares included 0eo%

classical biscuit figures, toys, plates and a variety of dishes. Jnderglaze blue mark CshieldD was used when Elector Marl Theodor owned the factory. *fter the eighteenth century, a crown was added to the top of the shield. * few pieces were simply marked FB or 8ust B

2ran"enthal < %)..<%&((

9riginally located in

trasbourg, this factory was moved in :244, to "rankenthal, a town near

5annheim. (n :2B2, it was purchased by the local prince, the Elector !alatine, Marl Theodor. * wide variety of items were made at "rankenthal, including lovely cabarets with lavishly painted diamond or lozenge%shaped trays, mirror frames, clock cases, and even chessmen. The body was a hard%paste porcelain that was generally a creamy off%white with a rather thin glaze, which tended to be almost grayish off%white, or opaque white with tiny specks of black ash. The decoration included naturalistic flower sprays, chinoiserie scenes with large figures, and a number of oversized birds in wooded landscapes. 9f great value to collectors today are the more than eight hundred different figures known to have been patterned at "rankenthal. !erhaps the finest of these figures are the series of pastoral

61 couples beneath elaborate /ococo arbors depicted by rather stiff modeling. The usual series of sub8ects were also evident, plus music parties, toilet scenes showing court ladies at their dressing tables and ballet dancers. *fter the factory closed in :;00, the molds were siphoned off to various other factories, especially 0ymphenburg, where the figures were reproduced. The most common mark was the crowned monogram of the Elector Marl Theodor painted in underglaze blue.

Cudwigsburg < %).&<%&', This factory was established, organized, and closely supervised by the local prince, -arl Eugen, 3uke of $urttemberg, who like many of his fellow princes during this time, was obsessed by porcelain. 1is descendants kept the factory going until :;27, but its great days were the :2B0As and :220As. The &udwigsburg paste was of poor quality when compared with some other .erman factories of the time, and as a result was often used for figures rather than plain or sparsely decorated tablewares. *mong its popular figures were ballet dancers, market traders, and young couples in costume. Teapots resembled a bullet shape, with birdAs%head spouts and fruit knops. * band of molded and sectioned basketwork around the rims was often found on bowls, dishes, plates and tureens. The body was hard%paste porcelain in a whitish%grayish color that was closely grained' often with a smoky glaze % sometimes green. The factory also produced folk types and (talian -omedy figures, many of which have been copied and reproduced. The &udwigsburg mark was interlaced -As, until about :2<?. This was

representative of the 3ukeAs initial, and sometimes included a crown. * stagAs horn from the arms of $urttemberg was used after :2<?.

5erlin $%).' < To The 1resent*

62 This factory was the first of itAs kind in ,erlin, and has direct ties to "rederick the .reat. 9riginally founded by $ilhelm Masper $egely in :242, the factory

produced a number of copies from 5eissen including figures, tablewares, and vases. (n :242 the factory was closed due to financial problems resulting from the even =ears $ar. * financier named Eohann Ernst .otzkowsky purchased the arcanum in :2B: and made porcelain until :2B?, when again it fell on hard times and was purchased by "rederick the .reat. The king, who had a penchant for fine china, had previously been a financial supporter of $ilhelm Masper $egely in making porcelain from :242 to :242, but was not at all pleased with the results. The new factory became known as the /oyal !orcelain "actory. "rederick took a deep personal interest in his new endeavor, and a number of 5eissen workmen were ordered to appear in ,erlin at his request. (n a move to ensure the factories success, "rederick enacted stringent laws against the importation of porcelain' thus assuring that his !russian sub8ects would be forced to purchase their china from his factory. The ,erlin porcelain body is a creamy white, similar in appearance to 5eissen, but with a thinner glaze which leans towards an opaque look. The decoration consists of trailing foliage, molded flowers, naturalistic flower painting and basket rims. The color palette for the most part is in strong%colored enamels. (n addition to the more common decorations, there are also some !russian military and battle scenes, some surprisingly realistic. The two brothers "riedrich Elias 5eyer and $il helm -hristian 5eyer were eminent figure

modelers in this factory. "rederick the .reat often commissioned large tableware services from the factory as gifts to fellow princes. 3uring one of their occasional truces, "rederick gave Empress

-atherine the .reat of /ussia a complete dessert service, which was, in an odd twist, entirely decorated with battle scenes. *ccompanying this was a table decoration consisting of no less than forty figures, all modeled by the 5eyer brothers, and made at his own factory. *lmost all of the figures represented the glorification of -atherine by the people of /ussia in one way or another. The mark used by the ,erlin factory from :2B? was a scepter' after this, the initials ;)0 CMonigliche !orzellanmanufakturD were added in the nineteenth century. Jnder the name taatliche !orzellanmanufaktur, this ,erlin factory

continues to produce wares under the ownership of the .erman tate.

,4 2ulda < %)>,D%)+(

This was a smaller factory, but of some renown, especially for the quality of its figures. The factory was established in "ulda by a rather unique bishop from the small .erman city, and as the factory prospered under increased growth, so did the ecclesiastical backing. The churches support of the Then two F%s,

endeavor was evident in the "ulda mark, which until about :2;0 carried a cross. sometimes crowned, were used.

*lthough these are the ma8or factories, northern Europe boasted a few other important factories, outside .ermany and *ustria, whose wares are collected. They are described below.

St- 1etersburg $Imperial 2actory %),, <%+%)* This factoryAs initial wares were hardly promising+ the first arcanist is said to have spent four years making 8ust si# imperfect cups. -atherine the .reat became closely involved with the factory from :2B2 onward, and her imperial patronage brought success. 5ost of the wares were basically "rench in style although many were painted with /ussian views. /ussian figures were also made. Enormous services for royalty were the bedrock of the enterprise. *lthough the factories mark changed many times during its history, the initial of each successive ruler beginning with -atherine the .reat would appear. !etersburg porcelain is rare in the $est. t.

The Gardner $%)>>* *nother /ussian factory was founded near 5oscow by an English family, the .ardners, who controlled it until :;<:. (t produced fine services in the eighteenth century, but its best pieces are from the

nineteenth century. The initial EGF or the name Gar"ner in &atin or -yrillic letters were frequent marks.

,1

English #hinaware
Jp to the mid%:;th century, there were no established china factories in England. (t is believed that there were some early attempts to produce porcelain in &ondon around :B<0. 9ne such attempt was conducted by a potter named Eohn 3wight, who succeeded in producing a rather good e#ample of stoneware, but not porcelain. * chemist by the name of Thomas ,riand is thought to have at least created some primitive porcelain during the :270As, although none of his wares have ever been conclusively identified. 1owever, it is surmised by some that his e#perimental porcelain formula was acquired by -helsea, and thus contributed directly to their success. The first factories to successfully produce porcelain were those of ,ow and -helsea.

English chinaware is of ma8or importance from the point of view of the 0orth *merican collector, due to the fact that a vast ma8ority of the old china on this continent is English.

The Important ,n#lish Producers Are As Follo s0 5ow < %),. < %))> The founders of the factory at ,ow on &ondonAs eastern edge probably received their first patent in :277, although they did not produce until around :272. The discovery of the porcelain recipe at ,ow occurred from years of e#perimentation by the potter Edward 1eylyn and the artist Thomas "rye. ,ecause of its efforts in initiating chinaware in England, and the heavy -hinese and Eapanese influence, the factory at ,ow was known as G0ew -antonH and the product was of quite good quality, even though its porcelain was coarser than the hard paste porcelain which was invented a few years later at $orcester. The highly decorative ornaments sold by the factory did well for a time, but an economic recession and a change in taste from the /ococo to the 0eo%classical, eventually forced the factory to close in :22B.

,2 ,ody % oft paste porcelain containing bone%ash, with a distinctly warm, creamy tint. Translucent where the ware is thin but quite opaque where it is thick. $hen fractured, it shows a dry, gritty or granular te#ture as opposed to the glossiness, characteristic of hard paste. (t was also easily stained. The .laze % The glaze was rich in lead, with a slightly yellowish or blue tinge, which tended to pool around the base. @ery soft, mellow and satin%like, both to sight and touch. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontour % The works emphasized Guseful articlesH but ornamental items were made as well, especially as competition from rival makers who used soapstone in their porcelain Cwhich did not stainD forced ,ow to create more ornamental wares CfiguresD, rather than tablewares. 5any of the figures created were press%molded rather than slip cast, thus causing them to be quite heavy. ,ow also copied many 5eissen figures, although they were not nearly as sophisticated, they did e#ude a certain rustic charm. -ontours were influenced by -hinese, .erman and "rench design, and particularly the /ococo influence which en8oyed a high degree of popularity for some time. 3ecoration % (nspired by oriental and "rench designs with the !runus blossom a frequent symbol, together with -hinese peonies and chrysanthemums, -hinese diapered borders for the rims of plates and edges of dishes, and -hinese fighting cocks and other birds % especially popular was the GquailH pattern' two quails amidst rocks and foliage. "lowers were scattered at random in the 3resden manner and there were pieces decorated with landscapes. ome pieces may have been decorated outside the factory.

5arks % 5uch ,ow china was unmarked and on the remainder, various devices occur, the commonest being an anchor or dagger painted in red.

#helsea < %),. < %))( The -helsea factory was probably the first truly successful porcelain factory in England. (ts original founder was a 1uguenot silversmith named 0icholas pirmont. Through this association with silverware, the designs and shapes of the -helsea porcelain became ine#orably connected to the designs and shapes of the English silverware that were being created during this time. -helsea porcelain is often broken down into five categories % four of, which are named after the marks that were applied to the porcelain.

The Trian#le Period 1233435

,3 The technical refinements for producing porcelain had not yet been mastered during this period, and the porcelain was often difficult to control during firing. 3uring this time most of the shapes were copied directly from ,ritish /ococo silver. ,ody % Even with the lack of technical e#pertise, the body was e#ceptionally white with a glassy translucence. The .laze % /ich and soft. *rticles 5ade % 3ue to the problem of controlling the porcelain during firing, many of the articles were small in size % teapots, beakers and cream%8ugs.

-ontours % *gain, the /ococo form was the most prevalent. 3ecoration % ince the body was usually e#ceptionally white, the factory often left its wares unpainted. 5arks % * triangular shape was either incised or painted in underglaze blue.

/aised Anchor Period 1235467 *s the technical skills required to produce porcelain became more advanced and refined, so did the wares produced by -helsea during this period. 0amed after the mark, which was an anchor embossed on a raised pad, this period showcased a dramatic increase in the production of more elegant forms and designs. ,ody % 3uring this time the body became more hardy. The coloring changed somewhat from a pure white to a milky white, with a few impurity specks. The .laze % The new silky%smooth feel of the porcelain was the direct result of tin being added, which tended to give the porcelain an opalescent quality. *rticles 5ade % 5any of the same items were made as during the Triangle !eriod, but also introduced were some new tablewares, as well as a few new figures, and some models of birds.

,4 -ontours % The /ococo form continued to dominate the overall silhouette of the wares, although there was some oriental influence as well.

3ecoration % This was perhaps the most notable change from the Triangle !eriod. 3ecoration often now included quality copies of painted 5eissen landscapes, as well as stylistically similar painted landscapes from @incennes in "rance. *lso copied were images from :2 th century Eapanese Makiemon porcelain. ome scenes from historical fables were also painted in deep, rich colors. 5arks % * small anchor pro8ecting out from a raised pad. /ed Anchor Period 1267468 This period is perhaps most famous for its originality. ,y now the factory had begun to produce its own original wares, using its own modelers. (t did continue to copy some other designs, however, they were no longer the ma8ority of items produced. ,ody % 3uring this period, the body changed from a milky white to more of a creamy white. The .laze % "amous for its G-helsea 5oonsH, the glaze often showed small bubbles trapped in the paste in the thinner spots on the body. Jnder a strong light these bubbles would become clearly visible % thus the term, G-helsea 5oons.H *rticles 5ade % 9ne of the most original articles created during this period was the dessert setting. 5any of the covered tureens came in the form of fruit, vegetables, fish, birds, and a variety of other animals. Toys were also introduced, as well as miniature scent bottles. "igures continued to play an important role in the factories success, especially with the newly acquired talent of "lemish modeler Eosef $illems, who arrived sometime after :242. -ontours % *gain, the contours were affected by oriental and European forms, with the /ococo being the most important.

,' 3ecoration % *lthough some forms of decoration were being copied from 5eissen CflowersD, most were original, especially the G!ainted ,otanical 3ecoration.H The -helsea factory invented this style of decoration, and applied it to its now famous (2ans Sloane* wares % so named after a distinguished scientist, who was one of the largest supporters of the botanical gardens in -helsea.

5arks % imilar to the /aised *nchor !eriod, but in red enamel and much smaller. Jsually appeared on the base of cups, plates, etc., as well as on the back of figures.

Gold Anchor Period 1268485 This is the last of the four -helsea periods named after their marks, before the factory finally closed in :2B<. * variety of problems plagued the factory including financial problems, as well as the poor health of its founder. (n :220 the factory was purchased by $illiam 3unesbury and Eohn 1eath who owned the 3erby porcelain factory in 3erby. "rom :22: until :2;7 both factories were run as one' often referred to as the G-helsea%3erbyH, this was the fifth and final period. ,ody % (n some ways a regression, as bone%ash was added to the mi#ture to create a creamy body that was inclined to stain. The .laze % Jnlike the former period, the .old *nchor glaze was for the most part thickly applied, although fairly clear. (t did however tend to pool in spots, and craze Cthin hairline cracksD with constant use. *rticles 5ade % 5any of the same items as in the /ed *nchor period, but with many more figures being created, especially ones that were made solely for viewing in a cabinet or above a fireplace. These figures also tended to be more elaborate in construction than the previous period. -ontours % *gain, /ococo influenced by the "rench factories at @incennes and erves.

3ecoration %

imilar to the /ed *nchor period, but with much more e#tensive use of gilding. (n addition

to this, figures were also decorated with large amounts of intricate trees and flowers 8bocage$.

,6 5arks % *gain the use of an anchor, but this time it was evenly applied in gold. The G-helsea%3erbyH mark was used after :2B<.

Congton Hall < %),+ < %)>( $9inor 1orcelain Wor"s* The &ongton 1all factory was founded by $illiam &ittler in :27<. &ittler created his first porcelain formula at the end of :27< The factories early porcelain figures consisted of a dense, semi%opaque

white glaze that was often referred to as Gsnowman classH, due to its thickness. Eust after :242, &ittler managed to refine his porcelain recipe and began to produce porcelain that could be molded far more thinly than before. This thinner porcelain was ideal for making forms such as vegetables, fruit, and foliage, which were the mainstay of the factories characteristic tureens, 8ugs, and colorfully painted dishes. &ongton 1all is perhaps most famous for its blue%and%white wares, for which &ittler is given credit for creating a new deep underglaze blue, known as G&ittlerAs ,lue.H The figures were in many ways similar to that of ,ow and 3erby, in the sense that they show a strong influence from 5eissen. The fluctuating quality of &ongton 1all porcelain, combined with uncertain economic conditions, eventually led to the factoryAs bankruptcy and closure in :2B0. * short while later, &ittler left for cotland, where he started a new porcelain factory at $est !ans, near 5usselburgh. assigned to this factory. To this date, no marks have been

Worcester < %).%< *lthough $orcester was one of EnglandAs most successful factories, it seemed in the beginning an odd location to choose for a porcelain works, since there were no clay deposits or coal. 1owever, in :24: $illiam 3avis and 3r. Eohn $all opened the $orcester !orcelain factory. *gain, as with most other factories of the time, the early $orcester porcelain was sub8ect to cracking, until the arrival of ,en8amin &und, who brought with him the formula for using -ornish soapstone. 9ne of the shortcomings of the ,ow and -helsea ware was that it often cracked when brought into sudden contact with hot water, and as a result, it could not compete favorably with oriental china that was not affected by sudden changes of temperature. The $orcester factory, with the use of soapstone, was able to make not only a paste that was denser and harder with better heat%resisting qualities, but also to produce tableware so closely iden%

,, tical with the oriental, that they were able to replace items in oriental services with a match that could not be discovered.

Worcester 1261 4 82 ,ody % * soft%paste porcelain that contained a hint of both blue and gray. The .laze % The earliest glaze was rich in lead and was soft but became harder and more brilliant as the ware was perfected. $orcester was one of the first factories to fully glaze all areas of its items % under the rims of lids and even inside foot%rims Clater this was changedD. (t was also the inventor of Gprinting on porcelainH, and employed this technique frequently to produce overglaze%black enamel and underglaze% blue printed decoration. *rticles 5ade % auceboats, pots for a variety of meats, pickle dishes, tureens, and especially fine tea

services were all made during this time. -ontours % 5any of the shapes for the items created at $orcester were a reflection of the contemporary silver being made in ,ritain. -ontours were also influenced by -hinese and "rench forms, but not the e#aggerated /ococo of evres. 3ecoration % /eplicas of -hinese blue%and%white were made, although the early articles tended to blur. This was corrected by :244. The colored patterns of the factory were unusual for the time, and included a form of chinoiserie that brought together elements from 5eissen, Eapan, -hina, some taffordshire,

and even glass and stoneware. ,asket%work, ribbing, fluting, flowers, scrolls and embossed pinecone, piercing and fretwork were also common. 9ther decoration included, overglaze black transfer printing,

polychrome chinoiseries, and the invention of underglaze%blue printing. 5arks % The early marks, especially on the blue%and%whites usually bear a mark from the workmen with no known meaning.

Worcester 1282 423 ,y this time, $orcester had become EnglandAs most successful porcelain factory, and had even begun to e#port some of its blue%and%white wares to other countries in Europe.

,1 ,ody % imilar to the early years, although it began to take on more of a yellowish%greenish tinge. .laze % "ull glazing of the underside of dishes was stopped in order to prevent the glaze from sliding down into the kiln when firing. This era also ushered in a new deep, underglaze blue ground, as well as the invention of Gscale blueH % a small fish scale pattern, which was painted on, using the underglaze blue ground. *rticles 5ade % 3uring this time $orcester hired a modeler by the name of Eohn Toulouse to design a variety of new ornamental shapes % vases, figures and baskets were some of the more popular items he created. *lso being produced were items for serving tea, dishes, as well as plates. -ontours % *fter about :220 the trend of the form was slowly toward the 0eoclassic and away from the e#aggerated forms of the /ococo. 3ecoration % 3uring this time, one of $orcesterAs &ondon designers came up with some e#traordinary forms of decoration. Eames .iles, copied and improved upon many of the 5eissen and evres designs. G"ancy ,irdsH on

the reserved panels of vases etc. were also invented. -hinese decoration became much less popular. 5arks % * variety of marks were used during this time' a sort of crescent moon was often used on printed wares, while an enclosed G#H within a patterned square was used on blue%ground wares. *lso seen was a quasi%style 5eissen mark, which appeared on some colored wares.

Worcester 1223457 3uring the early :2;0As $orcester began to lose its hold on the market as the premier porcelain maker as competition from "rench, other English factories, as well as cheap -hinese imports began to erode their position. The body of the porcelain became more yellowish, and the paste used was often of poor quality. *rticles continued to be made as before, but again, lacked in quality. applied. The decoration was also poorly

*s bright%blue printing came into vogue, it was produced in

considerable quantity even though it was often blurred. The crescent mark continued to be used, as well a cursive G$H.

,2 Ci3erpool 2actories < %).(Gs 3uring this time a number of smaller porcelain factories sprung up in &iverpool, using copies of $orcesterAs soapstone formula. They generally reproduced tea service items largely derived from the blue%and%white patterns of -hinese porcelain. ince they were all located within such close pro#imity to

each other, it is virtually impossible to tell which wares are from which factory % a fact, which most modern collectors find very confusing when it comes to identifying particular pieces.

8erby #hina< %)./ < Early 3erby porcelain was directed towards the fashionable new tastes in &ondon. * "rench chemist by the name of *ndrew !lanche who had learned the art of porcelain making at factories in Europe brought his secret to 3erby. &ike -helsea, the early forms of porcelain Coften referred to as the

G!lancheH periodD were heavily influenced by English silver. *fter :24B the factory was purchased by Eohn 1eath and $illiam 3uesbury, and the influence of 5eissen on the factories wares became much more noticeable. (n :220, 3uesbury bought the failing -helsea works, and ran the two factories

together. This combination benefited both factories greatly. ,ody % The early body paste was a chalky white. The body was also prone to cracking when used with hot liquids, i.e. teawares. The .laze % 1ad a mellow, creamy tone and although this was hardened through the addition of bone ash, this mellowness was never completely lost. Even in later days, it continued to retain its softness. The glass%like glaze flowed freely during firing, so in order to prevent it from attaching itself to the kiln it was initially wiped away from around the base of each item, which in turn gave it the appearance of having Gdry edgesH. *s time progressed, and the glazing application became more refined, the glaze began to take on the tone of brilliant white.

14 *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % Tableware and all other GusefulA items of chinaware, such as tureens, leaf% shaped dishes, baskets, teawares, as well as biscuit figures % which became a 3erby specialty % were all produced. 3erby became the preeminent figure make in England during this period. There was a strong /ococo influence in form for some time, followed by the contours of the 0eo%classical, which was e#tremely popular in &ondon at the time.

3ecoration % Early 3erby figures were generally left undecorated. &ater, the porcelain was sparingly decorated in unusual enamels. "igures from this period are known as part of the G!ale "amily.H *lso developed at the 3erby factory were two rather distinctive styles of flower%and%bird painting, as well as Gmoth%paintingH Csmall moths painted inside shellsD and Gcotton%stalk painting.H *s

stated before, 3erby and -helsea eventually combined, however, the methods of decoration were often melded into one, and it is often difficult to say whether a piece is -helsea or -helsea%3erby. There was a tendency, however, in the late period to put on too much decoration, and great use was made of flowing, gold scrolls.

5arks % !rior to :220 3erby porcelain was unmarked.

ome figures had model identification numbers

etched into the bottom of them. The earliest mark was a script L6%, the usual mark is a G3 * beneath a crown and this was used until about :2;2. *fter the absorption of the -helsea works the anchor Ceither in blue or goldD of -helsea was used in con8unction with the G3HA of 3erby. "rom :;<0, the words (+oyal -rown 6erby* were used in a semicircle over the royal crown above two facing and interlaced 3As.

Cowesto t #hina % %).> to %&('

11 5uch of the so%called &owestoft porcelain was in fact made in -hina, and the &owestoft people were probably more merchants than makers. (n conformity with the ethics of the day, the &owestoft factory not only appears to have imported -hinese porcelain and sold it as their own, but marked their product with symbols very like the crescent of $orcester, the crossed swords of 3resden or the well known marks of other factories. The factory did, however, produce some very good chinaware its own. The earliest items, were probably the best, as much of the later items were mere copies. &owestoft was one of the first factories to benefit from the discovery of the technique whereby ink could be transferred from a design engraved on a copper sheet, onto a piece of porcelain which had not yet been glazed. ,y the :2;0As blue%and%white porcelain was being mass%produced by almost all the factories in England. ,ody % oft paste with a yellowish tinge, not very translucent, and somewhat prone to staining. The .laze % trongly characteristic because of a bluish tinge, and due to its frequently thick and uneven distribution. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % Tea services, punchbowls, cups and saucers, mugs, dishes, small plates, 8ugs, ink stands and smaller wares were generally made. 0o large services were apparently attempted. The later shapes were usually either copied from -hinese models or adapted from the wares of other factories. * few pieces were made for the regional market, and are e#ceptionally rare and valuable. These pieces were often marked with the name G* Trifle from &owestoftH and a date. 3ecoration % Early &owestoft followed -hinese patterns, and for a number of years, all the decoration was in under%glaze blue. The early blue seems to have been done with a lighter hand than those pieces represented in later years, which often tended to be dark, and somewhat prone to blurring. "rom the mid :2B0As, polychrome decoration became quite common, the favorite motifs were either -hinese sub8ects or small flowers and the coloring, though bright, was often very delicate. * constant use was made of fretwork and scale or diapered borders. /ose color was very common. 5arks % 0o regular factory marks other than those few regional pieces with the name and date inscribed. 1owever, marks of other factories were sometimes copied or appro#imated.

#oalport #hina < %)+><

12 !roduction of porcelain began in -oalport around :2<B. Eohn /ose, the founder of the factory was a fairly contemporary thinker, and an astute businessman. 1e set -oalport to manufacturing ine#pensive enameled copies of -hinese patterns, in an effort to gain a niche in a market that was no longer importing -hinese tea%sets in any quantity. /ather than trying to compete with the fine porcelain of 3erby, or $orcester, /ose realized that there were many able ,ritish china%painters working individually, who needed a regular supply of plain white porcelain to decorate with. Thus, many independent

craftsmen added their own gilding and painting to the -oalport porcelain. This is one of the reasons for the great diversity of decoration on -oalport porcelain. ,y the :< th century, -oalport had its own in% house decorators. This company is still in business, although today it is located at toke%on%Trent. ,ody % $hite and highly translucent. The early body was a hybrid of hard%paste porcelain. *fter about :;20 bone china became the staple. The .laze % Especially e#cellent quality in that it had the mellow effect of the soft lead glazes on the old soft paste porcelain, without the physical softness. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % 3uring the early years, the chief product of the factory was tablewares. *round :;:4 to :;?0, ornamental wares began to supplant the tablewares. (tems such as inkstands, vases, baskets, along with other decorative accessories became quite popular. (n contour, they were based on -hinese models, or in later years, followed the 0eo%-lassic style. 3ecoration % (n the early stages, chiefly -hinese designs, then copies of "rench, .erman and -helsea pieces. The 3erby 5azarine ,lue ground color was reproduced at -oalport. * wide variety of

decorations were employed, including all manner of floral sub8ects, birds and heraldic devices. 9ne of the unique aspects to the -oalport design was the use of brightly colored encrusted flowers, twigs, greenery, birds and cherubs on a variety of ornamental items. G-oalbrookdaleH is a term often applied to this type of encrusted porcelain. 3uring the latter part of the :<th century, -oalport suffered the design decline prevalent everywhere. 5arks % 5uch of the early -oalport porcelain is unmarked. &ater pieces may have had a variety of marks from+ modern

C o a l p o r t , GEohn /ose and -ompany, -ole%,rookdaleH, G-.,.3.H and G-.3.H The

13 -oalport mark is the name G-9*&!9/TH in block capitals over a crown. 9n one side of the crown is the word G,90EH and on the other side G-1(0*H. ,eneath, in an arch% shaped line, are the words G5ade in EnglandH and this is in small letters' beneath that is G*.3. :240H.

Spode #hina $#opelandHs* < %))>< (n :2<7, Eosiah pode produced the first piece of English bone china. This improvement of the porcelain body had a profound effect upon all subsequent china%making in England. (n :;04, came Gstone chinaH which was a type of white earthenware or semi%porcelain so closely appro#imating real chinaware that it became very popular. 5uch of this was used to make replacements for breakage in table services of the -hinese G&owestoftH. (n :;??, $illiam Taylor -opeland bought out the business and since :;B2 the firm name has been G$. T. -opeland Q onsH. ,ody % ,one ash had been used in making English china before, but the pode factory first used a

proper formula of calcined bones with -hina clay and china stone and this produced a body, which became the standard for most subsequent English pastes. The pode body is a paste of rich tone, white and translucent without being glassy. The -opeland firm first produced the pariah body, one of the ma8or advances of the :<th century in porcelain making. This was so%named because of its resemblance to the famous old .reek statuary marble from the island of !aros. The !arian body was often used as an ordinary porcelain body and the glazed !arianware has a rich creamy tint. The .laze % -lear and transparent without being cold and glittering like some of the hard .erman glazes. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % -hiefly tableware, with the contours following the precedent of earlier established factories. "ollowing the discovery of the !arian body, busts, statuettes and other ornamental pieces were produced in great numbers. To help pay for their most e#pensive items, the factory also produced a large quantity of ine#pensive earthenware. 3ecoration % (n the early days of the pode factory, deep velvety blues and rich gold derived from

Eapanese porcelain were produced, together with -hinese and "rench style. 3ecorations included floral sub8ects, fruit, birds, landscapes and figures. The ground colors often used were dark blue, scale blue,

14 apple green, yellow, gray, marbled brown, turquoise, striped red and gold, crimson, marbled blue, salmon, green, lavender, canary and blue, solid gold and dotted or stippled gold and gold scale on a blue ground. The pode stone china is not porcelain but it was so close to it that it is hard to tell the

difference. (t received colors and preserved their brilliance in a manner surpassing all other stoneware. (t was frequently translucent, had a beautiful white body and was cheap to produce. 5arks % The marks on pode china were intermittent in the early years % later, from :2<0 to some time in the :;?0As, a red painted mark with the factory name

Sp o d e was often used. 1owever, pattern

numbers were also used, and although they vary in style, they often appeared as fractions on the base of a piece. tablewares. ome of these numbers were sequenced, and allow for the identification of unmarked

9inton 7 #o- #hina < %)+/< 3uring the @ictorian era the 5inton factory became one of the largest porcelain toke%on%Trent.

producers in

3uring the :;20As and :;?0As this factory developed a

reputation for fine painting, dainty gilding, and an overall renown for quality. (t also

produced some earthenware, which was generally less Minton +or#elain +late &oman &ith (yre An. -%o +utti

costly to make. ,ody % ,one porcelain of the

highest quality. * !arian body was also made. .laze % * good quality clear and transparent glaze, with a feeling of warmth.

1' *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % 3esert services, decorated plaques, various copies from -oalport of encrusted china, and vases. *lso copies of 5eissen figures. -ontour was similar to other factories in this region with many pieces e#hibiting lavish molded decorations. 3ecoration % "rench sculptors were hired to model figures, vases and other elegant works. ome of the

best painters in Europe contributed to the renown of 5inton chinaware decoration. They were good products inspired by old -hinese porcelains and 5inton was able to reproduce the willow pattern of the old 0ankin blue and white china. 5arks % "actories such as 5inton and others in taffordshire did not generally sell

their items directly, but had their goods purchased by small retail stores locally, who in turn, wanted the china unmarked, so that they could claim it as their own, this is the reason that much of the porcelain from this region is unmarked. *gain, a few pieces had sequence numbers on them to help identify an item that might have belonged in a series. 5inton !arian porcelain may bear the paint mark of a globe, or crown and globe, or simply an upside down torch with three dots above it.

8a3enport #hina < %)+/ < %&&) *nother of the factories from taffordshire, this factory at one point in time became one of the largest

producers of porcelain. *gain, many of the items made by these factories are nearly indistinguishable from their counterparts in the rest of taffordshire Ci.e. 5inton, /idgeway, and podeD. ,ody % 1igh quality bone porcelain was also produced here, and is comparable with the surrounding factories of the time. .laze % good quality with plenty of translucency. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % ,one china tea Cmany with elaborate handlesD and dinner services, vases, as well as copies of contemporary figures from other local factories. /ococo /evival was the dominant style. 3ecoration % /ich elaborate gilding. ome use of transfer printing is also evident with 9riental patterns

and styles, as well as botanical scenes. .ood body, glaze and workmanship but the decorations have no particular distinction and are like those of all contemporary factories during this period.

16 5arks % *gain, there were no early marks, however, later' G3*@E0!9/TH, &90.!9/TH and after :;0B, sometimes G3*@E0!9/T, &90.!9/T, T*""9/3 1(/EH.

Wedgwood #hina < %).+ < %&.( and %&)& < *s one of the largest factories in taffordshire, $edgwood is famous for a number of reasons. The

first being that along with 5inton, $edgwood was considered perhaps the largest producer of ornamental pottery in taffordshire. The second reason, is that it is one of the companies who claimed to have first

invented ma8olica ware Cthe other was of course, 5intonD. ,ody % The $edgwood china had an e#tremely fine, light body. .laze % (t was also noted for its brilliant glaze. The surface was remarkably smooth and satin%like in appearance. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % 9rnamental pottery, tea services, tablewares etc. 5any items were also copied from other regional factories. 3ecoration % 5uch in both underglaze blue and enamel colors, the underglaze blue displaying a purplish tinge. The designs often consist of flowers and butterflies, either naturalistically painted or in a

conventional -hinese manner with lattices. ,utterflies and large flowers in colors were sometimes used and a number of blue and white services were made enriched with heavy gilding. *fter :22B, the

famous Easperware was produced which was technically stoneware rather than chinaware but had translucence, hardness and beauty of te#ture which made it very close to porcelain. Eosiah $edgwood was a great proponent of the 0eo%classic style and engaged the ablest artists of the day. (n addition to the Easperware, bone porcelain of e#cellent quality continued to be produced. 5arks % *fter :;2;, the $edgwood mark for chinaware became a small image of the two%handled !ortland vase with the name WEDGWOOD underneath. ,eneath G$edgwoodH in smaller capitals is
G,90E -1(0*H.

&owest of all is, G5ade in EnglandH. 9ther marks without the !ortland vase are used for

the non%porcelain $edgwood wares. 3ates were also impressed into the underside of some pieces.

9asonGs Ironstone #hina < %&%/< (n taffordshire in :;:?, -harles Eames 5ason patented a tough white stoneware body under the podes, Stone -hina,

name, G5asonAs !atent (ronstone -hina.H 5asonAs (ronstone -hina is similar to

1, and the Granite -hina produced by other taffordshire factories, but is not really porcelain, but rather a

close appro#imation. *ll of these aforementioned wares were really forms of earthenware. ,ody % $hite, durable and tough, with a close resemblance to porcelain. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % ,lue%and%white dinner services, as well as a variety of other domestic wares, including such unusual items as card%racks. 3ecoration % (ronstone items were done in bright colors and were occasionally gilded. ome underglaze

blue, transfer%printed, blue%and%white wares were also made. The brightly colored items were often more e#pensive than blue%and%white wear. The printed patterns were usually applied underneath the glaze, resulting in the pattern being protected from the wear and tear of time % many of these items look the same today, as when they were produced at the factory. 9ther decorations include chinoiseries, oriental scenes, hunting scenes and a variety of landscapes.

The 5arks % The 5ason mark consists of the royal crown upon a cushion, the name G5asonAsH in /oman capitals above the crown and G!atented (ronstone -hinaH also in /oman capitals on the front of the cushion. ,elow the cushion is the date G:;:?H.

;oyal 8oulton < %+(%< *lthough the factory, /oyal 3oulton did not start actually making china until :<02, it is sometimes confused with the factory at &ambeth called G3oultonH which produced a form of pottery Csalt%glazed stonewareD from around :;4? to :;22.

,ody % (ncludes appro#imately 40R bone ash and is of very high quality in hue, translucency and other requisite technical aspects.

11 .laze % 9f e#ceptional quality, which was due in part, to the factory having recovered some of the secrets of the old -hinese craftsmen. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontours % "ine tableware, vases, china figures, and a variety of character 8ugs. 3oulton was also one of the first companies to issue figures in GsetsH' creating a new commercial idea of the figures as being GcollectibleH. !erhaps the most famous figure was the, twenty%one piece G9ld

,alloon ellerH, which was first produced in :<2<, and continues to be made today. 3ecoration % 5any of the figures were decorated in contemporary themes and colors, such as crinoline figures in brightly colored dresses. The 5ark % "our 3As encircled by the words G/oyal 3oultonH CaboveD and GEnglandH CbelowD, the whole surmounted by the royal crown and the ,ritish &ion. * year mark may be seen on some items after :<2;.

5ellee" < Ireland < %&.) < This pottery factory was founded by three men of varying backgrounds % $illiam *rmstrong, an (rish architect who gained e#perience working the factories of taffordshire' Eohn -aldwell ,loomfield, the

land owner who found the raw materials necessary for making porcelain and earthenware' and 3avid 5c,irney, a wealthy entrepreneur who helped finance the factory. Even with their combined knowledge, the trio found it difficult going at first, since there was no coal in the area and the earthenware had to be fired with peat. Eventually, after some refinement, and some success, they began making a broad range of earthenware items. *s their profitability increased, they factory began to e#periment with porcelain. ,y :;B? they were producing a variety of porcelain items. ,ody % Jsually a mellow, creamy%like color. The earthenware was prone to crazing due to the fact that it was fired with peat. .laze % The ivory%like glaze ware of pariah body, was sometimes referred to as eggshell china. @ery little glaze appeared on the bottom surface, as it was usually wiped off after it had been dipped. *rticles 5ade *nd -ontour % ,askets with small flowers surrounding the top were a specialty. There were si# main categories of baskets, the G-onvolvulusH, G1enshallH, GTwigH, G ydenhamH, G hamrockH and perhaps the most famous, the G/athmore.H (n addition to this, dolphins, seahorses, shells and other aquatic sub8ects were also favored items. The shapes were generally graceful and somewhat flowing.

12 3ecoration % 9ne of the early decorative aims of the factory was the imitation of natural shells and coral. The surface of the ware was sometimes covered with a pearly luster to further this effect. ome green

and pink painting is evidenced in moderation, however, for the most part, the nature and mellow color of the body and the character of the glaze was enough so that there was no need for additional decoration in enamel colors. ,elleek was much admired in *merica and in the :<th century several *merican factories began to copy some items. 5arks % This was one factory that was very ahead of its time when it came to markings. The factory even went so far as to state, in regard to its mark,

With o u t w hic h non e is

genuin e .

24

2rench #hinaware
The "rench started making chinaware in :B2? at /ouen and generally employed a soft paste porcelain, since kaolin which was necessary for the manufacture of hard paste porcelain was not found in "rance until :2B;. The first factory, started by the by !roterat family in the early :B20As, was not as significant as those which were to come later such as the 5ennecy, -hantilly and aint%-loud factories. *lthough

these factories are often associated with the early years of "rench porcelain, their importance is still considerable, even when compared with that of the famous evres.

Saint<#loud < %>>,<%)>> This is where soft%paste porcelain is believed to have been made for the first time by an alchemist named !ierre -hicaneau in :B2?. The factory received direct financial support from "rench aristocrats. The factory benefited greatly from their fiscal faith when it came to developing a stable recipe for soft% paste porcelain. ,y :202, -hicaneau had died, but his wife carried on, and received her first grant to produce a number of porcelain items.

The body was often a creamy, slightly off%white, while the glaze had a slightly greenish tinge. (tems produced ranged from, snuff%bo#es, pot%pourri vases, strainer%cups, pails used for holding ice, and cutlery handles. The decorations included, underglaze%blue, painted copies of Eapanese ome of the vases were left undecorated. The most

patterns, and molded prunus blossoms.

common mark was a T in red or blue underglaze enamel.

#hantilly < %)'.<%&((

21 Mnown for its decoration in the -hinese famille&#erte and Eapanese ;a'iemon style, this factories decorated porcelain was supported resolutely by its founder, &ouis%1enri ,ourbon, !rince of -onde. The factory was not a distant entrepreneurial venture for the !rince, but was actually located directly on his estate. 5uch of the wares created here, plates, teapots, 8ugs and 8ardinieres, were likely direct copies of the finest oriental imports. Jp until about :27;, the factory also specialized in Eapanese and -hinese figures F usually decorated in the Makiemon style. *fter the :240As the designs, changed somewhat and became simpler in appearance, often delicate floral designs were used in underglaze blue or pink enamels. The factory developed a good reputation for quality wares, and was later copied e#tensively by other "rench factories. The body was a soft%paste porcelain that had a rather creamy opaque glaze to it F similar in appearance to faience. The mark appearing as a horn%shape often occurred in iron%red, but was also found in underglaze blue and a few other colors.

9ennecy < %)/,<%&(> * factory producing soft%paste porcelain in !aris was created in :2?7 by the faience manufacturer "rancois ,arbin C:B;<%:2B4D. The factory was opened under the direct support of the 3uke of @illeroy. * variety of copied wares from already established factories were made here, from items in the style of 5eissen, porcelain. aint%-loud, and @incennes as well as virtually identical matches of Eapanese Makiemon hortly before the end of :27; the factory relocated to 5ennecy, on the outskirts of !aris,

where bell%shaped ice%cups, custard%cups and covers and a variety of other smaller items were molded with vertical or spiral fluting. 5any of the wares were influenced by @incennes and evres. These wares were usually painted with sprays of flowers in a color combination inspired by red and puce. The factory also produced a variety of figures. !rior to :240, most were oriental in style and motif, after this the dominant theme followed in line with the /ococo style F primarily rustic scenes with children and peasants. The factories mark appeared around the late

:2?0As, and was either painted in blue or incised.

6incennes D %),(

22

"ollowing the even =ears $ar, the factory of @incennes became one of the most prolific producers of porcelain in the /ococo style. *s the 5eissen factory went into decline as a result of the even =ears

$ar, @incennes picked up where 5eissen had left off. *s a factory under /oyal patronage, it was well equipped, and thus able to afford some of the best artists of the time.

9ne of the reasons for the factories early success resulted from the discovery of a formula which allowed a soft%paste porcelain to be produced that was much finer and whiter than previously produced by other "rench factories. 5any of these early wares imitated 5eissen designs' figure and landscape scenes, flower sprays with scrollwork borders, including the use of gilt trellis. *lthough similar in nature to 5eissen, @incennes can be identified by the use of softer colors, and a less precise brushwork. The factory produced a number of unusual items including, porcelain flower%heads with metal stems' figures of nymphs, birds, animals and hunters. ,y the :240As, the factory had created a new and fashionable market for three%dimensional biscuit Cunglazed porcelainD figures. The mark used from :270 to :242,

were a pair of intertwined G&H Is with no written date

Se3res %).> $The Early !ears* ,y :24B, the @incennes factory had changed its location and name % and as far as porcelain factories went, this GnewH evres factory had everything going its way. &ocated on the outskirts of !aris, at the

evres chateau, the factory was the MingAs favorite F and it showed % no other factory in "rance was allowed to use gilding F only evres. This gave the factory an unfair advantage over its competitors. *s a result, the wares from evres brought in some of the best artists of the day, who created some of the

grandest pieces ever made. ,y the late :2B0As, kaolin was found close by, which allowed the factory to produce hard%paste porcelain. (tems produced were varied, and included, table services, decorative items, and biscuit figures. The factory was also responsible for the introduction of some unusual

patterned grounds, many of which covered the entire body of the porcelain. The style of much of the wares was elegant /ococo with a certain defined lightness. The mark used by early evres was similar

23 to that of @incennes but used the letter )*G inside the interlaced G&As for the period :24?%:4<, and the letter G1H in the same place for :2B0.

Se3res %))& $The 9iddle !ears* *s the 0eo%classical taste came into vogue, the wares produced by evres became more geometric in design, the colors also became more restrained, as grays and sepias were used in place of the brighter pinks and blues. ome of the themes from this classical period included, acanthus leaves, festoons,

garlands, and arabesques. ,iscuit porcelain also continued to be popular, as its appearance seemed to mirror that of classical statues. 5any of the biscuit figures also portrayed scenes from the theatre and literature of the day. ,y the :2<0As, the use of hard%paste porcelain had allowed craftsmen to produce a variety of different hues in their coloring. (n addition to this, 8eweled%enamel decoration Cusing

coagulated beads of enamel to imitate the look of pearlsD had also become a popular technique. This process was used by many of the artists to enhance the look of the colored grounds. *fter about :2<2, the bodies of the ma8ority of items made were of hard%paste. *t the conclusion of the "rench /evolution, the factory was absorbed by the newly formed "rench Gstate,H and was given new directives. 0o longer under the patronage of the /oyal house, the factory now turned to creating smaller items for e#port in the 0eo%classical style. 5any of the wares created were factored out to other companies who decorated the items in !aris or &ondon. ,y :;04, the factory was again reorganized, and all soft%paste porcelain was discontinued by virtue of its prohibitive cost. $ith the emphasis now solely on hard%paste porcelain, the factory began to produce a variety of wares that were previously impossible to make due to the fragile nature of the soft%paste. (tems such as, fantastically large vases in the 0eo%classical style were made using elaborate gilding on ground colors. The hard paste also allowed more unusual grounds to be developed, including those that mimicked the appearance of tortoiseshell and agate. ,y the early :<th century, the GEmpireH style had come into vogue, and the porcelain design of evres underwent an even more elaborate change, as wares became more

complicated and detailed in their appearance. -lassical designs inspired by the .reeks and /omans included such motifs as eagles, lions, and swans. -omplimenting this were also many Egyptian themes' a direct result of 0apoleonAs campaigns along the upper 0ile. The mark for the period from :2<? to :;00

24 consisted of an G/H and G"H which replaced the intertwined G&AsH of the former period, but which were also linked in a less dramatic fashion. The G/"H moniker stood for G/epublique "rancaise.H

Se3res %&'( $The Cater !ears* 3uring the :;20As and :;?0As the evres factory maintained its production of wares in the Empire style. ,y this time, the porcelain had become secondary in importance to the painting that was applied to it. 5any of the pieces were completely painted over with only the odd speck of porcelain showing. 9ne of the more noticeable changes from the previous period, was the theme of the decorations and paintings. 0o longer painted with grand images of 0apoleonic battles, or heroic

deeds, the wares became more rural and subdued in their nature, and often represented a pastoral view of "rance with birds, landscapes, and common people at work. ome of the more

enduring e#amples of this style were the table services commissioned by the newly restored monarchy. 3uring this period there was also a strong resurgence of .othic and /enaissance /evival shapes. 5any wares were created in the image of :Bth century vases with mythological scenes, flower swags, and finely detailed scrollwork in gray on blue. ,y the :;70As, much of the elaborate paintings and decorations began to decline in popularity, as a return to the /ococo reasserted itself, and white porcelain once again became increasingly visible. 5any of the table services used by both commoner and aristocrat were now simply decorated in gilt or, with a blue royal monogram in the middle, with gold%leaf borders surrounding the edges. $ith the advent of the lithographic process, evres was able to print its

decoration, rather than having to paint it F this allowed for a greater variety of colors to be used. The mark used from :;?? to :;7; represented the symbol of the new "rench monarchy, with the initials G&!H standing for the new monarch, &ouis !hilippe.

The /ococo /evival was firmly entrenched as the dominating style by :;4:, as reproductions of the wares from the former century began to appear in more e#travagant forms. @ases and tablewares were copied in style, but the decoration and gilding used on the flowers, shells, figures and scrolls, became e#cessive when compared to the originals. "avorite colored grounds used during this time included pink and turquoise. maller classically styled biscuit figures were also revived, as their popularity once again

began to grow during the early :;B0As.

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,y the middle of the :;20As, most of Europe was e#periencing the infusion of Eapanese style in one form or another, and time, many evres was no e#ception. 3uring this

evres pieces were influenced by Eapanese design F some even

combining the oriental style with that of the "rench historical. ,y :<00, the mark had changed again, and was now a triangle inside another triangle, with an G H in the center, and the date :<0: below.

Other 2rench 1orcelain 2actories The ma8ority of other smaller "rench porcelain factories were all located in !aris or close by. The reason for the close pro#imity to each other was twofold' the money needed to finance these factories came from the wealthy, who happened to live in !aris, and the discovery of 'aolin in the nearby &imoges area, which allowed for the production of hard%paste. These circumstances, plus the loosening of the reigns protecting the businesses. evres factory, were all contributing factors in the choice of location for these

8arte 2actory < %)+. This factory was also under royal patronage, and managed to survive two relocations within ten years. "inely painted plates, vases, and tables services were the mainstay of production. The color was often a blue ground that was lightly adorned with gilding. *s tastes changed, and royal support waned, the 3arte suffered financial difficulties, and was forced to close operations in :;??. The words, D A R T E FRERES A PARIS usually appeared in enameled red, as the makers mark.

8ihl 2actory < %)&% *lso under the protection of aristocratic interests, this factory produced some e#ceptional wares that are considered to be some of the finest of the period. Early wares from the :2;0As were decorated in landscapes, a variety of geometric designs, and cornflowers. 1owever, during the :< th century the

factories decoration reached its zenith, with newly developed ground colors, imitating tortoiseshell, and a variety of gemstones, which were often combined with delicate, gilt borders. ,iscuit figures were also produced in a 0eo%classical style. *n ailing financial situation also

26 closed the doors of this factory in :;22. 3ihlAs mark appeared as the words, MANUFre de Mor le Due dAngouleme.

Nast 2actory < %)&/ This was perhaps the first "rench porcelain factory that created its wares with the general public in mind. 0ot that it didnAt produce wares for the nobility, but rather, it mass produced wares for every conceivable occasion, for all people, in all aspects of life. (temAs made here included' lamps, 8ars, biscuit figures, vases, pots, busts, candles%sticks, clockcases and even chamber%pots. (t is even reported that it made copies of other !arisian factories porcelain, and sold them under that factory name. The 0ast mark was also enameled in red.

2,

21

22

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North American #hinaware


@ery little china was made in 0orth *merica prior to :;70, and has been stated before' most of the china that did show up on the 0orth *merican shores was imported from England or the "ar East. 9ften, many of the platters, dishes, tureens, 8ugs and teas services with 0orth *merican buildings, views, and public people, that were printed in blue, were usually made at the English potteries in &iverpool. "ew of these are really chinaware, but most are of e#cellent quality.

5any of the wares that were made on the 0orth *merican continent are e#ceptionally rare today, and very difficult to document since many of them were unmarked. (t remains to be seen whether todayAs modern collector will be able to find enough quality pieces, which can be authenticated for collectors of the future.

The American #hina 9anu actory D %))(<%))' &ocated in outhwark, !hiladelphia, this factory was found by .eorge *nthony 5orris and .oussin

,onnin. *lthough only in operation for two years, the factory did try a variety of different formulas to create a number of unusual items. The body was created from a thick mi#ture of clays and bone%ash, which gave the body a slightly brownish hue. *lthough blue%and%white figures were primarily made, some painted and transfer printing was also tested on soft%paste porcelain. (tems included dinner ome of the

services, cups, tea services, teabowls, pickle%dishes, sweetmeat stands, and baskets.

teabowls were elaborately designed with molded diamond quilting. The decoration was basic, but a bit over the top, as items were often painted lavishly in bold blue. 3ecorative themes often included

landscapes, floral sprays, chinoiseries, applied sprigs and shells F all done in a rather rustic fashion. *s

141 the desire for finer quality porcelain increased in 0orth *merica, people turned towards Europe for their goods, forcing the *.-.5 to close. The most common mark used was the letter EP F. Today, there are only a few remaining authenticated e#amples of items from this factory.

Tuc"er #hina D %&'.<%&/& $illiam Ellis Tucker founded this factory in :;24. *lthough the quality of porcelain produced here was still not as good as that of its contemporaries in Europe, it had improved dramatically, and represented a great leap forward for 0orth *merican porcelain. The style of porcelain made here was likely a

combination of English and "rench styles of the time. The body of the porcelain was hard and glassy. The glaze was clear, transparent, and of quite good quality, with a greenish tinge wherever it accumulated in thicker masses. (tems made included, table services, dessert services, tea and coffee services, ink stands, 8ardinieres, vases and all the usual decorative accessories. The decoration

consisted of painted fruit designs, and monochromed landscapes in sepia or brown during the early years, with floral and bird decorations in the middle years, and table services and vases with compositions of festoons, wreaths, and medallions in the later years. .ilding was also employed,

although it was inferior in quality. ,y :;?;, the factory was forced to close its doors due to European competition. There are no distinguishable factory marks, although there is some indication that a few items may have been marked with the name of the maker, although this has not been substantiated.

#artlidge 7 #o- D %&,&<.> *s the commercial center for products entering the Jnited tates during this period, 0ew =ork also

became the destination point for porcelain makers emigrating from abroad. 9ne such man, who made this pilgrimage to 0ew =ork, was -harles -artlidge, an e#%employee from taffordshire, England.

-artlidge set up a small hard%paste porcelain factory, and produced porcelain that was similar in many respects to that of English bone china. (tems produced here were generally related to teawares, and included cups and pitchers. 5ost of the fancy pitchers were slip%cast, and molded with stalks of maize. * number of them were gilded, and some were even painted with nationalistic *merican emblems, such as shields or flags. * few of the pitchers are signed within the painted decoration, although this is very rare. Today these pitchers are e#ceptionally rare, and highly valued by collectors.

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Inion 1orcelain Wor"s D %&>%<%+'' !erhaps the most important of all 0orth *merican porcelain factories was the Jnion !orcelain $orks of ,rooklyn. This factory produced some of the most innovative wares during the @ictorian period, and has gained recognition from modern day collectors as a factory whose wares are on the rise. The hard% paste porcelain created at the J!$ was heavily influenced by .erman tastes when it came to the use of color. The design of the applied ornamentation was also under .ermanic influence as well' however, the themes depicted were not always traditional in content. Marl 5uller, the .erman sculptor for the factory, created some unusual ornaments in the shape of rabbit%form feet, oyster plates, buffalo%head handles and polar%bear handles. 5uller also used gilding in the more traditional 3resden manner, as well as creating ornamental vases, fancy tableware, and the H-enturyH vases for the *merican -entennial E#hibition, which showed a profile medallion of .eorge $ashington. *side from the .erman influence, the J!$ also produced gilded and painted ivory biscuit porcelain in the style of the /oyal $orcester -o. from England' sometimes referred to as G*merican ,elleek.H

American 5ellee" This type of porcelain became very popular throughout 0orth *merica, and was produced by a number of companies, who used the term, G*merican ,elleekH to describe their wares Csome companies even trademarked the nameD. *merican ,elleek was similar to (rish ,elleek in name only. The decoration of *merican ,elleek included a wide range of motifs, from hand%paintings, to enameling, 8ewelling, lustring, and the application of gold paste. 0ot all items were decorated in%house by the factories that produced this style of porcelain' some were sent to outside artists who applied their own decorative ideas. !erhaps one of the best known producers of *merican ,elleek is the company, ;nowles, Taylor M ;nowles -o., which was established in :;47.

Inited States 1ottery D %&,(<%&++ Established in ,ennington, @ermont by -hristopher $ebber "enton, this factory produced a large percentage of the *merican !arian porcelain. $hite, unglazed, biscuit porcelain was made during the early years, and was of e#ceptional quality. &ater on, due to some successful e#periments in the

143 development of molding, particularly the development of intricate techniques which allowed for e#tremely fine ornamentation, the factory produced the famous G/ockingham $areH Ca brown glazed porcelainD. (n addition to this, they also produced a variety of vases, busts and figures, which were also elaborately decorated using the factories new molding technique. -olors, which accentuated the wares, were usually a delicate green or pale blue.

Ott 7 5rewer D %&>/<%&+/ *nother factory, which produced good quality !arian porcelain, was 9tt Q ,rewer, located in Trenton, 0ew Eersey. 5uch of the factories !arian ware is highly sought after by todayAs collector, due to the superb quality and craftsmanship evident in its wares. *lthough many of the designs were strongly influenced by the English /oyal $orcester factory, especially the Eapanese style, which was prevalent at the time, there is still a distinctiveness to many of the factories wares F especially in the vases, whose ornamentation was delicately built up through the use of gold paste. *merican ,elleek during the last ten years of its run. The factory also produced

Other Smaller 2actories yracuse -hina :;;;

&eno# (nc. :;;< ,ergen -hina :;24 0orth -ambridge -hina :2B< $illets 5anufacturing -o. :;2< -eramic *rt -o. :;47

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;ecommended ;eadings and 5I5CIOG;A1H!


English 1orcelain ,y, -hurch 1orcelain4 Oriental4 #ontinental And 5ritish ,y, 1obson A History And 8escription O English 1orcelain ,y $illiam ,urton #helsea 1orcelain ,y $illiam Ming The #eramic Art O Great 5ritain ,y Eewitt Spode And Its Successors ,y 1ayden Worcester 1orcelain ,y 1obson Old 5ow #hina ,y 5ew #hats On English #hina ,y 1ayden The A-5-# O #ollecting Old English -hina ,y ,lacker A History And 8escription O 2rench 1orcelain ,y *nscher 1ottery And 1orcelain In The Inited States ,y ,arber #hinese 1orcelain 5e ore The 1resent 8ynasty ,y ,ushell The So t 1aste 1orcelain O Se3res ,y .arnier #hinese 1orcelain And Hard Stone ,y .orer History O The #oalport 1orcelain Wor"s ,y Eewitt 1ottery And 1orcelain ,y &itchfield Cowesto t #hina ,y pelman #hina #ollecting In America ,y Earle Old English #hina With American 6iews ,y ,arber The 8ictionary O 9ar"s ,y 5acdonald%Taylor

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Anti=ue Tips4 In ormation 7 Tra3elogue Series by 1eter Green

#ups4 Saucers4 Augs4 Anti=ue 2ireplaces4 #loc"s4 Watches 7 #oo"ing ItemsAbout Augs 6essels itted with a single handle and a pouring rim or spout4 widely used or water4 wine4 beer or mil"4 and other li=uids4 are dated rom medie3al times to the present- The earliest @ugs rom the %%th century were ashioned in stoneware4 pewter4 or bronBe-

Tall stoneware @ugs were made in Germany in the %>th and %)th centuries with a distincti3e mottled sur ace resembling the coat o a leopard4 hence the incongruous name o Tigerware- Tigerware @ugs were imported into England in great =uantitiesJ and they were subse=uently ornamented with sil3er or brass oot<rims4 handles4 spouts4 and lids- A ew rare eKamples ha3e been recorded with mounts in gold or parcel gilt-

The shape and siBe o @ugs 3aried enormously rom the %)th century onwards4 rom the diminuti3e sil3er @ugs used or cream and mil" to the outsiBe pitchers and were used or washing- In shape4 @ugs could be low and s=uat or tall4 with bulbous bodies and long4 slender nec"s- Eighteenth and %+th century @ugs were modeled in a wide range o pottery and porcelain with an in inite 3ariety o glaBes and decorati3e techni=ues-

146

Apart rom ceramics and precious metals4 @ugs ha3e also been made in leather4 wood4 copper or brass sheet in di erent parts o the worldJ and many o these styles are in use today#ow creamers4 which are cream or mil" @ugs in the orm o a cow4 had the tail curled to orm a handle4 a stoppered aperture in the hollow bac" and an outlet through the cowGs mouth- These curious and much sought<a ter @ugs seem to ha3e originated around the middle o the %+th century4 in di erent siBes4 but with the same basic design-

Small @ugs or cream came into ashion as co ee drin"ing became popular and a wide spread habit in Europe in the early %&th century- The earliest eKamples4 as pre3iously mentioned4 were o sil3er and bore little decoration other than an elegantly cur3ed handle and lip- Cater4 %&th century eKamples became increasingly decorati3e4 echoing de3elopments in the styles o sil3erware through the 5aro=ue4 ;ococo4 and Neo< classical orms-

Shapes became more 3aried4 in3erted Gree" helmets4 shells4 and nautilus bea"ers being particularly popular- Elongated4 low @ugs resembling sauceboats were ashionable in the mid<l&th centuryJ but later4 3ase shapes4 o ten incorporating high ootrims or ball eet4 came into 3ogue- The pre3ailing sil3er shapes were repeated in porcelain rom the middle o the %&th century onwardsJ and lower down the social scale4 pottery cream @ugs ha3e been widely manu actured in Europe and North America to this day- There are countless eKamples worth collecting4 and the in inite 3ariety lea3es the collector a ne3er< ending trail to ollow-

#ups 7 Saucers

14,

#ups designed speci ically or co ee4 chocolate4 or tea began to appear in Europe in the %)th century when these be3erages were irst introduced- A re lection on the costliness o such drin"s was the act that the earliest cups were made o sil3er- As the =uality o ceramics impro3ed in the %&th century4 sil3er cups declinedJ and eKamples are now comparati3ely rare- 1orcelain cups were used in #hina4 and the earliest European ceramic cups ollowed #hinese patterns4 being either itted with two handles or no handles at all-

The early orm o the co ee cup was a straight<sided cylinder with a handle @utting out at right angles rom the body- Such co ee cans were ashionable in the second hal o the %&th century- The single<handed teacup de3eloped slowly in the same period4 and shallow cups without handles continued to be manu actured until the beginning o the %+th century and are o ten re erred to as tea bowls-

Therea ter4 the general shape o teacups became standardiBed4 although pro3iding an in inite 3ariety o designs and moti s4 each pottery producing its own distincti3e stylesSaucers in their present orm are relati3ely modern and e3ol3ed rom the Oriental saucerdish with its characteristic central depression and slightly upward cur3ing sidesThe teacup stand was originally lat with a slight central indentation to hold the cup steady- The saucer<dish with its high sides was o ten considered no more than an eKtremely shallow tea bowl4 whose greater sur ace area permitted more rapid cooling o the tea < thus4 the %&th century custom o drin"ing tea rom the saucer rather than the cup-

141

The collecting o matched cups and saucers enables people to collect 3arious eKamples o the wares rom di erent potteries4 without ha3ing to spend a great deal o money on each item-

#utlery #utlery is the laymanGs term or what the anti=ue trade describes as $lat are( The trade term is deri3ed rom the act that or"s and spoons are manu actured rom lattened sheets o metal $sil3er4 gold4 She ield plate*4 which is cut and stamped to the desired shape-

2latware really only re ers to "ni3es4 or"s4 and spoons4 whereas cutlery embraces all manner o small domestic items associated with eating and drin"ing4 irrespecti3e o their material or method o manu acture-

8omestic eating implements are relati3ely modernJ and right up to the %)th century4 such items were not commonplace4 and eKamples in metal are rare be ore the %&th century-

2or"s were introduced to England rom Italy in the %)th century but were slow to catch on4 it being considered unmanly to use them- OneGs spoons and ingers4 aided with chun"s o bread4 were long considered ade=uate or all practical purposes- 2or"s were originally produced with two tines4 the three<tined eKample not appearing until the %&th century-

5y the %+th century4 there were an immense 3ariety o patterns being producedJ and many are still produced today- Sil3er cutlery can be dated by the hallmar"s4 but this does

142

not apply to most She ield plate or electroplate- Carger items4 such as slicers4 ser3ers4 and ladles4 o course4 can now be ound in matching patterns as part o a ser3ice-

Anti=ue 2ireplace Itensils The ollowing is a list o some o the ireplace utensils used in the good old days4 when li e was simple4 and no doubt4 much harderL Smo"ing tongs were used to grasp a hot coal rom the ireplace to light a pipe- 9ost men4 and a lot o women and older children4 smo"ed clay pipes be ore a warm4 peace ul ire- Toasters and gridirons4 which had rotating tops4 let toast and meat coo" e3enly on all sides without handling the hot ood-

A trammel was an ad@ustable4 two<piece pothoo"- The hoo" o the trammel was put into its highest hole4 i the soup was to simmer4 abo3e the lames4 and into the bottom hole4 i it were to boil- 1othoo"s resembling the letter ESF were made o iron- Enough hoo"s were lin"ed together until the pot was the right distance rom the ire-

5rooms were made o long birch saplings- The saplings were splintered up rom the bottom and down rom the top4 then tied- The top core that remained was shaped into a smooth handle-

A 8utch o3en was a hea3y iron pot with an indented4 close< itting lid- It was o ten set into and completely co3ered by coals- A spider saucepan made o iron had a long handle and spider<li"e legs- The legs "ept the pot abo3e the hot embers rather than down in them-

A roasting "itchen was a metal boK on legs- The side near the ire was totally open- A door on the side acing the coo" could be raised to chec" the meat and baste it each

114

time she turned the spit4 which was an iron sha t running through the boK to hold the meat-

A tri3et made o iron "ept a pot o porridge warm by the ire i chores brought the men in late- A wooden peel was a long<handled tool used in getting bread in and out o ireplace< wall o3ens- A coo"ing or"4 o ten made by the blac"smith according to the buyerGs speci ications4 was used to li t meats or lids or other hot coo"ing pieces-

The list o anti=ue utensils4 in general4 is almost endlessJ but it is surprising how rare some o the items ha3e come to be- Aust try to ind a pair o old smo"ing tongsL

To

acilitate coo"ing on a hearth4 housewi3es used to rely on tri3ets to support

simmering pots- Today4 these old tri3ets are priBed as collectibles- Tri3ets are three< legged stands4 and their name deri3es rom the Catin tripod < meaning three< ooted- 9ost tri3ets were made o iron4 and blac"smithsG hands wrought them- In the late %&th century4 howe3er4 cra tsmen began to create tri3ets by casting molten metal into sand ormsSand<casting simpli ied the ornamentation o iron ob@ectsJ and by mid<l+th century4 many tri3ets boasted scroll designs4 lower moti s4 and patriotic symbols-

With the coming o the coo" sto3e about %&.(4 tri3ets lost much o their importance2itted with pierced4 triangular tops4 they still ser3ed as supports or latironsJ but e3en this unction dwindled when the electric pressing iron was introduced at the turn o the '(th century- Since then4 they ha3e been relegated to the dining table as insulators or hot croc"s and platters-

111

5ecause they are older and handmade4 wrought iron tri3ets are more 3aluable to collectors than cast iron- Wrought iron is malleable4 and wrought iron tri3ets rom the %)th and %&th centuries o ten bear scars rom their years o ser3ice- #ast iron is brittle but hard4 and old cast iron tri3ets that sur3i3e intact are apt to show less wear than their wrought iron counterparts-

The cost o %+th century tri3ets is usually reasonable4 and one can assemble an interesting collection by haunting country auctions4 yard sales4 and anti=ue shops- 5ut i tri3ets interest you4 you need not con ine your interest to anti=ues- 2inely cra ted reproductions ashioned out o cast iron4 brass and pewter are a3ailable today-

#ountry #oo"ing Tools I am amaBed and intrigued by the wide 3ariety and ingenuity o the items that de3eloped through the years as the peddler wound his way through the countryside- A culler had two di erent uses- One was or stemming berries4 and the other use was or pluc"ing pin eathers rom reshly pluc"ed chic"ens-

Graters o all shapes and siBes were used or spices4 ruits4 and 3egetables- Some were handmade by piercing tin in a a3orite design and mounting the tin on a wooden rame-

A chopping bowl was o ten hand car3ed rom a solid piece o wood- No two bowls were the same siBe4 and they ha3e come to ha3e great 3alue to the collector- They are di erent to the old butter bowl in that the chopping bowl was lat on two sides-

Toddy stic"s were ornate little stic"s that crushed and stirred the sugar and lemon in a popular be3erage "nown as a toddy- Apple peelers were constantly being impro3ed4

112

since apples were used in e3ery way imaginable $i-e-4 apple butter4 sauce4 cider4 pie4 and dried apple slices or winter eating*- The peeler speeded up the amily tas"4 since it peeled4 cored4 and sliced an apple in a matter o seconds-

2unnels were created rom a solid piece o wood4 blown glass4 enamel4 and e3en china- A salamander was used to brown roasts4 washed potatoes4 pastries4 and coo"ies- The long<handled iron tool was held in the ire until the dis"<li"e head was red<hot- Then4 it was held o3er to be browned- The radiated heat4 plus an eKperienced hand4 could =uic"ly brown the ood to a handsome golden color-

Oli3e stoners made the tedious @ob o remo3ing pits an easy one- A ter placing an oli3e on the base o the stoner4 the spring<operated "nob atop the sharp edged sha t was plunged down through the oli3e- 2lour scoops and si ters were needed or lour4 meal4 salt4 and sugar- Early si ters were no more than mesh made o horsehair or thin wire ramed with wood-

Wooden mashers o hard4 weighty wood did all sorts o @obs depending on their siBeSmall mashers crushed herbs or mashed babyGs oodJ others mashed potatoes and cut cabbage during the sauer"raut<ma"ing process-

1ie crimpers luted4 cut4 and sealed the edges o the superb pies a diligent woman ser3ed her amily- 9il" strainers were made o tin and had wire mesh inserts in the bottom- 2resh mil" was poured through the strainer to screen out any twigs4 straw4 or insects4 which may ha3e ound their way into the armerGs pail o mil"-

113

This is @ust a small sample o the many anti=ue coo"ing tools collected by the enthusiast today-

Telling The Time In 9iniature The earliest mention o a tra3elling cloc" was one supposedly made or ?ing Couis Ml o 2rance $%,'/<%,&/*- Whate3er the mo3ements in that legendary timepiece might ha3e been4 I am certain they were not that small- Once the restrictions imposed by weights and pendulums were remo3ed4 the in3ention o a more portable cloc" entered the realms o possibilityJ and the controlled release o the energy in a wound up spring pro3ided the necessary brea"through

The introduction o the tra3elling cloc" cannot be attributed to any one person or any particular periodJ it can only be said that by the late %&th century4 2rance had become the center or the manu acture o carriage cloc"s4 a de3elopment led by Abraham Couis 5re=uet with his glass sided pendules de voya#e - 8uring the course o the %+th century4 miniature carriage cloc"s ha3ing a height o our inches or less attracted the interest o

the inest 2rench cloc"ma"ers o their day4 including Adolphe OIlier4 Henri Aacot4 Ceroy4 8rocourt and 9argaine- 9ost o these miniatures were made in the period between %&&( and %+%( and were designed speci ically or those 2rench women o ashion who

pre erred them to watches and would carry them in small leather cases4 itted with sliding ronts that could be raised in order to see the time without ha3ing to remo3e the case-

9odels that could stri"e and repeat the time had a small pro@ection on top o the case4 which could be depressed to actuate a repeat button on the cloc" within- Inno3ations in design and decoration ensured a growing mar"et4 with the certain "nowledge that ashionable women o the day would be eager to display to their riends a new style o

114

decoration or elaboration o the stri"ing mechanism- The shape 3aried only a little- 9ost were the con3entional rectangle o 5re=uetGs %&th century prototype though the cloc" in o3al orm was introduced during the second hal o the %+th century- The cloc"s4 many o them smaller than three and a hal inches4 eKempli y the 3ariety o decorati3e arts employed in the manu acture o the genre- This included painted porcelain panels4 Cimoge<type enameling4 cloisonnN $where the di erent type o panels are separated by metal wires*4 champlene $in which the brass case is irst gouged out and the ca3ities illed with color ul enamels*- #ases or the cloc"s could also be ound in solid sil3er4 i3ory or tortoiseshell-

All these miniature cloc"s were made in 2rance around the last twenty years o the %+th century- 9a"ers cannot be identi ied by style aloneJ sometimes4 a trademar" may be ound on the bac" plate4 and occasionally it is concealed on the inside o the cloc"Howe3er4 many beauti ul miniature cloc"s are not attributable to any indi3idual or irm-

Today4 they are sought a ter by collectors and etch into the thousands o dollars or the truly uni=ue ones-

1ictures
-ollecting masterpieces in painting, either of oils or watercolors, is generally not within the province of the antique collector or dealer. The average dealer collects pictures of all kinds primarily because they

11' have acquired a certain esthetic and monetary value due to their age and not entirely because they were fine works of art at the time they were created. (t is the generation of an atmosphere of the age in which they were made that gives the picture its value, and often the frame around the picture is e#tremely important in this respect as well.

5ost of the pictures that are available to the average purchaser are those current in the @ictorian period, since it was not until the invention of lithography early within that period that *mericans could afford to decorate their walls with works of art. (n the :;70As, the works of *merican lithographers, such as the Mellogg brothers of 1artford, -onnecticut, and -urrier Q (ves became so generally available that most homes had pictures of some sort on their walls.

Cithographs 5illions of -urrier M I#es prints were sold during the 40 odd years that the company was in e#istence and many of these prints are still available at from thirty to a hundred dollars, depending on the sub8ect, the size of the print, whether it is colored or black and white and its general condition as regards fo# marks, water stains and its margins. -lipping of margins was common in the old days, when it was difficult to get a picture frame the right size and a clipped margin detracts a great deal from the present value of the print.

*nother difficulty is that there have been considerable numbers or modern reproductions of -urrier Q (ves, treated with chemicals to give them the brownish appearance of age.

0ot all -urrier Q (ves lithographs are of great value. "or e#ample, the renditions of little boys and girls, the pictures having to do with moral sub8ects, which were once so popular, probably are not worth more than thirty to si#ty dollars.

The 2ollowing Are The 9ost 6aluable: :. 2. porting scenes of hunting, bo#ing, horseracing, etc. /ailroad scenes of all kinds.

116 ?. 7. 4. B. ailing ships. "ire scenes, including fire engines and firemen in action. -ountry scenes and country homes. "lower and fruit prints. uitable for dining room use.

(n addition to the lithographs, there were large numbers of steel engravings, both of fashion scenes and of landscape, often hand%colored. Those, which are uncolored, may be colored by the dealer at a very low cost, thereby substantially increasing the sale value.

1aintings There were large numbers of oil paintings of the romantic school imported into *merica in early @ictorian times and there was an *merican production along these lines as well. (n addition to this, countless thousands of oil paintings were turned out by young ladies from well situated, middleclass families attending academies. price. ome of these are quite attractive and may be picked up for a reasonable

ome @ictorian painters are becoming increasingly popular, as collectors begin to sort through the

plethora of paintings from this time, in order to determine those artists who truly merit attention % both from an esthetic point of view, as well as financial.

9ld family portraits in oil have now become quite popular and bring good prices. There were also a numbers of scenic, primitive paintings done between :;?0 and :;;0. These are valuable but hard to place as genuine. This is a separate study in itself and before embarking on the purchase of primitive paintings, a book such as G*merican !rimitive !aintingH by Eean &ipman should be studied.

!utting aside the chance of inheriting a masterpiece, there are still an enormous number of framed antique paintings. The following checklist offers a few points to remember if you have a painting that you cherish and wish to keep in tip%top shape. :. 0ever use any patented preservatives. These preparations often have non%drying oils, which

collect dust and may darken the canvas.

11, 2. Try and maintain an even relative humidity and temperature. The ideal temperature is about

B40" and a relative humidity of 4;R. ?. 3onAt leave e#cess wire on the back of your picture. *s time goes by, this tangle may push into

the canvas causing a bulge or actually puncture the canvas. 7. urprising, as it may seem, more paintings are damaged by falling from the wall than in any

other way. 5ake sure that you use good picture hooks and that the wire on the painting is not frayed. 4. !utting a painting over the fireplace is probably the all%time favorite location' but in reality, it is

the worst possible setting for a painting. 1eat and fluctuating temperatures speed up the aging process. oot and smoke from the fire will also be deposited on the canvas. 1owever, if your heart is set on it, go ahead, but remember the hazards and be prepared to pay for more frequent professional cleanings. B. 0ever start messing around with the painting yourself trying to restore it. This is a 8ob for a

professional restorer and a carefully chosen one at that. 2. ,e sure that if you use a light over a picture that it does not heat the surface. There are cool

bulbs available, and you should use one.

5ost paintings were originally coated with varnish on completion to protect the pigments from grime and aging. The varnished surface of an oil painting is an anomaly in the field of antiques. "or once, the concern is not with the patina built up through the ages but with what is beneath+ the painted colors originally intended by the artist. That leaves it squarely up to you % the choice of whether to have a picture cleaned and re%varnished. (f you like the soft, mellow look as it is, there is no necessity to remove the old varnish. "rom a strictly professional point of view, they are probably more aesthetically pleasing and historically accurate when they are cleaned to their original state.

9f all the e#perts you might ever consult about antiques, none should be selected more carefully than a restorer of paintings. =ou are literally putting the life of the picture into his hands. There is no licensing in this field to protect the unwary. !ick a restorer on the basis of the best advice you can get and an e#ample of work he has done or is in the process of doing. ome museums provide a list of local

restorers without guaranteeing their work. =ou should also ask for a written estimate Cit may be on a

111 sliding scaleD of what your restorer will do. $ith valuable paintings, photographs showing a before and after treatment are a wise measure in case a problem arises.

Artists On Horsebac" Jntil recently, :;th and :<th century English sporting paintings have been treated with disinterest by connoisseurs and scholars. 1owever, in the :<B0s and early :<20s, they came into their own' and such names as tubbs, $ooten, 5arshall, "erneley, and 1erring are now well known. Today, this peculiarly English aspect of cultural history is considered big business and is a part of the national heritage.

(t is difficult to know what a ma8or tubbs painting is now worth, as works by tubbs, 5arshall, and the other artists mentioned above regularly sell for more than two hundred thousand dollars at the ma8or auction houses. * $ooten painting, G1unter with .room,H made a half%million dollars in :<;4' and later the same year, a painting by 1erring sold for a million dollars.

!art of this success is due to the racing business, itself, which has developed greatly in the last few years with hundreds of thousands being spent on young thoroughbreds, so it only stands to reason that paintings on the sub8ect would en8oy a ma8or revival.

Eohn $ooten C:B;?%:2B7D, the earliest and most well documented English born sporting artist, worked at a time when the science of breeding was being developed and the principal thoroughbred lines were being introduced through the three *rabian sires CthatAs right, it all started with three horsesD. 1e was the instigator of horse portraiture, which he combined with classical tones in the landscape so that his works would look well beside the other grand works of art of his clients. * well known painting of his,

G1untsman with 1ounds in * &andscape,H depicts the artistAs attention for detail from the huntsmanAs dress and regalia, to the clip at the top of the horseAs forehead, and the larger, slower hounds used for stag hunting in those days.

,y the early :<th century, fo# hunting had become the rage' and vast sums were spent annually on the sport. !rofessional artists, such as 5arshall and "erneley, were in great demand' and "erneley also

112 painted racehorses although fo# hunting was his first love. ,y :;?4, over one hundred fo# hunts had been established by the wealthy English country class and artists of repute were able to make a lot of money painting hunting scenes.

*lthough the patronage persists and particularly among the racehorse crowd in 0orth *merica today, racing and hunting pictures have changed since the early days. The artist is freer and able to follow a more e#pressive line of development that does not restrict him to the tastes and desires of his patron. This does not always make for a better picture, but it certainly makes for a more varied and imaginative effort on the part of the artist.

9f course, hunting prints by the thousands followed on the heels of the popularity of these well known early artists, and the good prints fetch e#cellent prices today and are sought after by many antique collectors.

8aguerreotypes ome daguerreotypes are quite attractive and they can still be picked up at quite reasonable prices. *lthough their popularity continues to rise at a relatively moderate pace, it is probable that genuine old daguerreotypes will become very e#pensive in the not too distant future.

1ictures On Glass !ictures were painted directly upon the reverse side of the glass or reverse%printed from a paper print. ub8ect matter was mostly religious but there were also allegorical sub8ects and some landscapes. !aintings were usually primitive, but often brilliant and vibrant in color.

This type of glass painting was popular in *ustria, .ermany, !oland,

witzerland and other European

countries and spread to *merica in the :;th and :<th centuries. (t was particularly popular among the !ennsylvania 3utch who painted crude portraits of men, women and *merican national heroes such as $ashington, *ndrew Eackson and @anburen.

124 (n 0ew England, there are sub8ects such as naval engagements. These pictures bring high prices and therefore are often faked. .enuine old glass pictures are on thin glass known as crown glass. This glass has an uneven surface that reflects the light in such a way that it enhances the colors. 0ew glass is heavy and even in surface.

9ld prints have a soft, velvet quality and depth to the color. 0ewer faked prints lack depth and have no brilliancy and do not seem a part of the glass but merely a print pasted on and colored, and thus, dull and flat. (n a fake, the back often smells of paint. *lso the condition or the paint will show how old the picture is % fine old glass pictures are usually still in their old frames since they are so delicate that des% truction of the frame would mean that of the picture as well.

Illuminated 9anuscripts !aper paintings commemorative of special occasions, drawn and decorated by hand or printed and later decorated by hand are an interesting form of *merican folk art and are found throughout the eastern seaboard states and as far west as 9hio. !ennsylvania 3utch hand%illuminated items are

especially rare and scarce. The source of these forms of early *merican folk art can be traced directly to the medieval illuminated manuscripts.

ome pen%paintings were used as the birth, baptismal, confirmation and wedding certificates. The rarest of them, are those that are entirely hand%painted' second, are those partly printed and partly hand% decorated, and finally, there are those that are entirely printed but hand%colored. This class of

illuminated manuscript is found mostly in !ennsylvania, @ermont, 0ew 1ampshire, 5assachusetts, -onnecticut, 5aryland and @irginia.

The most common form of printed birth or baptismal certificate has five verses in addition to the handwritten names and place of birth. 9n one side of the printing is an angel with a bird in one hand and a harp in the other, and on the other side, a similar angel with harp and wreath. The spaces below are filled in with birds and baskets or vases of flowers. The space above has an eagle or an angel.

121 *nother form of printed and hand%colored lithograph is the 1ouse ,lessing. These included a printed prayer for the preservation of the house usually set within a heart with flowers and birds as decoration. These have been found from the press of 1enrich 5iller of !hiladelphia as early as :2B2.

Silhouettes (n the first half of the :<th century before photography became popular, the silhouette was the customary form of portraiture. These items are becoming more and more sought after, and are now commanding quite a respectable price.

ome scenes involve portraiture, either head, bust or full figure, while others show flowers and animals. Especially desirable are the full figures showing little girls with pantalets, ladies with hoop skirts or gentlemen in their cutaways and beaver hats.

Cithophanes (n :;2;, in ,erlin, the idea of making transparencies in porcelain was undertaken with great success. *s a result of this e#perimentation lithophanes were developed, and quickly became popular between :;?7 and :;4;. * lithophane is a transparent porcelain plaque or sheet usually in the unglazed state. The shaded design is formed by a variation of thickness of the paste so that a shaded effect is obtained when the plaque is held before a strong light. They were meant to hang in windows or mounted in lampshades.

&ithophanes were made in white, or white with colored frames, and some were painted in naturalistic colors. *lthough the artistic value of lithophanes is somewhat in question, if they are in good condition they are of value as e#amples of @ictorian art, and will probably rapidly increase in monetary value in the near future, as many other @ictorian items are doing now. (f you are 8ust starting to collect, this might be a good entry%level item to start with.

Anti=ue Tips4 In ormation 7 Tra3elogue Series by 1eter Green

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#OCCE#TING #OCCE#TI5CES 9odern #ollectibles While the products o the last hal <century or so are not yet gi3en the same respect ul status o anti=ues as are older products4 many o them are ne3ertheless4 highly

collectible- Indoubtedly4 some o them will be anti=ues tomorrow-

There will be things4 o course4 that will always be o 3alue- Cimited editions4 or instance4 and signed pieces rom recogniBed cra tsmen seldom go out o style or esteem- 5ut what about the items the 3alue o which is less certain? What are the collectibles o today that will grace the museums o the uture? These are products we use today and ha3e or the last i ty years4 such as the early radios4 telephones4 and cameras- Household utensils4 photographs4 and toys are a ew more items o interest that will li"ely hold some 3alue in the uture as well-

#ircus posters promoting the arri3al o a circus in town were o ten art ully done and are o current decorati3e 3alue to collectors- Items o the early '(th century4 such as the butter churns4 the cream separators4 or s"immers4 the table<top meat grinders4 and the sausage stu ers4 are collectibles which perhaps you4 the reader4 ha3e purchased or thought o purchasing in recent years- Included among the anti=ues o tomorrow will be signs o the political scene and momentos o leisure acti3ities- The things o yesteryear soon become precious-

The record cylinder made or use on the early Edison 6ictrola4 e3en late loor models o the %+'(s and %+/(s put out by ;-#-A- and General Electric etc4 which played the old se3enty<eights are in great demand and etch prices which sometimes astound e3en meL

123

The early electric radios are now beginning to generate interest- At one time4 anti=ue radios were considered to be speci ically the wireless and early battery operated sets-

1hotographs o long ago are 3aluable records o the past4 and so are the cameras that produced them- 2or the camera bu 4 the collection might include a ?oda" motion<picture camera irst patented in %+', or an old 3iew camera manu actured by the Senaca #amera #ompany around %+'(4 as well as a 3intage ?oda" poc"et camera rom the %+'(s- To add interest to the collection4 one might ha3e some early '(th century studio portraits-

The small4 brass scales with a hoo" on the end and a round metal ring at the other end or your inger date bac" to the early %+((s and were used by ragmen who did business door<to<door- The scales4 o course4 were also used by ishmongers4 armers4 and housewi3es or weighing small items-

Out o the 8epression o the %+/(s came 8epression glassware4 the seltBer bottle4 the ice sha3er4 and the list goes on and on---

The early hea3y4 cumbersome des" calculators that you cannot gi3e away today will be collectorsG items tomorrow- At the rate that they are being thrown away now4 they @ust might become eKtinct4 although somehow I doubt it-

1aper Anti=ues It seems that most o the con3entional ields o the anti=ue world are o3errun these days by pro essionals and "nowledgeable amateurs- There is one ield4 howe3er4 not yet completely o3ercrowded4 and that is the collecting o paper anti=ues-

124

!ou can select rom a wide range o sub@ects: 3alentines4 post cards4 calendars4 sheet music4 documents4 ashion prints4 trading cards4 labels4 paper dolls4 and comic boo"s4 @ust to mention a ew-

1aper anti=uing can also be the answer or the person who wants the rewards and satis action rom collecting without ha3ing to in3est in large sums o money- 2or prices ranging rom i ty cents to ten dollars4 you can pic" up some real bargains- Single items are generally cheap4 yet each one multiplies in 3alue in direct proportion to the siBe o the collection- !ou might ac=uire4 say4 old post cards o San 2rancisco or i ty cents to a dollar o3er a period o timeJ and when you ha3e one hundred or more o them4 the 3alue o each may be doubled or tripled with the completeness o your collection-

There is some un to be deri3ed rom reading the teKts and messages that appear on e3erything rom old posters4 calling cards4 menus4 old magaBines4 and particularly old letters4 which point up the morals and attitudes o bygone days- !ou are transported bac" in time without ha3ing to thumb through pages o history teKts D which can sometimes be a bit dull-

1atent medicines with such craBy names as ?ic"apoo #ough #ure $sometimes called ?ic"apoo Aoy Auice*4 Swamp ;oot or puri ying the blood4 1in" 1ills or 1ale 1eople4 bust de3eloper ood4 and hundreds o other eKotic products with names to match will bring a smile to your ace as you disco3er the bottles in the most unli"ely o places-

12'

One o the @oys o collecting paper anti=ues is that there are so many potential sources within easy range o most people4 no matter where they li3e- Here4 or eKample4 is a short list:

!ibraries < Since most libraries periodically discard unwanted material rom their iles4 you can o ten get permission to loo" through the material be ore itGs thrown out-

Property Auctions < 1ri3ate arm and house sales yield some o the most interesting and 3aluable materials4 such as old documents4 post cards4 sheet music4 boo"s4 and calendars- 9ost pro essional dealers attending auctions o this type are not interested in paper items D although they are now gaining in popularity-

)uildin#s 9nder *emolition < Especially schools4 publishing houses4 libraries4 and similar repositories o boo"s4 documents4 and other paper items-

Attics and Cellars < The thrill o disco3ering may be yours in a relati3eGs musty old attic-

Anti:ue *ealers < They o ten "eep paper anti=ues more or creating an Eold worldF atmosphere than anything else and will4 in turn4 sell them =uite cheaply4 as the bigger items such as urniture4 etc4 is the way in which they ma"e their li3ing-

Our last word o caution--- 5e sure you "now the di erence between an original and a reproduction-

Anti=uesG Ad3ertising

126

Whether it be an old calendar4 matchsa es4 trays4 or purse siBe celluloid mirrors4 ad3ertising o e3ery type eKisted on a 3ariety o products rom buttons to blotters in the good old days-

Howe3er4 the good old days are still here as ar as ad3ertising is concerned- 1ens are imprinted with an insurance agentGs name or shopping bags with the storeGs logo and name- They ha3e e3en con3inced people to wal" around ad3ertising products on tee< shirts and tennis shoes without payment-

In the days be ore tele3ision and radio4 gi3eaways were comparati3ely bigger business4 and the eKotic and o ten amusing messages on 3arious products and pac"aging ha3e become prime collectibles-

To collectors4 the old gi3eaways are understandably rarerJ many o them made o

iner

materials4 such as metals4 mother<o <pearl4 or celluloid4 rather than the modern plasticThey loo" or things made any time rom the mid<%&((Os right up to the %+/(s-

The easiest gi3eaways to ind are those that were handed out wholesale4 such as calendars and hand ans- The hand ans were made o paper4 card<board4 straw4 and celluloid and were most o ten decorated with appealing children and attracti3e women <no matter how tenuous their connection with the product- The ans were gi3en away by the boK ull to church organiBations4 raternal groups4 and uneral parlorsJ and the people carried them home so o ten that it is a rare attic that does not contain one or two eKamples- #alendars4 or the most part4 were a3ailable ree at the drug store4 eed mill4 or automobile agency and usually depicted some aspect o the particular business that was gi3ing the calendar away-

12,

#elluloid4 the i3ory co3ered orerunner o plastic4 was used in ad3ertising buttons4 poc"et mirrors4 pin holders4 and measuring tape cases- 1aradoKically4 the ad3ertising on the bac" o purse mirrors o ten bore pictures to attract the male eye- 5eauti ul nudes in 3arious degrees o eKposure eKtolled the 3alue o some pipe or chewing tobacco-

The ser3ing trays4 ten inches to twenty< i3e inches across4 were round4 o3al4 or rectangular in design- When not in use4 they stood upright against the bac" o the bar or soda ountain4 where they ormed an attracti3e display-

9ind ul o this4 ad3ertisers eatured pictures o

ashionable women4 stage personalities4

and generally "ept their commercial messages simple4 limiting them to the name o a product and a slogan rimming the edge o a tray- #oca<#ola trays4 which now command the highest prices4 o ten bore designs rom well "nown illustrators li"e Norman ;oc"well-

In addition to trays4 there were holders or wrapping twine4 measuring bowls or dipping crac"ers rom a barrel4 co ee grinders bearing the co eeGs name4 thermometers and barometers in praise o so t drin"s4 tobacco4 medicines4 e3en small cloc"s- Some o these old cloc"s are still around $SauerGs EKtracts and #ro tGs Swiss 9il" #ocoa4 to name two*4 but they are 3ery rare and nearly all in the hands o collectors- These items were called Esale stimulatorsF and were gi3en away to store"eepers to induce them to handle a manu acturerGs product-

Some o the other orms o anti=ue ad3ertising were tin toys with the product and company name on the item- Such items as toy whistles4 cric"et noisema"ers4 and a tiny roulette wheel were the more common type toys- Sa3ings ban"s or children o ten made

121

in miniature replica o actual ood products were o ered rom the turn o the century and continued to be o ered until the %+,(s-

I could go on and on--- as the list is endlessJ but su ice it to say that most people specialiBe in one or two items4 otherwise4 they would ha3e a house ul o ad3ertising memorabilia cluttering up e3ery noo" and cranny-

#ollectorGs 1lates E3ery history written about collectorGs plates agrees that they originated in 8enmar" in %&+. with a small4 blue and white plate issued or #hristmas by 5ing and Grondahl-

Although the irst true limited<edition collectorGs plate in %&+. mar"ed an e3olutionary step in European porcelain4 many o its characteristics eKisted prior to its creation by 5ing and Grondahl-

9eissen4 Wedgewood4 and the 2rench ;oyal 2actory at Se3res were established in the %)((Gs and began to issue small editions o commemorati3e plates in honor o renowned generals4 success ul military battles4 and the coronation o royalty $discussed pre3iously in this plan-* The early 5ing and Grondahl plates that sold or two ?roner $about i ty cents* are worth approKimately our thousand dollars today- In %+(+4 ;oyal #openhagen began its own series and it4 li"e 5ing and GrondahlGs4 has continued e3ery year to this day4 despite wars and economic crises-

122

8uring the %+'(s and %+/(s4 ew4 i any4 manu acturers pro3ided new collectorGs plate series- The Germans started se3eral series o plates prior to the %+'(s4 the ma@or company being ;osenthal-

As the early plates were #hristmas plates and not collectorGs plates4 early amilies bought them ne3er suspecting that one edition might be more 3aluable than anotherJ and little thought was gi3en to searching out pre3ious editions to complete a collection-

As 8anes immigrated to North America4 they brought these plates with themJ but the plates remained 3irtually un"nown to most North Americans4 unless seen in a ew anti=ue shops in Scandina3ian neighborhoods-

The irst American dealers entered the mar"et by simply purchasing them at auction to see what they could do with them- The plates traded at the three to i3e dollar le3el until the early %+((Gs-

The e3ent which really mo3ed the collectorGs plates into the realm o the Ebig timeF so to spea" was the introduction o a boo" by S3end Ae3sen in ;ye4 New !or"4 which listed the irst bac"<issue pricelist based on his estimates o the rarity o each edition- He4 thus4 became the irst to charge di erent prices or di erent bac"<issues- With this simple act4 the modern American collectorGs plate mar"et was born-

Anti=ue dealers and gi t shops around the country were soon =uoting S3end Ae3senG s prices4 and other pricelists with wide 3ariations began to appear- Soon4 collectors with recently issued plates tried to complete their collections with earlier plates4 prices were bid up well abo3e the printed lists4 and the war was on-

134

In %+>'4 the steadily escalating worldwide demand had created a sell<out o the %+>' ;oyal #openhagen #hristmas plateJ EThe Cittle 9ermaid at WintertimeF issued at ele3en dollars per plate- 5y the spring o %+>/4 the plate had shot up to thirty dollars in 8enmar" and was trading at i ty dollars in the Inited States- 5y %+&(4 it was worth two hundred and i ty dollarsL

The plateGs success increased public awareness o plate collecting as a lucrati3e pastime and pa3ed the way or Cali=ue o 2rance to bring out an etched crystal plate o two birds4 shattering the pre3iously accepted ormalities o plate collecting- It was neither 8anish nor porcelain nor e3en a #hristmas plateJ it was simply an annual plate4 and its mar"et success inally established limited edition plates as true collectorGs items- 5rought out in %+>. at twenty< i3e dollars4 it was soon selling or o3er one hundred dollars and4 by %+),4 was trading at se3enteen hundred and orty dollars-

5rasses O all the monuments to be seen in the cathedrals and churches o 5ritain4 perhaps the least recogniBed are the medie3al engra3ed memorial crosses- This neglect is not surprising4 when it is realiBed that brasses are o ten ound in the most in the most inaccessible spots < under pews and mats4 behind the organ4 and in some instances4 high on the wall-

In recent times4 there has been an increased interest in brasses- This is partly due to boo"s and studies resulting in papers on the sub@ect4 plus the act that reproductions ma"e eKcellent wall<hangings- 5rasses gi3e a pictorial history o the de3elopment o armor4 ci3ilian ashions4 ecclesiastical 3estments4 rom the early %,th century onwardJ

131

and e3en the memorial brasses orm a commentary on day<to<day li e in medie3al England-

All classes o society are commemorated: bishops4 "nights4 ladies4 city burghers4 mon"s4 and ser3ants- 5rasses were made in almost e3ery siBe rom something one could hold easily in oneGs hand to li e<siBe igures- They were within the inancial reach o e3eryone in the community- This point is underscored by the act that the 3ast ma@ority o persons commemorated by them are the possessors o names absolutely un"nown to historyThe achie3ements o the aristocracy were well recorded in ancient times through art4 literature4 architecture4 and heraldry- 5rasses supplied a lot o "nowledge about the day< to<day li e o the masses-

The use o engra3ed brass plates as memorials to the dead dates rom the %,th century5ritainGs geographical separation rom continental Europe has le t it in possession o some our thousand brass igures4 plates4 and memorials rom these early times- In Europe4 much o this history was destroyed by constant wars4 resulting in pillage4 3andalism4 metal thie3es4 and neglect9erchantsG names and trademar"s on brass are interesting4 in that o ten there are indications o the particular occupation o the person or company depicted- These were used o icially as business mar"s but came to be uno icially incorporated into amily crests- 5rasses o ecclesiastical igures4 scholars4 pro essional men4 and so on eKistJ and the costumes and dress o each remain as a record rom early history as to how these people saw themsel3es-

Today4 we ha3e e3erything

rom house numbers4 pla=ues4 to horse brasses4

candlestic"s4 and small table ornaments in brass- Stores and wholesale outlets eKist who

132

specialiBe in nothing but brass and copper items- 9any o the items are reproductions o anti=ue brasses4 and this has led to a depression in the brass anti=ue mar"et- 5y looding the mar"et with reproductions o chestnut toasters4 old warming pans4 and iredogs4 the public has turned away rom the authentic anti=ue items- As a result4 some =uite good bargains can be had on old brass pieces- The important point to remember though is whether or not you are getting the genuine old item or an eKcellent reproduction made to loo" old- As alwaysP buyer bewareL

Sil3er
History ilver has been both a source of wealth and a raw material used to make beautiful ob8ects in almost all countries throughout time.

Even barbarian tribes beat silver into the form of bracelets, rings and a few decorative ob8ects as well. The monetary wealth of ancient .reece was based primarily on the accumulation of silver coin. $ith the discovery of the 0ew $orld, the returning panish treasure ships sailed fully laden back to pain with

the gold and the silver that was to lay the foundation for the future panish treasure ships' too, that much of the silverplate in England in the early days.

panish Empire. (t was from the

ilver was obtained that was used for the manufacture of

133

(n the early stages of development of the *merican colonies, there was little silver used for household articles but as trade and commerce grew, silver coins came in from England, the $est (ndies, pain and !ortugal. The merchant of the time, rather than leaving his silver in the form of coins, would often have the coins melted and made into ob8ects for use or display and his initials or crest were engraved on each ob8ect. (n this way, the merchant had his wealth secured since initialed silver was not as likely to be stolen.

ilver, which is completely pure, is far too soft for making wrought ob8ects.

*s a result it is The

amalgamated with smaller amounts of other metals, such as copper, in order to harden it.

recognized legal standard, established in ,ritain around :?00, is the Sterling Stan"ar", which establishes that an ob8ect must be <2.4R pure silver.

*lthough the forms of GplateH as it was called was for the most part based on English styles, by :220 there was a noticeable difference in the pieces produced here in 0orth *merica. These pieces often had a quality of sturdiness Crather than daintinessD which reflected the living conditions under which they were produced.

.enerally, the styles of silver followed the various styles of furniture, and were thus reflected in the tastes of time.

Techni=ues O Sil3er 9a"ing: +aising % This is the process of making hollow items, such as dishes, using a sheet of silver. 9riginally a silver ingot was hammered into shape individually, but by the middle of the :; th century with the advent of the rolling mill, sheets of silver with a standard gauge could now be produced on a commercial level.

Simple -ylin"rical Shapes % These shapes were rather simple to produce, and included such items as tankards and beakers. -onstruction of these items consisted of forming the shape from sheet silver,

134 wrapping and bending the edges till they 8oined' then soldering them together. * circular piece was attached at the bottom to form the base.

-omple5 Shapes % (tems that could not be directly produced from sheet, such as feet, handles or borders were cast. imply put, the liquefied silver was poured into a mould, which mirrored the shape of the final

ob8ect to be produced. 3iscerning the difference between IsimpleA and Icomple#A silver, can usually be achieved by holding the ob8ect in question F cast silver is usually much heavier.

!a5 -asting % E#tremely detailed pieces were often molded first in wa#, then covered with clay, then heated until the wa# evaporated and you were left with a hardened mold into which the silver was poured. *fter cooling, the mould was cracked away, and the ob8ect was usually polished with a

hardstone to bring out the color.

Hallmar"ing

13' ince silver was easily transformed into coins, or any other ob8ect for that matter, it became necessary to develop a test CassayingD in order to mark items as to their consistency and purity. This process was essentially broken down into four different categories. "irst, a Lmar'% was established to determine the amount of pure silver C tandardD, secondly a mark was necessary for the Lma'er%, thirdly a mark was needed in order to verify the place of testing CassayingD, and finally a mark was needed for the actual person who tested the quality of the silver. 5ost of the countries of Europe have adhered to this &ion Passant

system for many centuries, but it was the English system that was to set the standard, by which all other countries would follow. 9ne of the oldest systems, and considered the most reliable, the English first introduced their system in :?00, stating that all silver should be <24 parts per thousand pure silver, and 24 parts copper. The IleopardAs headA was the mark used to attest to this newly decreed standard of purity. ,y :?B7, the mark of the maker was now also included. (n :72;, the mark of the tester Cthe person who was responsible for testing the quality of the silverD was also added. * Idate letterA mark was also added, which was a letter in the alphabet, used to denote the year that the piece was tested. This letter was changed "ax $ar%

each year. ,y :474, the Ilion passantA was introduced as the new mark for the silver standard, as the leopardAs head slowly had its meaning changed from silver standard, to the mark for the town of &ondon Cthe reason for this metamorphosis is not entirely clearD. ,oth of these marks were replaced by :B<2, with a figure of, I,ritannia and a lionAs head erased.A tarting in :2;4 and running to about :;<0, a fifth

mark known as a ta# mark appeared, which displayed the head of the reigning sovereign of the time. *lmost all the other European countries copied the English system, with slight variations occurring in their use of pure silver to set their standards.

8ecoration 9ften silver may only have partial marks or no marks at all. $hen this situation arises, it is often best to turn to the various types of decoration, which were used in order to help identify a particular piece. The two main categories for decoration are, integral, and applie"

136 Inte#ral *ecoration % This is simply decoration that is intrinsic to the piece. decoration that was created along with the original piece or item produced. (n other words, it is This includes such

decorative finishes as, punchers, gravers, stamps, or chisels F all of which enhance the original piece, without physically adding anything to it.

ome E#amples 9f (ntegral 3ecoration (nclude+ ,mbossing 8repousse$ % These are impressions on a thin piece of silver, which are achieved by hammering the backside of the piece with dies or punches that have decorative designs on them. *s the hammer strikes, it forces the silver to protrude from the front creating a relief pattern. Jsed often during the ,aroque period of the mid%:2th century.

,ngra#ing & This is the technique of cutting patterns into silver using a sharp instrument known as a GgraverH. This was one of the earliest methods for achieving a decorative design.

Bright&cut ,ngra#ing % *lmost identical to engraving, e#cept that the graver was used at an angle so that points on the surface of the piece would be created to reflect the light. This was frequently used as ornamentation during the 0eo%classical period.

-hasing %

imilar in some respects to embossing, however, here the relief pattern is created using a

chasing hammer, which forces the metal out, and then using tracing tools' creates a pattern. 5any pieces from the :<th century were decorated using this technique.

2an"&piercing

*s

the

name

implies,

this

technique was based on taking a sheet of silver, and literally cutting out small sections, which left the piece with a pierced design. 3uring the :; th century all piercing was done by hand, and was usually confined to various forms of decorative tableware i.e. baskets, salt%cellars etc. E)ample $f En ine -urne. +atterns $n !il0er

13,

0achine&piercing % ame as above e#cept done by a machine. The machine allowed for large quantities of piercing to be done in a short amount of time, although the silver used was often much thinner. This style of decoration was popular throughout the :;th and :<th centuries. -hinoiserie % The use of oriental motifs, such as pagodas, landscapes, figures etc. -ommon on much of the English silverware of the late :2th century.

0atting & .sing a small hammer with a rounded head, this style of decoration was achieved by pounding a series of small bumps or dots onto the surface of the metal. This was also a utilitarian design in that it was often used for tankards and beakers % the tiny little impressed dots that surrounded the tankard allowed for a better grip. 9ften used during the :2th and :<th centuries.

Applied *ecoration % This is the reverse of integral decoration, in so much as it is anything that has been added to the piece, or which was not created as an intrinsic part of the ob8ect in question. E#amples of applied decoration include'

Gil"ing % !rior to about :;?4 gold and mercury were combined together to form a mi#ture which was then painted CgildedD onto some silver items. The item was then heated, evaporating the mercury, leaving 8ust the gold on top of the silver. using electroplating. *fter :;70, due to the danger of mercury, most items were gilded

-ut&car" 6ecoration % This process involves thin sheets of silver, which are cut to form various patterns, and which are then soldered onto an ob8ect' usually around the handles, edges, spouts and above the foot%rims. This type of decoration was popular in England from around :B<0 to about :2?0.

,lectrogil"ing % Jsing an electric current, a thin layer of gold is applied over a silver ob8ect. *lthough this technique replaced the unsafe mercury gilding, the layering of gold through electrogilding is usually much thinner, and therefore more prone to wear than that of its predecessor. *lso, the color of the

131 ob8ect tends to lack the luster of real gold as in the case of mercury gilding. This process became quite common at the turn of the 20th century.

0ounte" Stones % (n addition to the more common applied decorations listed above, precious and semi% precious stones of all kind were often set in mounts which were applied to the silver ob8ect. ome were

mounted on the e#terior, e#tending outward' while others were inlaid into the actual form of the ob8ect itself. This form of decoration is rare, but not uncommon.

Hallmar"s O English And European #ountries

Condon < &ondon was generally considered to be the center for marking in England. *lthough there is no GwrittenH evidence documenting this mark as belonging to &ondon, through generations, it has evolved into a mark often assigned to the &ondon assay office. * crown over the leopardAs head was also in use until about :;20.

She ield % This mark was used in :227 up until :<24, when the mark was changed to a rose Cwhich represented goldD, and a crown for silver. This is still one of the ma8or silver manufacturing centerAs today.

5irmingham % &ike heffield the assaying office here opened in :227. The mark of the anchor has remained constant with little change over the years. The silver produced here was usually in the form of accessories.

#hester % *lthough one of the oldest places in England where silver was produced, there was no formal marking of silver items until around the end of the :2 th century. The mark of the shield with the arms of the city, surrounding a sword, lasted until :<B2.

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Edinburgh % This cottish mark was introduced on cottish silver around the middle of the :4th century. The mark is representative of a large castle surrounded by three towers.

2;AN#E This mark was used in "rance after the "rench /evolution of :2;<. !rior to this the marking system was left in the hands of the silversmiths. *fter the revolution, the state was responsible for the mark, which consisted of a rooster within a shield. The silver standard was <40 and ;00 parts per thousand. This difference was noted by a number C: or 2D, which was placed inside the shield.

GE;9AN! *s with porcelain, 3resden was one of the locations that helped to set the early .erman silver standard. *fter .ermany became a sovereign nation, a new national standard was finally introduced in :;;;. The mark of a crescent beside a crown meant that the item was at least ;00 parts per thousand pure silver.

S1AIN 3uring the :Bth century, pain developed a silver standard of <00 parts per

thousand pure silver up until :;;0, when the standards of <:B, and 240 parts per thousand were introduced. The <:B standard Cpicture on leftD was a crown, with the number < below it. The mark beside it was a GTH which represented the town mark for Toledo. ITAC!

144 (taly was one of the last European countries to develop a national standard in :;27. !rior to this date each of the cities, /ome Ccrossed keysD, "lorence, @enice, etc. all had their own specific markings for purity and place of manufacture.

I;ECAN8 *lthough (reland was under the rule of the ,ritish when marking was established in this country during the :2th century and thus used the ,ritish standard, there were plenty of local markings as well. Jnder the ,ritish system the mark was that of a ha harp with a crown overtop.

ST!CE 1E;IO8S William and 9ary Style < 5aro=ue %)(( to %)%. "ollowing the restoration of the monarchy in England, there was a pronounced reaction to the dullness of life during the puritan period under -romwell. There arose a tremendous demand for plate to replen % ish the collections of the rich, most of which had been melted down during the war. 9rnamentation both in furniture and in silver was in vogue and the 0orth *merican silversmiths followed the fashion.

Eust as the ,aroque forms of

ir -hristopher $ren in architecture replaced the medieval

characteristics of the :2th century house and the angular 8oined oaken furniture of the previous generation was replaced by richly patterned walnut panels outlined by herringbone bandings' so in silver, the surface richness was achieved by a counterpoise of plain and richly ornamented surfaces in which the curved part of the body was accentuated by the use of gadrooned or fluted ornament. The gadroon is a border ornament composed of radiating lobes on the rims and feet of silver cups and on the borders of plates and dishes.

!orringers with spacious geometrically patterned handles were found in ,oston and !hiladelphia. The handles were treated with intricate geometric designs featuring a cross, heart and diamond.

141 The standing salt was generally replaced by circular trencher salts decorated with gadrooned bands on the shoulder and base, which were usually made in pairs. -asters made their appearance in a variety of forms. -ylindrical in form with a flaring base, ornamented with a gadrooned band, they usually had tall covers boldly pierced in geometric or floral patterns, which were enriched on the edge with gadrooning. imple cylindrical bo#es with perforated, slightly domed covers and handles were also quite popular for pepper.

The beaker basically underwent little change e#cept that the cover was often enriched by the use of a spiral or vertical gadrooned band and the handle treated with a gadrooned effect. urface var iation was

also achieved by the use of cutcard ornament in floral or leaf designs cut from a thin sheet of silver and applied on the cover or lower part of the body at the handle 8oint. The generous two%handled punchbowl with decorated floral panels on its flaring sides was decorated with alternating spiral or vertical gadrooning and fluting.

,everages were prepared and kept hot in a chafing dish of cylin drical body with an inverted rim boldly pierced in a scroll design.

.enerally, the 0orth *merican silversmiths handled this style e#tremely well, and the 0orth *merican e#amples of this period are marked by an e#cell ent counterpoise of plain and boldly ornamented surfaces and a good balance between intricate design and perfection of workmanship.

Queen Anne < %)%. to %).( (n :220, as a result of a silver shortage in England, the sterling standard was raised to <4.;R Cthe standard of purityD. This was done in part to deter silversmiths from melting down coins. *s a result of the increased softness of the metal, the elaborate embossed forms were no longer practical and were gradually replaced by forms whose simplicity of line and graceful shape En lish !il0er -eapot, Cir#a, 1,44

142 were enhanced by fine moldings, facets and cast ornament. This style became popular about the year of the death of Sueen *nne and continued through the reign of her successor, .eorge (.

5uch plate was made for the church in this period and we find simple bell%shaped beakers on a low molded foot, enriched by beautifully engraved inscriptions and tall dome%covered flagons with cast bell% shaped finials, scrolled front pieces and simple handles, together with plain, broad%rimmed baptismal basins. "latware featured a new spoon. The rounded end of the handle was curved upwards and thickened with a prominent ridge running down its front. poons were made in three sizes to which was

added the strainer spoon with a pierced hole used for removing leaves from tea or seeds from punch. 1ollow%handled ladles for punch were supplemented by ladles with double%lipped bowls and turned wooden handles.

The porringer became increasingly popular and developed a simplified geometric pattern of graceful scrolls.

Trencher salts with molded and splayed sides, oval or octagonal in section, are found up to about :2?0 at which time they were replaced by circular salts with molded rims supported on three cabriole legs terminating in pad or toed feet, reminiscent of Sueen *nne furniture.

auce or butter boats were introduced during this period and chafing dishes were also made in great numbers.

The popularity of tea with its special tables and imported china involving elaborate ceremonies stimulated the production of new silver forms. ,y :22; the globular teapot with flat%hinged cover,

wooden knob finial, molded foot and octagonal spout was in fashion and the flat cover and rim of these pots offered a surface suitable for finely engraved bands of ornament. The shape of the sugar dish is based upon the china teabowl of the orient' its footed bowl with everted rim is surmounted by a low domed cover with real%shaped handle. Early surviving cream 8ugs have a pear%shaped body, pinched

143 triangular spout, simple scrolled handle and plain collared foot, usually with domed hinged covers and turned finials.

9val tobacco and snuff%bo#es were e#tremely popular with both men and women and it was the custom for women at this time to engage in pipe smoking.

*mong personal items fashioned by the silversmith of this period are seals, knee and shoe buckles, octagonal sleeve buttons, gold funeral and wedding rings, lockets and thimbles.

The generous plain surface of the Sueen *nne style invited fine engraving, and in no other period did this branch of the silversmithAs art approach such technical skill. There was harmony and balance

displayed between plain and decorated surfaces % even the *merican silversmith, although working with European styles, managed to produce pieces with a distinct character and flavor F a result of the locale and age.

;ococo < %).( to %)&. ,y the late :2?0As, &ondon was adopting this new style in furniture, china, dress and all forms of the decorative arts. The plain shapes of the Sueen *nne style were gradually being discarded.

This style is based upon the use of asymmetrical forms, sinuous IsA and IcA shaped curves and restless /ocaille ornament of fantastic rock work, shells, scrolls, leaf and floral patterns e#pressed in engraved, chased, pierced or cast forms.

(n the new *merican state following the revolution, this style was adopted from &ondon and was chiefly e#pressed in the use of pear and inverted pear%shaped forms, double%scrolled handles, cast shell and sea%scroll ornamentation. "urniture was produced in the fashionable designs of -hippendale, both in 0orth *merica and England.

144 *s opposed to the individual orders of rich merchants in the preceding period, there was an ever% increasing importation of English silver for the masses, and the local 0orth *merican craftsmen were now beginning to find it hard to compete with the massive influ# of English silver.

The *merican craftsmen had to cater to the new taste and the result was that few silversmiths made simple pieces. e#ecuted. Everything was heavy with ornament, although often this ornament was carefully

(n spoons, the ,aroque shell ornament on the back of the bowl was replaced by the florid /ococo shell, while the handle tip was now feather%edged.

The porringer developed a pierced scrolled handle with an interlacing pattern featuring a central lozenge. The shell edge decorated the rims of circular salts as well as their supporting shell and claw feet. The sauceboat had cast%shell ornaments at the knee and foot. There was freer use of the reversed curve, particularly evidenced in the tankard with pear%shaped body, domed cover and open pierced thumb%piece resting on a molded and splayed base.

ome of the best work of this period was done by the *merican patriot, !aul /evere.

2ederal < %)&. to %&%( This period is the parallel of the *dam, 1epplewhite and heraton periods in furniture and the forms, as we have seen, were stimulated by the e#cavations at !ompeii and 1erculaneum.

E#treme simplicity of form and precise proportion was emphasized and in silver as in furniture. traight structural lines emphasized by delicately engraved parallel bands of bright%cut ornament, beaded or a reeded molding, ovoid and elliptical shapes, both plain and fluted, and urn%shaped finials were the order of the day.

14' The spoon during this period was made in all sizes with a pointed bowl and turned down handle. (t was usually plain e#cept for a script monogram or the popular form of ornament known as bright%cut engraving with a delicate shallow pattern of zigzag lines around the edge or an initialed medallion on the handle En lish !terlin -an"ar.8 Cir#a, 1,24

The eagle, taken from the Jnited tates seal, was now a popular decoration

on silver, as well as furniture. The death of $ashington inspired the coffin%end spoon in *merica, with the handle resembling an old type wooden coffin. Tablespoons, mustard spoons, salt and dessert

spoons, as well as ladles and forks, were all made in this rather severe and unusual style.

The tankard began to go out of fashion as the temperance movement began to have its effect.

The teapot popular in ,oston followed a contemporary English style and was elliptical in plan with straight spout and sides' it was seamed at the handle as by this period, the silversmith could purchase rolled sheets which saved time and labor. The plain body was varied by the occasional use of shaped or fluted sides. The matching cream 8ug was of helmet shape with plain or fluted footed body resting usually on a square base.

%+th #entury Sil3er The increased use of the machine and the development of specialization of labor resulted in a lack of harmony between form and function in mid%:< th century silver. 3esigns were largely drawn by artists who had little or no idea of the material in which these designs were to be e#ecuted. There was a crudeness in the scale of ornament.

*fter :;20, hollowware was larger, circular or polygonal in plan and was decorated with enlarged, broad gadrooning, and applied, stamped, or chased bands of heavy ornament. This ornament included, laurel wreaths, .reek waterleaves, roses

12th Century Chinese Bo%l8 :epousse Bir.s @ Bran#hes

146 or grapevines, rustic scenes of wandering milkmaids, cows and windmills with the large ball feet, and the winged claw feet also seen on late !hyfe furniture. 1andle designs ranged from simple scrolls to those simulating three branches, grapevines or ramsA heads.

The low ebb of taste in 0orth *merican silver, as in architecture and furniture, was probably reached about :;2B. Typical in a catalogue of the centennial e#hibition is a /eed and ,arton tipping water pitcher. (t rides on wheels and its surface is a mass of naturalistic forms in chasing and repousse. *lthough a few years ago, this type of item would have had only minimal value, today it is gaining in popularity with some collectors.

!erhaps the best way to e#plain the silver in the :<th century is to say that it, like almost everything else, was forced to surrender to mass production. 9ar"s And 9a"ers (t takes a good deal of study to know the marks of the early 0orth *merican silversmiths. ince a

complete system of marking was never really established in 0orth *merica, a large percentage of silver only has the makerAs mark. 9ften this mark was not merely an initial of the maker, but was the

silversmithAs full name. 9ther marks often had some little characteristic that differentiated it, i.e. the shape of the letters, or of one letter, a dot, or the type of enclosure around name or initials. $ith a small but powerful magnifying glass you can bring each mark into sharp focus and compare it in detail with those shown in books of silver marks Cwe have included some of the early *merican silversmith marks in upcoming pagesD.

The 5eauty O Old Sil3er 9ld silver was handmade and has individuality, it has a patina that old wood and metals acquire with years of hand%rubbing and e#posure to light and air. *ll the decoration that was applied to old silver was done by some e#pert engraver who followed the contours of the piece, adding to its beauty along the way. ilver, like all precious metals, appeals to virtually everyone who sees it because in many ways, it

suggests a lu#ury of good living.

14, 5odern silver is rolled out by mechanical pressure that seems to take much of the life out of it. 9ld silver was handmade from the time the coins were melted until the piece was ready to use. (t was hammered, shaped, heated and worked with great patience until it acquired some flavor of the makerAs personality.

(n the finest pieces of old silver, there is a great simplicity and you should note the hammer marks that were carefully polished but not erased. E#amine carefully the delicate flutes on coffee and teapots, the tiny feet of cream pitchers, and the handles of e#quisite workmanship on the tankards and mugs F all of these characteristics must be considered thoughtfully as you view each item you come across. ,y having an appreciation of truly great silver pieces, it will help you in identifying almost all other silver pieces of lesser importance.

;ecommended ;eadings and 5I5CIOG;A1H!


American Sil3ersmiths And Their 9ar"s III4 ,y tephen .. -. Ensko The Hundred 9asterpieces O American Sil3er In 1ublic #ollection , ,y Eohn 5arshall !hillips American Sil3er, ,y Eohn 5arshall !hillips Sil3ersmiths O New Aersey %)(( To %&'.4 ,y -arl 5. $illiams Early American Sil3er4 ,y -. &ouise *very Historic Sil3er O The #olonies And Its 9a"ers4 ,y ". 1. ,igelow The 1ractical 5oo" O American Sil3er4 ,y Edward $enhan 9ar"s O Early American Sil3ersmiths4 ,y E. 5, -urrier

9useums To 6isit With Good #ollections O Old Sil3er


The 9etropolitan 9useum O Art4 0ew =ork -ity, 0= The 9useum O 2ine Arts In 5oston4 ,oston, 5* % Especially good for the e#amples of the work from ,oston and other 0ew England silversmiths, including a special, permanent e#hibit of the work of !aul /evere.

141 The 9useum O The #ity O New !or"4 0ew =ork -ity, 0= The New !or" Historical Society4 0ew =ork -ity, 0= F * large variety of silver, with a special emphasis placed on that made by 0ew =ork craftsmen. The Albany Institute O History And Art The !ale Ini3ersity Art Gallery 1hiladelphia 9useum O Art The 5altimore 9useum O Art The Worcester 9assachusetts Art 9useum The ;hode Island School O 8esign In 1ro3idence

142

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Anti=ue Tips4 In ormation 7 Tra3elogue Series by 1eter Green

9iscellaneous Items: 1aper 9ache 1aper mache4 loosely applied4 means paper sti ened with glue- Eastern techni=ues introduced to 2rance in the mid<l)th century allowed or the manu acture o small articles o urniture- The original paper mache was composed o paper pulp sti ened with glue4

chal"4 plaster4 sand4 and siBingJ set by hand4 and 3arnished o3er when dry- A subse=uent de3elopment4 pioneered by Henry #lay o 5irmingham in %))'4 in3ol3ed sheets o paper glued together4 pressed4 and molded to shape4 then coated with lac=uer- 1aper mache was also used in interior decoration4 being cheaper than plaster and stucco- Cater4 it was applied to picture rames and small ornamental moldings4 usually co3ered with gilding#layGs process ga3e a hard4 glossy inish and was widely used in the late %&th and %+th centuries in the production o @apanned urniture- 1aper mache was used or screens4 trays4 paneling4 and e3en small tables-

1'2

Numerous boKes or trin"ets and snu

boKes4 to large writing cases and wor" boKes

were manu actured in paper mache- 5ronBe powders to simulate gilding were applied to blac" lac=uered paper mache rom about %&(( onwards-

#layGs techni=ues were adopted and greatly eKpanded by the 5irmingham company o Aennens and 5ethridge whose @apanned paper mache ware dominated the world mar"et in this medium during the %+th century- #ontemporary artists were commissioned to paint the more elaborate articles with loral and ern moti s and classical compositions- A great deal o AennensG and 5ethridgeGs products were eKported to the Inited States4 where paper mache became 3ery popular- In %&.(4 the Citch ield 9anu acturing #ompany o New !or" began producing paper macheJ and this continued to be popular until the end o the century- They produced a 3ariety o small articles o tables4 chairs4 and e3en some rather ornate bed headboardsurniture4 including

The most common item ound today is the lac=uered tray with mother o pearl inlay4 and one in good condition etches =uite a high price-

Anti=ue Aewelry 9any people pre er old @ewelry to new- They ind anti=ue pieces charming4 elegant4 or prettyJ and or many people4 such @ewelry satis ies a nostalgia or the past- 1eople read in the newspaper that anti=ue @ewelry is a good in3estment4 and certainly some o the pieces made in the last '(( years ha3e greatly appreciated in 3alue o3er the past two decades-

Old @ewels are attracti3e things to own4 and they can be a good in3estment i one buys wisely- A ew years ago4 @ewelry was the #inderella o the anti=ue business- Apart orm

1'3

a ew eKperts4 no one "new or cared much about it- Howe3er4 with its popularity4 the eKperts grew in numberJ and it is rare that one inds a bargain anymore-

9ost people buy old @ewelry or pleasure rather than pro it- Inconcerned with uture pro it4 they ha3e only themsel3es to please- The general attitude is that old is beauti ul4 and the cra tsmen o the past too" endless pains to achie3e per ection- Actually4 as ar as anti=ue @ewelry is concerned4 neither o these belie s is true2rom the middle to late %&th century4 the middle class emerged in Europe and became important customers o the @eweler- The emergence o this new4 rich4 middle class coincided with the industrial re3olutionJ and actories sprang up to mass produce a 3ast 3ariety o brooches4 nec"laces4 and earrings- The industrial re3olution also allowed the disco3ery o riches on the earthGs sur ace through mechaniBation4 and gold and

gemstones became more readily a3ailable- Ine3itably4 much o the mass produced @ewelry was o a poor =uality- On the other hand4 the pieces produced or a wealthy and "nowledgeable minority by some o the cra tsmen in the better wor"shops o this period were o the highest order and ha3e great 3alue today-

2ew cra tsmen today could produce pieces o such =ualityJ and i they did4 the cost would be prohibiti3e-

The period o %)&( to %+/( saw the production o more @ewelry than in all the centuries that had gone be ore it- Some o it was eKcellent4 some o it was 3ery bad4 and much o it mediocre- I a piece o anti=ue @ewelry catches your eye4 you should as" yoursel certain =uestions be ore buying it- Is it well made? Is it well designed? Is it in good condition? Is it wearable?

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A well<made piece o @ewelry will be strong and well constructed4 e3en i it appears delicate- The detail will be sharp and clean4 solder @oints will not be 3isible4 and the inish will be good- 8esign is a matter o taste- Some people donGt li"e the Art Nou3eau designs o Cali=ue4 while others ind the Neo<;enaissance designs o Guiliario sterileJ but no one with any "nowledge o @ewelry would suggest that either o these men was anything but a great designer in his own style9a"e sure the piece is in good condition- The more intricately made a piece4 the more di icult to restore- 9issing stones can be a problem- Any "ind o restoration wor" is going to cost a lot o money4 so a3oid buying damaged @ewelry-

The =uestion o wearability is important- In 6ictorian times4 women dec"ed themsel3es out in some pretty hea3y pieces- Great weighty corsages set with diamonds or paste4 as well as elaborate pendant brooches $most o which today would loo" better in a museum*4 were all the rage- Some people ha3e the dramatic dress style to carry o these piecesJ but or the most part4 one is unli"ely to ha3e any use or them- Happily4 or e3ery ormal piece4 the 6ictorian @eweler also made hundreds o small4 simple4 elegant piecesThe %+th century was an age o 3ariety as well as o abundance-

The price one pays or anti=ue @ewelry can 3ary enormously- There are ashions in anti=ues as there are in most things- At the moment4 Art Nou3eau and Art 8eco items are greatly in demandJ and prices are high- Signed pieces rom amous designers or houses are also eKpensi3e- As with anti=ues4 so it is with anti=ue @ewelry < it pays to buy the best you can a ord- There is something to be said or buying good =uality pieces that are out o 3ogue with the collectors4 as most o them will become popular again in the uture-

8uc"s or 8ecoys

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There are many anti=ue eKperts- In anti=ue hunting4 no one is an eKpert- That includes me4 you4 other dealers4 collectors4 and museum curators- In anti=ue hunting4 anything can happen and o ten does- One cannot be well 3ersed on all phases o anti=ues- The burden alls on you to "now as much as you can about what interests you the most < be it dolls4 snu boKes4 or birdcagesThe reason people buy reproductions in anti=ues is because most people are laBy- It is easier to accept someoneGs word that something is old rather than to research the item yoursel - This ailing o human nature to really chec" and double chec" is what o ten gi3es the anti=ue dealer the edge o3er the amateur collector $unless youGre ta"ing the Ashe ord courseL*

;eproductions are so rampant today that people now buy duc"s4 "nowing they are not decoysJ thus4 the title o this heading- Some people say4 ;What di$$erence does it make i$ it is a reproduction<= Well4 it doesnGt ma"e any di erence4 unless one wants the real thing- How many people want to go through li e li3ing with a"es and imitations o the real thing? Not many4 when it comes right down to it- They are @ust too laBy to loo" or the genuine anti=ue decoy at a price they can a ord-

How ar bac" in history does the a"ing o anti=ues go? As ar bac" as history- The trouble with a"es is that they usually are not as well made as the originals4 but there are e3en eKceptions to that rule-

The only note o hope is that o all these thousands o

orgeries in the past4 many ha3e

been disco3ered and discardedJ and or those that ha3e passed undetected4 they ha3e by time itsel become a good in3estment- I guess the moral o the story must surely be4 ETo be certain that your a"es are old a"es-F

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8espite the somewhat @aded attitude o these last ew paragraphs4 I must admit that or the most part4 e3erything is on the up<and<up- There are always going to be tric"sters and people who gi3e bad opinions in ignorance- The anti=ue world is a small one4 and slowly the word gets around that there is a wol loose among the lambs- #an you imagine the rage o a dealer who disco3ers that another dealer has been palming o him? a"es on

How do reproductions manage to ind their way into pri3ate collections4 when people are really see"ing the authentic item? One way is that they are planted in a shop or house waiting or the a3id collector to be led to the item- 1hony anti=ues buried in with other genuine anti=ues can o ten ool the most s"illed eye4 because one is lulled into a alse sense o security-

There will always be this element o ris"4 and I would be less than honest i I didnGt admit that I ha3e been EhadF a ew times- It is upsetting and an a ront to oneGs ego4 but in the long run I ha3e learned rom the eKperience- I am happy to admit that as the years go by4 it happens less re=uentlyJ so there is something to be said or growing olderL

Toys Toys are thought to be or children4 yet all toys are not or children- #lappers were originally designed to dri3e away e3il spirits4 dolls to encourage ertility4 cornhus" igures to promote a good har3estJ and intricate mo3ing toys were in3ented to amuse rich men at their ban=uets-

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Stic"s and brooms ridden astride were the orerunners o the hobbyhorse- Hoops came rom discarded barrels4 and clay was modeled into 3arious ob@ects4 especially by ol" li3ing near ri3ers where plenty o mud was a3ailable-

;attles are probably among the oldest childrenGs toys4 but it was not until the %)th century that any substantial change in their designs was made- 1articularly delight ul are the sil3er rattles o the %&th and %+th centuries with tiny bells attached4 o ten

incorporating a whistle- Such rattles usually had coral handles or the baby to cut his teeth on-

Early soldiers are lat and "nown as lats4 though later ones are solid and more roundedThe irst hollow metal soldiers were made in %&+/ by William 5ritain4 an Englishman- Toy 3ehicles o all "inds historically copied the larger real 3ehicles- The irst metal trains were colored by hand- Cittle tin<plated German cars were assembled by means o tabs and slots4 whereas those rom 2rance had the @oints soldered- The more eKpensi3e toy cars had doors made to open and shut- #hildrenGs pedal cars came in as early as %+(>J and later on in the %+'(s4 HaeroplanesG were propelled by rubber bands-

9iniature 3iolins and guitars ha3e been in eKistence almost rom the time the ull<siBe instruments were in3ented- Intil the late %+th century4 they were made with the same precision as the larger 3iolins and guitars and were meant to be played- Cater4 paper mache and tin instruments were made4 but it is usually only the more accurate instruments that are o interest to the collector-

1robably no other toy is more associated with the Edwardian 6ictorian nursery than the dollGs house- They ha3e been "nown since the %>th century and were probably irst made

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in Nuremberg4 Germany- The dollGs houses o the %&th century are more attracti3e and detailed than the 6ictorian houses- The interior o the 6ictorian dollGs houses4 howe3er4 was more la3ishly urnished and were o ten accurate to the last detail < rom the per ect miniature carpets in curtains < to the intricate4 handmade urniture and upholstery-

#elluloid was used or both toys and or ping<pong balls- It was made amous by the little ?ewpie dolls designed by ;ose OGNeil Wilson o the Inited States in %+%/- With their shiny tummies4 wide<open eyes4 and tiny blue wings4 they were instantly appealing#elluloid gold ish rom Aapan loated in many bathtubsJ but e3entually4 all celluloid toys were banned because they were too lammable- The material did4 howe3er4 lead to the present<day plastics-

Germany and England are noted or their toy soldiers and engines- 2rance is "nown or ashion dolls and4 strangely4 or cheap cloc"wor" toys- The Inited States became "nown or cast iron toys4 intricate ire engines4 cap pistols4 and 8aisey guns- Also rom America came the irst teddy bears D so named a ter the American 1resident4 Teddy ;oose3elt-

Toys4 as collectorGs items4 ha3e become popular the world o3erJ and early Edwardian and 6ictorian items such as those mentioned in this section bring4 in some instances4 thousands o dollars at auction- So ma"e sure you chec" your "idGs toys be ore you throw them out- !ou may ha3e a 3eritable gold mine be ore your 3ery eyes-

Tortoise Shell It seems that the tortoise shell was an un"nown material to the cra tsmen o the western world4 until the beginning o the %>th century- Today4 the subtle transparencies o tortoise shell are imitated with unprecedented per ection by the plastic industry- This

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does not4 howe3er4 destroy the pleasure a collector eels in the possession o ob@ects whose 3alue is "nown only to him alone-

The source o the tortoise shell is4 o course4 rom the marine turtle- The creature is a nati3e o the warm seas o the world- Though widely distributed in the 1aci ic and Indian Oceans4 it is the 5ahamas4 which yield the celebrated pale tortoise shell- It weighs about one hundred pounds- The caret turtle4 which is 3ery common4 has a browner4 sometimes almost blac"4 color and is coarser in teKture- Their mar"et 3alue is almost eKactly ten times less than that o the blonde or pale tortoise4 and their weight can run as high as our to i3e hundred pounds-

There is no satis actory way o remo3ing a turtleGs carapace or shell co3ering- When researching this material and disco3ering how it was done4 I hesitated about using this material4 but then thought that people should "now how it is accomplished4 @ust as we all "now now how the baby seals are "illed-

The bac" is composed o thirteen principal scales with a border o subsidiary scales o a di erent shape- The belly4 which is almost always smooth4 is relati3ely thin- The nati3es in the South Seas surprise the reptile when itGs laying eggs on the sandy beach4 turn it on its bac"4 and light a ire o3er it- This ma"es the scales easy to detach-

2ire has the drawbac" o damaging the carapace to some eKtent4 and the method pre erred is to place the animal in boiling water $li"e a lobsterL*- The death throes o the marine turtle are long4 ew creatures being endowed with such a tenacity or li e- In the isheries o 9adagascar and the 5ahamas4 which manu acture the amous turtle soup and sell it all o3er the world4 the turtles are disemboweledJ and the meat is cut in lumps

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rom the natural receptacle ormed by the carapace- Intil the last moment when the last pound o lesh has been eKtracted4 the heart4 in a horri ying pool o blood4 continues to

beat and lutter- Only a re leK perhaps4 but how do we "now? I turtles were as pretty as baby seals4 maybe the practice would be stopped $in act4 some countries ha3e already put the sea turtle on the endangered species list*- Some s"illed practitioners in the #aribbean e3en manage to strip the turtle without "illing it- They throw the na"ed reptile bac" into the seaJ and pro3ided there are no barracuda4 shar"4 or other predator to snap it upJ it grows a new shell- EKperts howe3er4 are not decei3ed by this new shell whose =uality does not e=ual that o the original-

The material 3aries too much in appearance to be ully described4 and no reliable standards can be gi3en or identi ying and distinguishing it rom plastic imitations- It 3aries in =uality rom blac" to pale-

9ediocre grades are an opa=ue brown or blac" with lighter4 translucent 3eins- An intermediate =uality is cherry colored in which the marbling is unobtrusi3e and the color comparati3ely homogenous- A whole gamut o di erent marblings can be oundJ the most 3aluable ha3ing a tint whose transparencies are li"e the 3arying nuances o amberTo decide whether a piece o tortoise shell is real or imitation4 only your eyes can tellWithout special training4 no one can claim the piece to be genuine- The imitations are 3irtually identical- The only rational recommendation is to buy tortoise shell rom an eKpertJ and a ter ha3ing disco3ered what one has to do to get the genuine article4 I thin" I would pre er to stic" with the plastic imitation and lea3e the poor tortoises in peace-

To restore a piece whose sur ace has gone dull4 rub 3igorously with a pad o chamois leather or cloth coated with glycerin- #leaning tortoise shell is not di icult nor does it

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re=uire any special sol3entsJ soapy water ollowed by a thorough rinsing and drying is usually enough-

Seals 7 2obs Small4 engra3ed stamps or ma"ing impressions on sealing<waK or with in" on paper date bac" o3er three thousand yearsJ and eKamples o them cut in gemstones or metal4 such as gold4 sil3er4 or bronBe4 are "nown to ha3e been used in #hina and Egypt- The practice o ma"ing an impression with a seal is peculiarly Oriental4 and such EchopsF as they are termed4 are used in #hina and Aapan to this day- They were o ten car3ed in bone4 i3ory4 or hardwoodJ and the de3ices and characters appear in colorless silhouette against a solid bac"ground-

European seals prior to the %)th century are considerably rare- They range rom the small4 personal seals and signet rings used or sealing letters to the 3ery large and ornately engra3ed seals o state4 bearing enthroned or e=uestrian portraits o the reigning so3ereign or the national coat o arms- State seals were always care ully guarded and o ten de aced or bro"en up at the end o the reignJ thus4 actual eKamples are rare- The ma@ority o collectible seals date rom the beginning o the %&th century4 when the practice o wearing @eweled obs became ashionable- Seals were mounted on gold bases and attached to obs and designed to match other dress accessories- 9ade o other hardstones4 glass4 brass4 or steel was o ten used or the matriK o sealsGentlemenGs personal seals became increasingly ornate at the beginning o the %+th century as the principal ob@ects o personal adornment- 5y the middle o the %+th century4 they had gone out o ashionJ and larger4 hea3ier des" seals were used insteadWhen seals were no longer worn4 their mounts became more ornamentalJ and handles were itted to them- These range rom tiny4 slim sha ts o mother<o <pearl to massi3e

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bronBe or iron pieces4 cast in the orm o statuettes or animal heads and richly gildedSome des" seals o the %+th century had glass handles4 incorporating the most compleK o decoration- 1orcelain handles also en@oyed a brie 3ogue on des" seals o the %+th century-

Small seals were o ten made<up sets4 which could be screwed into a standard sha tThese sets were mounted on a circular base o steel when not in use- Such

interchangeable seals had ancy designs or mottoes li"e4 E2orget me notF or EThan" ;owland Hill or meF < the latter statement alluding to the man who instigated cheap postage in the %&,(s- Early '(th century seals o ten had no3elty shapes or the handles < horseGs hoo3es and ladiesG legs being especially popular-

In recent years on my tra3els in Europe4 I ha3e pic"ed up a number o sealsJ and to my amaBement4 they ha3e sold 3ery =uic"ly4 which would seem to indicate that there is a lot o interest in seals as a collectible item- I belie3e many businessmen also use them4 particularly the handles4 ha3ing their own seal a iKed to the bottom4 as they add a certain decorati3e and prestigious =uality to their o ice-

5uying 7 Selling #oins 5uying and selling coins is similar to buying and selling anti=ues- There are a great number o points o consideration4 and the new collector may become lost in his or her attempt to pursue the hobby in an intelligent manner- #oin collecting is "nown pro essionally as the ield o numismatics- In the Inited States4 alone4 there are at least i3e million serious collectors and perhaps another our million people who are searching and culling coins with the hope o inding rarities that are thought to be in circulation-

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Ac=uiring coins or the serious collector in3ol3es: $%* a "nowledge o condition4 $'* genuineness4 $/* a title i the seller is an itinerant4 and $,* a study o pre3ailing prices $there are numerous coin magaBines and price guides*- All o these actors must be brought to bear i the collector hopes to success ully complete transactions on a continuing basis-

There are many ways to ac=uire coins4 but the usual contacts ollow as a general guideJ $%* coin stores4 $'* bid boards4 $/* shows4 $,* other collectors4 $.* ban"s and payroll contacts4 $>* trips and 3acations4 $)* ad3ertisements in coin periodicals4 and $&* auction catalogues- Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the importance o a good coin dealer- The dealer who buys and sells coins either through the classi ieds in the paper4 or on the Internet4 and "nows that he may not see the customer again4 should be a3oided $at least initially*- The dealer you want is the merchant who must "eep aith with local collectors and "nows he must deal airly to maintain good relations with his customers-

The casual collector will do well to specialiBe in a limited manner that will not ma"e his research hard wor"- Some ad3anced numismatists use a great deal o their spare time pouring o3er coin boo"s4 in3ol3ing themsel3es with camera e=uipment4 and studying learned papers on the sub@ect- The greatest pleasure Rand usually pro itS4 will most li"ely come rom relaKed buying and selling with other local collectors and dealers rom your areaGrading standards are an important actor in coin collecting- Starting rom the bottom and going to the top are the ollowing designations: 1oor < Worn almost smooth or slic"2air < 6ery badly worn but with date and a good part o the detail showing-

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Good < The coin shows hea3y circulation4 but the principal details4 date4 and lettering show6ery Good < The coin is e3enly worn4 but all the principal details are plainly seen6ery 2ine < The coin shows some signs o wear but is in splendid conditionEKtremely 2ine < Only slightly worn with a luster showing in the lower ield areasAbout Incirculated < The coin seems to ha3e circulated slightly4 perhaps @ust in the bags when they were mo3edIncirculated < These coins are eKactly as minted- They show no wear1roo < 1roo coins are stuc" on highly polished planchets or collectors and eKhibition purposes-

So you can see4 there is more to coin collecting than meets the eye- A great deal o practice is re=uired to correctly grade a coin- There ore4 i you thin" you ha3e a rare coin you want to sell4 ta"e it to an eKpert and not your neighborL

Ste3engraphs I had ne3er head o Ste3engraphs until recently when doing some research on other anti=ue items4 and came across an article about them- Ste3engraphs is the name gi3en to wo3en sil" pictures manu actured by Thomas Ste3ens $%&'&<&&* and emulated by his ri3als- 2or centuries4 the 9idland city o #o3entry was renowned or the wea3ing o sil" ribbons- The industry reached its pea" during the irst hal o the %+th centuryJ but by %&>(4 a slump had set in4 and unemployment was acute- Thousands o sil" wea3ers were out o wor"- It was at this time that Ste3ens began eKperimenting with his looms4 trying to produce small decorati3e items4 such as boo"mar"s- 2rom this humble beginning4 there de3eloped a great industry in its own right-

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As business eKpanded4 Ste3ens established his Ste3engraph actory4 specialiBing in the manu acture o small sil" items4 such as embroidered hat ribbons4 badges4 scent sachets4 and 6alentinesJ but it is or the Ste3engraph4 itsel 4 that he is best rememberedThis consisted o a wo3en sil" picture usually about two by siK inches4 which was then mounted on a bac"ground o green or awn<colored mat and ramed- The brea"through came at the !or" Industrial EKhibition o %&)+ when Ste3ens ga3e demonstrations o Ste3engraph production4 and the attracti3e colored sil" pictures became immensely popular with the late 6ictorians-

2amous sportsmen o the %+th century shown on Ste3engraphs include the @oc"ey 2red Archer4 the boKers Aohn C- Sulli3an and Aem Smith4 while a ull length portrait o the great cric"et player4 W-G- Grace4 wo3en on the occasion4 #entury o #enturies4 is now one o the most priBed o all sil" pictures- Others dealt with sporting e3ents in general4 such as boat regattas4 oK hunting scenes4 and common hunting scenes- 9any o the best "nown Ste3engraphs ha3e a local connection4 such as ECady #odi3aF and EThe 1eeping Tom o #o3entry4F o which se3eral 3ersions are "nown- 1ortraits o royalty4 statesmen4 and contemporary igures were also popular- Ste3engraphs were widely eKported4 particularly to the Inited StatesJ and this eKplains the relati3ely high incidence o pictures with an American slant4 including portraits o presidents4 5u alo 5ill #ody4 and the li"eIn this conteKt4 a surprisingly rare Ste3engraph was the portrait o George Washington5ritish politicians Gladstone and 8israeli were a3orites o longstanding4 and many di erent 3ersions o them eKist- Other sub@ects included the 5oer War4 ships4 early locomoti3es4 and 3arious in3entions o the time- The most highly priBed Ste3engraphs today and the most eKpensi3e are those eaturing the eKploits o #olumbus and other

166

e3ents in American history4 prepared by the Ste3engraph #ompany in connection with the #olombian EKposition o %&+/-

In recent years4 a great deal o research into Ste3engraphs has been conducted in both England and the Inited States4 and the comparati3e rarity o the di erent issues has now been well established-

Camps The earliest type o lamp consisted o a small bronBe or pottery cup in which the wic" $o ten a piece o moss* loated reely in a bath o oil and ga3e o a 3ery smo"y4 smelly4

and lic"ering light- These lamps were used in the 9editerranean area i3e thousand years ago-

The Egyptians de3eloped a lamp consisting o a pouring hole4 a handle4 and a narrow spout or the wic" and lame- This was ollowed in Greece about .(( 5# by small bronBe or terra cotta lampsJ the ;omans also had similar lamps- The ;oman lamps were o ten intricately decorated with incised patterns and ornamented with molded human or animal orms- Camps with co3ers4 which protected the lame rom the wind4 de3eloped into the lantern-

The basic design o lamps and lanterns remained unaltered throughout the 9iddle Ages5y the late %)th century4 an important impro3ement consisted o the double pan4 which caught the drips o oil- 5y the beginning o the %&th century4 the wic"<holder was restyled and eliminated the need or the double drip pan- !ou can see that there was 3ery little progress rom our ore athers in the lamp business or about the irst ,4)(( years- The big push has come in the last three hundred years-

16,

The science o illumination was re3olutioniBed in %)&' by A- Argand4 who in3ented a lamp surmounted by a glass chimney and itted with a tubular wic"4 which enabled a better low o air to eed the lame-

Technical ad3ances in the combustible elements paralleled the de3elopments in the design o lamps- Impro3ements in the methods o re ining oil $ma"ing it less 3icious* led to simpler4 less cumbersome orms o lamps- 5oth candle para in and "erosene were patented in %&./4 and new types o lamps were manu actured to ta"e ad3antage o these uels- The earliest gas lamps were patented in %))+ but were relati3ely unpopular until the mid<l+th century4 when a plenti ul supply o coal gas became readily a3ailable- A drastic impro3ement was the gas mantle $%&&.*4 which ga3e a steadier and brighter lame than was pre3iously possible- The irst open arc lamp $ancestor o the neon light* was patented in %&)&4 and EdisonGs irst electric light bulb appeared a year later- Numerous impro3ements were made in electric and arc lighting between %&)+ and %+%.-

6alentine #ards Today4 there are two good4 unromantic reasons or in3esting in 6alentine cards- The irst is that the mar"et has yet to really ta"e o 4 although prices ha3e steadily appreciated o late- Secondly4 the cards are delight ul ob@ects4 particularly i "ept out o direct sunlightramed in a cluster and

An established celebration in ;estoration 5ritain4 the celebration o St- 6alentineGs 8ay4 has waKed and waned since the martyrdom o both a ;oman priest and a bishop bearing the name 6alentine rom the time o the ;oman Empire- How the name became

established with lo3e has ne3er been precisely established-

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Whate3er the reason4 the myth o St- 6alentine persisted and reached its pinnacle in the 6ictorian era- It was then that beauti ul paperwor"4 the orerunners o todayGs mass produced cards4 became popular- Today4 these cards ma"e up a mass o color ul collectibles4 although it is only in recent years that they ha3e gained acceptance as an art orm-

5ritain produced some o the most elaborate paperwor" o the %+th century- It was sold either in pieces or the construction o oneGs own cards or in complete orm- The paper was embossed to the ineness o =uality lace $paper lace*4 and the cards were

embellished with a multitude o decorations ranging rom gauBe eathers and shells to dried lowers and moss- 9ost 6alentines were made in Condon with the top

manu acturers being H- 8obbs and later 8obbs4 ;idd and #ompany-

The great charm o

the 6alentine is its many 3ariations- There are Ebeehi3eF or

mechanical cards where one pulls the top o the card to re3eal underlying scenes $the most sought<a ter* to a collection o scenes ranging rom the traditional heart with lowers4 to trains pu ing o3er a 3iaduct- 9any o them are uni=ue and sell at ma@or auctions both in England and North America4 bringing prices in the ten dollar to two hundred dollar range or the rarer cards-

There are 3arious stores specialiBing in 6alentine cards4 postcards4 and the li"e;ecently4 in Europe4 1hillips4 the Condon auction house timed a sale o o3er our hundred 6alentines or 2ebruary %%4 @ust three days be ore St- 6alentineGs 8ay- The cards spanned two centuries and ranged rom ornate and mechanical cards o the early %+th century to a selection o art deco cards rom the %+'(s and %+/(s-

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Among the o erings was a 6ictorian paper lace card dating rom around %&.(4 which was hand<painted and decorated with moss lowers and shells- It brought siKty dollars-

A later specimen o a beehi3e card4 showing a inch sitting on the branch o a tree4 which when pulled upwards by a small cord4 li ts into a beehi3e spiral to re3eal two gray mice below4 was estimated to sell or around two hundred dollars-

9any o the cards in the 1hillips sale were unused and in mint condition with their original en3elopes- So hold on to all those old 6alentine cards $i youGre luc"y enough to get some*4 a ter all4 you ne3er "now what they might be worthL

5rass
History ,rass was used e#tensively by the /omans and was also mentioned in the bible. 1owever, the term IbrassA during this period referred to a mi#ture of copper and tin, CbronzeD up until about the :; th century. *fter that, chemists learned to separate the ores into an alloy of copper and zinc to create what is today called brass. *s with most other metalwork, brass generally paralleled the designs of silver throughout its history.

Throughout the 5iddle *ges, .ermany was famous for its production of brass. 9wing to the fact that it had the two natural resources needed to produce brass' rivers and, calamine Can essential ingredient in

1,4 the making of brassD. *nother northern European country known for its brass was the 0etherlands, although their rise to prominence in this field did not occur until the early part of the :; th century.

The English made some primitive brass as early as the :7 th century. The earliest company on record was the, $orshipful -ompany of "ounders, who were engaged in the manufacture of saddlery equipment, candlesticks, ewers, and pots. The English honed their trade, and became skillful workers of brass as a result of necessity around the middle of the :2 th century. 3ue in large part to the Thirty =ears $ar C:B:;%7;D, which, by the very nature of the trade restrictions it caused, forced the English to develop a more e#panded brass industry, along with other burgeoning trades as well. &ater, large numbers of TmigrTs from the European continent also came to England in a bid to escape religious persecution. This influ# of skilled workmen helped to further the development of the English brass industry. -ities such as ,irmingham and ,ristol became the focal point for the production of English brass due to the introduction of revolutionary techniques of mechanization in the making of brass C,oulton Q $attD. 5uch of the brassware used in -olonial *merica was imported from ,ristol or ,irmingham until about :2B0.

*s with the immigrants who fled the European mainland, many braziers Cbrass makersD from England also fled in large numbers and began to settle in *merica where they carried on the English tradition of fine workmanship. ,raziers from ,irmingham set up businesses in 0ew England, and within a short period of time, businesses began to flourish along the eastern seaboard in -onnecticut, and 0ew Eersey as well.

Articles 1roduced ,rass is a much tougher metal than copper and it could therefore be used for items such as door knockers and door handles, snuffers, lamps with pierced grillwork, trays, bells, shoe horns and various mechanical ob8ects.

(n addition, there were highly prized cooking utensils made such as frying pans, ladles, bowls, pitchers, tea kettles and sugar bowls, brass was common in fi#tures in connection with the fire, such as fenders and firedogs, it was used because of its hardness to make pins and buttons and thimbles. The ,ritish in

1,1 particular were famous for their mid%:2 th century Itrumpet%baseA candlestick, which as the name implies, resembled the mouth of a trumpet on its base. The early .erman contribution to the brass world

consisted mainly of utilitarian items such as pans, bowls, cooking pots, 8ugs etc. "rom the 0etherlands came, tobacco bo#es, and smaller ornamental items.

1urchasing 5rass ,rass articles were generally not marked, although a few of the early items from .ermany may have been stamped. Their period can be recognized by their shape and decoration as brass went through the same varieties of ornamentation at different periods as did architecture, furniture, silver and pewter. The furniture makers, in fact, often designed brass fenders, handles, escutcheons and other accessories to e#actly match their furniture styles.

*nother method of recognizing old brass is by the degree of patina developed by constant rubbing over the years. 3ue to the wide variety of types of ob8ects produced in brass % some of them being more ornamental in nature, and some of them purely functional % it is probably more difficult to place the age of a brass ob8ect than it is ob8ects made of other metals, and thus, it is mostly through recognition of the nature of the ob8ect and its shape, that a working knowledge may be obtained. *ccordingly, this section on brass will be largely devoted to drawings of brass ob8ects rather than to te#t. The popularity of brass candlesticks, scales, and lamps has been so overwhelming that reproductions have flooded the market' and the antique trade seems to be switching its attention to almost anything other than brass. The established favorites such as hunting horns, horse brasses, warming pans, and carriage lamps, are almost as popular today as they were in @ictorian times % e#cept today, most are reproductions. Thus, if you are careful in your search, and pay plenty of attention to the decoration and style, you can probably buy some early authentic brass pieces at very reasonable prices.

1,2

1,3

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1,6

1,,

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1,2

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#opper
History -opper is very widely distributed by nature, occurring in all soils and many other substances such as seaweed. (t is very malleable and ductile, takes a very good polish and as a result of all these qualities, has been used from prehistoric times.

The Eapanese and -hinese worked in copper centuries ago' ancient Egypt used copper e#tensively and when the early adventurers reached the *merican continent, they were met by (ndians offering to trade with them and producing for that purpose, copper hatchets to hew wood, small bells and plates and crucibles to melt copper.

The paniard e#plorer &a@ega said of the !eruvians, (they ma'e their arms, 'ni#es, carpenters% tools, large pins, hammers for their forges an" their mattoc's of copper which they see' in preference to gol" *

The (ndians of 0ew England, 0ew =ork and @irginia had copper implements and ornaments, which were obtained from native deposits, not by smelting the ore, and, in 5e#ico, copper mines are being worked today which were worked in prehistoric times. -opper was used e#tensively in -olonial *merica.

Articles 1roduced .enerally, copper was used for domestic utensils, although many more of these vessels were made in brass than in copper, in addition to utensils, copper buttons were found and snuff bo#es, tea caddies, personal ornaments, shoe buckles, warming pans, chafing dishes, candlesticks, braziers, curfews and hand lanterns.

11' 1urchasing #opper -opper looks lovely, but before buying saucepans etc., it is worth considering the practical problems. (f they are for use, then they will probably need to be re%tinned, which is quite an e#pensive proposition. (f they are for show, then they will need constant cleaning to keep them from turning dull. -opper items can be lacquered, but it often takes the warmth out of the metal. ,y the :;40As, enameled cast iron began to replace turned copper in the kitchen as the main utensils for cooking.

5uch GantiqueH copper has been manufactured in recent years in throughout 0orth *merica. =ou should, therefore, be e#tremely suspicious of the age of fine looking copper ob8ects such as coffee urns, elaborate candlesticks and other such items that would appear e#tremely valuable at first sight.

$arming pans seem to have been made very commonly in copper. These are quite ornamental and it is possible to find genuine e#amples of these around. There are also genuine old copper kettles and other cooking utensils available.

5ost of the remarks mentioned in the section on brass apply also to the purchase of old copper.

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1ewter
History The -hinese were making a pewter of an alloy of lead and tin over 2000 years ago' the /omans used pewter and by the middle ages, pewter was commonly used for household utensils in Europe.

(n England, in :?7;, the pewterers of &ondon laid down standards for craftsmanship of pewter, with fine pewter of tin and copper to be used for plates, dishes, saucers, etc. and two other categories, with some lead added, for candle molds, stills, commercial ob8ects, toys, buttons and other ob8ects where high quality was not necessary. ,eing soft, pewter had a comparatively short working life' as soon as an item needed replacing, damaged ob8ects were usually traded in for newly worked pewter. 5ost pewter was cast in molds. These were often made of bronze, but molds were also made of iron, wood, clay and stone. imple shapes such as plates and spoons could be cast in a two%part mold' but comple# forms,

such as tankards or flagons, needed multi%part molds. The various parts of the casting then had to be soldered together.

"or many years before pottery, glass and china were in regular use, pewter was the common material out of which plates, dishes, cups and tankards were made.

$ith the advent of china, the householder was happy to get rid of the pewter, which was difficult to clean, and by :;7:, the pewter trade in 0orth *merica was almost e#tinct.

(t is e#tremely difficult to get early pewter in the Jnited

tates of *merica. This is largely due to the

fact that most of the pewter in e#istence at the time of the revolutionary war was melted down to make bullets.

Ob@ects To 5e 2ound In 1ewter !lates, dishes, drinking cups, beakers, tankards, measures, candlesticks, salts, spoons, porringers, together with miscellaneous ob8ects such as ink stands, toys, candle snuffers, snuff bo#es and figurines.

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8ecoration .enerally, pewter did not have purely ornamental decoration in 0orth *merica and relied on good design and e#cellent workmanship and metal for its lasting qualities.

There was, however, some degree of engraving done, for e#ample, medallions in the bowls of porringers and cast ornamentation on spoons. !erhaps the most famous and rare type of decoration is known as GwriggleworkH. This process involved the pewterer creating a design on a plate using a rolling punching tool. (tems such as this can increase the value of a standard pewter piece by as much as five% hundred%percent.

1urchasing Anti=ue 1ewter *round :<:0, the first interest in antique pewter developed and between :<:0 and :<?0 there were substantial numbers of fake pewter pieces produced and sold at high prices.

These fakes were of the rarest or most desirable types of ancient pewter, such as very early candlesticks, taper sticks, salts, early flagons and pieces which bear commemorative dates or other engraving, and it is important to remember that it is very hard to find any genuine pieces of these very old lines. The most likely ob8ects to be found today that are truly old are plates and dishes. *lthough some of the very early reproductions from the beginning of the 20 th century are now becoming collectible as well.

"or pewter ob8ects of the late :;th century, dealing with fakes has yet to become a serious problem for collectors, as these items have not yet been considered important enough to be reproduced on a large scale. *gain, it is e#tremely important to handle, e#amine and study as much pewter as possible before starting to buy.

124 To be able to date pewter, one has to be able to place the ob8ect in a provisional period from its appearance. tylistic changes did not occur in a smooth orderly way' therefore dating a piece can

sometimes be difficult. 5akers and their marks are of some help in dating pewter. 1owever, genuine pewter was often not marked and, therefore, did not provide proof of the maker. Early marks were very simple... perhaps, two initials, usually small and located on the handles, rims of plates, or on the bottom of a tankard. $hen an ob8ect was made for use in a tavern or market, its capacity had to be confirmed by a stamp on the rim. &ater, many tankards had marks either struck on the lid or on one side of the neck close to the handle.

$ith study, it is possible to recognize the true GageH on a piece of pewter. The e#perienced dealer knows that tin, which forms a ma8or ingredient of good pewter, acquires a film of o#idization after e#posure to the elements for a number of years, and that the true o#idization F known as GtinpestH % which attacks old metal cannot be adequately faked. The condition of the item is usually a good guide to age as well. 1ow did it get its bumps and dentsO *re they consistent with real%wearO "akers tend to bang away, adding marks or wear without regard to the way an ob8ect is naturally used. *re the edges, bottom, hinges, and neck of a tankard worn soft with use or are they sharp and evenO

ometimes, a genuinely old piece of unused pewter has been so carefully cleaned that all traces of this deterioration have been eliminated and these pieces are difficult even for the e#pert to fathom as to authenticity of age.

(n connection with fakes, it is possible, with e#perience, to recognize the difference in porosity and feel between original pewter and old metal when it has been recast.

$hen you have purchased a good piece, do not over%clean it, pewter takes on a fine sheen from continuous, careful polishing and forms a skin of patination similar to old furniture.

(f there is heavy o#idation on the piece, this may be removed by rubbing with some fine abrasive scouring powder and a damp rag. -oarse abrasives should be avoided and the piece should be finished

121 off by polishing with ordinary metal polish. 1ard work and continual polishing is required to bring back a neglected pewter article into first class condition.

-racks and breaks in pewter articles may be repaired with solder, but this should only be done by an e#pert.

Sub<SectionJ 5ritannia 9etal !ewter should not be confused with ,ritannia metal, which was an alloy of tin, copper and antimony. (t had no lead and therefore a brighter and more silver%like color was achieved. This ware was made during @ictorian times and was mass%produced in large quantities with the help of large steam driven machines.

9ne of the leading manufacturers of ,ritannia% ware in the Jnited 5eriden, tates was *shbil .riswold of .riswoldAs $are was

-onnecticut.

stamped with the eagle touch mark. This concern later merged with /ogers ,ros. to form the now% famous (nternational ilver -ompany. The largest Cana.ian Britannia3%are !poon @ !u ar Bo%l Hol.er, Cir#a, 1124

-anadian producer of ,ritannia%ware, was the Toronto ilver !late -o. which produced a number of items during the :;<0As, such as the spoon and sugar bowl holder pictured above.

*rticles produced were varied, including coffee pots, teapots, flatware%holders, pitchers, caster frames, lamps for fluid or lard, candlesticks, ladles, sugars and creamers, slop bowls, mugs, cups, cigar lighters, liquor shakers, decanter stoppers, bitters tubes, tumblers, tobacco bo#es, spittoons, toy cups, handles, shaving bo#es, sewing birds and many other items.

122 ome of the latter ,ritannia%ware was electroplated with silver. The earlier ,ritannia%ware was often mistaken for pewter but it is not at all as valuable and was produced at a time when design standards were beginning to decline.

;ecommended ;eadings and 5I5CIOG;A1H!


Old 1ewter4 ,y 5alcolm ,ell Old 1ewter4 Its 9a"ers And 9ar"s4 ,y 1oward -otterell The 1ewter #ollector, ,y 1. 5asse Old 1ewter4 ,y 5oore 1ewter4 ,y ,urgess #auseries On English 1ewter4 ,y 3enavarro The 1ewter #ollector4 ,y Eenkins History O The Worship ul #ompany O 1ewterers O Condon4 ,y $elch.

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She ield 1late


History (n :272, an Englishman named Thomas ,olsover discovered that silver could be 8oined to copper using heat, which led to the production of heffield plate. *fter his initial discovery, ,olsover also soon

discovered that he could roll the 8oined metals under pressure to create a sheet of metal. (n many ways this revolutionized the making of silver ob8ects.

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> "he$$ield plate should not be con$used

ith articles plated by the electroplatin# process(>

heffield plate was made by applying an actual sheet of silver to an ingot of copper. The ingot was then pressed into sheets, which were then worked into the pattern of the article to be made F this process allowed for the mass production of items. Eoints were soldered with solid silver and true is of high quality. heffield plate

!erhaps the most famous manufacturer of

heffield plate was the silversmith from ,irmingham, heffield plate and

England, 5atthew ,oulton. *ll ob8ects that were made in silver were also made in

the same style periods were also in effect for heffield plate as well as for silver. This process was very popular until around :;74 when the electroplating process, which was safer, and more cost effective began to supercede the heffield plate method.

The best way to identify plated ob8ects is to look for the deteriorated areas F they will often appear to have a pink color where the ob8ect has been worn. *lso the decoration may give some clues as well, since any deep engraving would reveal the copper below. The makers of crest on the item but did not stamp a date. forthcoming pages. heffield plate stamped their

ome makersA stamps can be found in the illustrations in the

.enuine

heffield plate is quite valuable, and even if the copper is showing through, a piece should heffield plate is

never be replated, or it becomes worthless as a collectorAs item. The popularity of

gaining amongst dealers and collectors, especially in 0orth *merica, as prices for good quality items are continuing to rise to meet the publics new found interest for this area of collecting.

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Gold
.old is to be found in antique 8ewelry, china, and as a decoration on furniture. .old is a rare metal, beautiful, and unique' and it has ancient associations with royalty and religion. (t is also the money metal, a measure of wealth of nations Cor used to beD, and a commodity in which to invest in times of crises.

.old was almost certainly the first metal, which man learned to work, and a better metal on which to learn the skills of the smith could hardly be imagined. 9ne can do virtually anything with gold F it can actually be beaten%out until one has a leaf as thin as tissue paper. *lmost a hundred square feet of gold leaf can be hammered out from a single ounce. 3raw an ounce of gold through even finer dies, and you

243 can stretch it until you have fifty miles of gossamer%like wire. * skilled craftsman can create delicate designs in gold. $hen polished, it is a very reflective metal' and this brightness, com bined with its beautiful color, is what makes it so sought%after. .old is heavy, too, much heavier than lead' and we seem to derive pleasure from handling 8ewelry that has a substantial feel to it.

$hen an ancient tomb is reopened after thousands of years, its golden treasures are still as bright as the day they were placed in the tomb. 0ot all people were fortunate enough to have gold, and many kings swapped produce, even their daughter, if another country had gold to trade. (n 400 ,-, Ming -roesus of &ydia had little discs of gold stamped with his insignia, and facing heads of a lion and a bull' these were the first known gold coins to be minted.

(n the :;th century, ancient techniques for making gold 8ewelry were once again revived. Granulation, was the process of establishing relief designs in gold by taking grains of gold and having them soldered onto a metal base. -annetille involved a gold filigree design, often represented in the form of rosettes or scrolls of tautly coiled wire. The brooch of the mid%:; th century in Europe was a good e#ample of such work.

Today, when war breaks out or the supply of oil is threatened or speculators lose faith in one of the ma8or currencies, everyone wants to put their money in gold. The history of gold has helped form our attitude towards it today. The fact that this yellow metal was once reserved for kings gives it prestige. The public will line up for hours to stare at the magnificence of TutankhamenAs gold treasures. Everyone has heard of the goldsmiths of El 3orado. There is even an e#pression , (!hen I fin" my ,l 6ora"o *

!eople like to wear gold 8ewelry, because it is bright and pretty and flatters them, but if you press them on the point, they will often concede that their feelings for gold go beyond its appearance. .old is something special' it is strangely satisfying to wear, and curiously reassuring.

.old receives a great deal of publicity. Everyone in 0orth *merica knows of the :<th century gold rushes here and in other parts of the world. (t made the metal much more available. "or the first time,

244 everyone could aspire to wearing gold 8ewelry. (n the factories of Europe and 0orth *merica, brooches, rings, and bracelets were mass%produced to meet the demand. The most import ant contemporary find of gold, was made in the Transvaal in outh *frica. This huge gold%mining industry is still responsible for

supplying most of gold in the world today.

1latinum
(n the :<20As, platinum wedding rings became more fashionable than gold ones. *t the same time, EuropeAs top 8ewelers, such as ,oucheron, -artier, and *prey, were beginning to use this strong, white metal for the delicate mounts in which they set the finest of diamonds, rubies, and emeralds. (t seemed that at long last, the supremacy of gold as a 8ewelry metal was being challenged.

!latinum has been around for a long time. (t was first discovered in pre%-olumbian times by the (ndians of outh *merica, who had found it in rivers along with gold and silver. (ndian craftsmen

hammered up platinum beads, which subsequently turned up in ancient graves. The (ndians found they could not melt this gray metal, so they were unable to cast it as they did gold and silver.

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The :Bth century

panish conquerors were the ne#t to find platinum, when they started e#ploiting the

mineral rights in the newly acquired territories in the 0ew $orld' but they had no better luck in melting it than the (ndians. (t only became possible in the :;th century to melt platinum, because it required a melting point of :,2220-. compared with gold, which melts at :,0B?0-.

(n the few years after this, a few rapiers, sword guards, and snuff%bo#es were produced in platinum. $ith the invention of the o#y%hydrogen blowpipe in :;72, it was not long before the average 8eweler obtained one of these and could fashion this new metal. 1owever, it was in the world of science that platinum found its most important role. (t has many advantages over other metals in its use as a utensil or instrument in industries involving high technology. (n a sense, this demand for platinum in industry destroyed its position as queen of the precious metals' and as a result, it declined in popularity in the :<?0s.

,efore :;2?, platinum came from

outh *merica. (n that year, the /ussians discovered platinum in

the Jrals. (n the :<20s, the third source of platinum turned up in the nickel and copper mines in 9ntario, -anada, the "alconbridge and (nternational 0ickel -ompany, being two of the best known. Then, in :<2?, a .erman geologist named 1ans 5erenksy made the most important find of all at /ustenburg, outh *frica. Two years later, a company was formed to mine the metal' but even with the new

reserves, the demands of industry began to e#ceed the supply. *s the price soared, 8ewelers reluctantly stopped using it, and used white gold instead.

"rom the :<70s to the :<B0s, platinum remained scarce and e#pensive. * few pieces of 8ewelry were made with platinum mounts but not many. ,etween :<B0 and :<20, the production of platinum outh *frica.

increased from 200,000 ounces a year to :,?00,000 ounces a year at the 5erensky find in

,y this time, however, the new generation of designers had no e#perience working with it' and, more importantly, the public now had only the dimmest memory of it. o the mining interests set up an

organization called the !latinum .uild to promote platinum 8ewelry and rekindle public interest.

246 The 1allmarking *ct of :<2? came into force' and for the first time, platinum 8ewelry had to be assayed and hallmarked, which helped contribute to its acceptance again as a precious metal in the making of 8ewelry. ince then, the progress has been slow but steady.

(n :<;0, following the escalation of gold and silver prices and the subsequent price fluctuations of these two metals, platinum with its stable price became the only precious metal that the manufacturers of 8ewelry could rely upon. The purchases increased over one hundred percent, alone, between :<2< and :<;0. * new generation of craftsmen had discovered that it did not discolor, tended not to crack' and because of its strength, designs could be created, which in gold, would have been too weak. (t does, however, take longer to polish than gold and that fact is reflected in the high price of platinum 8ewelry. (t is the rarest of the precious metals, does not tarnish, and is ninety%five percent pure, which provides the perfect background for diamonds.

Anti=ue Tips4 In ormation 7 Tra3elogue Series by 1eter Green

A Cittle O E3erything 5uying an Anti=ue #arpet 5uying an anti=ue carpet can be a complicated business but by ollowing a ew simple rules4 you can at least guarantee that you are not buying something that was machine< made siK months ago-

24,

A carpet $or rug as we commonly call them* should be so t and supple- This can be chec"ed irst by the eel o it in your hand4 then by letting it all on itsel in a crumpled heap- There should be no sti ness anywhere-

Hold it up against the light rom a window and loo" at it rom the bac"- Wea" places4 holes4 and repairs will show up at once- Also4 eKamine it care ully or rot in the ibers!ou can sometimes spot it by the color ha3ing altered or aded but not always- I it is a serious ault4 caused by prolonged eKposure to damp4 whether in a warehouse4 the hold o a ship4 or an empty home4 all you ha3e to do is to eKamine the warp or soundness by pulling it irmly in 3arious directions and at di erent places- I you hear a aint rending sound4 it tells you that it is Hgi3ingG4 o ten rom rot-

It is di icult or an amateur to identi y the type o "not rom a super icial eKaminationThere are two main types o "nots: the Ghiordes "not is 1ersian4 and the "enne "not is Tur"ish- It is best4 perhaps in this case4 to simply as" which "ind o "not it is- A really old carpet may display 3ariations in color4 particularly in the bac"ground- 9a"ing a carpet is a long<term @ob and o ten under conditions o nomadic li e4 wool is prepared as and when it is wanted- These colors are usually natural 3egetable or mineral dyes- They are ast to light but o ten 3ary in shade because the ingredients may ha3e been miKed in 3arying proportions and4 because the water a3ailable in one place4 as the tribe seasonally migrated4 may di er rom that in another- #arpets produced in actories are almost always de3oid o these color 3ariations-

8istortions in design are4 o course4 common in handmade carpets- In other words4 the design does not con orm to the eKactness o a machine made carpet- Always "eep a sharp eye on the state o a carpetGs edges- Neglect o ten allows damage to start

241

de3eloping- These can4 o course4 be repaired i you are handy with a needle- 2ringes get worn and may e3en disappear completely- This is serious4 as a ringe is usually composed o the ends o the warpJ and when it wears away4 the whole carpet may begin coming to pieces-

The date o manu acture is sometimes on the edge o a carpet4 close to a corner4 sometimes close to the central moti - In more recent pieces4 it is written on a piece o cloth sewn onto the bac" o the carpetJ and the place o manu acture is also pro3ided-

8etermining when a carpet was made is a matter or specialists- Apart rom a ew eKceptional pieces4 which can sa ely be said to be se3eral centuries old4 most anti=ue carpets are one hundred and i ty years old at the outside- In most cases4 we are dealing with a ol" art4 in which the relati3e criterion is not so much age as spontaneity- 8ating a carpet4 there ore4 does not matter much4 eKcept or in ormation and interest-

Notice that e3ery carpet has a direction to it- The pattern4 itsel 4 usually ma"es this ob3ious- In any case4 the shimmer o the colors will do so- The pile4 in act4 always points in the direction o the "notting and absorbs or re lects the light accordingly- When buying a carpet4 eKamine it rom 3arious angles to ma"e sure you "now how itGs going to appear under a 3ariety o di erent lighting conditions-

The #ountry Coo" !our approach to decorating in country style depends on who you are and where you li3e- 8o you li3e in an apartment4 townhouse4 or city mansion? 1erhaps4 you own an elaborate country wee"end home or cottage-

242

The most important step when planning your country loo" is to de ine your space- !ou should not use your li3ing space as a warehouse or the anti=ues you buy- Ne3er buy anything or a particular place but always be sure to ha3e an appropriate place or it- In this way4 you ha3e the opportunity to mo3e it about i it does not it one locale;emember4 the urniture is not attached to the loor < you can change its location-

Once you ha3e de ined your space4 your neKt =uestion will be to de ine your collecting and decorating goals- I you are not an anti=ue collector4 but want a country eeling in your home4 then you are going to ha3e to rely upon your interior decorator or your riendly anti=ue dealer- !ou cannot ill a house with modern reproductions and hope to achie3e a country eeling-

I you are not interested in ac=uiring ob@ects o any particular period4 then that ma"es the @ob much easier- 1urists4 on the other hand4 might demand all pieces to be early %)th century or late %&th century be ore the ad3ent o the industrial re3olution- This type o collecting and decorating is both more demanding4 eKpensi3e4 and in the long run more di icult to achie3e than i your tastes are more eclectic- A eeling o com ort is di icult with the 3ery early North American pieces4 as many o them were primiti3e and limited in use- I you tra3el around and collect ob@ects that interest you4 then youGll be adding more character and charm to your rooms than i you go or the straight museum approach-

2or ac=uiring the small pieces4 your li etime can be your timetable- I would also suggest that you buy the best you can a ord- Ne3er eel you are o3erpaying or an ob@ect i it is eKactly what you want < you may ne3er ind another one at any price-

214

O3er a period o many years as an anti=ue dealer4 I ha3e re ined my choices in anti=ues as ar as interior decorating is concerned to three important tests- These are: simplicity4 appropriateness4 and beauty- Something appropriate is unctional- When you get down to basics4 the anti=ue should be unctional4 as well as pleasing to the eye-

2or a li3ing room4 you need well<scaled upholstered urniture- Attracti3ely shaped4 upholstered pieces add com ort and warmth to a roomJ and then with se3eral well chosen4 and well placed pine pieces4 or eKample4 youGll begin to notice the beginnings o a simple country atmosphere starting to ta"e shape-

Ise your imagination when deciding on the anti=ue pieces- A co ee table can be a cobblerGs bench4 a pine blan"et boK4 or e3en an old winnower- Always remember that the loor ta"es up a third o your 3isual space- 2or the country loo"4 wooden loors are the best with light to medium stains- Oriental rugs4 hoo"ed rugs4 or braided carpets can be used there to great ad3antage- In my opinion4 the country loo" is 3irtually impossible without wooden loors-

Walls and ceilings determine a roomGs scale and appearance- How you deal with your walls determines the bac"ground mood and identity o your rooms- 2irst4 the walls must be in good condition- They can ha3e a rough or smooth plaster loo"J they can be co3ered in can3as4 burlap4 or wallpaper with a small scale bac"ground so that they will not inter ere with what you hang on the wall- 1ainted walls are usually the best in creating a country atmosphere- There was no pure white paint in the old daysJ but i you want white walls4 ha3e them- It is cheer ul and perhaps the best bac"ground or all resh colors4 paintings4 and wall hangings-

211

#eilings with an architectural interest can be use ul in your o3erall decorating schemeHowe3er4 putting in phony beams is something I would steer away rom- 5etter to "eep your ceilings plain than to play it up arti icially- I you ha3e dar" walls4 paint the ceiling light beigeJ o <white is much too bright against dar" walls-

Windows are your connection with the outdoors and with any possible 3iews you may ha3e- Also4 they let natural light into your rooms4 which gi3es them a mellow warm appearance- #urtains are best in light neutral colors hung on a brass rod or wooden pole and should not detract rom the windows which4 i large and attracti3e4 can be a 3ery important eature in your room- I cannot say enough about respecting the bare windows rather than co3ering them- One o the most di icult elements in a country room interior is lighting- Table lamps and standard lamps4 o course4 are in "eeping with the rural eelingO3erhead chandeliers are ine4 i original and old and the ceilings are high enough to accommodate them properly- Trac" lighting and indirect lighting can be e ecti3e4 but I am not craBy about its o3eruse- I "now that it is unctional and leKible4 but too much o it seems to clash with the rest o the room-

Quilts4 o course4 are great in bedrooms4 whether the bed be brass or wooden- Hanging wall<=uilts are e=ually attracti3e i the design is spectacular enough4 although they are not my irst choice as something to put on the wall-

Group li"e ob@ects- I you ha3e a lot o old croc"s and @ugs4 which you use as planters4 put them together on an old pine bench- I you ha3e a collection o cowbells4 hang them on the wall as a group-

212

9any items that you ac=uire that ha3e a country la3or wonGt be old- 1inecones placed in a bas"et or bowl add to the room- E3eryday latware can be "ept in an old cutlery boKStore "itchen utensils in an old croc"- ?eep your tea and crac"ers in old tins-

A house4 no matter how country in eeling4 isnGt home without the smell o a "itchen- 2or that reason4 I am a great belie3er in the open "itchen concept4 where the aroma o resh ba"ed bread mingles with the la3or o a good gin and tonic-

8escripti3e Ad@ecti3es Ensure Quality o Anti=ues It has always amused me that in di icult pro essions there is a speci ic way with words4 and the anti=ue pro essional is no di erent- I thought I might sight a ew eKamples to illustrate this point-

8escriptions: %Two o an important set o siK ;egency arm chairs in the manner o Thomas Hope4

England #irca %&(.'1ainting o Walmer #astle4 ?ent4 the home o the 8u"e o Wellington- 1ainted by A-

H- Holland two years be ore the 8u"eGs death- Signed and dated %&.(- Oil on can3as4 eighteen inches by thirty<one inches/A pair o George4 Ill inely car3ed mahogany EGainsboroughF armchairs- #irca

%))(- Width o seat twenty<se3en inches4 height o bac" thirty<eight inches- EKhibited at Go3ernor House Anti=ues,An interesting group o late %&th century English wheel engra3ed glass- Tallest

being %% T inches-

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.-

A 3ery ine Sheraton 1eriod o3al Satinwood 1embro"e Table with the original

painted border o @asmine4 oliage4 and ribbons- #irca %)+(- O3erall length three eet4 siK inches by two eet4 siK inches>A 3ery important George4 I burr< walnut bureau cabinet with an elaborately itted

interior containing secret compartments- #irca %)'(- Height eighty<se3en inches4 width orty< our inches4 depth twenty< our inches4 and width open eighty<one inches)A rare %&th century walnut cabinet containing siK drawers4 ha3ing chambered

brac"ets to each shel and diamond shape decorations on each side with handles#ontinental4 circa %)'(&An eKceptionally small4 late4 %)th century oysterwood chest o drawers with holly

crossbanding4 ha3ing a mellow color and rich patination- 1eriod: William and 9ary4 circa %>+.+Two eKceptionally ine =uality English lead greyhounds with heads turned to the

right on stone plinth bases- #ontact 9rs- Cinda Harold4 Sym Codge%(One o a pair o double<barreled4 twel3e<bore4 side<loc"4 e@ector4 sel <opening

sporting guns by A- 1urdey and Sons- Good guns are wor"s o art-

One can see in the eKamples the use o the words4 E ine4 eKceptional4 rare4 and interesting-F The use o these types o descripti3e ad@ecti3es turn up time and time again in the describing o anti=ues4 and their use almost ensures in the readerGs mind the =uality o the piece-

Hampton #ourt One o the most interesting ways to see anti=ues is to 3isit the great homes and estates o England or any other country or that matter- Hampton #ourt in England is one such placeJ in act4 it is a palace4 to be absolutely speci ic-

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Hampton #ourt was started during the reign o Henry4 6III4 by Thomas Wolsey in %.%,Wolsey was a #ardinal and Cord #hancellor o England- He was already the most power ul and was rapidly becoming one o the richest men in the "ingdom- The #ardinalGs household sta numbered o3er i3e hundred4 and two hundred and eighty

rooms richly urnished were "ept always prepared or guests- Howe3er4 his all was near2i teen years later4 he was stripped o all his wealth and power- In a desperate e ort to regain the ?ingGs a3or4 he presented him with Hampton #ourt and all its buildings4 urni< ture4 paintings4 tapestries4 sil3er4 and gold plateJ but on October /(4 %.'+4 all his lands and goods were declared or eit to the ?ing- He too" it all < not @ust Hampton #ourt-

Henry4 6III at once began to enlarge the house4 ma"ing it the most luKurious palace in the "ingdom- In turn4 he brought Anne 5oleyn4 Aane Seymour4 Anne o #le3es4 #atherine Howard4 and #atherine 1arr to the palace as Queens-

The haunted gallery was built by Wolsey but owes its name to the ghost o #atherine Howard- Only siK months a ter her marriage4 she had been accused o misconduct and arrested but managed to e3ade her guards- ?nowing that the ?ing was hearing mass in the chapel4 she ran along the gallery $haunted* in a 3ery desperate e ort to plead or mercy- She was intercepted and orced bac" shrie"ing be ore she could enter the chapel- Three months later4 she was beheaded-

On the walls o this gallery are tapestries that came rom Queen EliBabeth4 rich and magni icent in color and teKture- When William and 9ary4 rom whom the anti=ues o the same period are named4 became so3ereigns o EnglandJ their ceremonial and pri3ate

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li3es were much di erent to that o Henry4 6IIIJ and many changes were made at Hampton #ourt < both in the urniture and interior architecture-

The QueenGs Gallery4 a splendid eighty< oot room with a cornice car3ed by G-1- Gibbons4 and a beauti ul chimney piece car3ed by Aohn Hort4 was completed or Queen AnneGeorge4 I had the walls hung with tapestriesJ and some magni icent blue and white china 3ases were made or William and 9ary with their coat o arms and motto inscribed on them-

The Great Hall built by Henry4 6III4 to replace the more modest Hall o WolseyGs House4 is one hundred and siK eet long4 orty eet wide4 and siKty eet high4 with a hammer beam roo enriched in e3ery part with moldings and car3ings- The dais raised one step abo3e the loor is sighted by a bay window4 and here sat the Ehigh tableF set or the ?ing and his most a3ored guests- With the ?ing4 you wanted to remain in a3or4 as he had a rather se3ere way o dealing with people who got on his ner3es--L ItGs worth a 3isit i you are e3er o3er in England-

2rom Anti=ue #ars To 2ootwarmers Ne3er has the enthusiasm or cars and curiosity about their history been greater than it is today4 whether it is a Cambert4 2acel 6ega4 8aimler4 or StutB 5earcat speedster o %+%,4 the public is craBy about anti=ue cars-

Hard as it may seem to belie3e4 there ha3e been o3er ,4%(( ma"es in all during the last ninety odd years- #ars ranging rom those created by the amous companies4 such as ;olls ;oyce and 2ord4 to those o the humblest manu acturer4 turning out a hand ul o cars per year4 starting in %&&. up to the present day models-

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Some time ago4 I held an estate auction at the small summer resort town o Windermere4 Ontario $#anada* which included a number o cars4 the priBe 3ehicle being a %+>% Sunbeam ;apier con3ertible in mint condition- 1rior to the sale4 we were cataloging the in3entory when a gentleman appeared on the scene and as"ed i he could loo" at the Sunbeam- I happily showed him the carJ and a ter a care ul inspection o it4 he o ered me i3e thousand dollars or it < then and there < eKplaining that IGd be luc"y to get three thousand or it at auction4 as the sale was being held in such a small community-

I eKplained that regardless o that4 I was not allowed to sell it in ad3ance o the auctionJ and he would be better o to attend the auction and sa3e himsel two thousand dollars4 i three thousand was all he thought it would bring- Needless to say4 he did not attend the auctionJ and the car sold or @ust under twel3e thousand $U%%4+((* and that was considered a good buy by many o the bidders- The car originally sold or about three thousand or under a thousand pounds sterlingJ there ore4 in addition to the @oy o collecting anti=ue cars4 it can and o ten is a pro itable way to in3est your money- The true reward4 o course4 is that you ha3e the pleasure o dri3ing the car as well- The ollowing is a list o anti=ue car terms which may4 or may not4 be amiliar to the present< day reader- Test your "nowledge--L

%* #oupe de 6ille < A body style in which the passenger compartment was closed4 but the dri3er was eKposed to the weather4 although rom the %+'(s onward4 a sliding roo was o ten pro3ided'* 8ic"ey < A olding seat or two passengers4 sometimes called a rumble seat/* Shooting 5ra"e < Also called an estate car or station wagon and used on large estates to carry members o a shooting party-

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,* Surrey < An open our<seater car4 o ten with a ringed top.* Torpedo < An open touring car with an unbro"en line rom hood to windshield>* Tonneau < A our<seater car in which access to the rear seats was 3ia a door at the rear o the body-

5y the way4 IGm loo"ing or a %+/> Cagonda CG ,.4 ,V<liter drophead coupe- Anybody out there who has one and wants to sell it4 please get in touch with me $must be reasonable4 o courseL* Automobilla Old horse harness4 horse brass and now old headlights and horns rom automobiles are popular collectibles because they are such good<loo"ing ob@ects- Today4 headlights are built<in4 horns are hidden under the hood4 and neither is a thing o beauty when remo3ed rom its mounting- Howe3er4 the brass oil and gas lamps and the bulb horns o the old days were separate4 de<mountable ob@ects4 and many were well designed-

The horns are especially appealing- Not only are they handsome4 but they ma"e interesting noises- The old bulb horn ga3e a harsh =uac"- The early electric horns became louder as the car accelerated- The eKhaust horns4 which use pressuriBed gauges that are bypassed rom the carGs eKhaust4 ma"e noises that range rom melodious chimes to the shrill bleat o a steamboat whistle-

#ar nameplates or radiator emblems as they were sometimes called were part o most automobiles rom the earliest days- The standard nameplate was made o copper or brass4 o ten with ba"ed enamel between the letters- On many4 the brass was plated with nic"el or chromiumJ but on early plates4 it remained yellow-

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E=ually collectible but perhaps not as artistic in design or as eKpensi3e to manu acture is the anti=ue license plate- StandardiBed license plates started to come into being around %+(+4 New !or" state being one o the early states to issue plates- The irst o these plates was undated and was 3alid permanently- 9any o these plates were porcelainiBed- Early porcelainiBed steel plates in good condition are =uite rare and etch o3er a hundred dollars-

Another sought<a ter type o collectible is the sign ad3ertisement that used to be posted o3er the door o the local repair shop4 promoting ser3ice or a particular ma"e o car or brand o batteries or tiresJ such nostalgia e3ol3ing names as 2irestone and GoodyearThese 3intage garage signs were made o steel and rusted easily4 causing the paint to chipJ and as a result4 they are hard to ind in good condition-

E3en greater and more 3aried than the categories o items astened to cars are those that are not- These include such items as road signs4 catalogue co3ers4 paintings4 paperweights4 sou3enirs4 and e3en ine @ewelry < all made in the li"eness o an

automobile or in some way related to the automobile-

Signs are a "ind o ol" art4 but more sophisticated drawings and paintings comprise an important part o automobilia collectibles- 5ecause most o these wor"s were made simply or commercial purposes ew originals sur3i3e-

Automobile ad3ertisements rom old magaBines are4 in act4 one o the easiest "inds o automobilia to assemble- They are readily a3ailable and ineKpensi3e4 i$ you can ?ust $ind the old ma#a@ine to thumb throu#hA

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In the old days during prohibition4 an elegant amber<glassed whis"ey las" disguised its contents by calling it cylinder oil- Well4 thatGs one way to "eep yoursel tic"ing o3er on all eight cylinders $ma"e that our todayL*-

Small Anti=ues Almanacs and ,phemeredes < 5oo"s or tables containing calendars4 astronomical4 and na3igational data and registers o e3ents began to appear in Europe in the %>th century1rinted almanacs seem to ha3e originated in 2rance- The irst American almanac was published in 1hiladelphia in %>&)- 5en@amin 2ran"lin began publishing 1oor ;ichardGs Almanac under the nom de plume o ;ichard Saunders in %)/'4 and this appeared annually or the neKt twenty< i3e years-

Andirons < 8ecorati3e iron bars4 urnished in pairs as supporters or burning logs in open ires- T<shaped with a decorati3e 3ertical crossbar and a long4 or" sloping bac"ward into the ireplace4 allowing the logs to be strung across between the eet o two such rests- The earliest andirons were wrought ironJ and as time progressed4 the 3ertical crossbar at the ront was greatly enriched with brass4 bronBe4 sil3er4 and e3en gold inlay wor"- Andirons are produced today but not nearly in the =uantity o yesteryear-

Apostle "poons < Spoons decorated with the igures o #hrist and the Twel3e Apostles were ashionable in the %.th and %>th centuries as baptismal gi ts- The custom o gi3ing spoons was largely con ined to Western Europe and especially in England- In most cases4 the godparents would gi3e the child a sil3er spoon4 the stem o which was mounted with the tiny igure o a saint $in honor o whom the child was named or perhaps

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the patron saint o the donor*- Some wealthy godparents would gi3e a set o thirteen spoons whose igures represented #hrist and His Twel3e Apostles- #omplete sets o spoons are 3ery rare4 and the appearance in the ma@or auction houses would be an outstanding e3ent-

Apothecary Bars < These @ars4 also "nown as drug @ars or drug pots4 were 3essels designed to hold dry drugs and ointments- These cylindrical @ars4 slightly waisted to acilitate their remo3al rom the shel were luster<decorated Hispario<9aures=ue pottery and were subse=uently initiated in Europe4 using the tin enameled wares "nown 3ariously as ma@olica4 aience4 or del tware- Apothecary @ars o Italian4 Spanish4 or 8utch origin were imported into England in the %.th century- These @ars were elaborately decorated with geometric or loral patterns4 which betray the early Islamic use- Cater in England4 Wedgewood was a proli ic producer o @ars and continued to do so up until the later part o the %+th century-

)andbo-es < These were decorati3e boKes used in the Inited States during the %+th century or the storage and transportation o clothing4 hats4 and other personal e ectsThey de3eloped rom the hatboKes used in 5ritain and Europe rom the mid<%&th century onward4 but the American bandboKes were usually brightly colored and elaborately ornamented- The colors were usually strong4 primary shadesJ and the sub@ects which included landmar"s and scenes rom e3eryday li e4 had a nai3e charm o ten associated with the %+th century primiti3e painters-

)ible )o-es < 5oKes usually o oa"4 constructed to hold the massi3e amily 5ibles were ashionable rom the %)th century- Although English 5ible boKes with ornate Aacobean

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car3ing on their sides are the best "nown4 other types were made as well- They were hinged at the bac" and secured by a stout loc" at the ront-

5oo"s The used boo" ield is a 3ery precise and di icult ield or most people to comprehendOld boo"s are one o the more readily ound and perhaps one o the most readily disposed o items in the attics o North American homes- 9any are o little 3alue4 but some are o great monetary and historical 3alue-

The irst step is to ind out i the boo" is a irst edition- 9any irst editions4 e3en by modern writers4 are worth much more than boo"s o considerable age-

North Americans ha3e a natural interest in collecting boo"s published or printed in the Inited States or #anada- 9any boo"s are 3aluable on account o their historic interest5oo"s about #anada or the Inited States should not4 under any circumstances4 be thrown away- I they were written in the early %+th century4 they may be a 3ery 3aluable source o in ormation to others and a 3aluable source o income to yoursel -

#ertain boo"s are collected because o their illustrations- These boo"s o ten ha3e pictures o early towns or early businesses in North America- I the pictures are in color4 the 3alue o the boo" will increase- The o3erall condition o the boo" is important- E3en though the boo" may be a irst edition by an important author4 its 3alue will be greatly enhanced4 i it is in mint condition-

Some topics are o special interest to collectors- 5oo"s on the arts and artists are worth4 i they are out o print4 considerably more than was paid or them new- 5oo"s about

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tra3el or eKploring eKpeditions are o interest to many- I published in the %&th century4 they could be eKtremely 3aluable- Anything about Indians or an Indian language should be "ept and considered o importance- 5oo"s about sports written be ore %&)( may be classed as collectorsG items- 5oo"s dealing with transportation4 especially i they deal with aeronautics4 balloons4 bicycles4 and early automobiles4 i printed be ore %+%(4 ha3e 3alue- The categories are endless4 and so are the chances or ma"ing moneyL

There has been or a number o years now a terri ic upswing in interest and in monetary 3alues in e3ery category o boo" collecting- So i you ha3e an early irst edition in good condition dealing with the Arctic4 the Arts4 Indians4 or eKploration4 I would strongly suggest you see a reputable boo" dealer4 as the list o people waiting to buy these boo"s is long-

2oot Warmers Small containers o glowing charcoal were irst de3ised in the %)th century as oot warmers- They were generally made o copper or brass4 less commonly in pewter or brass- The lids were pierced to allow the heat to escape and "eep the charcoal embers glowing4 and the piercing was in3ariably arranged in a decorati3e pattern-

2oot warmers were pro3ided with wooden carrying handles at the sides or a single long wooden pole4 in the same ashion as a warming pan- Those used in churches and carriages were re=uently pro3ided with wooden cases $themsel3es elaborately car3ed*4 while eKamples rom Norway and Sweden may be ound consisting o wooden boKes with metal linings-

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Earthenware EpigsF date rom the %&th century and are used today as hot water bottles4 although they ha3e largely been ousted by the rubber hot water bottles introduced at the end o the %+th century- The earthenware or stoneware EpigsF were usually relati3ely plain4 though some may be ound with the names and trademar"s o the manu acturersA ew eKamples were elaborately decorated $usually in underglaBe blue<and<white*#opper hot water bottles with contrasting brass stoppers were widely used in the %+th century and early '(th century-

2las"s Small bottles4 usually distinguished by their 3ery narrow nec"4 intended or carrying spirits and other li=uids around in a con3enient orm- 2las"s may be ound with a circular pro ile or rectangular appearance with a slight cur3ature to it the hip poc"et- Tra3elling las"s were usually made in sil3er4 She ield plate or electroplate4 and the sides and stoppers were re=uently ornamental- 1ottery las"s were popular in Europe rom the early 9iddle Ages and may be ound in aience $a ine "ind o pottery* or 8el tware with tyme glaBe decoration- Some highly ornamental pressed glass las"s were produced in Europe and America4 and these are 3ery much sought<a ter today4 perhaps ha3ing more interest to the collector than many o the earlier las"s-

Gimmel 2las"s 5ottles or las"s4 li"e Siamese twins4 are blown separately and then used together- Their nec"s cur3e to the opposite direction so that only one may be poured at the same timeThese las"s came into use in the Cow #ountries and 2rance in the %)th century and were used or salad oil and 3inegar- Subse=uently4 they were manu actured all o3er Europe and America and may be ound with sil3er mounts and the 3arious styles o decorations ound on contemporary glassware-

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5lac"@ac"s 5lac"@ac"s are large4 leather 3essels made in Europe4 5ritain4 and colonial America rom the %>th to the %&th centuries- The ma@ority still in eKistence are rom the %)th century be ore either pewter4 pottery4 or glass were widely used- In general4 blac"@ac"s had a large capacity4 ranging rom a =uart to o3er a gallon- The seams were o ten rein orced with brass or e3en sil3er mounts on studs- Ceather bottles and @ugs continued to be used in rural areas well into the %+th century4 but eKamples in good condition are rare-

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Final Comments:
This conclu"es the )lan Three )leasure section of your te5ts )lan Three contains a large amount of subKect information, inclu"ing1 glass, china, photographs, pictures metalwor', sil#er, brass, copper etc , so please be sure to re#iew it carefully before filling out your e5amination for this section of the course

The remain"er of this )lan consists of a #ariety of pictures that will help to illustrate some of the subKects that ha#e been co#ere" in the prece"ing pages pictures that are in"irectly relate" to these topics as well Also inclu"e", are a number of a""itional

>>>> )lease remember, that if you are enrolle" in the Ashefor" program un"er a Bu"get )lan 8monthly payments$, your ne5t )lan of stu"y will only be maile" out, once you ha#e sent in your pre#ious e5amination 8account must be current$ By sen"ing in your e5amination, this tells your instructor that

you are rea"y for your ne5t )lan of stu"y If you "o not sen" in your e5amination, no further )lans will be maile" until your e5am is recei#e" by the Institute lessons to be maile" >>>> ,5ams must be recei#e" in or"er for your ne5t

Minat Terkait