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ATPL

Aviation Law
© Atlantic Flight Training

All rights reserved. No part of this manual may be reproduced or transmitted in any
forms by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or
by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from Atlantic
Flight Training in writing.

ATPL Air Law ii 24 October 2003


CHAPTER 1

Abbreviations and Definitions


Section 1 - Common abbreviations to be used for the European Central Question Bank ..................1-2
Section 2 - ICAO Definitions ..............................................................................................................1-7
Section 3 - ICAO Abbreviations .......................................................................................................1-35

CHAPTER 2

The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944


Introduction ........................................................................................................................................2-1
1919 Aeronautical Commission of the Paris Peace Conference........................................................2-1
1926 Ibero-American Congress, Madrid ............................................................................................2-1
1928 Pan-American Convention of Commercial Aviation, Havana ....................................................2-1
1929 Warsaw Convention of the Unification of Certain Rules to International Carriage by Air ..........2-1
1944 Convention in International Aviation (the Chicago Convention) ................................................2-2
Part I – Air Navigation ........................................................................................................................2-2
Chapter I - General Principles and Application Of The Convention ...................................................2-2
Chapter II - Flight Over Territory of Contracting States ......................................................................2-2
Chapter III - Nationality of Aircraft ......................................................................................................2-4
Chapter IV - Measures to Facilitate Air Navigation ............................................................................2-5
Chapter V - Conditions to be Fulfilled With Respect to Aircraft ..........................................................2-6
Chapter VI - International Standards and Recommended Practices ..................................................2-8
Part II – The International Civil Aviation Organisation ........................................................................2-9
Chapter VII - The Organisation ..........................................................................................................2-9
Chapter VIII - The Assembly ............................................................................................................2-11
Chapter IX - The Council..................................................................................................................2-12
Chapter X - The Air Navigation Commission....................................................................................2-14
ICAO Annexes .................................................................................................................................2-14
ICAO Technical Publications............................................................................................................2-16
International Agreements .................................................................................................................2-17
The International Air Transport Agreement ......................................................................................2-17
Supplementary Freedoms................................................................................................................2-17
The Convention of Tokyo 1963 ........................................................................................................2-17

CHAPTER 3

Multilateral, Bilateral Agreements, the Warsaw Convention 1929 and the Treaty of Rome
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................3-1
The Bermuda Agreement on Scheduled Air Traffic Rights.................................................................3-2
The International Air Transport Association (IATA)............................................................................3-2
The Warsaw Convention 1929...........................................................................................................3-2
The Treaty of Rome - Transport Policy ..............................................................................................3-5
The Convention of Rome 1933/1952 .................................................................................................3-5
Commercial Practices and Associated Rules (Leasing).....................................................................3-5
Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators ................................................................................3-6
Leasing of Aeroplanes Between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA Operator ...........3-6
Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice...............................................................................................3-7
Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2407/92..............................................................................................3-7
Transport............................................................................................................................................3-7

ATPL Air Law iii ©Atlantic Flight Training


CHAPTER 4

European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) and Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA)
Introduction ........................................................................................................................................4-1
ECAC .................................................................................................................................................4-1
JAA Organization ...............................................................................................................................4-2
Functions of JAA................................................................................................................................4-2
Organization and Procedures ............................................................................................................4-3
Joint Aviation Authorities....................................................................................................................4-3
Membership .......................................................................................................................................4-4
The Role of the National Aviation Authorities.....................................................................................4-4
The Role of the Main Committees......................................................................................................4-5
JAA Licensing Policy and Organization..............................................................................................4-6
JAA FCL Committee ..........................................................................................................................4-7
JAA FCL Examination Sub-Committee ..............................................................................................4-7
JAR FCL ............................................................................................................................................4-8
Eurocontrol.........................................................................................................................................4-9
Objectives ..........................................................................................................................................4-9

CHAPTER 5

Annex 15 – Aeronautical Information Service


Introduction ........................................................................................................................................5-1
Responsibilities and Function ............................................................................................................5-1
Exchange of Aeronautical Information ...............................................................................................5-2
General Specifications .......................................................................................................................5-2
World Geodetic System .....................................................................................................................5-2
Use of ICAO Abbreviations ................................................................................................................5-2
Identification and Delineation of Prohibited, Restricted and Danger Areas ........................................5-2
Integrated Aeronautical Information Package ....................................................................................5-3
Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP).........................................................................................5-3
NOTAM ..............................................................................................................................................5-4
SNOWTAM ........................................................................................................................................5-7
ASHTAM ............................................................................................................................................5-9
Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC) ................................................................5-9
Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)..........................................................................................5-10
Pre-Flight and Post Flight Information..............................................................................................5-11
Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication ............................................................................5-12
Charts Related to an Aerodrome .....................................................................................................5-15

CHAPTER 6

Annex 1- Personnel Licensing and JAR-FCL 1- Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)


Introduction ........................................................................................................................................6-1
Authority to Act as a Flight Crewmember...........................................................................................6-1
Medical Fitness ..................................................................................................................................6-1
Validity of Licence ..............................................................................................................................6-1
JAR-FCL 1 – Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)..............................................................................6-2
Basic Authority to Act as a Flight Crew Member ................................................................................6-2
Licence and Rating ............................................................................................................................6-2
Exercise of Privileges.........................................................................................................................6-2
Acceptance of Licences, Ratings, Authorizations, Approvals or Certificates......................................6-2
Licences, Ratings, Authorizations, Approvals or Certificates Issued by JAA Member States ............6-2
Licences Issued by Non-JAA States ..................................................................................................6-2
Validity of Licences and Ratings ........................................................................................................6-2
Recent Experience.............................................................................................................................6-3
Medical Fitness ..................................................................................................................................6-3
Crediting of Flight Time ......................................................................................................................6-4

ATPL Air Law iv 24 October 2003


Curtailment of Privileges of Licence Holders Aged 60 Years or More................................................6-5
State of Licence Issue........................................................................................................................6-5
Normal Residency..............................................................................................................................6-5
Format and Specifications for Flight Crew Licences ..........................................................................6-6
Logging of Flight Time........................................................................................................................6-7
Precis of Licence Privileges ...............................................................................................................6-7
Class and Type Ratings ...................................................................................................................6-11
Single Pilot Multi Engine Type and Class Rating .............................................................................6-11
Proficiency Checks...........................................................................................................................6-12
Operator Proficiency Check .............................................................................................................6-12
Line Check .......................................................................................................................................6-12
Emergency and Safety Equipment Training and Checking ..............................................................6-12
CRM.................................................................................................................................................6-12
Ground and Refresher Training .......................................................................................................6-12
Aeroplane/Flight Simulator Training .................................................................................................6-13

CHAPTER 7

Rules of the Air


Applicability of the Rules of the Air.....................................................................................................7-1
Responsibility for Compliance with the Rules of the Air .....................................................................7-1
Use of Intoxicating Liquor, Narcotics or Drugs ...................................................................................7-2
General Rules ....................................................................................................................................7-2
Negligent or Reckless Operation of Aircraft .......................................................................................7-2
Minimum Heights ...............................................................................................................................7-2
Cruising Levels ..................................................................................................................................7-2
Aircraft Restrictions ............................................................................................................................7-3
Formation Flights ...............................................................................................................................7-3
Unmanned Free Balloons ..................................................................................................................7-3
Prohibited and Restricted Areas ........................................................................................................7-3
Avoidance of Collisions ......................................................................................................................7-3
Proximity ............................................................................................................................................7-4
Right of Way ......................................................................................................................................7-4
Surface Movement of Aircraft.............................................................................................................7-6
Lights to be Displayed by Aircraft.......................................................................................................7-7
Simulated Instrument Flight (SIF) ......................................................................................................7-8
Operation on and In the Vicinity of an Aerodrome .............................................................................7-8

CHAPTER 8

Airspace Rules and Procedures


Objective of the Air Traffic Services ...................................................................................................8-1
Divisions of the Air Traffic Services....................................................................................................8-1
Determination of the Need for Air Traffic Services .............................................................................8-1
Determination of the Portions of the Airspace and Controlled Aerodromes where Air Traffic Services
will be Provided..................................................................................................................................8-2
Flight Information Regions .................................................................................................................8-2
Control Areas and Control Zones.......................................................................................................8-2
Controlled Aerodrome ........................................................................................................................8-2
Classification of Airspace ...................................................................................................................8-3
Required Navigation Performance (RNP) ..........................................................................................8-9
Establishment and Designation of the Units Providing Air Traffic Services........................................8-9
Specifications for Flight Information Regions, Control Areas and Control Zones.............................8-10
Flight Information Regions ...............................................................................................................8-10
Control Areas ...................................................................................................................................8-10
Flight Information Regions or Control Areas in the Upper Airspace.................................................8-11
Control Zones ..................................................................................................................................8-11
Minimum Flight Altitudes ..................................................................................................................8-11

ATPL Air Law v ©Atlantic Flight Training


Service to Aircraft in the Event of Emergency..................................................................................8-12
Time in Air Traffic Services ..............................................................................................................8-12

CHAPTER 9

Flight Rules
Visual Flight Rules (VFR)...................................................................................................................9-1
Instrument Flight Rules ......................................................................................................................9-3
Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight ................................................................................................9-3
Rules Applicable to IFR Flights within Controlled Airspace................................................................9-3
Rules Applicable to IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace.............................................................9-3
Communication ..................................................................................................................................9-4
Position Reports.................................................................................................................................9-4
Table of Cruising Levels.....................................................................................................................9-5

CHAPTER 10

Aerodrome Control Service


Functions of Aerodrome Control Towers..........................................................................................10-1
Traffic and Taxi Circuits ...................................................................................................................10-2
Information to Aircraft by Aerodrome Control Towers ......................................................................10-4
Control of Aerodrome Traffic............................................................................................................10-6
Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft and Increased Longitudinal Separation Minima ........10-10
Authorization of Special VFR Flights..............................................................................................10-11

CHAPTER 11

Approach Control Service


Departing Aircraft .............................................................................................................................11-1
Arriving Aircraft ................................................................................................................................11-3
Approach Sequence ........................................................................................................................11-5
Information for Arriving Aircraft ........................................................................................................11-6

CHAPTER 12

Air Traffic Control Services, Flight Information Service and ATS Routes
Air Traffic Control Service ................................................................................................................12-1
Application .......................................................................................................................................12-1
Provision of Air Traffic Control Service.............................................................................................12-1
Area Control Service ........................................................................................................................12-1
Approach Control Service ................................................................................................................12-1
Aerodrome Control Service..............................................................................................................12-1
Operation of Air Traffic Control Service............................................................................................12-2
Separation Minima ...........................................................................................................................12-3
Responsibility for Control .................................................................................................................12-3
Transfer of Responsibility for Control ...............................................................................................12-4
Air Traffic Control Clearances ..........................................................................................................12-5
Co-Ordination of Clearances............................................................................................................12-5
Control of Air Traffic Flow.................................................................................................................12-6
Control of Persons and Vehicles at Aerodromes .............................................................................12-6
Flight Information Service ................................................................................................................12-7
Application .......................................................................................................................................12-7
Scope of Flight Information Service .................................................................................................12-7
Operational Flight Information Service Broadcasts ..........................................................................12-8

ATPL Air Law vi 24 October 2003


Principles Governing the Identification of RNP Types and the Identification of ATS Routes Other Than
Standard Departure and Arrival Routes ...........................................................................................12-9

CHAPTER 13

Altimeter Setting Procedures


Expression of Vertical Position.........................................................................................................13-1
Determination of the Transition Level...............................................................................................13-1
Provision of Information ...................................................................................................................13-2
Flight Levels.....................................................................................................................................13-4
Transition Altitude ............................................................................................................................13-4
Transition Level................................................................................................................................13-5
Transition from Flight Levels to Altitudes and Vice Versa ................................................................13-5
Procedures Applicable to Operators and Pilots................................................................................13-6
QNH Setting/ QFE Setting ...............................................................................................................13-7

CHAPTER 14

Secondary Surveillance Radar


Operation of Transponders ..............................................................................................................14-1
Use of Mode C .................................................................................................................................14-2
Use of Mode S .................................................................................................................................14-2
Emergency Procedures....................................................................................................................14-2
Communication Failure Procedures .................................................................................................14-2
Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight ......................................................................................14-2
Transponder Failure Procedures When the Carriage of a Functioning Transponder is Mandatory .14-3
Operation of ACAS Equipment ........................................................................................................14-3
Use of ACAS Indications..................................................................................................................14-3
Phraseology .....................................................................................................................................14-4

CHAPTER 15

Signals
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................15-1
Distress and Urgency Signals ..........................................................................................................15-1
Signals for Aerodrome Traffic ..........................................................................................................15-2
Acknowledgement by an Aircraft......................................................................................................15-2
Visual Ground Signals......................................................................................................................15-3
Marshalling Signals ..........................................................................................................................15-5
Signals from the Pilot of an Aircraft to a Signalman .......................................................................15-10

CHAPTER 16

Air Traffic Control Clearances


Departing Aircraft .............................................................................................................................16-1
Contents of ATC Clearances ...........................................................................................................16-1
Description of ATC Clearances........................................................................................................16-1
Route of Flight..................................................................................................................................16-2
Clearances to Fly Maintaining own Separation While in VMC .........................................................16-2
ATC Clearance Expiry......................................................................................................................16-3
Essential Traffic Information.............................................................................................................16-3
Clearance of a Requested Change in Flight Plan ............................................................................16-3
Emergency and Communication Failure ..........................................................................................16-4

ATPL Air Law vii ©Atlantic Flight Training


CHAPTER 17

Flight Plans
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................17-1
Submission of Flight Plans...............................................................................................................17-1
Prior to Departure ............................................................................................................................17-2
During Flight.....................................................................................................................................17-2
Acceptance of a Flight Plan .............................................................................................................17-2
Contents of a Flight Plan..................................................................................................................17-3
Completion of a Flight Plan ..............................................................................................................17-3
Changes to a Flight Plan..................................................................................................................17-3
Closing a Flight Plan ........................................................................................................................17-4
Use of Repetitive Flight Plans (RPLs) ..............................................................................................17-4
Change from IFR to VFR Flight........................................................................................................17-5
Scope of Clearances and Information ..............................................................................................17-5
Issuance...........................................................................................................................................17-6
Control of Air Traffic Flow.................................................................................................................17-6
Air Traffic Control Clearances ..........................................................................................................17-6
Potential Reclearance in Flight ........................................................................................................17-6
Adherence to Flight Plan..................................................................................................................17-7
Inadvertent Changes........................................................................................................................17-7
Intended Changes............................................................................................................................17-8
Weather Deterioration Below the VMC ............................................................................................17-9
Position Reports...............................................................................................................................17-9
Termination of Control......................................................................................................................17-9
Communication ................................................................................................................................17-9
Communication Failure ..................................................................................................................17-10

CHAPTER 18

Flight Procedures – Introduction & Departures


Introduction ......................................................................................................................................18-1
Departure Procedures......................................................................................................................18-2
The Instrument Departure Procedure ..............................................................................................18-3
Establishment of a Departure Procedure .........................................................................................18-3
Obstacle Clearance..........................................................................................................................18-4
Standard Instrument Departures ......................................................................................................18-5
Contingency Procedures..................................................................................................................18-8
Omni-directional Departures ............................................................................................................18-8
Published Information ....................................................................................................................18-11

CHAPTER 19

Approach Procedures
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................19-1
The Instrument Approach Procedure ...............................................................................................19-1
Categories of Aircraft .......................................................................................................................19-2
Obstacle Clearance..........................................................................................................................19-3
Precision Approach Procedure ........................................................................................................19-4
Non-Precision Approach Procedure.................................................................................................19-5
Approach Procedure Design ............................................................................................................19-8
Accuracy of Fixes.............................................................................................................................19-9
Descent Gradient ...........................................................................................................................19-12
Standard Instrument Arrivals..........................................................................................................19-13
Initial Approach Segment ...............................................................................................................19-13
Intermediate Approach Segment ...................................................................................................19-13
Final Approach Segment................................................................................................................19-14
Final Approach - Non-Precision Approach With FAF .....................................................................19-14

ATPL Air Law viii 24 October 2003


Final Approach - Non-Precision Approach With No FAF................................................................19-15
Final Approach Segment - Precision Approach – ILS ....................................................................19-16
Determination of DA or DH – ILS ...................................................................................................19-16
Determination of Landing Minima ..................................................................................................19-17
Determination of DA/DH or MDA/MDH ..........................................................................................19-18
Missed Approach ...........................................................................................................................19-18
Turning Missed Approach ..............................................................................................................19-21
Turning Points ................................................................................................................................19-22
Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome......................................................19-22
Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach Procedures Based On VOR/DME ..........................................19-23
Use of FMS/RNAV Equipment to Follow Conventional Non-Precision Approach Procedures .......19-25
Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways..................................19-25

CHAPTER 20

Holding Procedures
In-flight Procedures ..........................................................................................................................20-1
Shape and Terminology Associated With Holding Pattern...............................................................20-1
Speeds, Rates of Turn, Timing, Distance and Limiting Radial .........................................................20-2
Track Reversal.................................................................................................................................20-4
Entry.................................................................................................................................................20-5
DME Arc Entry .................................................................................................................................20-7
Construction of Entry Areas .............................................................................................................20-7
Method of Arrival at a VOR/DME Holding and the Corresponding Entry Procedures ......................20-8
Time/Distance Outbound .................................................................................................................20-9
RNAV Holding Entries....................................................................................................................20-10
Holding...........................................................................................................................................20-10
Departing the Pattern .....................................................................................................................20-11
Obstacle Clearance........................................................................................................................20-11

CHAPTER 21

Area Control Service


Position Reporting............................................................................................................................21-1
Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) .......................................................................................21-1
Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR) .....................................................................................................21-2
Provision in Regard to Aircraft Equipped With Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).......21-2
General Provisions for Separation ...................................................................................................21-2
Vertical Separation...........................................................................................................................21-3
Lateral Separation............................................................................................................................21-4
Longitudinal Separation ...................................................................................................................21-7
Reduction in Separation Minima ....................................................................................................21-19

CHAPTER 22

Aerodrome Aeronautical Data and Markings


Introduction ......................................................................................................................................22-1
Aerodrome Reference Code ............................................................................................................22-1
Aeronautical Data ............................................................................................................................22-2
Geographical Co-ordinates ..............................................................................................................22-2
Aerodrome Reference Point.............................................................................................................22-2
Aerodrome and Runway Elevations .................................................................................................22-2
Aerodrome Reference Temperature ................................................................................................22-2
Aerodrome Dimensions and Related Information ............................................................................22-2
Pre-Flight Altimeter Check Location.................................................................................................22-4
Declared Distances ..........................................................................................................................22-4
Condition of the Movement Area and Related Facilities...................................................................22-4

ATPL Air Law ix ©Atlantic Flight Training


Water on a Runway..........................................................................................................................22-5
Determination of Friction Characteristics of Wet Paved Runways ...................................................22-5
Snow, Slush or Ice on a Runway .....................................................................................................22-6
Physical Characteristics ...................................................................................................................22-7
Runway Width..................................................................................................................................22-7
Minimum Distance Between Parallel Runways ................................................................................22-7
Runway Strips ..................................................................................................................................22-8
Runway End Safety Areas ...............................................................................................................22-8
Clearway ..........................................................................................................................................22-9
Stopways .........................................................................................................................................22-9
Radio Altimeter Operating Area .....................................................................................................22-10
Width of Taxiway............................................................................................................................22-10
Taxiway Curves .............................................................................................................................22-11
Holding Bays, Taxi Holding Positions and Road Holding Positions ...............................................22-11
Visual Aids for Navigation ..............................................................................................................22-12
Indicators and Signalling Devices ..................................................................................................22-12
Markings ........................................................................................................................................22-13
Interruption of Runway Markings ...................................................................................................22-13
Colour of markings .........................................................................................................................22-13
Unpaved Taxiways.........................................................................................................................22-13
Runway Designation Marking ........................................................................................................22-14
Runway Centre Line Marking.........................................................................................................22-14
Threshold Markings........................................................................................................................22-15
Displaced Threshold Marking.........................................................................................................22-15
Aiming Point Marking .....................................................................................................................22-16
Touchdown Zone Marking..............................................................................................................22-17
Runway Side Stripe........................................................................................................................22-18
Taxiway Centre Line Marking.........................................................................................................22-19
Taxiway Holding Position Marking .................................................................................................22-20
Taxiway Intersection Marking.........................................................................................................22-20
VOR Aerodrome Check-Point Marking ..........................................................................................22-20
Aircraft Stand Markings..................................................................................................................22-21
Apron Safety Lines.........................................................................................................................22-22
Road Holding Position Marking......................................................................................................22-22
Information Marking .......................................................................................................................22-22

CHAPTER 23

Runway Lights and Visual Approach Systems


Lights Which May Endanger the Safety of Aircraft...........................................................................23-1
Lights Which May Cause Confusion ................................................................................................23-1
Elevated Approach Lights ................................................................................................................23-2
Elevated Lights ................................................................................................................................23-2
Surface Lights ..................................................................................................................................23-2
Light Intensity and Control ...............................................................................................................23-2
Emergency Lighting .........................................................................................................................23-3
Aeronautical Beacons ......................................................................................................................23-3
Aerodrome Beacon ..........................................................................................................................23-3
Identification Beacon........................................................................................................................23-3
Approach Lighting Systems .............................................................................................................23-4
Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems .....................................................................................23-10
PAPI and APAPI ............................................................................................................................23-12
Obstacle Protection Surface ..........................................................................................................23-14
Wheel Clearance over Threshold for PAPI and APAPI ..................................................................23-15
Circling Guidance Lights ................................................................................................................23-15
Runway Lead-In Lighting Systems.................................................................................................23-16

ATPL Air Law x 24 October 2003


CHAPTER 24

Runway, Taxiway and Apron Lighting


Runway Threshold Identification Lights............................................................................................24-1
Runway Edge Lights ........................................................................................................................24-1
Runway Threshold and Wing Bar Lights ..........................................................................................24-2
Wing Bar Lights................................................................................................................................24-3
Runway End Lights ..........................................................................................................................24-4
Runway Centre Line Lights ..............................................................................................................24-5
Runway Touchdown Zone Lights .....................................................................................................24-6
Stopway Lights.................................................................................................................................24-6
Taxiway Centre Line Lights..............................................................................................................24-6
Taxiway Centre Line Lights On Rapid Exit Taxiways .......................................................................24-7
Taxiway Centre Line Lights on Other Exit Taxiways ........................................................................24-7
Taxiway Centre Line Lights on Runways .........................................................................................24-8
Taxiway Edge Lights ........................................................................................................................24-8
Stop Bars .........................................................................................................................................24-8
Taxiway Intersection Lights..............................................................................................................24-9
Runway Guard Lights.......................................................................................................................24-9
Apron Floodlighting ........................................................................................................................24-10
Visual Docking Systems.................................................................................................................24-10
Azimuth Guidance Unit ..................................................................................................................24-11
Stopping Position Indicator ............................................................................................................24-11
Aircraft Stand Manoeuvring Guidance Lights.................................................................................24-11
Road Holding Position Light...........................................................................................................24-12

CHAPTER 25

Aerodrome Signs and Markers


General ............................................................................................................................................25-1
Mandatory Instruction Signs.............................................................................................................25-1
Information Signs .............................................................................................................................25-3
Road Holding Position Sign .............................................................................................................25-6
Markers ............................................................................................................................................25-7
Unpaved Runway Edge Markers .....................................................................................................25-7
Stopway Edge Markers ....................................................................................................................25-7
Taxiway Edge Markers.....................................................................................................................25-7
Taxiway Centre Line Markers ..........................................................................................................25-7
Boundary Markers............................................................................................................................25-7
Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles ..................................................................................................25-8
Objects to be Marked and/or Lighted ...............................................................................................25-8
Marking Of Objects ..........................................................................................................................25-9
Lighting of Objects .........................................................................................................................25-10
Location of Obstacle Lights............................................................................................................25-11
Low Intensity Obstacle Lights ........................................................................................................25-12
Medium Intensity Obstacle Light ....................................................................................................25-12
High Intensity Obstacle Light .........................................................................................................25-12
Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas ..............................................................................25-12
Closed Runways and Taxiways or Parts Thereof ..........................................................................25-12
Non-Load Bearing Surfaces...........................................................................................................25-13
Pre-Threshold Area........................................................................................................................25-13
Unserviceable Areas ......................................................................................................................25-14
Introduction to Emergency and Other Services..............................................................................25-14
Rescue and Fire Fighting ...............................................................................................................25-14
Response Time..............................................................................................................................25-15
Number of Rescue and Fire Fighting Vehicles...............................................................................25-15
Apron Management Service...........................................................................................................25-15
Ground Servicing of Aircraft ...........................................................................................................25-16

ATPL Air Law xi ©Atlantic Flight Training


CHAPTER 26

General Radar Procedures


Introduction ......................................................................................................................................26-1
Presentation of Radar Information ...................................................................................................26-1
Identification of Aircraft.....................................................................................................................26-2
Establishment of Radar Identification...............................................................................................26-2
SSR Identification Procedures .........................................................................................................26-2
PSR Identification Procedures .........................................................................................................26-2
Position Information .........................................................................................................................26-3
Radar Vectoring ...............................................................................................................................26-4
Information Regarding Adverse Weather .........................................................................................26-5
Use of Radar in the Air Traffic Control Service ................................................................................26-5
Functions .........................................................................................................................................26-5
Co-ordination of Traffic under Radar and Non-Radar Control..........................................................26-6
Radar Separation Minima ................................................................................................................26-6
Emergencies, Hazards and Equipment Failures ..............................................................................26-7
Radar Equipment Failure .................................................................................................................26-8
Ground Radio Failure.......................................................................................................................26-8
Use of Radar in the Approach Control Service ................................................................................26-9
Surveillance Radar Approach ..........................................................................................................26-9
Speed Control ................................................................................................................................26-10

CHAPTER 27

Interception of Civil Aircraft


Introduction ......................................................................................................................................27-1
General ............................................................................................................................................27-1
In-Flight Contingencies ....................................................................................................................27-2
Principles to be Observed by States ................................................................................................27-3
Interception Manoeuvres..................................................................................................................27-4
Manoeuvres for Visual Identification ................................................................................................27-4
Manoeuvres for Navigational Guidance ...........................................................................................27-5
Guidance of an intercepted Aircraft..................................................................................................27-5
Interception of Civil Aircraft ..............................................................................................................27-6
Action by Intercepted Aircraft ...........................................................................................................27-6
Signals for use in the Event of Interception......................................................................................27-7
Radio Communication Between the Intercept Control Unit or the Intercepting Aircraft and the
Intercepted Aircraft...........................................................................................................................27-9

CHAPTER 28

Doc 7030/4 – Regional Supplementary Procedures


Introduction ......................................................................................................................................28-1
EUR Regional Supplementary Procedures ......................................................................................28-3
Part I - Rules of the Air, Air Traffic Services and Search and Rescue .............................................28-3
Flight Rules ......................................................................................................................................28-3
Flight Plans ......................................................................................................................................28-3
Air-Ground Communications and In-Flight Reporting ......................................................................28-4
Contents of Position Reports ...........................................................................................................28-5
Action in the Event of Air-Ground Communication Failure ...............................................................28-5
Air Traffic Control Clearances ..........................................................................................................28-6
Separation of Aircraft .......................................................................................................................28-6
Use of SSR ......................................................................................................................................28-6

ATPL Air Law xii 24 October 2003


CHAPTER 29

Annex 7 – Aircraft Nationality and Registration Marks


Nationality, Common and Registration Marks to be Used................................................................29-1
Location of Nationality Common and Registration Marks.................................................................29-1
Certificate of Registration.................................................................................................................29-2
Identification Plate............................................................................................................................29-3

CHAPTER 30

Annex 8 – Airworthiness of Aircraft


Certificate of Airworthiness ..............................................................................................................30-1
Proof of Compliance with Appropriate Airworthiness Requirements ................................................30-1
Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft .................................................................................................30-2
Validity of Certificate of Airworthiness ..............................................................................................30-2
Method of Rendering a Certificate of Airworthiness Valid ................................................................30-2
Temporary Loss of Airworthiness.....................................................................................................30-2
Instruments and Equipment .............................................................................................................30-3
Operating Limitations and Information .............................................................................................30-4

CHAPTER 31

Annex 6 – Operation of Aircraft


Applicability ......................................................................................................................................31-1
General ............................................................................................................................................31-1
Flight Operations..............................................................................................................................31-2
Crew.................................................................................................................................................31-3
Aeroplane Performance Operating Limitations ................................................................................31-4

CHAPTER 32

Annex 9 - Facilitation
Introduction ......................................................................................................................................32-1
Entry and Departure of Aircraft ........................................................................................................32-1
Entry and Departure of Persons and their Baggage ........................................................................32-2
Particular Provisions ........................................................................................................................32-5

CHAPTER 33

Air Traffic Advisory Service and Alerting Service


Air Traffic Advisory Service ..............................................................................................................33-1
Air Traffic Services Units..................................................................................................................33-2
Alerting Service................................................................................................................................33-2

CHAPTER 34

Alerting Service and Search and Rescue


Alerting Service................................................................................................................................34-1
Organisation.....................................................................................................................................34-3
Co-operation ....................................................................................................................................34-5
Operating Procedures ......................................................................................................................34-6
Search and Rescue Signals.............................................................................................................34-9
Medical Supplies ............................................................................................................................34-10

ATPL Air Law xiii ©Atlantic Flight Training


Ground-Air Visual Signal Code ......................................................................................................34-11
Air-To-Ground Signals ...................................................................................................................34-11

CHAPTER 35

Annex 13 – Aircraft Accident Investigation


Applicability ......................................................................................................................................35-2
Objective of the Investigation ...........................................................................................................35-2
Protection of Evidence, Custody and Removal of Aircraft................................................................35-2
Notification for Accidents or Serious Incidents in the Territory of a Contracting State to Aircraft of
Another Contracting State................................................................................................................35-3
Investigation of Accidents or Serious Incidents in the Territory of a Contracting State to Aircraft of
Another Contracting State................................................................................................................35-4
Final Report .....................................................................................................................................35-4

CHAPTER 36

Annex 17 - Security
General ............................................................................................................................................36-1
Organisation.....................................................................................................................................36-1
Preventative Security Measures ......................................................................................................36-2
Management of Response to Acts of Unlawful Interference ............................................................36-3

ATPL Air Law xiv 24 October 2003


Chapter 1.

Abbreviations and Definitions

This insert to the Aviation Law Notes contains three sections and is intended for use with all
the course material provided:

Page Number
Section 1 Common abbreviations to be used for the 1-2
European Central Question Bank
Section 2 ICAO Definitions 1-7
Section 3 ICAO Abbreviations 1-35

ATPL Air Law 1-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Section 1 - Common abbreviations to be used for the European Central Question Bank

A
A Ampere ALTN Alternate
ABM Abeam APCH Approach
ABN Aerodrome beacon APT Airport
AC Alternating current APU Auxiliary power unit
AC Alto cumulus ARR Arrival
ACFT Aircraft AS Alto stratus
ACT Active ASDA Accelerate stop distance available
AD Aerodrome AMSL Above mean sea level
ADC Air data computer ATA Actual time of arrival
ADDN Additional ATC Air traffic control
ADF Automatic direction finding ATIS Automatic terminal information service
ADI Attitude director indicator ATO Actual time overhead
AEO All engines operating ATS Air traffic services
AFIS Aerodrome flight information service AUX Auxiliary
AFM Aircraft flight manual AVG Average
AGL Above ground level AWY Airway
AIP Aeronautical Information Publication AZM Azimuth
ALT Altitude

B
BKN Broken BRG Bearing

C
ºC Degrees Celsius CI Cirrus
CAS Calibrated air speed CL Lift coefficient
CAT Clear air turbulence Cm Centimetre
CB Cumulonimbus CO Communications
CC Cirrocumulus CP Critical point
CD Drag coefficient CRM Crew resource management
CDI Course direction indicator CS Cirrostratus
CDU Control display unit CTR Control zone
cg Centre of gravity CU Cumulus
CWY Clearway

D
DA Decision altitude DG Directional gyroscope
DC Direct current DH Decision height
DEG Degrees DIST Distance
DEP Departure DME Distance measuring equipment
DES Descent DP Dewpoint
DEST Destination DR Dead reckoning
DEV Deviation DVOR Doppler VOR
D.F Direction finding

ATPL Air Law 1-2 24 October 2003


E
E East EICAS Engine indicator and crew alerting
system
EAS Equivalent airspeed EPR Engine pressure ratio
EAT Expected approach time EST Estimated
ECAM Engine condition aircraft monitoring ETA Estimated time of arrival
EFIS Electronic flight instrument system ETO Estimated time overhead
EGT Exhaust gas temperature

F
ºF Degrees Fahrenheit FL Flight level
FAF Final approach fix FLT Flight
FCST Forecast FMS Flight management system
FD Flight director FT Feet
FIS Flight indicator system FT/MIN Feet per minute

G
G Gramme GP Glide path
GAL Gallons GPWS Ground proximity warning system
GND Ground GS Ground speed

H
HDG Heading HSI Horizontal situation indicator
HF High frequency HT Height
hPa Hectopascal Hz Hertz
HR Hours

I
IAS Indicated airspeed INT Intersection
ILS Instrument landing system ISA International standard atmosphere
IMC Instrument meteorological conditions ISOL Isolated
IMP GAL Imperial gallons ITCZ Inter-tropical convergence zone
INS Inertial navigation systems IVSI Integrated vertical speed indicator

J
J Joule

K
kg Kilogramme kt Knot
kHz Kilohertz kW Kilowatt
km Kilometre

ATPL Air Law 1-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


L
LAT Latitude LMT Local mean time
LB Pounds LONG Longitude
LDG Landing LT Local time
LDP Landing decision point LTD Limited
LEN Length LVL Level
LLZ Localizer LYR Layer
LMC Last minute change

M
m Metre MLS Microwave landing system
M Mass MM Middle marker
M Mach Number MNM Minimum
MAC Mean aerodynamic chord MNPS Minimum navigation performance
specification
MAP Manifold pressure
MAPt Missed approach point MOCA Minimum obstruction clearance altitude
max Maximum MORA Minimum off route altitude
MDH Minimum descent height MPH Miles per hour
MDH/A Minimum descent height/altitude MPS, mps Metres per second
MEA Minimum en-route altitude MSA Minimum sector altitude
MET Meteorological MSL Mean sea level
MIN Minutes MSU Mode selector unit

N
N Newton NDB Non-directional beacon
NGT Night NM Nautical miles
N North NOTAM Notice to airmen
NAT North Atlantic track NS Nimbostratus
NAV Navigation

O
OAT Outside air temperature OM Operating mass
OBS Omni bearing selector OM Outer marker
OCA(H) Obstacle clearance altitude (height) OPS Operations
OCL Obstacle clearance limit O/R On request
OEI One engine inoperative OVC Overcast

P
P Pressure PNR Point of no return
PAX Passenger POS Position
PET Point of equal time PSI Pounds per square inch
PIC Pilot in command PTS Polar track structure
PLN Flight plan PWR Power

ATPL Air Law 1-4 24 October 2003


R
r Radius RNAC Area Navigation
RAC Rules of the air and air traffic services ROC Rate of climb
RAS Rectified airspeed ROD Rate of descent
REP Reporting point RVR Runway visual range
RMI Radio magnetic indicator RWY Runway
RMK Remark

S
S South SR Sunrise
SAR Search and rescue SS Sunset
SC Stratocumulus SSR Secondary surveillance radar
SCT Scattered ST Stratus
SDBY Standby STAR Standard arrival route
SEC Seconds STD Standard
SEV Severe STN Station
SFC Surface STNR Stationary
SID Standard instrument departure STS Status
SIM Simulator SWY Stopway
SKC Sky clear

T
T Temperature TL Transition level
TA Transition altitude T/O Take-off
TAS True airspeed TOC Top of climb
TAT Total air temperature TORA Take of run available
TC Tropical cyclone TS Thunderstorm
TDP Take-off decision point TWY Taxiway
THR Threshold

U
U/S Unserviceable UTC Co-ordinated universal time
US-GAL US gallons

ATPL Air Law 1-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


V
V Volt VLE Landing gear extended speed
VAR Magnetic variation VLO Maximum landing gear operating
speed
VDF VHF direction finding station VLOF Lift off speed
VG Vertical gyro VMAX TYRE Maximum tyre speed
VHF Very high frequency VMBE Maximum break energy speed
VIS Visibility VMC Minimum control speed
VLF Very low frequency VMCA Air minimum control speed
VMC Visual meteorological conditions VMCG Ground minimum control speed
VOLMET Meteorological information for aircraft in VMO/MMO Maximum operating limit speed / mach
flight number
VOR VHF omnidirectional range VMU Minimum unstick speed
vrb Variable VNE Never exceed speed
VSI Vertical speed indicator VNO Normal operating speed
VV Vertical visibility VR Rotating speed
V Speeds VREF Landing reference speed
VA Design manoeuvring speed VS Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed at which the aeroplane is
controllable
VB Design speed for max gust intensity VSO Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed in landing configuration
VC/MC Design cruise speed / mach number VS1 Stalling speed or minimum steady flight
speed obtained in best configuration
VD Design dive speed VX Speed for best angle of climb
VF Design flap speed VY Speed for best rate of climb
VFE Flap extended speed V1 Critical engine failure speed
VFO Flap operating speed V2 Take-off safety speed for piston engine
aircraft

W
W Watt W/V Wind velocity
W West WPT Way point
WC Wind component WS Wind shear
WCA Wind correction angle WX Weather

X
X Cross XX Heavy
XTK Cross track

Y
YD Yard

ATPL Air Law 1-6 24 October 2003


Section 2 - ICAO Definitions

The following definitions are from the ICAO Annexes

Accepting Unit ATCU next to take control of an aircraft

Accident An occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place
between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight until such time as
all such persons have disembarked, in which:

A person is fatally or seriously injured as a result of:

¾ Being in the aircraft, or


¾ Direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts which have
become detached from the aircraft, or
¾ Direct exposure to jet blast

except when the injuries are from natural causes, self-inflicted or inflicted by other
persons, or when the injuries are to stowaways hiding outside the areas normally
available to the passengers and crew, or

The aircraft sustains damage or structural failure which:

¾ Adversely affects the structural strength, performance or flight


characteristics of the aircraft, and
¾ Would normally require major repair or replacement of the affected
component

except for engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its
cowlings or accessories; or for damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennas,
tyres, brakes, fairings, small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft skin, or

The aircraft is missing or is completely inaccessible:

Note: An injury resulting in death within 30 days of the date of the accident
is classified as a fatal injury by ICAO

Note: An aircraft is considered to be missing when the official search has


been terminated and the wreckage has not been located

Advisory Airspace An airspace of defined dimensions, or designated route, within which


air traffic advisory service is available.

ATPL Air Law 1-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Advisory Route A designated route along which air traffic advisory service is
available.

Aerodrome A defined area of land or water (including any buildings, installations and
equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface
movement of aircraft.

Aerodrome Beacon Aeronautical beacon used to indicate the location of an aerodrome


from the air

Aerodrome Control Service Air traffic control service for aerodrome traffic

Aerodrome Control Tower A unit established to provide air traffic control service

Aerodrome Elevation The elevation of the highest point of the landing area

Aerodrome Identification Sign A sign placed on an aerodrome to aid in identifying


the aerodrome from the air

Aerodrome Operating Minima The limits of usability of an aerodrome for:

¾ Take-off, expressed in terms of RVR and/or visibility and, if necessary, cloud


conditions
¾ Landing in precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of
visibility and/or RVR and DA/DH as appropriate to the category of the operation,
and
¾ Landing in non-precision approach and landing operations, expressed in terms of
visibility and/or RVR, MDA/MDH and, if necessary, cloud conditions

Aerodrome Reference Field Length The minimum field length required for take-off at
maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air and
zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane flight manual prescribed by the
certificating authority or equivalent data from the aeroplane manufacturer. Field length means
balanced field length for aeroplanes, if applicable, or take-off distance in other cases

Aerodrome Reference Point The designated geographical location of the aerodrome

Aerodrome Taxi Circuit The specified path of aircraft on the manoeuvring area during
specific wind conditions

Aerodrome Traffic All traffic on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome and all traffic
flying in the vicinity of an aerodrome.

Note: An aircraft is in the vicinity of an aerodrome when it is in, entering or leaving


an aerodrome traffic circuit.

ATPL Air Law 1-8 24 October 2003


Aerodrome Traffic Zone An airspace of defined dimensions established around an
aerodrome for the protection of aerodrome traffic.

Aeronautical Beacon An aeronautical ground light visible at all azimuths, either


continuously or intermittently, to designate a particular point on the surface of the earth

Aeronautical Ground Light Any light specifically provided as an aid to air navigation,
other than a light displayed on an aircraft

Aeronautical Information Circular (AIC) A notice containing information that does not
qualify for the origination of a NOTAM or for inclusion in the AlP, but which relates to flight
safety, air navigation, technical, administrative or legislative matters

Aeronautical Information Publication (AIP) A publication issued by or with the authority


of a state and containing aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air
navigation.

Aeronautical Mobile Service A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft
stations, or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may participate;
emergency position-indicating radio beacon stations may also participate in this service on
designated distress and emergency frequencies

Aeronautical Station A land station in the aeronautical mobile service. In certain instances,
an aeronautical station may be located, for example, on board ship or on a platform at sea.

Aeronautical Telecommunication Station A station in the aeronautical


telecommunication service

Aeroplane A power-driven heavier than air aircraft, deriving its lift in flight chiefly from
aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain fixed under given conditions of flight.

AIP Amendment Permanent changes to the information contained in the AIP

AIP Supplement Temporary changes to the information contained in the AIP which are
published by means of special pages

AIRAC An acronym (Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control) signifying a


system aimed at advance notification based on common dates, of circumstances that
necessitate significant changes in operating practices

Air-Ground Communication Two-way communication between aircraft and stations or


locations on the surface of the earth

Air Report A report from an aircraft in flight prepared in conformity with requirements for
position, and operational and/or meteorological reporting

ATPL Air Law 1-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Air Traffic All aircraft in flight or operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome.

Air Traffic Advisory Service A service provided within advisory airspace to ensure
separation, in so far as practical between aircraft which are operating on IFR flight plans.

Air Traffic Control Clearance Authorization for an aircraft to proceed under conditions
specified by an air traffic control unit.

Note: For convenience the term “Air Traffic Control Clearance” is frequently
abbreviated to “Clearance” when used in appropriate contexts.

Note: The abbreviated term “Clearance” may be prefixed by the words “Taxi”,
“Take-off, “Departure, “En-route, “Approach” or ‘Landing” to indicate the particular
portion of flight to which the Air Traffic Control Clearance relates.

Air Traffic Control Instruction Directives issued by ATC for the purpose of requiring a pilot
to take a specific action

Air Traffic Control Service A service provided for the purpose of:

¾ Preventing collisions between aircraft, and,


¾ On the manoeuvring area between aircraft and obstructions.
¾ Expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of air traffic.

Air Traffic Control Unit A generic term meaning variously, area control centre,
approach control office or aerodrome control tower.

Air Traffic Service A generic term meaning variously, flight information service, alerting
service, air traffic advisory service or air traffic control service (area control service, approach
control service or aerodrome control service).

Air Traffic Services Airspaces Airspaces of defined dimensions, alphabetically


designated, within which specific types of flights may operate and for which air traffic services
and rules of operation are specified.

Note: ATS airspaces are classified as Class A to G

Air Traffic Services Reporting Office A unit established for the purpose of receiving
reports concerning air traffic services and flight plans submitted before departure.

Note: An Air Traffic Services reporting office may be established as a separate unit
or combined with an existing unit, such as another Air Traffic Services Unit, or a unit
of the Aeronautical Information Service.

ATPL Air Law 1-10 24 October 2003


Air Traffic Services Unit A generic term meaning variously, air traffic control unit, flight
information centre or air traffic services reporting office.

Aircraft Any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of
the air other than the reactions of the air against the earth’s surface.

Aircraft – Category Classification of aircraft according to specified basic characteristics


eg aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon

Aircraft Certified For Single-Pilot Operation A type of aircraft which the State of Registry
has determined, during the certification process, can be operated safely with a minimum crew
of one pilot

Aircraft Equipment Articles, other than stores and spare parts of a removable nature, for
use on board an aircraft during flight, including first aid and survival equipment

Aircraft Identification A group of letters, figures or a combination thereof which is either


identical to, or the coded equivalent of, the aircraft callsign to be used in air-ground
communications, and which is used to identify the aircraft in ground-ground ATS
communications

Aircraft Observation The evaluation of one or more meteorological elements made from
an aircraft in flight

Aircraft Proximity A situation in which, in the opinion of a pilot or ATS personnel, the
distance between aircraft as well as their relative positions and speed have been such that
the safety of the aircraft involved may have been compromised. An aircraft proximity is
classified as follows:

Risk Of Collision The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which serious


risk of collision has existed

Safety Not Assured The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which the
safety of the aircraft may have been compromised

No Risk Of Collision The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which no risk


of collision has existed

Risk Not Determined The risk classification of an aircraft proximity in which


insufficient information was available to determine the risk involved, or inconclusive or
conflicting evidence precluded such determination

Aircraft Stand A designated area on an apron intended to be used for parking aircraft

Aircraft – Type of All aircraft of the same basic design including all modifications
thereto except those modifications which result in a change in handling or flight characteristics

ATPL Air Law 1-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


AIRMET Information Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the
occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena which may
affect the safety of low-level aircraft operations and which was not already included in the
forecast issued for low-level flights in the FIR concerned or sub-area thereof

Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS) An aircraft system based on SSR


transponder signals which operates independently of ground based equipment to provide
advice to the pilot on potential conflicting aircraft that are equipped with SSR transponders.

Airline As provided in Article 96 of the Convention, any air transport enterprise


offering or operating a scheduled international air service

AIRPROX The code word used in an air traffic incident report to designate aircraft
proximity

Airway A control area or portion thereof established in the form of a corridor


equipped with radio navigation aids.

ALERFA The code word used to designate an alert phase

Alert Phase A situation wherein apprehension exists as to the safety of an aircraft and its
occupants

Alerting Service A service provided to notify appropriate organisations regarding


aircraft in need of search and rescue aid, and assist such organisations as required.

Alternate Aerodrome An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed when it becomes


either impossible or inadvisable to proceed to or land at the aerodrome of intended landing.
Alternate aerodromes include the following:

Take-off Alternate An alternate aerodrome at which an aircraft can land should


this become necessary shortly after take-off and it is not possible to use the
aerodrome of departure.

En-route Alternate An aerodrome at which an aircraft would be able to land after


experiencing an abnormal or emergency condition while en-route.

Destination Alternate An aerodrome to which an aircraft may proceed should it


become impossible or inadvisable to land at the aerodrome of intended landing.

Note: The aerodrome from which a flight departs may also be an en-route
or a destination alternate aerodrome for that flight.

Altitude The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point


measured from mean sea level (MSL).

ATPL Air Law 1-12 24 October 2003


Approach Control Office A unit established to provide ATC service to controlled flights
arriving at, or departing from, one or more aerodromes

Approach Control Service ATC service for arriving or departing controlled flights

Appropriate ATS Authority The relevant authority designated by the state responsible for
providing air traffic services in the airspace concerned.

Appropriate Authority

¾ Regarding flight over the high seas - the relevant authority of the state of registry.
¾ Regarding flight other than over the high seas - the relevant authority of the state
having sovereignty over the territory being over flown.

Apron A defined area, on a land aerodrome, intended to accommodate aircraft for


the purposes of loading or unloading passengers, mail or cargo, fuelling, parking or
maintenance.

Apron Management Service A service provided to regulate the activities and the
movement of aircraft and vehicles on an apron

Area Control Centre A unit established to provide Air Traffic Control Service to controlled
flights in control areas under its jurisdiction.

Area Control Service Air Traffic Control Service for controlled flight in Control Areas.

Area Navigation (RNAV) A method of navigation which permits aircraft operation on


any desired flight path within the coverage of the station referenced navigation aids or within
the limits of the capability of self contained aids, or a combination of these.

Area Navigation Route An ATS route established for the use of aircraft capable of
employing area navigation

ATIS The symbol used to designate automatic terminal information service

ATS Route A specified route designed for channeling the flow of traffic as necessary for
the provision of air traffic services.

Note: The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route,
controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc.

Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) A surveillance technique in which aircraft


automatically provide, via a data link, data derived from on board navigation and position

ATPL Air Law 1-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


fixing systems, including aircraft identification, four dimensional position and additional data
as appropriate

Automatic Terminal Information Service The provision of current, routine information


to arriving and departing aircraft by means of a continuous and repetitive broadcast
throughout the day or a specified portion of the day

Baggage Personal property of passengers or crew carried on an aircraft by agreement


with the operator

Barrette Three or more aeronautical ground lights closely spaced in a traverse line so
that from a distance they appear as a short bar of light

Base Turn A turn executed by the aircraft during the initial approach between the end of
the outbound track and the beginning of the intermediate or final approach track. The tracks
are not reciprocal.

Note: Base turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or while
descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure

Blind Transmission A transmission from one station to another station in circumstances


where two-way communication cannot be established but where it is believed the called
station is able to receive the transmission

Broadcast A transmission of information relating to air navigation that is not addressed


to a specific station or stations

Cargo Any property carried on an aircraft other than mail, stores and accompanied or
mishandled baggage

Ceiling The height above the ground or water of the base of the lowest layer of cloud
below 6000 metres (20 000 ft) covering more than half the sky.

Certify as Airworthy (to) To certify that an aircraft or parts thereof comply with current
airworthiness requirements after maintenance has been performed on the aircraft or parts
thereof

Change-over Point The point at which an aircraft navigating over an ATS route segment
defined by reference to very high frequency omnidirectional radio ranges is expected to
transfer its primary navigational reference from the facility behind the aircraft to the next
facility ahead of the aircraft.

Note: Change-over points are established to provide the optimum balance in


respect of signal strength and quality between facilities at all levels to be used and to
ensure a common source of azimuth guidance for all aircraft operating along the
same portion of a route segment.

ATPL Air Law 1-14 24 October 2003


Circling Approach An extension of an instrument approach procedure which provides
for visual circling of the aerodrome prior to landing

Clearance Limit The point to which an aircraft is granted an Air Traffic Control
Clearance.

Note: The term “ATS route” is used to mean variously, airway, advisory route,
controlled or uncontrolled route, arrival or departure route, etc.

Clearway A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the
appropriate authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may
make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height

Code (SSR) The number assigned to a particular multiple pulse reply signal transmitted by
a transponder in Mode A or Mode C

Commercial Air Transport Operation An aircraft operation involving the transport of


passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire

Configuration (as applied to the aeroplane) A particular combination of the positions of


the moveable elements, such as wing flaps, landing gear etc, which affect the aerodynamic
characteristics of the aeroplane

Control Area A controlled airspace extending upwards from a specified limit above the
earth.

Controlled Aerodrome An aerodrome at which Air Traffic Control Service is provided


to aerodrome traffic.

Note: The term “Controlled Aerodrome” indicates that Air Traffic Control Service is
provided to Aerodrome Traffic but does not necessarily imply that a Control Zone
exists

Controlled Airspace An airspace of defined dimensions within which air traffic control
service is provided to IFR flights and to VFR flights in accordance with the airspace
classification.

Note: Controlled airspace is a generic term which covers ATS airspace Class A, B,
C, D and E.

Controlled Flight Any flight which is subject to an Air Traffic Control Clearance

Control Zone A controlled airspace extending upwards from the surface of the earth to a
specified upper limit.

ATPL Air Law 1-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Co-Pilot A licensed pilot serving in any piloting capacity other than as PIC but
excluding a pilot who is on board the aircraft for the sole purpose of receiving flight instruction

Crew Member A person assigned by an operator to duty on an aircraft during flight time

Critical Power Unit(s) The power unit(s) failure of which gives the most adverse effect on
the aircraft characteristics relative to the case under consideration

Cruise Climb An aeroplane cruising technique resulting in a net increase in altitude as the
aeroplane mass decreases.

Cruising Level A level maintained during a significant portion of a flight.

Current Flight Plan The flight plan, including changes, if any, brought about by
subsequent clearances.

Danger Area An airspace of defined dimensions within which activities dangerous to the
flight of aircraft may exist at specified times.

Dead Reckoning (DR) Navigation The estimating or determining of position by


advancing an earlier known position by the application of direction, time and speed data

Decision Altitude (DA) or Decision Height (DH) A specified altitude or height in the
precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual
reference to continue the approach has not been established

Note: DA is referenced to mean sea level, DH is referenced to threshold elevation

Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the
approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have
made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation
to the desired flight path. In Category III operations with a DH the required visual
reference is that specified for the particular procedure and operation

Declared Distances

Take-Off Run Available (TORA) The length of runway declared available and
suitable for the ground run of an aircraft

Take-Off Distance Available (TODA) The length of the take-off run available
plus the length of the clearway, if provided

Accelerate-Stop Distance Available (ASDA) The length of the take-off run


available plus the length of the stopway, if provided

ATPL Air Law 1-16 24 October 2003


Landing Distance Available (LDA) The length of the runway which is declared
available and suitable for the ground run of an aeroplane landing

Dependent Parallel Approaches Simultaneous approaches to parallel or near parallel


instrument runways where radar separation minima between aircraft on adjacent extended
runway centre lines are prescribed

Design Landing Mass The maximum mass of the aircraft at which, for structural design
purposes, it is assumed that it will be planned to land

Design Take-off Mass The maximum mass at which the aircraft, for structural design
purposes, is assumed to be planned to be at the start of the take-off run

Design Taxiing Mass The maximum mass of the aircraft at which structural provision is
made for load liable to occur during use of the aircraft on the ground prior to the start of take-
off

DETRESFA The code word used to designate a distress phase

Displaced Threshold A threshold not located at the extremity of the runway

Distress Phase A situation wherein there is a reasonable certainty that an aircraft and
its occupants are threatened by grave and imminent danger or require immediate assistance

DME Distance The line of sight distance (slant range) from the source of a DME signal to the
receiving antenna

Dual Instruction Time Flight time during which a person is receiving flight instruction from a
properly authorized pilot on board the aircraft

Elevation The vertical distance of a point on or affixed to the surface of the earth,
measured from mean sea level

Emergency Phase A generic term meaning, as the case may be, uncertainty phase,
alert phase or distress phase

Estimated Elapsed Time The estimated time required to proceed from one significant
point to another

Estimated Off-block Time The estimated time at which the aircraft will commence
movement associated with departure.

Estimated Time of Arrival For IFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the
aircraft will arrive over the designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from
which it is intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no

ATPL Air Law 1-17 ©Atlantic Flight Training


navigation aid is associated with the aerodrome, the time at which the aircraft will arrive over
the aerodrome. For VFR flights, the time at which it is estimated that the aircraft will arrive
over the aerodrome.

Expected Approach Time The time at which ATC expects that an arriving aircraft,
following a delay, will leave the holding point to complete its approach for a landing.

Note: The actual time of leaving the holding point will depend upon the approach
clearance.

Filed Flight Plan The flight plan as filed with an ATS unit by the pilot or a designated
representative, without any subsequent changes.

Final Approach That part of an instrument approach procedure which commences at


the specified final approach fix or point, or where such a fix or point is not specified:

¾ At the end of the last procedure turn, base turn or inbound turn of a racetrack
procedure, if specified, or
¾ At the point of interception of the last track specified in the approach procedure,
and

ends at a point in the vicinity of an aerodrome from which:

¾ A landing can be made, or


¾ A missed approach procedure is initiated

Final Approach and Take-Off Area (FATO) A defined area over which the final phase of
the approach manoeuvre to landing is completed and from which the take-off manoeuvre is
commenced

Final Approach Segment The segment of an instrument runway procedure in which


alignment and descent for landing are accomplished

Fixed Light A light having constant luminous intensity when observed from a fixed point

Flight Crew Member A licensed crew member charged with duties essential to the
operation of an aircraft during flight time.

Flight Information Centre A unit established to provide flight information service and
alerting service.

Flight Information Region An airspace of defined dimensions within which flight


information service and alerting service are provided.

ATPL Air Law 1-18 24 October 2003


Flight Information Service A service provided for the purpose of giving advice and
information useful to the safe and effective conduct of flights.

Flight Level A surface of constant atmospheric pressure which is related to a specific


pressure datum, 1013.2 hectopascals (hPa) and is separated from other surfaces by specific
pressure intervals.

Note: A pressure type altimeter calibrated in accordance with the Standard


Atmosphere:

¾ When set to a QNH altimeter setting, will indicate altitude


¾ When set to a QFE altimeter setting, will indicate height, above the QFE
reference datum
¾ When set to a pressure of 1013.2 hPa may be used to indicate flight levels.

Note: The terms “height” and “altitude” used in the above note, indicate altimetric
rather than geometric heights and altitudes.

Flight Plan Specified information provided to Air Traffic Services Units, relative to an
intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.

Flight Procedures Trainer See Synthetic Flight Trainer

Flight Recorder Any type of recorder installed in the aircraft for the purpose of
complementing accident/incident investigation

Flight Simulator See Synthetic Flight Trainer

Flight Time The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under its own power
for the purpose of taking-off until the moment it comes to rest at the end of the flight

Note: Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the term “block to block” time
or “chock to chock” time in general usage which is measured from the time an aircraft
moves from the loading point until it stops at the unloading point

Flight Manual A manual associated with the certificate of airworthiness, containing


limitations within which the aircraft is to be considered airworthy, and instructions and
information necessary to the flight crew members for the safe operation of the aircraft

Flight Visibility The visibility forward from the cockpit of an aircraft in flight.

Flow Control Measures designed to adjust the flow of traffic into a given airspace, along a
given route, or bound for a given aerodrome, so as to ensure the most effective utilization of
the airspace

ATPL Air Law 1-19 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Forecast A statement of expected meteorological conditions for a specified time or
period, and for a specified area or portion of airspace

Frangible Object An object of low mass designed to break distort or yield on impact so
as to present the minimum hazard to aircraft

Glide Path A descent profile determined for vertical guidance during a final approach

Ground Equipment Articles of a specialized nature for use in the maintenance, repair
and servicing of an aircraft on the ground, including testing equipment and cargo/passenger-
handling equipment

Ground Visibility The visibility at an aerodrome, as reported by an accredited observer.

Hazard Beacon An aeronautical beacon used to designate a danger to air navigation

Heading The direction in which the longitudinal axis of an aircraft is pointed, usually
expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic, compass or grid)

Heavier-Than-Air Aircraft Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight chiefly from aerodynamic
forces

Height The vertical distance of a level, a point or an object considered as a point,


measured from a specified datum (NOT msl).

Heliport An aerodrome or a defined area on a structure intended to be used wholly or


in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of helicopters

Holding Bay A defined area where aircraft can be held, or bypassed, to facilitate efficient
surface movement of aircraft

Holding Point A specified location, identified by visual or other means, in the vicinity of
which the position of an aircraft in flight is maintained in accordance with ATC clearances

Holding Procedure A pre-determined manoeuvre which keeps an aircraft within a


specified airspace while awaiting further clearance

Identification Beacon An aeronautical beacon emitting a coded signal by means of which a


particular point of reference can be identified

IFR The symbol used to designate the instrument flight rules.

IFR Flight A flight conducted in accordance with instrument flight rules.

IMC The symbol used to designate instrument meteorological conditions.

ATPL Air Law 1-20 24 October 2003


INCERFA The code word used to designate an uncertainty phase

Incident An occurrence, other than an accident associated with the operation of an


aircraft which affects or could affect the safety of operation

Initial Approach Segment That segment of an instrument approach procedure between the
initial approach fix and the intermediate approach fix or, where applicable, the final approach
fix or point

Instrument Approach Procedure A series of pre-determined manoeuvres by reference


to flight instruments with specified protection from obstacles from the initial approach fix, or
where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route to a point from which a landing
can be completed and thereafter, if a landing is not completed to a position at which holding
or en-route obstacle clearance criteria apply.

Instrument Flight Time Time during which a pilot is piloting an aircraft solely by
reference to instruments and without external reference points

Instrument Ground Time Time during which a pilot is practising, on the ground,
simulated instrument flight in a synthetic flight trainer approved by the licensing authority

Instrument Meteorological Conditions Meteorological conditions expressed in


terms of visibility, distance from cloud, and ceiling, less than the minima specified for visual
meteorological conditions.

Note: The specified minima for VMC are contained within the Aviation Law notes.

Instrument Runway One of the following types of runways intended for the operation of
aircraft using instrument approach procedures:

Non-Precision Approach Runway An instrument runway served by visual aids


and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight-in
approach

Precision Approach Runway, Category I An instrument runway served by ILS


and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower
than 60 m (200 ft) and either a visibility not less than 800 m or a runway visual range
not less than 550 m

Precision Approach Runway, Category II An instrument runway served by ILS


and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height lower than
60 m (200 ft) but not lower than 30 m (100 ft) and a runway visual range not less than
350 m

ATPL Air Law 1-21 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Precision Approach Runway, Category III An instrument runway served by ILS
and/or MLS to and along the surface of the runway and:

A Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 30 m (100


ft), or no decision height and a runway visual range not less than 200 m

B Intended for operations with a decision height lower than 15 m (50 ft),
or no decision height and a runway visual range less than 200 m but not less
than 50 m

C Intended for operations with no decision height and no runway visual


Range limitations

Instrument Time Instrument flight time or instrument ground time

Integrated Aeronautical Information Package A package which consists of the following


elements:

¾ AIP, including the AIP Amendment service


¾ Supplements to the AIP
¾ NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB)
¾ AIC
¾ Checklists and summaries

Intermediate Approach Segment That segment of an instrument approach procedure


between either:

¾ The intermediate approach fix and the final approach fix or point, or
¾ Between the end of a reversal, racetrack or DR track procedure and the final
approach fix or point

as appropriate

International Airport Any airport designated by the Contracting State in whose territory it
is situated as an airport of entry and departure for international air traffic, where the formalities
incident to customs, immigration, public health, animal and plant quarantine and similar
procedures are carried out

International NOTAM Office An office designated by a State for the exchange of NOTAM
internationally

Investigation A process conducted for the purpose of accident prevention which includes
the gathering and analysis of information for the drawing of conclusions, including the
determination of causes and, when appropriate, the making of safety recommendations

ATPL Air Law 1-22 24 October 2003


Landing Area That part of a movement area intended for the landing or take-off of aircraft.

Landing Direction Indicator A device to indicate visually the direction currently


designated for landing and for take-off

Landing Surface That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome
authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft landing in a
particular direction

Level A generic term relating to the vertical position of an aircraft in flight and meaning
variously, height, altitude or flight level.

Location Indicator A four letter code group formulated in accordance with rules
prescribed by ICAO and assigned to the location of an aeronautical fixed station

Maintenance Tasks required to ensure the continued airworthiness of an aircraft including


any one or combination of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification or defect
rectification

Manoeuvring Area That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off landing and
taxiing of aircraft, excluding aprons.

Marker An object displayed above ground level in order to indicate an obstacle or


delineate a boundary

Marking A symbol or group of symbols displayed on the surface of the movement area
in order to convey aeronautical information

Maximum Mass Maximum certificated, take-off mass

Medical Assessment The evidence issued by a Contracting State that the licence holder
meets specific requirements of medical fitness. It is issued following an evaluation by the
licensing authority of the report submitted by the designated medical examiner who
conducted the examination of the applicant for the licence

Meteorological Office An office designated to provide a meteorological service for


international air navigation

Meteorological Information Meteorological report, analysis, forecast, and any other


statement relating to existing or expected meteorological conditions

Meteorological Report A statement of observed meteorological conditions related to a


specified time and location

ATPL Air Law 1-23 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or Minimum Descent Height (MDH) A specified
altitude or height in a non-precision approach or circling approach below which descent must
not be made without the required visual reference

Note: MDA is referenced to mean sea level and MDH is referenced to the
aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7ft,) below
the aerodrome elevation. A MDH for a circling approach is referenced to the
aerodrome elevation

Note: The required visual reference means that section of the visual aids or of the
approach area which should have been in view for sufficient time for the pilot to have
made an assessment of the aircraft position and rate of change of position, in relation
to the desired flight path. In the case of a circling approach the required visual
reference is the runway environment

Minimum Sector Altitude The lowest altitude which may be used which will provide a
minimum clearance of 300 m (1000 ft) above all objects located in an area contained within a
sector of a circle of 46 km (25 nm) radius centred on a radio aid to navigation

Missed Approach Point (MAPt) That point in an instrument approach procedure at or


before which the prescribed missed approach procedure must be initiated in order to ensure
that the minimum obstacle clearance is not infringed

Missed Approach Procedure The procedure to be followed if the approach cannot be


continued

Mode (SSR) The conventional identifier related to specific functions of the interrogation
signals transmitted by an SSR interrogator

Movement Area That part of an aerodrome to be used for the take-off landing and
taxiing of aircraft, consisting of the manoeuvring area and the aprons.

Non-Instrument Runway A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual
approach procedures

Normal Operating Zone (NOZ) Airspace of defined dimensions extending either side of an
ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track. Only the inner half of the normal
operating zone is taken into account in independent parallel approaches

NOTAM A notice distributed by means of telecommunication containing information


concerning the establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility, service,
procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is essential to personnel concerned with
flight operations

No-transgression Zone (NTZ) In the context of independent parallel approaches, a corridor


of airspace of defined dimensions located centrally between the two extended runway centre
lines, where a penetration by an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any
threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach

ATPL Air Law 1-24 24 October 2003


Obstacle All fixed (whether temporary or permanent) and mobile objects, or parts
thereof that are located on an area intended for the surface movement of aircraft or that
extend above a defined surface intended to protect aircraft in flight

Obstacle Assessment Surface (OAS) A defined surface intended for the purpose of
determining those obstacles to be considered for the calculation of obstacle clearance
altitude/height for a specific ILS facility and procedure

Obstacle Clearance Altitude (OCA) or Obstacle Clearance Height (OCH) The lowest
altitude or the lowest height above the elevation of the relevant runway threshold or the
aerodrome elevation as applicable, used in establishing compliance with appropriate obstacle
clearance criteria

Note: OCA is referenced to mean sea level and OCH is referenced to the
aerodrome elevation or to the threshold elevation if that is more than 2 m (7ft,) below
the aerodrome elevation. An OCH for a circling approach is referenced to the
aerodrome elevation

Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ) The airspace above the inner approach surface, inner
transitional surfaces, and balked landing surface and that portion of the strip bounded by
these surfaces, which is not penetrated by any fixed obstacle other than a low-mass and
frangible mounted one required for air navigation purposes

Operational Control The exercise of authority over the initiation, continuation, diversion or
termination of a flight in the interest of the safety of the aircraft and the regularity and
efficiency of the flight

Operator A person, organization or enterprise engaged in or offering to engage in


aircraft operation

Pavement Classification Number (PCN) A number expressing the bearing strength of a


pavement for unrestricted operation

Pilot (to) To manipulate the flight controls of an aircraft during flight time

Pilot in Command The pilot responsible for the operation and safety of the aircraft
during flight.

Power Unit A system of one or more engines and ancillary parts which are together
necessary to provide thrust, independently of the continued operation of any other power-
unit(s), but not including short period thrust producing devices

Precision Approach Procedure An instrument approach procedure utilizing azimuth


and glide path information provided by ILS, MLS or PAR

ATPL Air Law 1-25 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Precision Approach Runway See Instrument Runway

Pre-flight Information Bulletin (PIB) A presentation of current NOTAM information of


operational significance prepared prior to flight

Pressure Altitude An atmospheric pressure expressed in terms of altitude which


corresponds to that pressure in the standard atmosphere.

Primary Area A defined area symmetrically disposed about the nominal flight track
in which full obstacle clearance is provided

Primary Radar A radar system which uses reflected radio signals

Primary Runway(s) Runway(s) used in preference to others whenever conditions permit

Procedure Turn A manoeuvre in which a turn is made away from a designated track
followed by a turn in the opposite direction to permit the aircraft to intercept and proceed
along the reciprocal of the designated track

Note: Procedure turns are designated “left” or “right” according to the direction of
the initial turn

Note: Procedure turns may be designated as being made either in level flight or
while descending, according to the circumstances of each individual procedure

Prohibited Area An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
waters of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is prohibited.

Racetrack Procedure A procedure designed to enable the aircraft to reduce altitude during
the initial approach segment and/or establish the aircraft inbound when the entry into a
reversal procedure is not practical

Radar Approach An approach in which the final approach phase is executed under the
direction of a radar controller

Radar Clutter The visual indication on a radar display of unwanted signals

Radar Contact The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular aircraft is
seen and identified on a radar display

Radar Control Term used to indicate that radar derived information is employed directly in
the provision of ATC service

ATPL Air Law 1-26 24 October 2003


Radio Direction Finding Station A radio station intended to determine only the
direction of other stations by means of transmissions from the latter

Radar Identification The situation which exists when the radar position of a particular
aircraft is seen on a radar display and positively identified by the ATC controller

Radar Monitoring The use of radar for the purpose of providing aircraft with information
and advice relative to significant deviations from nominal flight path, including deviations from
the terms of their ATC clearances

Radar Position Indication (RPI) The visual indication, in non symbolic and/or
symbolic form, on a radar display, of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic
processing of positional data derived from primary and/or SSR

Radar Position Symbol (RIPS) The visual indication, in symbolic form, on a radar
display, of the position of an aircraft obtained after automatic processing of positional data
derived from primary and/or SSR

Radar Separation The separation used when aircraft position information is derived
from radar sources

Radar Service Term used to indicate a service provided directly by means of radar

Radar Vectoring Provision of navigational guidance to aircraft in the form of specific


headings, based on the use of radar

Rating An authorization entered on or associated with a licence and forming part


thereof stating special conditions, privileges or limitations pertaining to such licence

Receiving Unit/Controller ATS unit/ATC controller to which a message is sent

Rendering (a Licence) Valid The action taken by a Contracting State, as an alternative to


issuing its own licence, in accepting a licence issued by any other Contracting State as the
equivalent of its own licence

Repetitive Flight Plan A flight plan related to a series of frequently recurring, regularly
operated individual flights with identical basic features, submitted by an operator for retention
and repetitive use by ATS units.

Reporting Point A specified geographical location in relation to which the position of


an aircraft can be reported.

Required Navigation Performance (RNP) A statement of the navigation performance


accuracy necessary for operation within a defined airspace

ATPL Air Law 1-27 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Rescue Co-ordination Centre A unit responsible for promoting efficient organization of
search and rescue services and for coordinating the conduct of search and rescue operations
within a search and rescue region

Restricted Area An airspace of defined dimensions, above the land areas or territorial
waters of a state, within which the flight of aircraft is restricted in accordance with certain
specified conditions.

Reversal Procedure A procedure designed to enable aircraft to reverse direction during


the initial approach segment of an instrument approach procedure. The sequence may
include procedure turns or base turns

Runway A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing
and take-off of aircraft.

Runway End Safety Area (RESA) An area symmetrical about the extended runway
centre line and adjacent to the end of the strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage
to an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the aerodrome

Runway Guard Lights A light system intended to caution pilots or vehicle drivers that they
are about to enter an active runway

Runway Strip A defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended:

¾ To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway, and
¾ To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations

Runway Visual Range (RVR) The range over which the pilot of an aircraft on the centre
line of a runway can see the runway surface markings or the lights delineating the runway or
identifying its centre line

Secondary Area A defined area on each side of the primary area located along the
nominal flight track in which decreasing obstacle clearance is provided

Secondary Radar A radar system wherein a radio signal transmitted from the radar
station initiates the transmission of a radio signal from another station

Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) A surveillance radar system that uses


transmitters/receivers (interrogators) and transponders

Serious Incident An incident involving circumstances indicating that an accident nearly


occurred

Note: The difference between an accident and a serious incident lies only in the
result

ATPL Air Law 1-28 24 October 2003


Serious Injury An injury which is sustained by a person in an accident and which:

¾ Requires hospitalization for more than 48 hours, commencing within 7 days from
the date the injury was received, or
¾ Results in a fracture of any bone (Not simple fractures of fingers, toes or nose), or
¾ Involves lacerations which cause severe haemorrhage, nerve, muscle or tendon
damage, or
¾ Involves injury to any internal organ, or
¾ Involves second or third degree burns, or any burns affecting more than 5% of
the body surface, or
¾ Involves verified exposure to infectious substances or injurious radiation

Shoulder An area adjacent to the edge of a pavement so prepared as to provide a


transition between the pavement and the adjacent surface

SIGMET Information Information issued by a meteorological watch office concerning the


occurrence or expected occurrence of specified en-route weather phenomena which may
affect the safety of aircraft operations

Signal Area An area of an aerodrome used for the display of ground signals.

Significant Point A specified geographical location used in defining an ATS route or


the flight path of an aircraft and for other navigation and ATS purposes

Slush Water-saturated snow which with a heel-and-toe slap down motion against the
ground will be displaced with a splatter; Specific Gravity: 0.5 up to 0.8

Snow (On the ground)

Dry Snow Snow which can be blown if loose or, if compacted by hand, will fall apart
again upon release
Specific Gravity - Up to but not including 0.35

Wet Snow Snow which, if compacted by hand, will stick together and tend to form a
snowball
Specific Gravity - 0.35 up to but not including 0.45

Compacted Snow Snow which has been compressed into a solid mass that resists
further compression and will hold together or break up into lumps if picked up
Specific Gravity - 0.5 and over

SNOWTAM A special series NOTAM notifying the presence or removal of hazardous


conditions due to snow, slush and ice on the movement area, by means of a special format

ATPL Air Law 1-29 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Special VFR Flight A VFR flight cleared by air traffic control to operate within a control
zone in meteorological conditions below VMC.

Standard Instrument Arrival (STAR) A designated IFR arrival route linking a significant
point, normally on an ATS route, with a point from which a published instrument approach
procedure can be commenced

Standard Instrument Departure (SID) A designated IFR departure route linking the
aerodrome or a specified runway of the aerodrome with a specified significant point, normally
on a designated ATS route, at which the en-route phase of a flight commences

State of Design The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for the
type design

State of Manufacture The State having jurisdiction over the organization responsible for
the final assembly of the aircraft

State of Occurrence The State in the territory of which an accident or incident occurs

State of the Operator The State in which the operator’s principal place of business is
located or, if there is no such place of business, the operator’s permanent residence

State of Registry The state on whose register the aircraft is entered

Stopway A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of TORA prepared as a
suitable area in which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off

Synthetic Flight Trainer Any one of the following three types of apparatus in which
flight conditions are simulated on the ground:

Flight Simulator A flight simulator, which provides an accurate representation


of the flight deck of a particular aircraft type to the extent that the mechanical,
electrical, electronic, etc aircraft systems control functions, the normal environment of
flight crew members, and the performance and flight characteristics of that type of
aircraft are realistically simulated

Flight Procedures Trainer A flight procedures trainer, which provides a realistic


flight deck environment and which simulates instrument responses, simple control
functions of mechanical, electrical, electronic, etc aircraft systems, and the
performance and flight characteristics of aircraft of a particular class

Basic Instrument Flight Trainer A basic instrument flight trainer, which is equipped
with appropriate instruments, and which simulates the flight deck environment of an
aircraft in flight in instrument flight conditions

Take-off Runway A runway intended for take-off only

ATPL Air Law 1-30 24 October 2003


Take-off Surface That part of the surface of an aerodrome which the aerodrome
authority has declared available for the normal ground or water run of aircraft taking off in a
particular direction

Taxi-Holding Position A designated position at which taxiing aircraft and vehicles shall stop
and hold position, unless otherwise authorised by the aerodrome control tower

Taxiing Movement of an aircraft on the surface of an aerodrome under its own power,
excluding take-off and landing, but including, in the case of helicopters, operation over the
surface of an aerodrome within a height band associated with ground effect and at speeds
associated with taxiing eg air-taxiing.

Taxiway A defined path on a land aerodrome established for the taxiing of aircraft and
intended to provide a link between one part of the aerodrome and another, including:

Aircraft Stand Taxilane A portion of an apron designated as a taxiway and


intended to provide access to aircraft stands only.

Apron Taxiway A portion of a taxiway system located on an apron and


intended to provide a through taxi route across the apron.

Rapid Exit Taxiway A taxiway connected to a runway at an acute angle and


designated to allow landing aeroplanes to turn off at higher speeds than are achieved
on other exit taxiways and thereby minimizing runway occupancy times.

Taxiway Intersection A junction of two or more taxiways

Taxiway Strip An area including taxiway intended to protect an aircraft operating on the
taxiway and to reduce the risk of damage to an aircraft accidentally running off the taxiway

Terminal Control Area A control area normally established at the confluence of ATS routes
in the vicinity of one or more major aerodromes.

Threshold (THR) The beginning of that portion of the runway usable for landing

Total Estimated Elapsed Time For IFR flights, the estimated time required from take-off to
arrive over that designated point, defined by reference to navigation aids, from which it is
intended that an instrument approach procedure will be commenced, or, if no navigation aid is
associated with the destination aerodrome, to arrive over the destination aerodrome. For VFR
flights, the estimated time required from take-off to arrive over the destination aerodrome.

Touchdown The point where the nominal glide path intercepts the runway

Touchdown Zone The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended
landing aeroplanes first contact the runway

ATPL Air Law 1-31 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Track The projection on the earth’s surface of the path of an aircraft, the direction of which
path at any point is usually expressed in degrees from North (true, magnetic or grid)

Traffic Avoidance Advice Advice provided by Air Traffic Services Unit specifying
manoeuvres to assist a pilot to avoid a collision.

Traffic Information Information issued by an air traffic services unit to alert a pilot to
other known or observed air traffic which may be in proximity to the position or intended route
of flight and to help the pilot avoid a collision.

Transfer of Control Point A defined point located along the flight path of an aircraft, at
which the responsibility for providing ATC service to the aircraft is transferred from one control
unit or control position to the next

Transferring Unit ATCU in the process of transferring the responsibility for providing
ATC service to an aircraft to the next ATCU along the route of flight

Transition Altitude The altitude at or below which the vertical position of an aircraft is
controlled by reference to altitudes.

Transition Layer The airspace between the transition altitude and the transition level

Transition Level The lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude

Uncertainty Phase A situation wherein uncertainty exists as to the safety of an aircraft


and its occupants

VFR The symbol used to designate the visual flight rules.

VFR Flight A flight conducted in accordance with the visual flight rules.

Visibility The ability, as determined by atmospheric conditions and expressed in units


of distance, to see and identify prominent unlighted objects by day and prominent objects by
night.

Visual Approach An approach by an IFR aircraft when either part or all of an


instrument approach procedure is not completed and the approach is executed in visual
reference to terrain.

Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area The area in which obstacle clearance should be taken
into consideration for aircraft carrying out a circling approach

ATPL Air Law 1-32 24 October 2003


Visual Meteorological Conditions Meteorological conditions expressed in terms of visibility,
distance from cloud, and ceiling equal to or better than the specified minima.

Note: The specified minima are contained within these notes.

VMC The symbol used to designate visual meteorological conditions.

Way-Point A specified geographical location used to define an area navigation route or


the flight path of an aircraft employing area navigation

ATPL Air Law 1-33 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 1-34 24 October 2003


Section 3 - ICAO Abbreviations

A Amber ALTN Alternate or alternating


A/A Air-to-air AMA Area minimum altitude
AAL Above aerodrome level AMD Amend or amended
ABM Abeam AMDT Amendment
ABN Aerodrome beacon AMS Aeronautical mobile service
ABT About AMSL Above mean sea level
ABV Above AMSS Aeronautical mobile satellite service
ACAS Airborne collision avoidance system ANS Answer
ACC Area control centre or area control AOC Aerodrome obstacle chart
ACCID Notification of an aircraft accident AP Airport
ACFT Aircraft APCH Approach
ACK Acknowledge APP Approach control office or approach control
or approach control service
ACL Altimeter check location APR April
ACN Aircraft classification number APRX Approximately or approximate
ACP Acceptance APSG After passing
ACPT Accept or accepted APV Approve or approved or approval
ACT Active or activated or activity ARFOR Area forecast
AD Aerodrome ARNG Arrange
ADA Advisory area ARO Air traffic services reporting office
ADDN Additional or addition ARP Aerodrome reference point or air report
ADF Automatic direction finding equipment ARQ Automatic error correction
ADIZ Air defence identification zone ARR Arrive or arrival
ADJ Adjacent ARS Special air report
ADR Advisory ARST Arresting
ADS Automatic dependent surveillance ASC Ascend or ascending
ADSU Automatic dependent surveillance unit ASDA Accelerate stop distance available
ADVS Advisory service ASPH Asphalt
ADZ Advise ATA Actual time or arrival
AES Aircraft earth station ATC Air traffic control
AFIL Flight plan filed in the air ATD Actual time of departure
AFIS Aerodrome information service ATFM Air traffic flow management
AFM Yes or affirm or that is correct ATIS Automatic terminal information system
AFS Aeronautical fixed service ATM Air traffic management
AFT After ATN Aeronautical telecommunication network
AFTN Aeronautical fixed telecommunication ATS Air traffic services
network
A/G Air to ground ATTN Attention
AGA Aerodromes, air routes and ground aids ATZ Aerodrome traffic zone
AGL Above ground level AUG August
AGN Again AUTH Authorized or authorization
AIC Aeronautical information circular AUW All up weight
AIP Aeronautical information publication AUX Auxiliary
AIRAC Aeronautical information regulation and AVASIS Abbreviated visual approach slope indicator
control system
AIREP Air report AVBL Available or availability

ATPL Air Law 1-35 ©Atlantic Flight Training


AIS Aeronautical information service AVG Average
ALA Alighting area AVGAS Aviation gasoline
ALERFA Alert phase AWTA Advise at what time able
ALR Alerting AWY Airway
ALRS Alerting service AZM Azimuth
ALT Altitude

B Blue BLDG Building


BA Braking action BLO Below clouds
BASE Cloud base BLW Below
BCFG Fog patches BOMB Bombing
BCN Beacon BR Mist
BCST Broadcast BRF Short
BDRY Boundary BRG Bearing
BECMG Becoming BRKG Braking
BFR Before BS Commercial broadcast station
BKN Broken BTL Between layers
BL Blowing BTN Between

C Centre or degrees Celsius CNS Communications, navigation and


surveillance
CAT Category or clear air turbulence COM Communications
CAVOK Visibility, cloud and present weather better CONC Concrete
than prescribed values
CD Candela COND Condition
CDN Co-ordination CONS Continuous
CF Change frequency to CONST Construct or constructed
CGL Circling guidance lights CONT Continue or continued
CH Channel COOR Co-ordinate or co-ordination
CHG Modification COP Change over point
CIDIN Common ICAO data interchange COR Correct or correction or corrected
CIT Near or over large towns COT At the coast
CIV Civil COV Cover or covered or covering
CK Check CPL Current flight plan
CL Centre line CRZ Cruise
CLA Clear type of ice formation CTA Control area
CLBR Calibration CTAM Climb to and maintain
CLD Cloud CTC Contact
CLG Calling CTL Control
CLR Clear or cleared to or clearance CTN Caution
CLSD Close or closed or closing CTR Control zone
CM Centimetre CUST Customs
CMB Climb to or climbing to CW Continuous wave
CMPL Completion or completed or complete CWY Clearway
CNL Cancel or cancelled

ATPL Air Law 1-36 24 October 2003


D

D Danger area or downward DIV Divert or diverting


DA Decision altitude DLA Delay or delayed
DCD Double channel duplex DME Distance measuring equipment
DCKG Docking DNG Danger or dangerous
DCS Double channel simplex DOM Domestic
DCT Direct DP Dewpoint temperature
DEC December DPT Depth
DEG Degrees DR Dead reckoning
DENED Fog dispersal operations DRG During
DEP Depart or departure DSB Double side band
DES Descend or descending to DTAM Descend to and maintain
DEST Destination DTG Date time group
DETRESFA Distress phase DTRT Deteriorate
DEV Deviating or deviation DTW Dual tandem wheels
DFTI Distance from touchdown indicator DUC Dense upper cloud
DH Decision height DUR Duration
DIF Diffuse DVOR Doppler VOR
DIST Distance DW Dual wheels

E East or eastern longitude ENRT En-route


EAT Expected approach time EOBT Estimated off bloke time
EB Eastbound EQPT Equipment
EET Estimated elapsed time ER Here or herewith
EFC Expect further clearance ESE East south east
EHF Extremely high frequency EST Estimate or estimated
ELBA Emergency locator beacon – aircraft ETA Estimated time of arrival or estimating
arrival
ELEV Elevation ETD Estimated time of departure or estimating
departure
ELR Extra long range ETO Estimated time over significant point
EM Emission EV Every
EMBD Embedded in a layer EXC Except
EMERG Emergency EXER Exercises or exercising or to exercise
END Stop-end EXP Expect or expected or expecting
ENE East north east EXTD Extend or extending
ENG Engine

F Fixed FLTCK Flight deck


FAC Facilities FLUC Fluctuating or fluctuation or fluctuated
FAF Final Approach Fix FLW Follow or following
FAL Facilitation FLY Fly or flying
FAP Final approach point FM From
FATO Final approach and take-off area FMU Flow management
FAX Facsimile transmission FNA Final approach
FBL Light FPL Filed flight plan

ATPL Air Law 1-37 ©Atlantic Flight Training


FC Funnel cloud FPM Feet per minute
FCST Forecast FPR Flight plan route
FCT Friction coefficient FR Fuel remaining
FEB February FREQ Frequency
FIC Flight information centre FRI Friday
FIR Flight information region FRNG Firing
FIS Flight information service FRONT Front
FISA Automated flight information service FRQ Frequent
FL Flight level FSL Full stop landing
FLD Field FSS Flight service centre
FLG Flashing FST First
FLR Flares FT Feet
FLT Flight FZ Freezing

G Green GND Ground


G/A Ground to air GNDCK Ground check
G/A/G Ground to air to ground GNSS Global navigation satellite system
GCA Ground controlled approach system or GP Glide path
ground controlled approach
GEN General GRASS Grass landing area
GEO Geographic or true GRID Grid point values
GES Ground earth station GRVL Gravel
GLD Glider GS Ground speed

H24 Continuous night and day service HOL Holiday


HAPI Helicopter approach path indicator HOSP Hospital aircraft
HBN Hazard beacon HPA Hectopascal
HDF High frequency direction finding station HR Hours
HDG Heading HS Service available during hours of scheduled
operation
HEL Helicopter HURCN Hurricane
HF High frequency HVDF High and very high frequency direction
finding stations
HGT Height or height above HVY Heavy
HJ Sunrise to sunset HX No specific working hours
HLDG Holding HYR Higher
HN Sunset to sunrise HZ Hertz
HO Service available to meet operational
requirements

IAC Instrument approach chart INBD Inbound


IAF Initial approach fix INC In cloud
IAO In and out of clouds INCERFA Uncertainty phase
IAR Intersection of air routes INFO Information
IAS Indicated air speed INOP Inoperative

ATPL Air Law 1-38 24 October 2003


IBN Identification beacon INP If not possible
ICE Icing INPR In progress
ID Identifier INS Inertial navigation system
IDENT Identification INSTL Install or installed or installation
IF Intermediate INSTR Instrument
IFF Identification friend or foe INT Intersection
IFR Instrument flight rules INTL International
IGA International general aviation INTRG Interrogator
ILS Instrument landing system INTRP Interrupt or interruption or interrupted
IM Inner marker INTSF Intensify or intensifying
IMC Instrument meteorological conditions INTST Intensity
IMG Immigration IR Ice on runway
IMPR Improve or improving ISA International standard atmosphere
IMT Immediate or immediately ISB Independent sideband
INA Initial approach ISOL Isolated

JAN January JUL July


JTST Jet stream JUN June

KG Kilograms KPA Kilopascal


KHZ Kilohertz KT Knots
KM Kilometres KW Kilowatts
KMH Kilometres per hour

L Left or locator LM Locator middle


LAM Logical acknowledgement LMT Local mean time
LAN Inland LNG Long
LAT Latitude LO Locator outer
LDA Landing distance available LOC Local or locally or location or located
LDAH Landing distance available, helicopter LONG Longitude
LDG Landing LORAN Long range air navigation system
LDI Landing direction indicator LRG Long range
LEN Length LSQ Line squall
LF Low frequency LTD Limited
LGT Light or lighting LTT Landline teletypewriter
LGTD Lighted LV Light and variable
LIH Light intensity high LVE Leave or leaving
LIL Light intensity low LVL Level
LIM Light intensity medium LYR Layered or layer
LLZ Localizer

M Mach number or metres MLS Microwave landing system

ATPL Air Law 1-39 ©Atlantic Flight Training


MAA Maximum authorized altitude MM Middle marker
MAG Magnetic MNM Minimum
MAINT Maintenance MNPS Minimum navigation performance
specification
MAP Aeronautical maps and charts MNT Monitor or monitoring
MAPT Missed approach point MNTN Maintain
MAR At sea or march MOA Military operating area
MAS Manual A1 simplex MOC Minimum obstacle clearance
MAX Maximum MOD Moderate
MAY May MON Above mountains or Monday
MCA Minimum crossing altitude MOTNE Meteorological Operational
Telecommunications Network Europe
MCW Modulated continuous wave MOV Move or moving or movement
MDA Minimum descent altitude MPS Metres per second
MDF Medium frequency direction finding station MRA Minimum reception altitude
MDH Minimum descent height MRG Medium range
MEA Minimum en-route altitude MRP ATS/MET reporting point
MEHT Minimum eye height over threshold MS Minus
MET Meteorological or meteorology MSA Minimum sector altitude
METAR Aviation routine weather report MSG Message
MF Medium frequency MSL Mean sea level
MHDF Medium and high frequency direction finding MT Mountain
station
MHVDF Medium, high and very high frequency MTU Metric units
direction finding station
MHZ Megahertz MTW Mountain waves
MID Mid-point MVDF Medium and very high frequency direction
finding station
MIL Military MWO Meteorological watch office
MIN Minutes MX Mixed type of ice formation
MKR Marker radio beacon

N North or northern latitude or no distinct NNW North north west


tendency
NOF International NOTAM office
NAT North Atlantic NOSIG No significant change
NAV Navigation NOTAM A notice containing information concerning
the establishment, condition or change in
NB Northbound
any aeronautical facility, service procedure
NBFR Not before or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is
NC No change essential to personnel concerned with flight
operations
NDB Non-directional beacon
NE North east NOV November
NEB North eastbound NR Number
NEG No or negative or permission not granted or NRH No reply heard
that is not correct
NSC Nil significant cloud
NGT Night NSW Nil significant weather
NIL None or I have nothing to send you NW North west
NM Nautical miles NWB North westbound
NML Normal NXT Next

ATPL Air Law 1-40 24 October 2003


NNE North north east
O

OAC Oceanic area control OPC The control indicated is operational control
OAS Obstacle assessment surface OPMET Operational meteorological
OBS Observe or observed or observation OPN Open or opening or opened
OBSC Obscure OPR Operator or operate or operative or
operating or operational
OBST Obstacle OPS Operations
OCA Obstacle clearance altitude O/R On request
OCC Occulting ORD Indication of an order
OCH Obstacle clearance height OSV Ocean station vessel
OCNL Occasional or occasionally OTLK Outlook
OCS Obstacle clearance surface OTP On top
OCT October OTS Organised track system
OHD Overhead OUBD Outbound
OM Outer marker OVC Overcast
OPA Opaque, white type of ice formation

P Prohibited area POB Persons on board


PALS Precision approach lighting system POSS Possible
PANS Procedures for air navigation services PPI Plan position indicator
PAPI Precision approach path indicator PPR Prior permission required
PAR Precision approach radar PPSN Present position
PARL Parallel PRI Primary
PAX Passenger(s) PRKG Parking
PCD Proceed or proceeding PROB Probability
PCN Pavement classification number PROC Procedure
PER Performance PROV Provisional
PERM Permanent PS Plus
PJE Parachute jumping exercise PSG Passing
PLA Practice low approach PSN Position
PLN Flight plan PSP Pierced steel plate
PLVL Present level PTN Procedure turn
PN Prior notice required PTS Polar track structure
PNR Point of no return PWR Power

QBI Compulsory IFR flight QFU Magnetic orientation of runway


QDM Magnetic heading QNH Altimeter sub-scale setting to obtain
elevation when on the ground
QDR Magnetic bearing QTE True bearing
QFE Atmospheric pressure at aerodrome QUAD Quadrant
elevation

R Red or restricted area or right RNAV Area navigation


RAC Rules of the air and air traffic services RNG Radio range

ATPL Air Law 1-41 ©Atlantic Flight Training


RAFC Regional area forecast centre RNP Required navigation performance
RAG Ragged or runway arresting gear ROBEX Regional OPMET bulletin exchange
RAI Runway alignment ROC Rate of climb
RB Rescue boat ROD Rate of descent
RCA Reach cruising altitude ROFOR Route forecast
RCC Rescue co-ordination RON Receiving only
RCF Radio communication failure RPL Repetitive flight plan
RCH Reach or reaching RPLC Replace or replaced
RCL Runway centre line RPS Radar position symbol
RCLL Runway centre line light(s) RQMNTS Requirements
RCLR Recleared RQP Request flight plan
RDH Reference datum height RQS Request supplementary flight plan
RDL Radial RR Report reaching
RDO Radio RSC Rescue sub-centre
RE Recent RSCD Runway surface condition
REC Receive or receiver RSP Responder beacon
REDL Runway edge light(s) RSR En-route surveillance radar
REF Recleared RTD Delayed
REG Registration RTE Route
RENL Runway end light(s) RTF Radiotelephone
REP Report or reporting or reporting point RTG Radiotelegraph
REQ Request or requested RTHL Runway threshold light(s)
RERTE Reroute RTN Return or returned or returning
RG Range RTODAH Rejected take-off distance available,
helicopter
RIF Reclearance in flight RTS Return to service
RITE Right RV Rescue vessel
RL Report leaving RVR Runway visual range
RLA Relay to RWY Runway
RLCE Request level change en-route RTT Radioteletypewriter
RLLS Runway lead in lighting system RTZL Runway touchdown zone light(s)
RLNA Request level not available RUT Standard regional route transmitting
frequencies
RMK Remark

S South or southern latitude SPECI Aviation selected special weather report


SALS Simple approach lighting system SPECIAL Special meteorological report
SAN Sanitary SPL Supplementary flight plan
SAP As soon as possible SPOT Spot wind
SAR Search and rescue SQ Squall
SARPS Standards and recommended practices SR Sunrise
SAT Saturday SRA Surveillance radar approach
SATCOM Satellite communication SRE Surveillance radar element of precision
approach radar system
SB Southbound SRG Short range
SCT Scattered SRR Search and rescue region
SDBY Stand by SRY Secondary
SE South east SS Sunset

ATPL Air Law 1-42 24 October 2003


SEB South eastbound SSB Single sideband
SEC Seconds SSE South south east
SECT Sector SSR Secondary surveillance radar
SELCAL Selective calling system SST Supersonic transport
SEP September SSW South south west
SER Service or servicing or served STA Straight in approach
SEV Severe STAR Standard instrument arrival
SFC Surface STD Standard
SGL Signal STF Stratiform
SHF Super high frequency STN Station
SID Standard instrument departure STNR Stationary
SIGMET Information concerning en-route weather STOL Short take-off and landing
which may affect the safety or aircraft
operations
SIGWX Significant weather STS Status
SIMUL Simultaneous or simultaneously STWL Stopway lights
SIWL Single isolated wheel load SUB Subject to
SKC Sky clear SUN Sunday
SKED Schedule or schedule SUP Supplement
SLP Speed limiting point SUPPS Regional supplementary procedures
SLW Slow SVC Service message
SMC Surface movement control SVCBL Serviceable
SMR Surface movement radar SW South west
SNOWTAM A special series NOTAM notifying the SWB South west bound
presence or removal of hazardous conditions
SWY Stopway
due to snow, ice, slush or standing water,
associated with snow, slush or ice on the
movement area, by means of a special
format

T Temperature TLOF Touchdown and lift-off area


TA Transition altitude TMA Terminal control area
TACAN UHF tactical air navigation aid TNA Turn altitude
TAF Aerodrome forecast TO To
TAIL Tail wind TOC Top of climb
TAR Terminal area surveillance radar TODA Take-off distance available
TAS True airspeed TODAH Take-off distance available, helicopter
TAX Taxiing or taxi TOP Cloud top
TC Tropical cyclone TORA Take-off run available
TDO Tornado TP Turning point
TDZ Touchdown zone TR Track
TECR Technical reason TRA Temporary reserved airspace
TEL Telephone TRANS Transmits or transmitter
TEMPO Temporary or temporarily TRL Transition level
TREND Trend forecast TROP Tropopause
TFC Traffic TT Teletypewriter
TGL Touch and go landing TUE Tuesday
TGS Taxiing guidance system TURB Turbulence
THR Threshold TVOR Terminal VOR

ATPL Air Law 1-43 ©Atlantic Flight Training


THRU Through TWR Aerodrome control tower or aerodrome
control
THU Thursday TWY Taxiway
TIL Until TWYL Taxiway link
TIP Until past TYP Type of aircraft
TKOF Take-off TYPH Typhoon
TL Till

U Upward UIR Upper flight information region


UAB Until advised by ULR Ultra long range
UAC Upper area control UNA Unable
UAR Upper air route UNAP Unable to approve
UDF Ultra high frequency direction finding station UNL Unlimited
UFN Until further notice UNREL Unreliable
UHDT Unable higher due traffic U/S Unserviceable
UHF Ultra high frequency UTA Upper control area
UIC Upper information centre UTC Co-ordinated universal time

VA Volcanic ash VIS Visibility


VAC Visual approach chart VLF Very low frequency
VAL In valleys VLR Very long range
VAN Runway control van VMC Visual meteorological conditions
VAR Magnetic variation or visual-aural radio VOLMET Meteorological information for aircraft in
range flight
VASIS Visual approach slope indicator system VOR Vhf omnidirectional range
VCY Vicinity VORTAC VOR and TACAN
VDF Very high frequency direction finding station VOT VOR airborne equipment test facility
VER Vertical VRB Variable
VFR Visual flight rules VSA By visual reference to the ground
VHF Very high frequency VSP Vertical speed
VIP Very important person VTOL Vertical take-off and landing

W West or western or white WINTEM Forecast upper wind and temperature for
aviation
WAC World aeronautical chart ICAO 1:1 000 000 WIP Work in progress
WAFC World area forecast centre WKN Weaken or weakening
WB Westbound WNW West north west
WBAR Wing bar lights WO Without
WDI Wind direction indicator WPT Way point
WDSPR Widespread WRNG Warning
WED Wednesday WS Wind shear
WEF With effect from or effective from WSW West south west
WI Within WT Weight
WID Width WTSPT Waterspout
WIE With immediate effect or effective WX weather

ATPL Air Law 1-44 24 October 2003


immediately
WILCO Will comply

X Cross XNG Crossing


XBAR Crossbar XS Atmospherics

Y Yellow YR Your
YCZ Yellow caution zone

Z Co-ordinated universal time (in


meteorological messages)

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Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 1-46 24 October 2003


Chapter 2.

The History of Aviation Law and the Chicago Convention 1944

Introduction

Today, decisions concerning international civil aviation are taken by the member states of the
International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). The JAR Aviation Law exam follows the
Annexes and other documents of ICAO. These notes are designed to follow the JAR syllabus
and are a precis of all of the reference material. The language may be difficult to follow
because of the use made of the words SHALL and SHOULD. SHALL refers to Standards;
SHOULD refers to recommended practices. These terms are explained in greater detail later.

1919 Aeronautical Commission of the Paris Peace Conference

This commission drafted legislation concerning International Air Navigation. The convention
recognized that every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above
its territory, and provided for the innocent passage of civil aircraft of other contracting states
over that state’s territory. It was the recommendations made by this conference that
established the need for an international body to regulate civil aviation and led to the
formation of the International Commission for Air Navigation (ICAN).

1926 Ibero-American Congress, Madrid

Essentially identical to the Paris convention the aim of this congress was to link Spain and the
Latin American states into an organization similar to ICAN.

1928 Pan-American Convention of Commercial Aviation, Havana

Specifically tailored for the needs of the states of the Western Hemisphere. The drafting of the
Havana convention envisaged the western and eastern hemispheres as separate distinct
entities with no need for commonality. Lindbergh completed the first non-stop solo Atlantic
flight on 20 May 1927. The day that the Havana Convention was ratified. This convention
weakened the status of ICAN which was eventually superseded by ICAO.

1929 Warsaw Convention of the Unification of Certain Rules to International Carriage


by Air

A convention to which 108 are parties, it is one of the most widely accepted unification of
private law. It unifies legislation on:

¾ Documentation on the carriage of passengers, baggage and cargo.


¾ The financial liability of airlines.
¾ The question of jurisdiction, by defining the courts before which any action may
be brought.

ATPL Air Law 2-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


This convention was amended and simplified by the 1955 Hague Protocol. The Montreal
Agreement of 1966 further amended the liability of airlines.

1944 Convention in International Aviation (the Chicago Convention)

(The text used to explain the Articles of the Chicago Convention is little changed from the
original, as the meaning may be lost if simplified)

Part I – Air Navigation

Chapter I - General Principles and Application Of The Convention

Article 1 - Sovereignty The Contracting States recognize that every State has complete and
exclusive sovereignty over the airspace above its territory.

Article 2 – Territory For the purposes of this convention the territory of a State shall be
deemed to be the land areas and territorial waters adjacent thereto under the sovereignty,
suzerainty, protection or mandate of such a State.

Article 3 - Civil and State Aircraft This convention shall be applicable only to civil
aircraft, and shall not be applicable to State aircraft:

¾ Aircraft used in military, customs and police services shall be deemed to be State
aircraft
¾ No State aircraft of a Contracting State shall fly over the territory of another State
or land without authorization by special agreement or otherwise.
¾ The Contracting States undertake, when issuing regulations for their State
aircraft, that they will have due regard for the safety of navigation of civil aircraft

Article 4 - Misuse of Civil AircraftEach Contracting State agrees not to use civil aviation for
any purpose inconsistent with the aims of this convention.

Chapter II - Flight Over Territory of Contracting States

Article 5 - Right of Non-Scheduled Aircraft Each Contracting State agrees that all
aircraft of other Contracting States, not engaged in scheduled international air services shall
have the right to make flights into or transit non-stop across its territory and to make stops for
non-traffic purposes without the necessity of obtaining prior permission. This is subject to the
right of the state flown over which may require the aircraft to land. Each Contracting State
reserves the right, for reasons of safety of flight, to require aircraft desiring to proceed over
regions which are inaccessible or without adequate air navigation facilities to follow
prescribed routes, or to obtain special permission for such flights.

Such aircraft, if engaged on the carriage of passengers, cargo or mail for remuneration or hire
on other than scheduled international air services, shall also subject to the provisions of
Article 7, have the right to take on or discharge passengers, cargo or mail. This is subject to
the right of any State, where such embarkation or discharge takes place, to impose such
regulations, conditions, or limitations as it may consider desirable.

ATPL Air Law 2-2 24 October 2003


Article 6 - Scheduled Air Services No scheduled international air service may be
operated over or into the territory of a Contracting State, except with the special permission or
other authorization of that State, and in accordance with the terms of such permission or
authorization.

Article 7 – Cabotage Each Contracting State shall have the right to refuse permission to
the aircraft of other Contracting States to take on in its territory passengers, mail and cargo
carried for remuneration or hire and destined for another point within its territory. Each
Contracting State undertakes not to enter into any arrangements that specifically grant any
such privilege on an exclusive basis to any other State or an airline of any other State, and
not to obtain any such exclusive privilege from any other State.

Cabotage is the carrying of passengers, mail or cargo by an aircraft from State A within State
B eg An Atlantic Aviation aircraft picking passengers up in Berlin and disembarking them in
Munich. Each Contracting State has the right to refuse cabotage within its own state.

Article 8 - Pilotless Aircraft No aircraft capable of being flown without a pilot shall be
flown without a pilot over the territory of a Contracting State without special authorization by
that State and in accordance with the terms of such authorization. Each Contracting State
undertakes to ensure that the flight of such aircraft without a pilot in regions open to civil
aircraft shall be controlled as to obviate danger to civil aircraft.

Article 9 - Prohibited Areas

¾ Each Contracting State may, for reasons of military necessity or public safety,
restrict or prohibit the aircraft of other States from flying over certain areas of its
territory. This is provided that no distinction in this respect is made between the
aircraft of the State whose territory is involved. Prohibited areas shall be of
reasonable extent and location so as not to interfere unnecessarily with air
navigation. Descriptions of prohibited areas in the territory of a Contracting State,
as well as any subsequent alterations, shall be communicated as soon as
possible to other Contracting States and to the ICAO

¾ Each Contracting State reserves the right, in exceptional circumstances or during


a period of emergency, or in the interests of public safety, and with immediate
effect, to restrict or prohibit flying over the whole or any part of its territory
temporarily. Such a restriction or prohibition shall be applicable without distinction
of nationality to aircraft of all other States.

¾ Each Contracting State, under any regulations as it may prescribe may require
any aircraft entering the areas in the paragraphs above to effect a landing as
soon as practicable thereafter at a designated airport within its territory.

Article 10 - Landing At Customs Airport Except in a case where, under the terms of
this Convention or a special authorization, aircraft are permitted to cross the territory of a
Contracting State without landing, every aircraft which enters the territory of a Contracting
State shall, if the regulations of that State so require, land at an airport for the purpose of
customs and other examination. On departure from the territory of a Contracting State, aircraft

ATPL Air Law 2-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


shall also depart from a designated customs airport. Particulars of all designated customs
airports shall be published by the State and transmitted to the ICAO established under Part II
of this Convention for communication to all other Contracting States.

Article 11 - Applicability of Air Regulations Subject to the provisions of this Convention,


the laws and regulations of a Contracting State relating to the admission to or departure from
its territory of aircraft engaged in international air navigation, or to the operation and
navigation of such aircraft while within its territory, shall be applied to the aircraft of all
Contracting States without distinction as to nationality, and shall be complied with by aircraft
upon entering or departing from or while within the territory of that State.

Article 12 - Rules of the Air Each Contracting State undertakes to adopt measures to
ensure that all aircraft flying over or manoeuvring within its territory and that every aircraft
carrying its nationality mark, wherever that aircraft may be, shall comply with the rules and
regulations relating to the flight and manoeuvre of aircraft there in force. Each Contracting
State undertakes to keep its own regulations uniform, to the greatest possible extent, with
those rules established under the Convention. Over the high seas, the rules in force shall be
those established under the Convention. Each Contracting State undertakes to ensure the
protection of all persons violating the regulations applicable.

Article 13 - Entry and Clearance Regulations The laws and regulations of a Contracting
State as to the admission to or departure from its territory of passengers, crew, or cargo of
aircraft such as entry clearance, immigration, passports, customs, and quarantine shall be
complied with by or on behalf of passengers, crew or cargo upon entrance into or departure
from, or while within the territory of that State.

Article 14 - Prevention of Spread of Disease Each Contracting State agrees to take


effective measures to prevent the spread by means of air navigation of cholera, typhus
(epidemic), smallpox, yellow fever, plague, and such other communicable disease as the
Contracting States shall from time to time decide to designate. To that end Contracting States
will keep in close consultation with the agencies concerned with international regulations
relating to sanitary measures applicable to aircraft. Consultation shall be without prejudice to
the application of any existing international convention on this subject to which the
Contracting States may be parties.

Article 16 - Search of Aircraft The appropriate authorities of each of the Contracting States
shall have the right without unreasonable delay, to search aircraft of the other Contracting
States on landing or departure, and to inspect the certificates and other documents
prescribed by this Convention.

Chapter III - Nationality of Aircraft

Article 17 - Nationality of Aircraft Aircraft have the nationality of the State in which they
are registered

Article 18 - Dual Registration An aircraft cannot be validly registered in more than one
State, but its registration may be changed from one State to another

ATPL Air Law 2-4 24 October 2003


Article 19 - National Laws Governing Registration The registration or transfer of
registration of aircraft in any Contracting State shall be made in accordance with its laws and
regulations.

Article 20 - Display of Marks Every aircraft engaged in international air navigation shall
bear its appropriate nationality and registration marks.

Article 21 - Report of Registrations Each Contracting State undertakes to supply to any


other Contracting State or to the ICAO, on demand, information concerning the registration
and ownership of any particular aircraft registered in that State. Each Contracting State shall
furnish reports to the ICAO, under any regulations as the latter may decide upon, pertinent
data concerning the ownership and control of aircraft registered in that State and engaged in
international air navigation. The data obtained by the ICAO shall be made available to the
other Contracting States.

Chapter IV - Measures to Facilitate Air Navigation

Article 22 - Facilitation of Formalities Each Contracting State agrees to adopt all


practicable measures to facilitate and expedite navigation by aircraft between the territories of
Contracting States. This includes the prevention of unnecessary delays to aircraft, crews,
passengers and cargo, especially in the administration of the laws relating to immigration,
quarantine, customs and clearance.

Article 23 - Customs and Immigration Procedures Each Contracting State undertakes,


so far as practicable, to establish customs and immigration procedures affecting international
air navigation in accordance with the practices which may be established or recommended
from by the Convention. Nothing in this Convention shall be construed as preventing the
establishment of customs free airports.

Article 24 - Customs Duty

¾ Aircraft on a flight to, from, or across the territory of another Contracting State
shall be admitted temporarily free of duty, subject to the customs regulations of
the State. Fuel, lubricating oils, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft spares
on board an aircraft of a Contracting State, on arrival in the territory of another
Contracting State and retained on board on leaving the territory of that State shall
be exempt from customs duty, inspection fees or similar national or local duties
and charges. This exemption shall not apply to any quantities or articles
unloaded, except in accordance with the customs regulations of the State, which
may require that they shall be kept under customs supervision.

¾ Spare parts and equipment imported into the territory of a Contracting State for
incorporation in or use on an aircraft of another Contracting State engaged in
international air navigation shall be admitted free of customs duty, subject to
compliance with the regulations of the State concerned, which may provide that
the articles shall be kept under customs supervision and control.

Article 25 - Aircraft In Distress Each Contracting State undertakes to provide such


measures of assistance to aircraft in distress in its territory as is practicable, and to permit,

ATPL Air Law 2-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


subject to control by its own authorities, the owners of the aircraft or authorities of the State in
which the aircraft is registered to provide assistance as may be necessitated by the
circumstances. Each Contracting State, when undertaking a search for missing aircraft, will
collaborate in co-ordinated measures which may be recommended from time to time by the
convention.

Article 26 - Investigation of Accidents In the event of an accident to an aircraft of a


Contracting State occurring in the territory of another Contracting State, and involving death
or serious injury, or indicating serious technical defect in the aircraft or air navigation facilities,
the State in which the incident occurs will institute an inquiry into the circumstances of the
accident, in accordance, so far as its laws permit, with the procedure which may be
recommended by the ICAO. The State holding the inquiry shall communicate the report and
findings in the matter to the other State.

Article 28 - Air Navigation Facilities and Standard Systems Each Contracting State
undertakes, so far as it may be practicable, to:

¾ Provide, in its territory, airports, radio services, meteorological services and other
air navigation facilities to facilitate international air navigation, in accordance with
the standards and practices recommended or established by the Convention.
¾ Adopt and put into operation the appropriate standard systems of
communications procedures, codes, markings, signals, lighting and other
operational practices and rules which may be recommended or established by
the Convention.
¾ Collaborate in international measures to secure the publication of aeronautical
maps and charts in accordance with standards that may be recommended or
established by the Convention.

Chapter V - Conditions to be Fulfilled With Respect to Aircraft

Article 29 - Documents Carried in Aircraft An aircraft of a Contracting State, engaged


in international air navigation, shall carry the following documents in order to conform with the
Convention:

¾ A certificate of registration
¾ A certificate of airworthiness
¾ The appropriate licenses for each member of the crew
¾ A journey log book
¾ If equipped with radio apparatus, the aircraft radio station license
¾ If passengers are carried, a list of their names and places of embarkation and
destination
¾ If cargo is carried, a manifest and detailed declarations of the cargo

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Article 30 - Aircraft Radio Equipment

¾ Aircraft of a Contracting State may, in or over the territory of other Contracting


States, carry radio-transmitting apparatus if a license to install and operate the
radio has been issued by the appropriate authorities of the State in which the
aircraft is registered. The use of radio transmitting apparatus in the territory of the
Contracting State whose territory is flown over shall be in accordance with the
regulations prescribed by that State.
¾ Radio transmitting apparatus can only be used by members of the flight crew who
are provided with a radio license issued by the appropriate authorities of the State
in which the aircraft is registered.

Article 31 - Certificates of Airworthiness All aircraft engaged in international air


navigation shall be provided with a certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid by the
State in which it is registered.

Article 32 - Licenses of Personnel

The pilot of every aircraft and the other members of the operating crew of all aircraft engaged
in international navigation shall be provided with:

¾ Certificates of competency, and


¾ Licenses issued or rendered valid

by the State in which the aircraft is registered.

Each Contracting State reserves the right to refuse to recognize, for the purposes of flight
above its own territory, certificates of competency and licenses granted to any of its nationals
by other Contracting States

Article 33 - Recognition of Certificates And Licenses Certificates of airworthiness and


certificates of competency and licenses issued or rendered valid by the Contracting State in
which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognized as valid by other Contracting States,
provided that the requirements under which certificates or licences were issued or rendered
valid are equal to or above the minimum standards established by the Convention.

Article 34 - Journey Log Books All aircraft engaged in international navigation shall
have a journey log book in which shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, its crew and of
each journey.

Article 35 - Cargo Restrictions

No munitions of war or implements of war may be carried in or above the territory of a State
by aircraft engaged in international navigation, except by permission of that State. Each State
shall determine what constitutes munitions of war for the purposes of this article, giving due
consideration, for the purposes of uniformity, to the recommendations made by ICAO.

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Each Contracting State reserves the right, for reasons of public order and safety, to regulate
or prohibit the carriage in or above its territory of articles other than those listed in the
paragraph above, provided that:

¾ No distinction is made in this respect between its national aircraft engaged in


international navigation and the aircraft of the other States, and
¾ No restriction shall be imposed which may interfere with the carriage and use on
aircraft of apparatus necessary for the operation or navigation of the aircraft or
the safety of the personnel or passengers

Article 36 - Photographic Apparatus Each Contracting State may prohibit or regulate the
use of photographic apparatus in aircraft over its territory.

Chapter VI - International Standards and Recommended Practices

Article 37 - Adoption of International Standards And Procedures Each Contracting


State undertakes to collaborate in securing the highest practicable degree of uniformity in
regulations, standards, procedures and organization in relation to aircraft, personnel, airways
and auxiliary services in all matters in which such uniformity will facilitate and improve air
navigation

To this end the ICAO shall adopt and amend, as may be necessary, international standards
and recommended practices and procedures dealing with:

¾ Communications systems and air navigation aids, including ground marking


¾ Characteristics of airports and landing areas
¾ Rules of the air and air traffic control practices
¾ Licensing of operating and mechanical personnel
¾ Airworthiness of aircraft
¾ Registration and identification of aircraft
¾ Collection and exchange of meteorological information
¾ Log books
¾ Aeronautical maps and charts
¾ Customs and immigration procedures
¾ Aircraft in distress and investigation of accidents

and other such matters concerned with the safety, regularity, and efficiency of air navigation
as may from time to time appear appropriate.

Article 38 - Departures From International Standards and Procedures Any State


which finds it impracticable to comply in all respects with any such international standards or
procedures, or to bring its own regulations or practices into full accord with any international
standard or procedure after amendment of the latter, or which deems it necessary to adopt
regulations or practices differing in any respect from those established by an international
standard, shall give immediate notification to the ICAO of the differences between its own

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practice and that established by the international standard. In the case of amendments to
international standards, any State which does not make the appropriate amendments to its
own regulations or practices shall give notice to the Council within 60 days of the adoption of
the amendment to the international standard, or indicate the action which it proposes to take.
In any such case, the Council shall make immediate notification to all other States of the
difference that exists between one or more features of an international standard and the
corresponding national practice of that State.

Article 39 - Endorsement of Certificates and Licenses

¾ Any aircraft or part thereof with respect to which there exists an international
standard of airworthiness or performance, and which failed in any respect to
satisfy the standard at the time of its certification, shall have endorsed on or
attached to its airworthiness certificate a complete list of the details in respect of
which it failed.

¾ Any person holding a license who does not satisfy in full the conditions laid down
in the international standard relating to the class of license or certificate which he
holds shall have endorsed on or attached to his license the details of the
particulars in which he does not satisfy such conditions.

Article 40 - Validity of Endorsed Certificates and Licenses No aircraft or personnel


having certificates or licenses so endorsed shall participate in international navigation, except
with the permission of the State or States whose territory is entered. The registration or use of
any such aircraft, or of any certificated aircraft part, in any State other than that in which it was
originally certificated shall be at the discretion of the State into which the aircraft or part is
imported.

Part II – The International Civil Aviation Organisation

Chapter VII - The Organisation

ASSEMBLY
All Contracting States one member one vote

COUNCIL
33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly
(President of the Council is elected by the Council

Air Navigation Air Transport Legal Committee Committee on Joint Finance Committee Committee on
Commission Committee Support of Air Navigation Services Unlawful Interference

Air Navigation Commission 15 members appointed by the Council

Air Transport Committee Appointed by the Council

Legal Committee

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Committee on Joint Support of Air Navigation Services Not more than 11 members,
with not less than 9 members appointed by the Council

Finance Committee Not more than 13 members, with not less than 9 members appointed
by the Council

Committee on Unlawful Interference 15 members appointed by the Council

Article 43 - Name and Composition An organization to be named the International Civil


Aviation Organization is formed by the Convention. It is made up of an Assembly, a Council,
and such other bodies as may be necessary.

Article 44 – Objectives The aims and objectives of the organization are to develop
the principles and techniques of international air navigation and to foster the planning and
development of international air transport so as to:

¾ Ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation throughout the
world
¾ Encourage the arts of aircraft design and operation for peaceful purposes
¾ Encourage the development of airways, airports and air navigation facilities for
international civil aviation
¾ Meet the needs of the peoples of the world for safe, regular, efficient and
economical air transport
¾ Prevent economic waste caused by unreasonable competition
¾ Insure that the rights of Contracting States are fully respected and that every
Contracting State has a fair opportunity to operate international airlines
¾ Avoid discrimination between Contracting States
¾ Promote safety of flight in international air navigation
¾ Promote generally the development of all aspects of international civil aeronautics

Article 47 - Legal Capacity The organization shall enjoy in the territory of each
Contracting State such legal capacity as may be necessary for the performance of its
functions

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Chapter VIII - The Assembly

Article 48 - Meetings of Assembly and Voting

¾ The Assembly shall meet not less than once every three years and shall be
convened by the Council at a suitable time and place. An extraordinary meeting
of the Assembly may be held at any time upon the call of the Council or at the
request of not less than 1/5 th of the total number of Contracting States.

¾ All Contracting States shall have an equal right to be represented at the meetings
of the Assembly and each Contracting State shall be entitled to one vote.
Delegates representing Contracting States may be assisted by technical advisers
who may participate in the meetings but shall have no vote

¾ A majority of the Contracting States is required to constitute a quorum for the


meetings of the Assembly. Unless otherwise provided in this Convention,
decisions of the Assembly shall be taken by a majority of the votes cast

Article 49 - Powers and Duties of the Assembly The powers and duties of the
Assembly shall be to:

¾ Elect at each meeting its president and other officers


¾ Elect the Contracting States to be represented on the Council, in accordance with
the provisions of Chapter IX
¾ Examine and take appropriate action on the reports of the Council and decide on
any matter referred to it by the Council
¾ Determine its own rules of procedure and establish such subsidiary commissions
as it may consider to be necessary or desirable
¾ Vote annual budgets and determine the financial arrangements of the
organization, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XII
¾ Review expenditures and approve the accounts of the organization
¾ Refer, at its discretion, to the Council, to subsidiary commissions, or to any other
body any matter within its sphere of action
¾ Delegate to the Council the powers and authority necessary or desirable for the
discharge of the duties of the organization and revoke or modify the delegations
of authority at any time
¾ Carry out the appropriate provisions of Chapter XIII
¾ Consider proposals for the modification or amendment of the provisions of this
Convention and, if it approves of the proposals, recommend them to the
Contracting States in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XXI
¾ Deal with any matter within the sphere of action of the Organization not
specifically assigned to the Council

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Chapter IX - The Council

Article 50 - Composition and Election of the Council

¾ The Council shall be a permanent body responsible to the Assembly. It is


composed of 33 Contracting States elected by the Assembly. An election shall be
held at the first meeting of the Assembly and thereafter every 3 years. Elected
members of the Council hold office until the following election

¾ In electing the members of the Council, the Assembly shall give adequate
representation to:

¾ The States of chief importance in air transport


¾ The States not otherwise included which make the largest contribution to the
provision of facilities for international civil air navigation, and
¾ The States not otherwise included whose designation will insure that all the major
geographic areas of the world are represented
¾ The Assembly shall fill any vacancy on the Council as soon as possible; any
Contracting State so elected to the Council shall hold office for the unexpired
portion of its predecessor’s office

¾ No representative of a Contracting State on the Council shall be actively


associated with the operation of an international air service or financially
interested in such a service

Article 51 - President of Council The Council shall elect its president for a term of 3
years. He may be re-elected. He shall have no vote. The Council shall elect from its members
one or more vice presidents who shall retain their right to vote when serving as acting
president. The president need not be selected from among the representatives of the
members of the Council but, if a representative is elected, his seat shall be deemed vacant
and it shall be filled by the State that he represented. The duties of the president shall be to:

¾ Convene meetings of

• The Council
• The Air Transport Committee
• The Air Navigation Commission

¾ Serve as representative of the Council


¾ Carry out on behalf of the Council the functions which the Council assigns to him

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Article 54 - Mandatory Functions of the Council The Council shall:

¾ Submit annual reports to the Assembly


¾ Carry out the directions of the Assembly and discharge the duties and obligations
which are laid on it by this Convention
¾ Determine its organization and rules of procedure
¾ Appoint and define the duties of an Air Transport Committee, which shall be
chosen from among the representatives of the members of the Council, and
which shall be responsible to it
¾ Establish an Air Navigation Commission, in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter X
¾ Administer the finances of the Organization in accordance with the provisions of
Chapter XII and XV
¾ Determine the emoluments of the president of the Council
¾ Appoint a chief executive officer who shall be called the secretary-general, and
make provision for the appointment of such other personnel as may be
necessary, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XI
¾ Request, collect, examine and publish information relating to the advancement of
air navigation and the operation of international air services including information
about the costs of operation and particulars of subsidies paid to airlines from
public funds
¾ Report to Contracting States any infraction of this Convention, as well as any
failure to carry out recommendations or determinations of the Council
¾ Report to the Assembly any infraction of this Convention where a Contracting
State has failed to take appropriate action within a reasonable time after notice of
the infraction
¾ Adopt, in accordance with the provisions of Chapter VI of this Convention,
international standards and recommended practices; for convenience designate
them as Annexes to this Convention; and notify all Contracting States of the
action taken
¾ Consider recommendations of the Air Navigation Commission for amendment of
the Annexes and take action in accordance with the provisions of Chapter XX
¾ Consider any matter relating to the Convention which any Contracting State
refers to it

Article 55 - Permissive Function of the Council The Council may:

¾ Where appropriate and as experience may show to be desirable, create


subordinate air transport commissions on a regional or other basis and define
groups of States or airlines with or through which it may deal to facilitate the
carrying out of the aims of this Convention
¾ Delegate to the Air Navigation Commission duties additional to those in the
Convention and revoke or modify such delegations of authority at any time
¾ Conduct research into all aspects of air transport and air navigation which are of
international importance, communicate the results of its research to the
Contracting States, and facilitate the exchange of information between
Contracting States on air transport and air navigation matters

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¾ Study any matters affecting the organization and operation of international air
transport, including the international ownership and operation of international air
services on trunk routes, and submit to the Assembly plans in relation thereto
¾ Investigate, at the request of any Contracting State, any situation which may
appear to present avoidable obstacles to the development of international air
navigation; and after such investigation, issue such reports as may appear to be
desirable

Chapter X - The Air Navigation Commission

Article 56 - Nomination and Appointment of the Commission The Air Navigation


Commission is composed of 15 members appointed by the Council from among the persons
nominated by Contracting States, These persons shall have suitable qualifications and
experience in the science and practice of aeronautics. The Council shall request all
Contracting States to submit nominations. The Council shall appoint the president of the Air
Navigation Commission.

Article 57 - Duties of the Commission The Air Navigation Commission shall:

¾ Consider and recommend to the Council for adoption, modifications of the


Annexes to this Convention
¾ Establish technical sub-commissions on which any Contracting State may be
represented, if it so desires
¾ Advise the Council concerning the collection and communication to the
Contracting States of all information which it considers necessary and useful for
the advancement of air navigation

ICAO Annexes

The annexes are the basis of the ICAO procedures and practices:

Annex 1 - Personnel Licensing.


Annex 2 - Rules of the Air.
Annex 3 - Meteorological Services.
Annex 4 - Aeronautical Charts.
Annex 5 - Dimension units.
Annex 6 - Operations of Aircraft.
Annex 7 - Aircraft nationality and registration marks.
Annex 8 - Airworthiness of aircraft.
Annex 9 - Facilitation.
Annex 10 - Aeronautical telecommunications.
Annex 11 - Air traffic services.
Annex 12 - Search and rescue.
Annex 13 - Aircraft accident investigation.
Annex 14 - Aerodromes.

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Annex 15 - Aeronautical information service.
Annex 16 - Environmental protection.
Annex 17 - Security.
Annex 18 - Transport of dangerous goods.

ICAO regulations are not automatically the law of a contracting state. All regulations have to
be enacted as part of the law of that state.

Status of Annex Components All Annexes are made up of the following components, not all
of which are necessarily found in every Annex.

Standards and Recommended Practices (SARPs) Standards and


Recommended Practices are adopted by the ICAO Council under the provisions of
the Chicago Convention. They are defined as follows:

Standard Any specification for physical characteristics, configuration,


material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform application of
which is recognized as necessary for the safety or regularity of International
Navigation and to which Contracting States will conform in accordance with
the convention. In the event of non-compliance then notification to the council
is compulsory. The word SHALL defines a standard.

Recommended Practice Any specification for physical characteristics,


configuration, material, performance, personnel or procedure, the uniform
application of which is recognized as desirable for the safety or regularity of
International Navigation and to which Contracting States will endeavour to
conform in accordance with the convention. In the event of non-compliance
then notification to the council is not compulsory. The word SHOULD defines
a recommended practice.

Appendices Material grouped separately for convenience but forming


part of the SARPs as adopted by the ICAO Council.

Definitions Definitions are of terms used in the SARPs which are not
self-explanatory. These terms do not have dictionary explanations. A definition does
not have independent status but is an essential part of each SARPs.

Tables and Figures Tables and figures that add to or illustrate a SARP form part
of that SARP and as such have the same status.

Material Approved by the Council for Publication with the Standards and
Recommended Practices

Forewords The forewords contain historical and explanatory material based on the
action of the ICAO Council.

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Introduction The introduction contains explanatory material introduced at the beginning of
Parts, Chapters or Sections of the Annex to help in the understanding of the application of the
text.

Notes Notes are included in the text to give factual information or references bearing on the
SARPs in question. These notes do not constitute part of that SARP.

Attachments Attachments are supplementary information to the SARPs, or information


included as a guide to their application.

ICAO Technical Publications

International Standards and Recommended Practices The uniform application by


contracting states of the specifications contained in the international standards is recognized
as necessary for the safety or regularity of international air navigation. The uniform application
of the specifications in the recommended practices is regarded as desirable in the interest of
safety, regularity or efficiency of international air navigation. The international standards that
have been adopted by ICAO are mandatory unless the state concerned notifies ICAO of any
differences. Recommended practices are not mandatory; states are asked to notify ICAO of
any differences.

Procedures for Air Navigation Services (PANS) These are procedures that have
been adopted by the council for worldwide use. They can contain:

¾ New procedures, or those which are too complicated or detailed for inclusion in
an Annex.
¾ Operating procedures that have not attained a status for adoption as International
Standards and Recommended Practices.

Regional Supplementary Procedures (SUPPS) These procedures are similar in


status to the PANS but are for application in their respective regions.

Technical Manuals These documents amplify the SARPs and PANS. They are designed
to assist in the use of the relevant document.

Air Navigation Plans Air Navigation Plans detail the requirements for facilities and services
for international air navigation in the respective ICAO Air Navigation Regions.

ICAO Circulars Any information that is of specific interest to contracting states is


transmitted by these documents.

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International Agreements

The International Air Transport Agreement

Also known as “The Five Freedoms” and adopted at the same time as the Chicago
Convention. These freedoms are:

One The freedom of innocent passage. The right to fly across the territories of a
state without landing.
Two Freedom of Facilities. The right to use foreign territory to refuel or carry out
maintenance. This does not give any traffic rights.
Three The right to carry revenue traffic from the carriers base nation (A) to treaty
partner’s territory (B)
Four The right to carry revenue traffic from treaty partner’s territory (B) to carrier’s
base nation (A)
Five The right to carry revenue traffic between any points of landing on flights
between 3 or more treaty partner nations (B to C to D)
(Do not get this freedom mixed up with Cabotage)

1 & 2 are known as technical rights, 3, 4 & 5 are the traffic rights.

Supplementary Freedoms

Six A combination of Freedoms 3 and 4. Revenue traffic flown between two


treaty partner nations (C to A) through carrier’s base nation (B)
Seven Revenue traffic flown between two nations (C to A) by carrier of a third nation
(B)
Eight - Cabotage The right to carry revenue traffic between two points within a
treaty nation (B) by the carrier of another nation (A)
Nine – Code Sharing The carrying of passengers by an airline other than the one
booked. Most apparent at airports where two to three airlines are listed for the one
flight.

The Convention of Tokyo 1963

The agreements made at this convention cover offences and certain other acts committed on
board aircraft mainly unlawful interference. The convention covers the jurisdiction of the pilot
in command and national jurisdiction.

National Jurisdiction

Article 3 The state that an aircraft is registered in is responsible for exercising


jurisdiction over offences and acts committed on board. The state should take all legal means
necessary to ensure this.

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Article 4 A contracting state, which is not the state of registration, may not interfere
with an aircraft in flight in order to exercise legal control over any offence committed on board,
unless:

¾ The offence has an effect on the territory of the state.


¾ The offence has been committed against a national, or permanent resident, of
that state.
¾ The offence is against the security of that state.
¾ The offence consists of a breach of the rules or regulations relating to the flight of
aircraft in that state.
¾ The exercise of jurisdiction is necessary to ensure the observance of any multi-
national agreements between states.

Pilot in Command If a person commits or is about to commit an unlawful act on board


an aircraft, the aircraft commander may impose reasonable measures, including restraint,
which he considers necessary:

¾ To protect the safety of the aircraft, persons or property on board.


¾ To maintain good order and discipline.
¾ To enable him to hand over a person to the competent authorities. This can
include removal of a passenger from an aircraft, or, refusal of permission for a
person to board an aircraft.

¾ To carry out his task the aircraft commander may require the assistance of
other crewmembers; he may also ask passengers to assist as necessary.

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Chapter 3.

Multilateral, Bilateral Agreements, the Warsaw Convention 1929 and the


Treaty of Rome

Introduction

For commercial aviation to operate it is necessary for states to afford the airlines of other
states the right to fly into and across their territory for both traffic and non-traffic purposes.

The principal sources of International Air Law are treaties, which are international agreements
entered into between states. Such treaties or conventions may be multilateral or bilateral.

¾ Multilateral Agreements The multilateral agreement or convention is entered


into by a number of different states. The most obvious one to the aviator is The
Chicago Convention.

¾ Bilateral Agreements As the name implies, a bilateral agreement is an


agreement between two states eg The Bermuda agreement between the USA
and UK.

Such agreements provide for every state the basis on which it enjoys the right to operate air
services to any foreign state.

The failure of The Chicago Conference to reach multilateral agreement on the three key
economic aspects of air transport regulation:

¾ Traffic rights
¾ Tariffs
¾ Capacity

forced the industry to develop alternative ways of regulating these aspects. Fairly quickly a
three sided regulatory structure developed:

¾ Bilateral service agreements have been used to regulate the exchange of traffic
rights between countries and, in some cases, they also involve capacity
regulation
¾ The International Air Transport Association (IATA) was developed by the airlines,
with government approval, into a forum for establishing fares and rates
¾ Inter-airline agreements have increasingly been introduced by many airlines,
usually but not exclusively on a bilateral basis, as a way of trying to control
capacity on particular routes. This is done through revenue pooling agreements.

This regulatory structure has effectively controlled the development of scheduled air services
since World War II. Non-scheduled or charter operations have been relatively unaffected by

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international regulation. However, charter operations have been affected by arbitrary and ad-
hoc decisions by individual nations.

The Bermuda Agreement on Scheduled Air Traffic Rights

This agreement between the UK and USA is an example of a bilateral agreement between
two states where the countries by virtue of their geographic position are finely balanced. It
was broadly based on the following principles:

¾ Air transport facilities available to the travelling public should bear a close
relationship to the requirement of the public for such transport
¾ Fair and equal opportunity to operate on any international route
¾ For trunk services, the interests of the air carriers of the other governments shall
be taken into consideration

The International Air Transport Association (IATA)

IATA is a body whose members are composed of airlines. The functions of IATA include the
establishment of uniform fares, uniform ticketing arrangements and other procedures.

The Warsaw Convention 1929

Uniform rules governing the air carriers liabilities in respect of passengers and goods were
agreed in Warsaw in October 1929, when the Treaty for Unification of Certain Rules relating
to the International Carriage by Air was made. This treaty is now known as the Warsaw
Convention 1929. Since the original convention amendments have been made, the most
significant being:

¾ The Hague Protocol 1955


¾ The Montreal Agreement 1966

The Warsaw Convention deals only with rights and obligations of contracting carriers. The
Important Articles from the Warsaw Convention are:

Article 1 This convention applies to the international carriage of persons,


baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward. Carriage performed by several
successive air carriers is deemed to be one undivided carriage if it has been regarded
as a single operation.

Article 2 The convention applies to carriage performed by the state or by the


legally constituted public bodies provided it falls within the conditions laid down in
Article 1

The convention does not apply to carriage performed under the terms of any international
postal convention.

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Passenger Ticket

Article 3 A passenger ticket shall be issued for each flight containing:

¾ The place and date of issue


¾ An indication of the place of departure and destination
¾ The agreed stopping places, provided that the carrier may reserve the right to
alter the stopping places, and that if he exercises that right, the alteration shall
not have the effect of depriving the carriage of its international character
¾ The name and address of the carrier or carriers
¾ A statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to the liability
established by this convention

The absence, irregularity or loss of the passenger ticket does not affect the validity of the
contract of carriage, which shall be subject to the rules of the convention. If a carrier accepts
a passenger without a ticket then he will not be able to fall back on the provisions of the
convention that limit his liability.

Baggage Check

Article 4 For the carriage of luggage, other than the small personal objects
that the passenger takes himself, the carrier must issue a luggage ticket. The luggage
ticket is made out in duplicate, one for the passenger and the other for the carrier.

The luggage ticket shall contain the following:

¾ The place and date of issue


¾ The place of departure and destination
¾ The name and address of the carrier
¾ The number of the passenger ticket
¾ A statement that delivery of the luggage will be made to the bearer of the luggage
ticket
¾ The number and weight of the packages
¾ A statement that the carriage is subject to the rules relating to liability established
by the convention

Air Waybill

Article 5 Every carrier has the right to require the consignor to make out and
hand over to him a document called an “Air Waybill”; every consignor has the right to
require the carrier to accept this document.

The absence, irregularity or loss of this document does not affect the existence or the
validity of the contract of carriage.

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Article 6 The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in three original
parts and be handed over with the cargo.

¾ The first part shall be marked “for the carrier” and signed by the consignor
¾ The second “for the consignee”; this part shall be signed by the consignor and by
the carrier and shall accompany the cargo
¾ The third part shall be signed by the carrier and handed by him to the consignor
after the cargo has been accepted

The carrier shall sign prior to the loading of the cargo on board the aircraft. The
signature of the carrier may be stamped; the signature of the consignor may be
printed or stamped.

Article 7 The carrier of cargo has the right to require the consignor to make
out separate waybills when there is more than one package.

Liability of the Carrier

Article 17 The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the death or
wounding of a passenger or any other bodily injury suffered by a passenger, if the accident
that caused the damage took place on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the
operations of embarking or disembarking

Article 18 The carrier is liable for damage sustained to any registered baggage or cargo
if the damage took place during the carriage by air.

By definition, carriage by air covers the time that the baggage or cargo is in the charge of the
carrier whether in an aerodrome or on board an aircraft

Article 19 The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the carriage by air of
passengers, baggage or cargo

Article 20 The carrier is not liable if he proves that he, his company or agents have
taken all necessary measures to avoid the damage or that it was impossible for him or them
to take such a measure

Article 29 The right to damages are lost if an action is not brought within two years
from:

¾ The date of arrival at the destination, or


¾ From the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived, or
¾ From the date on which the carriage ceased

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The Treaty of Rome - Transport Policy

Article 3 The activities of the community shall include:

¾ The elimination of customs duties and of quantitative restrictions on the import


and export of goods
¾ The abolition of obstacles to freedom of movement for persons, services and
capital
¾ The adoption of a common policy in the sphere of transport
¾ The institution of a system ensuring that competition in the EU is not distorted

The Convention of Rome 1933/1952

This convention produced uniformity in place of the differing national laws covering the liability
of the owner or operator of an aircraft which causes damage to persons or property on the
surface of the earth.

In simple terms the operator is liable for any damage but the liability is limited to a sum that is
proportionate to the weight of the aircraft. The Convention makes it compulsory to insure
against this liability. Only the minimum number of signatories have signed this convention.

A later Rome Convention looked at the problems of damage caused by foreign aircraft to third
parties on the surface of the earth. The Air Transport Committee and the Council prior to
acceptance considered these economic aspects. The amount of compensation is limited but
carriers are liable for damage caused to third parties. Interestingly, the convention does
accept compulsory recognition and execution of any foreign judgement on damage to third
parties. The Montreal Conference 1978 (the Montreal Protocol) modified the Rome
Convention by adjusting the limits of liability.

Arrest of Aircraft – Rome Convention 1933 This convention also regulated the right of
arrest where an aircraft is seized in the case of debt.

Commercial Practices and Associated Rules (Leasing)

Terminology Terms used in JAR-OPS 1.165 have the following meaning:

AOC Air Operators Certificate, allowing public transport flights to be


conducted.
Dry lease Is when the aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessee.
Wet lease Is when the aeroplane is operated under the AOC of the lessor
(company who let the aircraft out)
JAA operator An operator certificated under JAR-OPS Part 1 by one of the JAA
Member States.

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Leasing of Aeroplanes between JAA Operators

Wet lease-out A JAA operator providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another JAA
Operator, and retaining all functions and responsibilities prescribed in Subpart C, JAR-OPS 1
shall remain the operator of the aeroplane.

All leases except wet lease-out

¾ Except as provided above, a JAA operator utilising an aeroplane from, or


providing it to, another JAA operator, must obtain prior approval for the operator
from his respective Authority (“the Authority”). Any conditions that are part of this
approval must be included in the lease agreement.
¾ Those elements of lease agreements which are approved by the Authority, other
than lease agreements in which an aeroplane and complete crew are involved
and no transfer of functions and responsibilities is intended, are all to be
regarded, with respect to the leased aeroplane, as variations of the AOC under
which the flights will be operated.

Leasing of Aeroplanes Between a JAA Operator and Any Body Other Than a JAA
Operator

Dry lease-in

¾ A JAA operator shall not dry lease-in an aeroplane from any entity other than a
JAA operator, unless approved by the Authority. Any conditions that are part of
this approval must be included in the lease agreement.
¾ A JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are dry leased-
in, any differences from the prescribed instrument, navigation, communication
and safety equipment are notified to, and are acceptable to, the Authority.

Wet lease-in

¾ A JAA operator shall not wet lease-in an aeroplane from a body other than a JAA
operator without the approval of the Authority.
¾ A JAA operator shall ensure that, with regard to aeroplanes that are wet leased-
in:
• The safety standards of the lessor with respect to maintenance and operation
are equivalent to the JAR regulations
• The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a
signatory to the Chicago Convention
• The aeroplane has a standard Certificate of Airworthiness issued in
accordance with ICAO Annex 8. Standard Certificates of Airworthiness
issued by a JAA Member State other than the State responsible for issue the
AOC will be accepted without further showing when issued in accordance
with JAR, and
• Any JAA requirement made applicable by the lessee's Authority is complied
with.

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Dry lease-out A JAA operator may dry lease-out an aeroplane for the purpose of
commercial air transportation to any operator of a State which is signatory to the Chicago
Convention provided that the following conditions are met:

¾ The Authority has exempted the JAA operator from the relevant provisions of
JAR-OPS Part 1 and, after the foreign regulatory authority has accepted
responsibility in writing for surveillance of the maintenance and operation of the
aeroplane(s) has removed the aeroplane from its AOC, and
¾ The aeroplane is maintained according to an approved maintenance programme.

Wet lease-out A JAA operator providing an aeroplane and complete crew to another entity
and retaining all the prescribed functions and responsibilities shall remain the operator of the
aeroplane.

Leasing of Aeroplanes at Short Notice

In circumstances where a JAA operator is faced with an immediate, urgent and unforeseen
need for a replacement aeroplane, the required approval may be deemed to have been given,
provided that:

¾ The lessor is an operator holding an AOC issued by a State which is a signatory


to the Chicago Convention; and
¾ The lease-in period does not exceed 5 consecutive days; and
¾ The Authority is immediately notified of the use of this provision.

Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2407/92

The introduction of Council Regulation (EEC) No. 2407/92 places additional responsibilities
on member states and licensing authorities and the EU has recommended that the
registration of leased aircraft remains unchanged.

Transport

Article 75 Taking into account the distinctive features of transport, the council
shall lay down:

¾ Common rules applicable to international transport from the territory of a member


state or passing across the territory of one or more member states
¾ The conditions under which non-resident carriers may operate transport services
within a member state
¾ Any other provisions

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Chapter 4.

European Civil Aviation Conference (ECAC) and Joint Aviation


Authorities (JAA)

Introduction

In 1953 the Council of Europe decided that ICAO, as the appropriate body, should convene a
European conference to discuss:

¾ Methods of improving commercial and technical co-operation between the airlines


of the countries participating in the conference
¾ The possibility of securing closer co-operation by the exchange of commercial
rights between the European countries

ICAO formally constituted the Conference on Co-ordination of Air Transport in Europe


(CATE). In order to follow up on the recommendations being adopted at the meeting, CATE
proposed the establishment of a permanent organization of the European aeronautical
authorities.

ECAC held its inaugural session in 1955.

ECAC

ECAC’s objectives include:

¾ Continuing the work of the CATE conference


¾ Reviewing the development of intra-european air transport with the object of
improvement
¾ Considering any special problem that might arise from the above

ECAC membership, which includes all EC countries, needed to institute procedures


consistent with those resulting from the EC treaty and the Single European Act. The
recommendations made by the European Parliament and the Council of Europe needed a co-
ordinated approach to ensure air safety within Europe.

In 1970 some European civil aviation authorities started to co-operate with a view to
producing common Joint Airworthiness Requirements so as to facilitate certification of
products built jointly in Europe. This led to the Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) Board
becoming an associated body to ECAC in 1989. The JAA Board oversees arrangements
between a number of ECAC states providing for co-operation in developing and implementing
common safety standards and procedures.

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JAA Organization

The JAA has developed since the 1970’s and the members are bound by the “Arrangements”
signed in Cyprus by the then member states in 1990. Although a formal convention is being
drafted the main JAA objectives are:

¾ To ensure through co-operation common high levels of safety within the member
states
¾ Through the application of uniform safety standards, to contribute to fair and
equal competition within the member states
¾ To aim for cost effective safety and minimum regulatory burden so as to
contribute to the European industries international competitiveness

JAA intends to develop such that it will operate in a manner that is as close as possible to a
single authority, without yet formally or legally becoming a single international body where
each individual state has given up its ultimate responsibilities.

Functions of JAA

The authorities will use the JAA to perform the following functions:

¾ To develop, and publish Joint Aviation Requirements (JARs) for the use of the
Authorities in the field of design, manufacture, maintenance and operations; the
JAA will also develop special conditions where applicable
¾ To define as soon as possible the general structure of the whole set of JARs and
the scope of each JAR so that each authority can adopt this structure. To work as
rapidly as possible to remove any national variants or national regulatory
differences with the aim that each individual existing JAR becomes a uniform
code for all JAA countries and no further national regulatory differences are
applied
¾ To establish procedures based on the use of the Authorities resources, that:

• Allow the use of only one set of technical findings in the field of design,
manufacture, maintenance and operations for the benefit of and in a manner
acceptable to all Authorities
• Include practical measures for making the technical findings only once to the
benefit of all Authorities. These measures may include acceptance of
technical findings made by industry, where industry conforms to agreed
approval standards
• Cover the initial certification as well as the continuation of safety standards in
service

¾ To establish administrative and technical procedures which would require a single


administrative action from the applicant for each application and which would
replace the currently existing national administrative documents by a single one,
valid under the national laws and procedures of each Authority
¾ To make the technical findings needed to show compliance with JARs

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¾ To perform for the benefit of the non-JAA importing country, in the case of
products, services, persons or organizations certificated by one of the Authorities
and requiring certification from a non-JAA country, the technical tasks which
come under the duties of the Authority of the exporting country
¾ To form a European JAA to cover the fields of design and manufacture of
products, their maintenance and their occupation

Organization and Procedures

The JAA is controlled by a JAA Committee that works under the authority of the Plenary
Conference of the ECAC and reports to the JAA Board of Directors General (better known as
the JAA Board).

Joint Aviation Authorities

JAA Board

JAA Committee
Executive Board
Foundation Board

JAA/FAA Harmonisation Joint Steering Committee

Secretary General

Regulation Certification Maintenance Operations Licensing Administration

The JAA Board will consider and review the general policies and long term objectives of the
JAA. Its specific functions include in particular:

¾ Deciding upon questions concerning the relationship between the JAA and
States, the EC, or international organizations
¾ Deciding upon any amendments to these Arrangements
¾ Deciding upon the acceptance of new members of the JAA
¾ Deciding upon measures to be taken in case a member would not fulfil the duties
and commitments implied by the signing of these Arrangements

If any of the above cases arise the following procedure applies:

¾ A warning or statement of intent will be notified in writing to the member


concerned

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¾ The procedure will allow the member concerned to put his case in writing or
during a meeting
¾ The decision will not be made sooner than 8 weeks after the initial notification in
writing
¾ Any measure which would be taken directly against a member or which would
revoke the privilege of each exchange or recognition of a whole range of products
or services or persons or organizations of the country of this member should be
agreed by 2/3 of the JAA Board
¾ The decision on the measures taken will also specify the date of effect
¾ The JAA Committee is composed of one member from each Authority. The JAA
Committee will be responsible for the administrative and technical implementation
of these Arrangements
¾ The relationship between the JAA and ECAC will be in accordance with the
ECAC constitution with regards to associated bodies of ECAC
¾ The JAA is staffed by experts of the Authorities seconded full time or part time
and is served by the JAA Secretariat
¾ For the purposes of these Arrangements, the part of JAA consisting of people
seconded full time is called Central JAA
¾ The organization and structure of the JAA is defined and agreed by the JAA
Committee
¾ The organization and structure can be amended by the JAA Committee on a 2/3
majority agreement
¾ The JAA Committee’s powers do not extend to the organization and structure of
the JAA Board and Committee itself

Membership

JAA membership is open to the civil aviation Authorities of the ECAC member States. The
system for non-members to enter the JAA is a two-stage process. Initially “Candidate
Membership” is given; this is subject to certain conditions:

¾ JAA Board decides on admission (2/3 majority)


¾ JAA Arrangements are signed
¾ Full access is given to JAA Committee documents and bodies
¾ No voting rights
¾ No automatic recognition of approvals
¾ Full member national contribution to be paid

The Role of the National Aviation Authorities

In the present JAA system, the National Aviation Authorities (NAA) retain the responsibility
for:

¾ Aviation safety
¾ The implementation of JARs in their respective countries

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¾ The issue, modification, revocation or suspension of approvals, certifications and
licences

The staff of the NAA will carry out the work related to the standardization within the JAA. The
JAA Committee will have the final decision on new safety requirements and the related
procedures. Where joint decisions by the NAA are needed these are made in the JAA
Committee (JAAC), though the JAAC may delegate this to the Executive Board or to the Main
Committees on which they are represented. Standardization visits are a vital part of the JAA
system; they observe the approval processes of the NAAs and raise any points of doubt.

Where the recommendations are not agreed by the NAA, or any actions taken by the NAA are
not considered fully to meet the needs of the case, the matter is normally referred to the Main
Committee, acting on behalf of the JAAC. The agreed decisions are written up, and should
include any proposals for amendment of JAA publications, if relevant.

The NAA meet with industry and interested parties through the “High Level” meetings on the:

¾ Future of the JAA


¾ Annual Joint Steering Assembly
¾ Three Joint Boards (Manufacturers, Operators and Crew)
¾ Working groups, study groups and other Committees

The Role of the Main Committees

The Main Committees comprise of four Committees whose work is related to the specific
functions of:

¾ Certification
¾ Maintenance
¾ Operations
¾ Licensing

The NAA members of these Committees act either as independent experts or ultimately as
representatives of their national authorities.

The Main Committees have two main functions:

¾ Firstly, to act as advisers to the Directors and their staff


¾ Secondly, as a forum for the members from the NAAs to express the opinions of
their authorities

The detailed roles of the Main Committees are summarized as follows:

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¾ To develop and draft the requirements, in consultation with industry, of new JAA
codes and amendments
¾ To approve procedures on behalf of the JAA Committee, when requested
¾ To make recommendations to the JAA Committee in relation to the approval of
procedures, through the Secretary-General
¾ To advise on policy and any actions proposed to an NAA resulting from a
recommendation
¾ To review major or long term exemptions granted by NAA to identify needs for
regulatory change
¾ To advise and assist the relevant director on any issue
¾ To make decisions on behalf of the JAA Committee when asked by the JAA
Committee to do so
¾ To report to the JAA Committee through the Secretary-General

JAA Licensing Policy and Organization

Policy

The Flight Crew Licensing policy is to provide JARs for the training and testing of pilots and
the issue of licences, ratings, authorization, approvals or certificates and ensure the
consistent interpretation and implementation of these harmonized requirements. The
objectives of harmonization of flight crew licenses within Europe are to:

¾ Improve safety by enabling operators of aircraft to check easily the validity of a


license and rating
¾ Improve safety by having common and high standards derived from the
experience of many States
¾ Improve safety, effectiveness and efficiency as a result of a detailed review and
consequently strengthen ICAO standards in a European context
¾ Enable flight crew to find employment without further licensing conditions in any
of the participating States
¾ Reduce costs to flight crew by eliminating the need for validation of licenses by
other participating States
¾ Reduce costs to the industry by permitting freer exchange of flight crew
¾ Reduce costs to national authorities by eliminating validation procedures for
participating States
¾ Reduce costs to national authorities by the use of centralized theoretical
examination procedures

Organization

JAA is staffed by experts from NAAs, seconded full time or part time. The Licensing Division,
under the Licensing Director, is staffed full time. The functions of the Licensing Division
include:

ATPL Air Law 4-6 24 October 2003


¾ Taking the lead in the development of implementation procedures and related
policy for JAA Committee adoption
¾ To co-ordinate and manage the standardization team activity
¾ To work with JAA, NAAs, other authorities, industry, international organizations,
the JAA FCL Committee etc as necessary
¾ To oversee and monitor, supported by the Main Committee, exemptions so as to
ensure a consistent policy

JAA FCL Committee

The functions of the JAA FCL Committee are:

¾ To develop new requirement codes and associated material


¾ To develop new requirements or amendments for adopted codes in co-ordination
with the Regulation and Technical Director
¾ To assist the Director in the development of Joint Implementation Procedures
¾ To advise and assist the Director on other matters, as necessary
¾ To have as a priority harmonization with other Authorities
¾ To review exemptions/variations and denials given by NAAs to ensure
consistency and to identify any need for regulatory amendments
¾ When requested by the appropriate Director to advise on the standardization
recommendations proposed for a NAA resulting from a standardization visit,
when these have not been resolved between the associated headquarters
division and the relevant NAA
¾ To undertake any task requested by the JAA Committee
¾ To report to the JAA Committee through the secretary-general

JAA FCL Examination Sub-Committee

The JAA FCL Examination Sub-Committee:

¾ Co-ordinate, supervise and review the work of the Subject Expert Teams (SET) in
the following tasks:

• Construction and validation of computer compatible questions in the subjects


for which they are responsible
• The continuous review of the syllabi and related questions and the need for
any changes
• Examinations procedures eg frequency of examinations, contents, pass
standards etc

¾ Review the reports by the SETs on the syllabi for professional pilots and the
instrument rating and propose any amendments to the JAA FCL Committee
¾ Advise on request of NAAs on examination procedures

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¾ Maintain an adequate number of questions in the Central Question Bank (CQB)
¾ Monitor the rules and procedures for theoretical examinations and report its
findings to the JAA FCL Committee

Note: The SET are responsible to the JAA FCL Examination Sub-committee and
are required to:

¾ Construct computer compatible questions in the subjects for which they


are responsible and present them to the JAA FCL Examination Sub-
committee
¾ Review the syllabi and related questions continually and advise the JAA
FCL Examination Sub-committee on the need for any changes
¾ Make proposals to the JAA FCL Examination Sub-committee on matters
affecting the conduct of examinations
¾ Advise the JAA FCL Examination Sub-committee on matters of fact in
any dispute

JAR FCL

JAR-FCL provides harmonized requirements for:

¾ The training and testing of pilots


¾ The issue of licences, ratings, approvals, authorizations and certificates
¾ The safeguard of consistent interpretation and implementation of JAR-FCL

ICAO Annex 1 provides the basic structure of the JAR-FCL, the JAR for licensing. The
content of Annex 1 has been used and added to where necessary by making use of existing
European regulations.

JAR-FCL has been issued with no national variants. It has been accepted that JAR-FCL
should be applied in practice and the lessons learned embodied in future amendments.
Future development of the requirements of JAR-FCL will be in accordance with the JAAs
Notice of Proposed Amendment (NPA) procedures. These procedures allow for the
amendment of JAR-FCL to be proposed by the NAA of any of the participating countries and
by any organization represented on the Joint Steering Assembly.

The CAAs have agreed they should not unilaterally initiate amendment of their national codes
without having made a proposal for amendment of JAR-FCL in accordance with the agreed
procedure.

There are 4 JAR-FCL documents that apply to the ATPL:

¾ JAR-FCL 1 (Aeroplane)
¾ JAR-FCL 2 (Helicopter)
¾ JAR-FCL 3 (Medical)

ATPL Air Law 4-8 24 October 2003


¾ JAR-FCL 4 (Flight Engineers)

Each document has 2 sections:

Section 1 Requirements and appendices

Section 2 AMC Acceptable means of compliance

IEM Interpretative and explanatory material

Eurocontrol

Formed in 1965, Eurocontrol consists of most of the EU states plus 5 other states. Other
European states co-operate or are associated with the system. The stated objectives of
Eurocontrol are:

¾ To plan European air traffic management to meet future needs


¾ To optimize the use of airspace by matching capacity to demand to carry out the
above

Objectives

Eurocontrol offers a variety of services that include:

¾ Managing European harmonization and integration activities


¾ Providing central flow management
¾ Providing regional air traffic services
¾ Collecting air navigation charges
¾ Conducting research and development
¾ Providing training and advice for air navigation services

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Chapter 5.

Annex 15 – Aeronautical Information Service

Introduction

The object of the aeronautical information service is to ensure the flow of information
necessary for the safety, regularity and efficiency of international air navigation. Corrupt or
erroneous aeronautical information can potentially affect the safety of air navigation. The role
and importance of aeronautical information/data changed significantly with the implementation
of:

¾ Area navigation (RNAV)


¾ Required navigation performance (RNP), and
¾ Airborne computer-based navigation systems

To satisfy the uniformity and consistency in the provision of aeronautical information that is
required for operational use states shall, as far as possible, avoid Standards and procedures
other than those established for international use.

Responsibilities and Function

Each contracting state shall:

¾ Provide an aeronautical information service, or


¾ Provide a joint service with one or more Contracting States, or
¾ Provide a service through a non-governmental agency, provided the SARPs of
the annex are adequately met.

Each State remains responsible for any information published. Aeronautical information
published on behalf of the state shall clearly indicate that it is published under the authority of
that state. Each Contracting State is responsible for ensuring that the aeronautical information
published is accurate, on time and of the required quality expected by ICAO.

Where a 24-hour service is not provided the service has to be available during the whole
period an aircraft is in flight in the area of responsibility plus a period of a least two hours
before and after such period. The service has to be available at any other time as may be
requested by an appropriate ground organization.

The aeronautical information service shall obtain information for it to provide pre-flight
information service and to meet the need for in-flight information.

ATPL Air Law 5-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


An aeronautical information service shall ensure that aeronautical information is in a form
suitable for the requirements of:

¾ Flight operations personnel including flight crews, flight planning and flight
simulator, and
¾ The ATS unit responsible for FIS and the services responsible for pre-flight
information

Exchange of Aeronautical Information

Each State shall designate the office to which all elements of the Integrated Aeronautical
Information Package originated by other States shall be addressed. Such an office shall be
qualified to deal with requests for information by other States.

An aeronautical information service shall arrange, as necessary, to satisfy operational


requirements, for the issue and receipt of NOTAM distributed by telecommunication.

States shall, wherever practicable, establish direct contact between aeronautical information
services in order to facilitate the international exchange of aeronautical information.

General Specifications

Each element of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package for international distribution
should include an English text for those parts expressed in plain language

Place names shall be spelt in conformity with local usage, translated where necessary into
the Latin alphabet.

World Geodetic System

As of 1 January 1984, published geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude


shall be expressed in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS -84).

Use of ICAO Abbreviations

ICAO abbreviations shall be used by the aeronautical information services whenever they are
appropriate and their use will facilitate distribution of information

Identification and Delineation of Prohibited, Restricted and Danger Areas

Each prohibited, restricted or danger area established by a state shall, upon initial
establishment be given an identification and full details shall be promulgated.

The identification assigned is used to identify the area in all subsequent notifications
pertaining to that area. The identification is composed of a group as follows:

ATPL Air Law 5-2 24 October 2003


Nationality letters for location indicators assigned to the state or territory, which has
established the airspace (EG is used for the UK)

A letter:

P Prohibited area
R Restricted area
D Danger area

A number, unduplicated within the state or territory concerned

To avoid confusion, identification numbers are not re-used for a period of at least one year
after cancellation of any area to which they refer.

Integrated Aeronautical Information Package

A package which consists of the following elements:

¾ AlP, including the AIP Amendment service


¾ Supplements to the AlP
¾ NOTAM and pre-flight information bulletins (PIB)
¾ AIC
¾ Checklists and summaries

Note: AlPs are intended primarily to satisfy international requirements for the
exchange of aeronautical information of a lasting character essential to air navigation.
When practicable, the form of presentation is designed to facilitate their use in flight

Aeronautical Information Publication (AlP)

An AIP consists of three parts relating to the following subjects:

Part 1 - General (GEN) A list of significant differences between the national regulations and
practices of the State and the related ICAO SARPs and procedures. These are given in a
form that would enable a user to differentiate readily between the requirements of the State
and the related ICAO provisions are found in this section

Part 2 - En-Route (ENR)

Part 3 – Aerodromes (AD)

AlP Amendments Permanent changes to the AlP are published as AlP amendments.

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AlP Supplements Temporary changes of long duration (three months) and information
of short duration which contains extensive text and/or graphics are published as AIP
supplements. AIP supplement pages are coloured in order to be conspicuous, preferably in
yellow.

NOTAM

A NOTAM is originated and issued whenever the information to be distributed is of:

¾ A temporary nature and of short duration


¾ Operationally significant permanent changes
¾ Temporary changes of long duration are made at short notice, except for
extensive text and/or graphics.

Note: Information of short duration containing extensive text and/or graphics is


published as an AIP Supplement

A NOTAM is originated and issued whenever the following information is of direct operational
significance:

¾ Establishment, closure or significant changes in operation of aerodromes or


runways
¾ Establishment, withdrawal and significant changes in operation of aeronautical
services eg AGA, AIS ATS, COM, MET, SAR. etc
¾ The establishment or withdrawal of electronics and other aids to navigation and
aerodromes. This includes:

• Interruption or return to operation


• Change of frequencies
• Change in notified hours of service
• Change of identification
• Change of orientation
• Change of location
• Power increase or decrease amounting to 50% or more
• Change in broadcast schedules or contents
• Irregularity or unreliability of operation of any electronic aid to air navigation,
and air-ground communication services

¾ Establishment, withdrawal or significant changes made to visual aids


¾ Interruption of or return to operation of major components of aerodrome lighting
systems
¾ Establishment, withdrawal or significant changes made to procedures for air
navigation services

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¾ Changes to limitations on availability of fuel, oil and oxygen
¾ Major changes to SAR facilities and services available
¾ Establishment, withdrawal or return to operation of hazard beacons marking
significant obstacles to air navigation
¾ Changes in regulations requiring immediate action eg prohibited areas for SAR
operations
¾ Presence of hazards which affect air navigation including:

• Obstacles
• Military exercises
• Displays
• Races
• Major parachuting events outside promulgated sites

¾ Erecting, removal of or changes to significant obstacles to air navigation in the:

• Take-off and climb


• Missed approach
• Approach areas
• Runway strip

¾ Establishment or discontinuance of areas routes or portions thereof where the


possibility of interception exists and where the maintenance of guard on the VHF
emergency frequency 121.500 MHz is required
¾ Allocation, cancellation or change of location indicators
¾ Significant changes in the level of protection normally available at an aerodrome
for rescue and fire fighting purposes
¾ Presence or removal of significant changes in hazardous conditions due to snow
slush, ice or water on the movement area
¾ Outbreaks of epidemics necessitating changes in notified requirements for
inoculations and quarantine measures
¾ Forecasts of solar cosmic radiation, where provided
¾ An operationally significant change in volcanic activity, the location, date and time
of volcanic eruptions and/or horizontal and vertical extent of volcanic ash cloud
including direction of movement, flight levels and routes or portions of routes
which could be affected. Notification of such conditions is to be made preferably
by use of the ASHTAM format (the ASHTAM colour codes are covered later in
this chapter)
¾ Release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials or toxic chemicals following
a nuclear or chemical incident:

• The location
• Date and time of the incident
• The flight levels and routes or portions thereof which could be affected

ATPL Air Law 5-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


• The direction of movement

¾ Establishment of operations of humanitarian relief missions, such as those


undertaken under the auspices of UN, together with procedures and/or limitations
which affect air navigation

When an AIP Amendment or an AlP Supplement is published in accordance with AIRAC


procedures NOTAM shall be originated giving a brief description of the contents, the effective
date and the reference number to the amendment or supplement. This NOTAM shall come
into force on the same effective date as the amendment or supplement.

The following information shall not be notified by NOTAM:

¾ Routine maintenance work on aprons and taxiways which does not affect the safe
movement of aircraft
¾ Runway marking work, when aircraft operations can safely be conducted on other
available runways, or the equipment used can be removed when necessary
¾ Temporary obstructions in the vicinity of aerodromes that do not affect the safe
operation of aircraft
¾ Partial failure of aerodrome lighting facilities where such failure does not directly
affect aircraft operations
¾ Partial temporary failure of air-ground communications when suitable alternative
frequencies are known to be available and operative
¾ The lack of apron marshalling services and road traffic control
¾ The unserviceability of location, destination or other instruction signs on the
aerodrome movement area
¾ Parachuting when in uncontrolled airspace under IFR when controlled, at
promulgated sites or within danger or prohibited areas

Distribution

A NOTAM is distributed to addressees to whom the information is of direct operational


significance, and who would not otherwise have at least seven days prior notification.

NOTAM Checklist

A checklist of NOTAM in force is:

¾ Issued over the AFTN at intervals of not more than one month
¾ The checklist shall refer to the latest AIP Amendments, AIP Supplements and at
least the internationally distributed AICs
¾ The checklist must have the same distribution as the actual message series to
which they refer

ATPL Air Law 5-6 24 October 2003


A monthly printed plain language summary of the:

¾ NOTAM in force
¾ The latest AIP Amendments
¾ A checklist of AIP Supplements, and
¾ AIC issued

is prepared and forwarded to the recipients of the integrated AIP.

NOTAMs are issued in three categories:

¾ NOTAMN A NOTAM containing new information


¾ NOTAMR A NOTAM replacing a previous NOTAM
¾ NOTAMC A NOTAM cancelling a previous NOTAM

All temporary NOTAMs must include an expiry date. If the expiry is estimated then a ten
figure group is suffixed with “EST”. There is no ICAO recommendation when a NOTAM
issued with an estimated expiry time should be replaced.

Information concerning snow, ice and standing water on aerodrome pavements is reported by
SNOWTAM. Information concerning an operationally significant change in volcanic activity, a
volcanic eruption and/or volcanic ash cloud is reported by means of an ASHTAM

SNOWTAM

The maximum validity of a SNOWTAM is 24 hours. However, a new SNOWTAM must be


issued when there is a significant change in conditions. These are listed below:

¾ A change in the coefficient of friction of about 0.05


¾ Changes in the depth of deposit:

• 20 mm for dry snow


• 10 mm for wet snow
• 3 mm for slush

¾ A change in the available width of a runway by 10% or more


¾ A change in the type of deposit or extent of coverage
¾ When critical snowbanks exist on one or both sides of the runway or any change
in height or distance from the centre line
¾ Any change in the conspicuity of runway lighting caused by obscuring of the lights
¾ Any other significant changes

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SNOWTAM Form

The SNOWTAM Form is broken into 17 sections as shown in the form below.

ATPL Air Law 5-8 24 October 2003


ASHTAM

An ASHTAM provides information on the status of activity of a volcano when a change in its
activity is expected, or is, of operational significance. Information is passed using a volcano
level of alert colour code given in the table below.

Level of Alert Colour Status of Activity of Volcano


Code
Red Alert Volcanic eruption in progress. Ash plume/cloud reported above
FL250
or
Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud expected
to rise above FL250
Orange Alert Volcanic eruption in progress but ash plume/cloud not reaching nor
expected to reach FL250
or
Volcano dangerous, eruption likely, with ash plume/cloud not
expected to rise above FL250
Yellow Alert Volcano known to be active from time to time and volcanic activity
has recently increased significantly, volcano not currently considered
dangerous but caution should be exercised
or
(After an eruption eg a change in alert to yellow from red or orange)
Volcanic activity has decreased significantly, volcano not currently
considered dangerous but caution should be exercised
Green Alert Volcanic activity considered to have ceased and volcano reverted to
its normal state

The AFTN shall, whenever practicable, be employed for NOTAM distribution.

Aeronautical Information Regulation and Control (AIRAC)

Information that is distributed under the AIRAC system are the establishment, withdrawal of
and premeditated significant changes to:

¾ Limits (horizontal and vertical), regulations and procedures applicable to:

• FIR
• CTA
• CTR
• Advisory areas
• ATS routes
• Permanent danger, prohibited and restricted areas

ATPL Air Law 5-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


• Permanent areas, routes or portions of routes where the possibility of
interception exists

¾ Positions, frequencies, call signs, known irregularities and maintenance periods,


of radio navigation aids and communication facilities
¾ Holding and approach procedures, arrival and departure procedures, noise
abatement procedures and any other permanent ATS procedures
¾ Meteorological facilities, including broadcasts, and procedures
¾ Runways and aprons
¾ Position, height and lighting of navigational obstacles
¾ Taxiways and aprons
¾ Hours of service

• Aerodrome
• Facilities and services

¾ Temporary danger, prohibited and restricted areas and navigational hazards,


military exercises and mass movements of aircraft
¾ Temporary areas or routes or portions thereof where the possibility of interception
exists

The system is based on the establishment of a series of common effective dates at intervals
of 28 days. The AIS unit distributes AIRAC information at least 42 days in advance of the
effective date with the objective of reaching recipients at least 28 days in advance of the
effective date. The information notified is not changed for at least another 28 days after the
effective date, unless the change is of a temporary nature and would not persist for the full
period.

Whenever major changes are planned and where additional notice is desirable and
practicable, a publication date of at least 56 days in advance of the effective date should be
used

Aeronautical Information Circulars (AIC)

An AIC is originated whenever it is necessary to promulgate aeronautical information that


does not qualify:

¾ Under the specifications for inclusion in the AlP, or


¾ Under the specifications for the origination of a NOTAM

An AIC shall be originated whenever it is desirable to promulgate:

¾ A long term forecast of any major change in legislation, regulations, procedures


or facilities
¾ Information of a purely explanatory or advisory nature liable to affect flight safety

ATPL Air Law 5-10 24 October 2003


¾ Information or notification of an explanatory or advisory nature concerning
technical, legislative or purely administrative matters

Pre-Flight and Post Flight Information

Pre-Flight Information At an aerodrome used for international air operations,


aeronautical information essential for:

¾ The safety, regularity and efficiency of air navigation, and


¾ Relative to the route stages originating at the aerodrome

shall be made available to flight operations personnel responsible for pre-flight information.

Aeronautical information provided for pre-flight planning purposes shall include relevant:

¾ Elements of the Integrated Aeronautical Information Package


¾ Maps and charts
¾ Additional current information relating to the aerodrome of departure

All NOTAM information is available to pilots in the form of pre-flight information bulletins (PIB).

Post Flight Information States shall ensure that arrangements are made for all
aerodromes to receive information concerning the state and operation of the navigation
facilities to be used by flight crew. All such information is made available to the AIS for
dissemination.

ATPL Air Law 5-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Contents of Aeronautical Information Publication

PART 1 – GENERAL (GEN)

GEN 1 – National Regulations and Requirements

Designated authorities
Entry, transit and departure of aircraft
Entry, transit and departure of cargo
Aircraft instruments, equipment and flight documents
Summary of national regulations and international agreements/conventions
Differences from ICAO SARPs

GEN 2 – Tables and Codes

Measuring system, aircraft markings, holidays


Abbreviations used in AIS publications
Chart symbols
Location indicators
List of radio navigation aids
Conversion tables
Sunrise/sunset tables

GEN 3 – Services

Aeronautical information services


Aeronautical charts
Air traffic services
Meteorological services
SAR

PART 2 – EN-ROUTE (ENR)

ENR 1 – General Rules and Procedures

General rules
VFR
IFR
ATS airspace classification
Holding, approach and departure procedures
Radar services and procedures

ATPL Air Law 5-12 24 October 2003


Altimeter setting procedures
Regional supplementary procedures
Air traffic flow management
Flight planning
Addressing of flight plan messages
Interception of civil aircraft
Unlawful interference
Air traffic incidents

ENR 2 – Air Traffic Services Airspace

FIR, UIR, TMA


Other regulated airspace

ENR 3 – ATS Routes

Lower ATS routes


Upper ATS routes
Area navigation routes
Helicopter routes
Other routes
En-route holding

ENR 4 – Radio Navigation Aids/Systems

Radio navigation aids – en-route


Special navigation systems
Name code designators for specific points
Aeronautical ground lights – en-route

ENR 5 – Navigation Warnings

Prohibited, restricted and danger areas


Military exercise and training areas
Other activities of a dangerous nature
Air navigation obstacles – en-route
Aerial sporting and recreational activities
Bird migration and areas with sensitive fauna

ENR 6 – En-route Charts

ATPL Air Law 5-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


PART 3 – AERODROMES (AD)

AD 1 – Aerodromes/Heliports Introduction

Aerodrome/heliport availability
Rescue and fire fighting services and snow plan
Index to aerodromes and heliports
Groupings of aerodromes/heliports

AD 2 – Aerodromes

Aerodrome location indicator and name


Aerodrome geographical and administrative data
Operational hours
Handling services and facilities
Passenger facilities
Rescue and fire fighting services
Seasonal availability – clearing
Aprons, taxiways and check locations/positions data
Surface movement guidance and markings
Aerodrome obstacles
Meteorological information provided
Runway physical characteristics
Declared distances
Helicopter landing area
Approach and runway lighting
Other lighting, secondary power supply
ATS airspace
ATS communication facilities
Radio Navigation and landing aids
Local traffic regulations
Noise abatement procedures
Flight procedures
Additional information

AD 3 - Heliports

ATPL Air Law 5-14 24 October 2003


Charts Related to an Aerodrome

The requirement is for charts related to an aerodrome to be included in the following order:

¾ Aerodrome/heliport chart
¾ Aircraft parking/docking chart
¾ Aerodrome ground movement chart
¾ Aerodrome obstacle chart – for each runway
¾ Precision approach terrain chart
¾ Area chart – departure and transit routes
¾ Standard departure chart
¾ Area chart – arrival and transit routes
¾ Standard arrival chart
¾ Instrument approach chart
¾ Visual approach chart
¾ Bird concentrations in the vicinity of aerodrome

ATPL Air Law 5-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 5-16 24 October 2003


Chapter 6.

Annex 1- Personnel Licensing and JAR-FCL 1- Flight Crew Licensing


(Aeroplanes)

Introduction

SARPs are established for licensing the following personnel:

¾ Private pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)


¾ Commercial pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)
¾ Airline transport pilot (aeroplane and helicopter)
¾ Glider pilot
¾ Balloon pilot
¾ Flight navigator
¾ Flight engineer

Authority to Act as a Flight Crewmember

A person shall not act as a flight crewmember of an aircraft unless a valid licence is held. The
licence must have been issued by the State of Registry of that aircraft or by any other
contracting state and rendered valid by the State of Registry.

Medical Fitness

An applicant for a licence must hold a Medical Assessment applicable for the type of licence
being applied for. Flight crewmembers shall not exercise the privileges of their licence unless
their Medical Assessment is in date. Each contracting state designates medical examiners
that are authorized to issue the Medical Assessment. For an Airline Transport Licence the
validity of the Medical Assessment is 12 months. This reduces to 6 months after the licence
holder passes their 40th birthday.

Validity of Licence

The licence holder must maintain competency, recent experience requirements and a valid
Medical assessment for a licence to remain valid.

ATPL Air Law 6-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


JAR-FCL 1 – Flight Crew Licensing (Aeroplanes)

Basic Authority to Act as a Flight Crew Member

Licence and Rating

A person shall not act as a flight crew member of a civil aeroplane registered in a JAA
Member State unless that person holds a valid licence and rating complying with the
requirements of JAR-FCL. The licence shall have been issued by:

¾ A JAA Member State, or


¾ Another ICAO Contracting State and rendered valid in accordance with JAR-FCL

Exercise of Privileges

The holder of a licence or rating shall not exercise privileges other than those granted by that
licence or rating

Acceptance of Licences, Ratings, Authorizations, Approvals or Certificates

Licences, Ratings, Authorizations, Approvals or Certificates Issued by JAA Member


States

Where a person, an organization or a service has been licensed, issued with a rating,
authorization, approval or certificate by the authority of a JAA Member State in accordance
with the requirements of JAR-FCL and associated procedures, such licences, ratings,
authorizations, approvals or certificates shall be accepted without formality by other JAA
Member States.

Licences Issued by Non-JAA States

A licence issued by non-JAA State may be rendered valid at the discretion of the Authority of
a JAA Member State for use on aircraft registered in that JAA Member State.

Validation of a professional pilot’s licence shall not exceed one year from the date of
validation, provided that the basic licence remains valid. Any further validation for use on
aircraft registered in any JAA Member State is subject to agreement by the JAA Member
States and to any conditions seen fit within the JAA. The user of a licence validated by a JAA
Member State shall comply with the requirements stated in JAR-FCL.

Validity of Licences and Ratings

A licence holder shall not exercise the privileges granted by any licence or rating issued by a
JAA Member State unless the holder maintains competency by meeting the relevant
requirements of JAR-FCL.

ATPL Air Law 6-2 24 October 2003


The validity of the licence is determined by the validity of the ratings contained therein and the
medical certificate. The licence will be issued for a maximum period of 5 years. Within this
period of 5 years the licence will be re-issued by the authority if:

¾ After initial issue or renewal of a rating


¾ When the licence is full
¾ For any administrative reason
¾ At the discretion of the authority when a rating is revalidated

Valid ratings will be transferred to a new licence document by the aurhority.

The licence holder must apply for the re-issue of the licence; this application must include all
necessary documentation.

Recent Experience

A pilot shall not operate an aeroplane carrying passengers as the pilot in command or co-pilot
unless he has carried out:

¾ At least 3 take-offs and 3 landings as pilot flying in the same type/class or flight
simulator in the preceding 90 days, and
¾ If the flight is at night, and the holder does not hold a valid Instrument rating one
of the take-offs and one of the landings must be carried out at night.

Medical Fitness

Fitness The holder of a medical certificate shall be mentally and physically fit to
exercise safely the privileges of the applicable licence.

Requirement for Medical Certificate In order to apply for or to exercise the privileges of a
licence, the applicant or holder shall hold a medical certificate issued in accordance with the
provisions of JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) and appropriate to the privileges of the licence.

Aeromedical Disposition After completion of the examination the applicant shall be


advised whether fit, unfit or referred to the authority. The authorized medical examiner (AME)
shall inform the applicant of any condition(s) (medical, operational or otherwise) that may
restrict flying training and/or the privileges of any licence issued. In the event that a restricted
medical certificate is issued which limits the holder to exercise PIC privileges only when a
safety pilot is carried; the authority will give advisory information for use by the safety pilot in
determining their function and responsibilities.

Decrease in Medical Fitness Licence holders or student pilots shall not exercise the
privileges of their licences, related ratings or authorizations at any time when they are aware
of any decrease in their medical fitness which might render them unable to safely exercise

ATPL Air Law 6-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


those privileges and they shall without undue delay seek the advice of the authority or AME
when becoming aware of:

¾ Hospital or clinic admission for more than 12 hours


¾ Surgical operation or invasive procedure
¾ The regular use of medication
¾ The need for regular use of correcting lenses

Every holder of a medical certificate issued in accordance with JAR-FCL Part 3 (Medical) who
is aware of:

¾ Any significant personal injury involving incapacity to function as a member of a


flight crew, or
¾ Any illness involving incapacity to function as a member of a flight crew, or
¾ Being pregnant

shall inform the authority in writing of such injury or pregnancy, and as soon as the period of
21 days has elapsed in the case of illness. The medical certificate shall be deemed to be
suspended upon the occurrence of such injury, or the elapse of such period of illness, or the
confirmation of the pregnancy, and

¾ In the case of injury or illness the suspension shall be lifted upon the holder being
medically examined under arrangements made by the authority and being
pronounced fit to function as a member of the flight crew, or upon the authority
exempting, subject to such conditions as it thinks fit, the holder from the
requirement of a medical examination, and

¾ In the case of pregnancy, the suspension may be lifted by the authority for such
period and subject to such conditions as it thinks fit and shall cease upon the
holder being medically examined under arrangements made by the authority after
the pregnancy has ended and being pronounced fit to resume her functions as a
member of the flight crew

Crediting of Flight Time

Unless otherwise specified the following apply:

Pilot in Command or Under Instruction

¾ Credited in full with all solo, dual instruction or pilot in command (PIC) flight time
towards the total flight time required for the licence or rating
¾ An ATPL/CPL graduate of an integrated CPL/ATPL course is entitled to be
credited with up to 50 hours student pilot in command (SPIC) instrument time
towards the pilot in command time required for the issue of the ATPL, CPL and a
multi engine type or class rating

ATPL Air Law 6-4 24 October 2003


Co-Pilot

¾ Credited in full with all co-pilot time towards the total flight time required for a
higher grade of pilot licence
¾ The holder of a pilot licence when acting as co-pilot performing under the
supervision of the PIC the functions and duties of a PIC shall be entitled to be
credited in full with this flight time required for a higher grade of licence. The
method of supervision must be approved by the authority.

Curtailment of Privileges of Licence Holders Aged 60 Years or More

Age 60 – 64 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 60 years shall not
act as a pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations except:

¾ As a member of a multi-pilot crew and, provided that


¾ The holder is the only pilot in the flight crew who has reached age 60

Age 65 The holder of a pilot licence who has reached the age of 65 years shall not act as a
pilot of an aeroplane engaged in commercial air transport operations

State of Licence Issue

An applicant shall demonstrate the satisfactory completion of all requirements for licence
issue to the authority of the State under whose authority the training and testing for the
licence were carried out. Following licence issue, this State shall thereafter be referred to as
the “State of licence issue”.

Further ratings may be obtained under JAR-FCL requirements in any JAA Member State and
will be entered into the licence by the State of Licence issue

Normal Residency

Normal residency means the place where a person usually lives for at least 185 days in each
calendar year because of personal and occupational ties or, in the case of a person with no
occupational ties, because of personal ties which show close links between that person and
the place where they are living.

ATPL Air Law 6-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Format and Specifications for Flight Crew Licences

The flight crew licence issued by a JAR Member State in accordance with JAR-FCL will
conform to the following specifications:

Permanent Items

¾ State of licence issue


¾ Title of licence
¾ Serial number
¾ Name of holder
¾ Holder’s address
¾ Nationality of holder
¾ Signature of holder
¾ Authority and, where necessary, conditions imposed
¾ Certification of validity and authorization for the privileges granted
¾ Signature of the officer issuing the licence and the date of issue
¾ Seal or stamp of the authority

Variable Items

¾ Ratings Class, type, instructor, etc with dates of expiry. Radio telephony
privileges may appear on the licence form or on a separate certificate
¾ Remarks Special endorsements relating to limitations and endorsements for
privileges
¾ Any other details required by the authority

Material The paper or other material used will prevent or readily show any
alterations or erasures. Any entries or deletions to the form will be clearly authorized
by the authority

Colour White material will be used for pilot’s licences in accordance with
JAR-FCL

Language Licences shall be written in the national language and in English and
such other languages as the authority deems appropriate

ATPL Air Law 6-6 24 October 2003


Logging of Flight Time

PIC Flight Time

¾ All flight time as PIC


¾ All SPIC provided that it is countersigned by the instructor
¾ An instructor may log all instructional time as PIC
¾ An examiner may log all examining time as PIC
¾ A Co-pilot acting as PIC under the supervision of the PIC in an aeroplane where
the type certification requires more than one pilot may log the time as PIC as long
as the time under supervision is countersigned by the PIC
¾ If the holder of a licence carries out a number of flights on the same day returning
to the same place of departure, and the interval between the flights does not
exceed 30 minutes, this series of flights can be counted as one flight

Co-Pilot Flight Time

¾ All flight time as co-pilot on an aeroplane where more than one pilot is required

Cruise Relief Co-Pilot Flight Time

¾ All flight time as co-pilot when occupying a pilot’s seat

Instruction Time

¾ A summary of all time logged by an applicant for a licence or rating as flight


instruction, instrument flight instruction, instrument ground time has to be certified
by the appropriate instructor

Pilot in Command Under Supervision (PICUS)

¾ Where the method of supervision is approved by the authority a co-pilot may log
all PICUS time as long as the PIC did not intervene in the interest of safety

Precis of Licence Privileges

PPL(A)

Minimum Age 17

Medical Fitness Class 1 or Class 2

ATPL Air Law 6-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Privileges and Conditions To act as PIC or co-pilot of an aeroplane engaged in
non-revenue flights.

Experience and Crediting An applicant must have completed 45 hours flight


time as a pilot of aeroplanes. Five hours may have been completed in an FNPT or a
flight simulator. Where an applicant is the holder of one of the following licences then
10% of their total flight time up to a maximum of 10 hours may be credited towards
the issue of the PPL(A):

¾ Helicopter
¾ Microlight helicopters
¾ Gyroplanes
¾ Microlights with fixed wings and moveable aerodynamic control surfaces

Flight Instruction The applicant for a PPL(A) must have completed:

¾ 25 hours dual instruction, and


¾ 10 hours supervised solo, to include
• 5 hours of cross country flight time, with
• one cross country flight of at least 150 nm during which full stop landings at
two aerodromes different from the aerodrome of departure shall be made
¾ Where credit has been given for previous PIC time the dual instruction may be
reduced to not less than 20 hours

ATPL Air Law 6-8 24 October 2003


Commercial Pilot Licence Airline Transport Licence
(Aeroplane) CPL(A) Aeroplane (ATPL)
Minimum Age 18 21
Medical Class 1 medical certificate Class 1 medical certificate
Fitness
Privileges Subject to any other conditions Subject to any other conditions
and specified in JARs, the privileges of specified in JARs, the privileges of
Conditions the holder of a CPL(A) are to: the holder of a ATPL(A) are to:

¾ Exercise all the privileges of ¾ Exercise all the privileges of


the holder of a PPL(A) the holder of a PPL(A), CPL(A)
¾ Act as PIC or co-pilot of any and an IR(A)
aeroplane engaged in operations ¾ Act as PIC or co-pilot in
other than commercial aviation aeroplanes engaged in air
¾ Act as PIC in commercial air transportation
transportation of any single pilot
aeroplane An applicant for an ATPL(A) shall
¾ Act as co-pilot in commercial have fulfilled the requirements for
air transportation the issue of an ATPL(A) containing
a type rating for the aeroplane type
used on the skill test
An applicant for a CPL(A) shall have
fulfilled the requirements for the
issue of at least a CPL(A) containing
the class/type rating for the
aeroplane type used on the skill test
and, if an instrument rating course
and test are included, the instrument
rating
Experience See CPL Experience below See ATPL experience below
and Crediting

ATPL(A) Experience An applicant for an ATPL (A) shall have completed as a pilot of
aeroplanes at least 1500 hours of flight time. A maximum of 100 hours flight simulator time
may be included in this figure. Specific qualifications required within the 1500 hours flight time
are:

¾ 500 hours in multi-pilot operations on aeroplanes type certificated in accordance


with JAR/FAR 25 (Transport Category) or JAR/FAR 23 (Commuter Category) or
equivalent codes
¾ 250 hours as PIC or at least 100 hours PIC and 150 hours as co-pilot performing
under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a PIC ( the method of
supervision must be acceptable to the authority)
¾ 200 hours cross country flight of which at least 100 hours shall be as PIC or as
co-pilot performing under the supervision of the PIC the duties and functions of a
PIC ( the method of supervision must be acceptable to the authority)
¾ 75 hours instrument flight time not more than 30 hours may be instrument ground
time
¾ 100 hours of night flight as PIC or co-pilot

ATPL Air Law 6-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


For ATPL:
¾ Helicopter flight time will be credited up to 50% of the flight time requirements
¾ Flight engineers will be credited with up to 50% of the flight time to a maximum of
250 hours flight engineer time

CPL(A) Experience

Integrated Course 150 hours of flight time

Modular Course 200 hours of flight time

The applicant must have completed:

¾ 100 hours as PIC, 70 hours if completed during a course of integrated training


¾ 20 hours of cross country flight time as PIC. This must include a cross country of
at least 300 nm during which two full stop landings at two aerodromes different
from the aerodrome of departure shall be made
¾ 10 hours of instrument instruction time of which not more than 5 hours is to be
instrument ground time
¾ 5 hours of night flight time

IR (A)

Medical Fitness An applicant shall be medically fit

Privileges To pilot a multi- or single-engined aeroplane under IFR to a


minimum decision height of 200 ft

Experience The pilot must hold a PPL(A) with a night qualification or a


CPL(A) and have completed at least 50 hours of cross country flight time as PIC.in
aeroplanes or helicopters of which at least 10 hours shall be in aeroplanes.

Instructor Ratings An instructor rating is valid for 3 years. To be allowed to begin an


FI(A) course the pilot must have 200 hours of flight time of which 100 hours must be PIC if
the pilot is the holder of an ATPL(A) or CPL(A). 150 hours PIC if the holder of a PPL(A) and
be the holder of the knowledge requirements for CPL(A).

The following must also have been carried out:

¾ Completed at least 30 hours on single engine piston aeroplanes of which 5 hours


shall have been completed during the 6 months preceding the pre-flight entry
flight test
¾ Received at least 10 hours instrument instruction of which not more than 5 hours
may be instrument ground time in an FNPT or flight simulator

ATPL Air Law 6-10 24 October 2003


¾ Completed at least 20 hours of cross country as PIC including a flight totaling not
less than 300 nm in the course of which full stop landings at two different
aerodromes must have been made
¾ Passed a pre-flight entry test

The minimum applicant age is 18 years old.

Instructor Ratings – Privileges and Requirements

Issue of a PPL
Completion of 15 hours on the relevant type in the preceding 12 months

Issue of a CPL
500 hours of flight time including at least 200 hours of flight instruction

Issue of an IR
200 hours flight time in accordance with IFR, 50 hours of which may be instrument
ground time
Completed an approved course of at least 5 hours of flight instruction in an
aeroplane, flight simulator or FNPT II

Class and Type Ratings

Class Ratings Class ratings are established for single pilot aeroplanes not requiring a type
rating as follows:

¾ All single engine piston aeroplanes (land and sea)


¾ All touring motor gliders
¾ Each manufacturer of single engined turbo-prop aeroplanes (land and sea)
¾ All multi engined piston aeroplanes (land and sea)

Type Ratings Other than those aeroplanes included in the class ratings above the following
aeroplanes require type ratings:

¾ Each type of multi-pilot aeroplane


¾ Each type of single pilot multi engine aeroplane fitted with turbo prop or turbojet
engines
¾ Each type of single pilot single engine aeroplane fitted with a turbojet engine
¾ Any other type of aeroplane if considered necessary

Single Pilot Multi Engine Type and Class Rating

The pilot shall have completed at least 70 hours as PIC of aeroplanes.

ATPL Air Law 6-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Proficiency Checks

The operator must ensure that each flight crewmember undergoes the following checks and
recurrent training:

Operator Proficiency Check

Each flight crew member must undergo an Operator Proficiency Check to demonstrate their
competence in carrying out normal, abnormal and emergency procedures. The check is
carried out under IFR conditions as part of a normal flight crew complement.

The validity of an Operator Proficiency Check is 6 calendar months. If the check is issued
within the final 3 calendar months of validity of a previous Operator Proficiency Check then
the period of validity extends from the date of issue until 6 calendar months from the expiry
date of that previous Operator Proficiency Check.

Line Check

Each flight crewmember must undergo a Line Check to demonstrate their competence in
carrying out normal line operations.

The period of validity is 12 calendar months. If the check is issued within the final 3 calendar
months of validity of a previous Line Check then the period of validity extends from the date of
issue until 12 calendar months from the expiry date of that previous Line Check.

Emergency and Safety Equipment Training and Checking

Each flight crew member must undergo training and checking on the location and use of all
emergency and safety equipment carried.

The period of validity is 12 calendar months. If the check is issued within the final 3 calendar
months of validity of a previous Emergency and Safety Check then the period of validity
extends from the date of issue until 12 calendar months from the expiry date of that previous
Emergency and Safety Check

CRM

Each flight crewmember has to undergo recurrent CRM training. JAA OPS covers validity and
recurrent training periods required.

Ground and Refresher Training

Each flight crewmember must undergo Ground and Refresher Training.

ATPL Air Law 6-12 24 October 2003


The period of validity is 12 calendar months. If the training is conducted within 3 calendar
months prior to the expiry of the 12 calendar months period, the next Ground and Refresher
Training must be completed within 12 calendar months of the expiry date of the previous
ground and refresher training.

Aeroplane/Flight Simulator Training

Each flight crewmember must undergo Aeroplane/Flight Simulator Training at least every 12
calendar months.

If the check is issued within the final 3 calendar months of validity of previous
Aeroplane/Flight Simulator Training then the period of validity extends from the date of issue
until 12 calendar months from the expiry date of that previous Aeroplane/Flight Simulator
Training.

ATPL Air Law 6-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 6-14 24 October 2003


Chapter 7.

Rules of the Air

Reference: Annex 2 - Rules of the Air

Applicability of the Rules of the Air

Territorial Application of the Rules of the Air

The rules of the air shall apply to aircraft bearing the nationality and registration marks of a
Contracting State, wherever they may be. An aircraft must follow the rules of the air of the
state being overflown. These rules also apply to Oceanic Regions that are covered by
Regional Air Navigation Agreements.

Compliance with the Rules of the Air

The operation of an aircraft in flight or on the movement area shall be in accordance with the
General Rules, which are listed later. In flight operation must also be flown under:

¾ Instrument flight rules (IFR), or


¾ Visual flight rules (VFR)

Responsibility for Compliance with the Rules of the Air

Responsibility of the Pilot in Command (PlC)

The PIC, whether at the controls or not, shall be responsible for the operation of the aircraft in
accordance with the rules of the air. The PIC may depart from the rules of the air in the
interests of safety.

Pre-Flight Action

The PIC of an aircraft must pre-brief himself with all available information appropriate to the
flight. Flights away from the vicinity of an aerodrome, and all IFR flights shall include:

¾ A meteorological brief
¾ A consideration of the fuel requirements
¾ Alternative actions if the flight cannot be completed as planned

Authority of the Pilot in Command of an Aircraft

The PIC of an aircraft shall have final authority over the aircraft while in command.

ATPL Air Law 7-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Use of Intoxicating Liquor, Narcotics or Drugs

No person shall pilot an aircraft, or act as flight crew while under the influence of intoxicating
liquor, or any narcotic or drug, by reason of which that person’s capacity to act is impaired.

General Rules

Negligent or Reckless Operation of Aircraft

An aircraft shall not be operated in a negligent or reckless manner so as to endanger life or


property of others.

Minimum Heights

No aircraft is to be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an
open air assembly of persons, unless at a height that will permit, in the event of an
emergency, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the
surface. Exceptions to this rule are:

¾ Take-off and landing


¾ Permission from the appropriate authority

Minimum heights for VFR and IFR flights will be discussed in the later sections.

Cruising Levels

Cruising levels of a flight shall be conducted in terms of:

Flight Level For flights above the lowest useable flight level or where applicable,
above the Transition Altitude.

Altitude For flights below the lowest usable flight level or where applicable, at
or below the Transition Altitude.

ATPL Air Law 7-2 24 October 2003


Aircraft Restrictions

None of the following can be carried out from an aircraft in flight except when prescribed by
the appropriate authority, and as indicated by relevant information, advice and/or clearance
from the appropriate ATSU.

¾ Dropping or Spraying
¾ Towing
¾ Parachute Descents
¾ Acrobatic Flight

Formation Flights

Aircraft shall not be flown in formation except:

¾ By pre-arrangement among the PICs taking part in the flight, and


¾ For formation flight in CAS, in accordance with the conditions prescribed by the
appropriate ATS authority

The above conditions assume that the following rules are observed:

¾ The formation operates as a single aircraft with regard to navigation and position
reporting
¾ Separation between aircraft in flight shall be the responsibility of the flight leader
and the PICs of the other aircraft
¾ A distance not exceeding 1 km laterally and longitudinally and 30 m vertically
from the flight leader shall be maintained

Unmanned Free Balloons

Unmanned free balloons must be operated in a manner so as to minimise hazards to


persons, property or other aircraft.

Prohibited and Restricted Areas

Aircraft shall not be flown in Prohibited or Restricted Areas except in accordance with the
conditions of the restrictions, or by the permission of the state, over whose territories the
areas are established.

Avoidance of Collisions

It is important that vigilance for the purpose of detecting potential collisions is not relaxed on
board an aircraft in flight, regardless of the type of flight or the class of airspace in which the
aircraft is operating, and while operating on the movement area of an aerodrome.

ATPL Air Law 7-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Proximity

An aircraft shall not be operated in close proximity to other aircraft so as to create a collision
hazard.

Right of Way

The aircraft that has the right of way shall maintain its heading and speed. Nothing in these
rules shall relieve the PIC of an aircraft from the responsibility of taking such action, including
collision avoidance manoeuvres based on resolution advisories provided by ACAS
equipment.

Any aircraft that is obliged to keep out of the way of another aircraft shall avoid passing over,
under or in front of that aircraft, unless it is well clear and takes into account the effect of wake
turbulence.

Approaching Head-on When two aircraft approach head on, or


approximately so, and there is a danger of collision, then both shall alter heading to
the right.

ATPL Air Law 7-4 24 October 2003


Converging When two aircraft are converging at approximately the same level,
the aircraft that has the other on its right shall give way.

The following exceptions apply:

¾ Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to airships, gliders and


balloons
¾ Airships shall give way to gliders and balloons
¾ Gliders shall give way to balloons
¾ Power-driven aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are seen to be towing other
aircraft or objects

Overtaking An overtaking aircraft is an aircraft that approaches from the rear on


a line forming an angle of less than 70º.

ATPL Air Law 7-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Note: The overtaking aircraft is in a position that it is unable to see either the
aircraft’s left (red light) or right (green light) navigation lights.

An aircraft that is being overtaken has the right of way and the overtaking aircraft,
whether climbing, descending or in horizontal flight, shall keep out of the way by
altering its heading to the right. No change in the relative positions of the two aircraft
absolves the overtaking aircraft from this obligation until it is entirely past and clear.

Landing An aircraft in flight, or operating on the ground, shall give way to


aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land.

When two or more heavier-than-air aircraft are approaching an aerodrome to land,


aircraft at the higher level shall give way to aircraft at the lower level. No aircraft shall
take advantage of this rule by cutting in front of another aircraft that is on its final
approach.

Power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft shall give way to gliders.

Emergency Landing An aircraft that is aware that another aircraft is


compelled to land shall give way to that aircraft.

Taking-off An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome


shall give way to aircraft taking-off or about to take-off

Surface Movement of Aircraft

When there is a danger of collision between two aircraft taxiing on the movement area of an
aerodrome the following rules apply:

¾ Where two aircraft are approaching head-on, or approximately so, each shall stop
or where practicable alter its course to the right so as to keep well clear
¾ When two aircraft are on a converging course, the one that has the other on its
right shall give way
¾ An aircraft which is being overtaken by another aircraft shall have the right of
way. The overtaking aircraft shall keep well clear of the other aircraft.

An aircraft taxiing on the manoeuvring area shall stop and hold at all taxi-holding positions
unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower. This includes lighted stop bars; when the
lights are switched off then an aircraft may proceed.

ATPL Air Law 7-6 24 October 2003


Lights to be Displayed by Aircraft

From sunset to sunrise, or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority, all
aircraft in flight shall display:

¾ Anti collision lights intended to attract the attention of other aircraft, and
¾ Navigation lights intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an
observer. No other lights shall be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for
the navigation lights

Lights such as landing lights and airframe floodlights may be used in addition to the anti
collision light to enhance aircraft conspicuity.

From sunset to sunrise, or during any other period prescribed by the appropriate authority:

¾ All aircraft on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display navigation lights
intended to indicate the relative path of the aircraft to an observer. Other lights
shall not be displayed if they are likely to be mistaken for these lights
¾ Unless stationary, and otherwise adequately illuminated, all aircraft on the
movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights intended to indicate the
extremities of their structure

Note: If suitably located on the aircraft the navigation lights may meet these
requirements.

¾ All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome shall display lights
intended to attract attention to the aircraft, and
¾ All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome whose engines are
running shall display lights which indicate that fact

Note: Red anti collision lights may meet the requirements of the two
paragraphs above provided that they do not subject observers to harmful
dazzle.

All aircraft operating on the movement area of an aerodrome that are fitted with anti collision
lights, or lights that show that the engines are running, shall display these lights at all times on
the movement area.

Pilots shall be permitted to switch off, or reduce the intensity of, any flashing lights if they do,
or are likely to:

¾ Adversely affect the satisfactory performance of duties, or


¾ Subject an outside observer to harmful dazzle

ATPL Air Law 7-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Simulated Instrument Flight (SIF)

An aircraft shall not be flown under SIF conditions unless:

¾ Fully functioning dual controls are fitted in the aircraft, and


¾ A qualified pilot occupies a control seat to act as safety pilot for the person who is
flying under simulated instrument flying conditions. The safety pilot shall have an
adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or
¾ A competent observer, in communication with, the safety pilot shall occupy a
position in the aircraft from which the field of vision adequately supplements that
of the safety pilot.

Operation on and In the Vicinity of an Aerodrome

An aircraft operated on, or in the vicinity of, an aerodrome shall whether or not within an ATZ:

¾ Observe other aerodrome traffic for the purpose of avoiding collision


¾ Conform with or avoid the pattern of traffic formed by other aircraft in operation
¾ Make all turns to the left, when approaching for landing or taking-off unless
otherwise instructed
¾ Land and take-off into the wind unless safety, the runway configuration, or an air
traffic consideration determines that a different direction should be used

ATPL Air Law 7-8 24 October 2003


Chapter 8.

Airspace Rules and Procedures

Reference: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services

Objective of the Air Traffic Services

The objectives of the ATS are to:

¾ Prevent collisions between aircraft


¾ Prevent collisions between aircraft and obstructions on the manoeuvring area
¾ Expedite and maintain an orderly flow of air traffic
¾ Provide advice and information necessary for the safe and efficient conduct of
flights
¾ Notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR aid, and assist
such organizations as required

Divisions of the Air Traffic Services

The ATS comprise of three services identified as follows:

The Air Traffic Control Service This service is further sub-divided into three parts:

Area Control Service The provision of ATC service for controlled flights,
except those parts of such flights as described below

Approach Control Service The provision of ATC service for those parts of
controlled flights associated with arrival and departure

Aerodrome Control Service The provision of ATC service for aerodrome


traffic, except for those parts of flights described above

Flight Information Service To provide advice and information useful for the safe and
efficient conduct of flight

Alerting Service Notify appropriate organizations regarding aircraft in need of SAR


aid, and assist such organizations as required

Determination of the Need for Air Traffic Services

The need for the provision of ATS is determined by considering the following:

ATPL Air Law 8-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ The types of traffic involved
¾ The density of air traffic
¾ The meteorological conditions
¾ Such other factors as may be relevant

Determination of the Portions of the Airspace and Controlled Aerodromes where Air
Traffic Services will be Provided

When it has been determined that ATS will be provided in a particular portion of airspace or at
a particular aerodrome, then the airspace is designated according to the services to be
provided.

The designation of the particular portions of the airspace or the particular aerodromes are as
follows.

Flight Information Regions

Those portions of the airspace where it is determined that FIS and alerting service will be
provided shall be designated as FIRs.

Control Areas and Control Zones

Those portions of the airspace where it is determined that ATC service will be provided to IFR
flights only are designated as Class A airspace; Control Areas or Control Zones. The
difference between a CTR and a CTA will be discussed later.

Those portions of controlled airspace where it is determined that ATC service will also be
provided to VFR flights shall be designated as Class B, C or D airspace.

Where designated within a FIR, CTAs and CTRs shall form part of that FIR.

Controlled Aerodrome

Those aerodromes where it is determined that ATC service will be provided to aerodrome
traffic are designated as controlled aerodromes.

ATPL Air Law 8-2 24 October 2003


Classification of Airspace

ATS airspace is classified and designated in accordance with the following:

Class A Airspace
IFR flights only are permitted, all flights are subject to ATC service and are separated from
each other
Type of Flight IFR only
Separation Provided All aircraft
Service Provided Air traffic control service
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed Limitation Not applicable
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes

Class B Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, all flights are subject to ATC service and are separated
from each other
IFR Flight
Separation Provided All aircraft
Service Provided Air traffic control service
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation Not applicable
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes
VFR Flight
Separation Provided All aircraft
Service Provided Air traffic control service
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5km below 3050 m (10 000ft) msl
Clear of clouds
Speed Limitation Not applicable
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes

ATPL Air Law 8-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Class C Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, all flights are subject to ATC service and IFR flights are
separated from other IFR flights and from VFR flights. VFR flights are separated from IFR
flights and receive traffic information in respect of other VFR flights
IFR Flight
Separation Provided IFR from IFR
IFR from VFR
Service Provided Air traffic control service
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation Not applicable
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes
VFR Flight
Separation Provided VFR from IFR
Service Provided Air traffic control service for separation from
IFR
VFR/VFR traffic information (and traffic
avoidance advice on request)
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) msl
1500 m horizontal; 300 m vertical distance
from cloud
Speed Limitation 250 kt IAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes

ATPL Air Law 8-4 24 October 2003


Class D Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, and all flights are subject to ATC service, IFR flights are
separated from other IFR flights and receive traffic information in respect of VFR flights. VFR
flights receive traffic information in respect of other VFR flights
IFR Flight
Separation Provided IFR from IFR
Service Provided Air traffic control service including traffic
information about VFR flights (and traffic
avoidance advice on request)
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation 250 kt lAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes
VFR Flight
Separation Provided Nil
Service Provided Traffic information between IFR and VFR
flights (and traffic avoidance advice on
request)
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) msl
1500 m horizontal; 300 m vertical distance
from cloud
Speed Limitation 250 kt IAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes

ATPL Air Law 8-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Class E Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, IFR flights are subject to ATC service and are separated
from other IFR flights. All flights receive traffic information as far as is practical
IFR Flight
Separation Provided IFR from IFR
Service Provided Air traffic control service and traffic
information about VFR flights as far as
practicable
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation 250 kt lAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance Yes
VFR Flight
Separation Provided Nil
Service Provided Traffic information as far as practical
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) msl
1500 m horizontal; 300 m vertical distance
from cloud
Speed Limitation 250 kt IAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement No
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance No

ATPL Air Law 8-6 24 October 2003


Class F Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted, all participating IFR flights receive an air traffic advisory
service and all flights receive FIS if requested
IFR Flight
Separation Provided IFR from IFR as far as practical
Service Provided Air traffic advisory service, FIS
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation 250 kt lAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance No
VFR Flight
Separation Provided Nil
Service Provided FIS
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) msl
1500 m horizontal; 300 m vertical distance
from cloud
At and below 900 m or 300 m above
terrain whichever is higher
5 km visibility, clear of cloud and insight of
ground or water
Speed Limitation 250 kt IAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement No
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance No

ATPL Air Law 8-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Class G Airspace
IFR and VFR flights are permitted and receive FIS if requested
IFR Flight
Separation Provided Nil
Service Provided FIS
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud Not applicable
Minima
Speed limitation 250 kt lAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement Continuous two-way
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance No
VFR Flight
Separation Provided Nil
Service Provided FIS
VMC Visibility and Distance from Cloud 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl
Minima 5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) msl
1500 m horizontal; 300 m vertical distance
from cloud
At and below 900 m or 300 m above
terrain whichever is higher
5 km visibility, clear of cloud and insight of
ground or water
Speed Limitation 250 kt IAS below 3050 m (10 000 ft)
Radio Communication Requirement No
Subject to an Air Traffic Clearance No

ATPL Air Law 8-8 24 October 2003


Notes

When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) amsl, FL 100 should
be used in lieu of 10 000 ft. For Class F and G airspace if the appropriate ATS authority is
given:

¾ Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating:

• At speeds that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic or any
obstacles in time to avoid collision, or
• In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic
would normally be low eg in areas of low traffic volume and for aerial work at
low levels

¾ Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if


manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic
or any obstacles in time to avoid collision

States need only select those airspace classes appropriate to their needs.

Required Navigation Performance (RNP)

RNP Type A containment value expressed as a distance in nautical miles from


the intended position within which flights would be for at least 95% of the total flying
time

eg RNP 4 would be an aircraft staying within a distance from the intended


position of 4 nm for at least 95% of the total flying time

States authorize RNP types and, when applicable, RNP types are also prescribed on the
basis of regional air navigation agreements.

Establishment and Designation of the Units Providing Air Traffic Services

The ATS is provided by units established and designated as follows:

Flight Information Centre A Flight Information Centre shall be established to


provide FIS and alerting service within FIRs, unless the responsibility of providing
such services within a FIR is assigned to an ATCU having adequate facilities for the
discharge of such responsibility

Air Traffic Control Unit ATCUs are established to provide ATC service, FIS
and alerting service within CTAs, CTRs and at controlled aerodromes

ATPL Air Law 8-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Specifications for Flight Information Regions, Control Areas and Control Zones

Flight Information Regions

FIRs are designated to cover the whole of the air route structure to be served by such
regions. A FIR includes all airspace within its lateral limits, except that covered by an UIR.

SCOTTISH FIR

LONDON FIR

Where a FIR is limited by an UIR, the lower limit specified for the UIR is also the upper
vertical limit of the FIR.

Control Areas

CTAs, including airways and TMAs, are designated so as to encompass enough airspace to
contain the flight paths of IFR flights in which it is desired to provide protection. Taking into
account the capabilities of the navigation aids within the area.

AIRWAY TERMINAL AIRWAY


CONTROL AREA

CONTROL ZONE

A lower limit of a CTA is established at a height above the ground or water at not less than
200 m (700 ft). The lower limit of a CTA should, when practicable, in order to allow freedom of
movement for VFR flights below the CTA, is established above those minima specified above.

ATPL Air Law 8-10 24 October 2003


When the lower limit of a CTA is above 900 m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR
cruising level.

An upper limit of a CTA is established when either:

¾ An ATC service will not be provided above that upper limit, or


¾ The CTA is situated below an upper CTA in which the upper limit coincides with
the lower limit of the upper CTA

Flight Information Regions or Control Areas in the Upper Airspace

Where it is desirable to limit the number of FIRs or CTAs through which high flying aircraft
would otherwise have to operate, a FIR or CTA, as appropriate, should be designated to
include the upper airspace within the lateral limits of a number of lower FIRs or CTAs

Control Zones

The lateral limits of CTRs encompass at least those portions of the airspace, which are not
within CTAs, containing the paths of IFR flights arriving at and departing from aerodromes to
be used under IMC.

The lateral limits of a CTR extend to at least 9.3 km (5 nm) from the centre of the aerodrome
or aerodromes concerned in the directions from which approaches may be made. If a CTR is
located within the lateral limits of a CTA, it extends upwards from the surface of the earth to at
least the lower limit of the CTA. A CTR may include two or more aerodromes situated close
together.

Note: An upper limit higher than the lower limit of the overlying CTA may be
established when necessary

If a CTR is located outside of the lateral limits of a CTA, an upper limit is established. If it is
necessary to establish the upper limit of a CTR at a level higher than the lower limit of the
CTA established above it, or if the CTR is outside of the lateral limits of a CTA, its upper limit
should be established at a level which pilots can easily identify. When this limit is above 900
m (3000 ft) msl it should coincide with a VFR cruising level.

Minimum Flight Altitudes

Minimum flight altitudes are determined and promulgated by each Contracting State for each
ATS route over its territory. The minimum flight altitudes determined will provide a minimum
clearance above the controlling obstacle located within the area concerned.

ATPL Air Law 8-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Service to Aircraft in the Event of Emergency

An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to


unlawful interference, shall be given maximum assistance and priority over other aircraft as
may be necessitated by the circumstances.

When an occurrence of unlawful interference with an aircraft takes place or is suspected, ATS
units shall attend promptly to requests by the aircraft. Information pertinent to the safe
conduct of the flight shall continue to be transmitted and necessary action shall be taken to
expedite the conduct of all phases of the flight, especially the safe landing of the aircraft.

Note: To indicate that it is in a state of emergency, an aircraft equipped with an SSR


transponder might operate the equipment as follows:

¾ On Mode A, Code 7700, or


¾ On Mode A, Code 7500, to indicate specifically that it is being
subjected to unlawful interference

Time in Air Traffic Services

ATS units use Co-ordinated Universal Time (UTC) and express the time in hours and minutes
of the 24 hour day beginning at midnight.

ATS unit clocks and other time recording devices are checked as necessary to ensure the
correct time to within ±30 seconds of UTC at all times.

Aerodrome control towers shall, prior to an aircraft taxiing for take-off, provide the pilot with
the correct time, unless arrangements have been made for the pilot to obtain it from other
sources. ATS units provide aircraft with the correct time on request, these time checks are
given to the nearest ½ minute.

ATPL Air Law 8-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 9.

Flight Rules

Reference: Annex 2 – Rules of the Air

Visual Flight Rules (VFR)

Except when an aircraft is being flown under Special VFR, a VFR flight must follow the rules
below. The rules specify the minimum in-flight conditions for visibility and distance from
clouds for all classes of airspace. Class A does not appear in the table below as VFR is not
permitted in that class of airspace.

Airspace Class B C, D & E F&G


Above 900 m At and below 900
(3000 ft) AMSL or m (3000 ft) AMSL
above 300 m or 300 m (1000 ft)
(1000 ft) above above terrain
terrain whichever whichever is
is higher higher
Distance From Clear of cloud 1500 m horizontally Clear of cloud and
Cloud 300 m (1000 ft) vertically in sight of the
surface
Flight Visibility 8 km at and above 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA 5 kmB
5 km below 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSLA
1. When the height of the transition altitude is lower than 3050 m (10 000 ft) AMSL, FL
100 should be used in lieu of 10 000 ft
2. When the ATS authority prescribe:
¾ Lower flight visibilities to 1500 m may be permitted for flights operating:
¾ At speeds that, in the prevailing visibility, will give adequate opportunity to
observe other traffic or any obstacles in time to avoid collision, or
¾ In circumstances in which the probability of encounters with other traffic
would normally be low eg in areas of low volume traffic and for aerial work at
low levels
¾ Helicopters may be permitted to operate in less than 1500 m flight visibility, if
manoeuvred at a speed that will give adequate opportunity to observe other traffic
or any obstacles in time to avoid collision

Except when a clearance is given from an ATCU, VFR flights cannot take-off or land at an
aerodrome in a CTR, or enter an aerodrome traffic zone or traffic pattern when:

¾ The ceiling is less than 1500 ft


¾ The visibility is less than 5 km

ATPL Air Law 9-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


VFR flights between sunset and sunrise, or such other periods between sunset and sunrise
as are prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, can operated in accordance with the
conditions set out by that authority.

Unless authorized by the appropriate ATS authority, VFR flights are not operated:

¾ Above FL 200
¾ At transonic and supersonic speeds

Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or where permission has been granted from
the appropriate authority, a VFR flight shall not be flown:

¾ Over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements or over an open air
assembly of persons at a height less than 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest
obstacle within a radius of 600 m from the aircraft
¾ Elsewhere, other than specified in the paragraph above, at a height less than 150
m (500 ft) above the ground or water

Except where indicated in ATC clearances or specified by the appropriate ATS authority:

¾ VFR flights in level cruising flight when operated above 900 m (3000 ft) from the
ground or water, or
¾ A higher datum as specified by the appropriate ATS authority

are conducted at a flight level appropriate to track as specified in the table of cruising levels to
be found after the notes on IFR.

VFR flights shall comply with the provisions laid out in ATC clearances:

¾ When operated in Class B, C and D airspace


¾ When forming part of aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, or
¾ When operated as special VFR flights

A VFR flight operating within ATS routes, or areas specified by the appropriate ATS authority,
shall maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate radio frequency. The aircraft
must report its position as necessary to, the ATS unit providing the FIS.

An aircraft operated in accordance with VFR which wishes to change its flight to IFR, shall:

¾ If a flight plan was submitted, communicate the necessary changes to be effected


to its current flight plan, or
¾ When so required submit a flight plan to the appropriate ATS unit and obtain a
clearance prior to proceeding IFR when in controlled airspace

ATPL Air Law 9-2 24 October 2003


Instrument Flight Rules

Rules Applicable to All IFR Flights

Aircraft Equipment All aircraft have to be equipped with suitable instruments and
navigation equipment appropriate to the route to be flown.

Minimum Levels Except when necessary for take-off and landing, or except when
specifically authorized by the appropriate authority, an IFR flight is flown at a level which is
not below the minimum flight altitude established by the state whose territory is being
overflown. If no minimum altitude has been established IFR flight shall be flown:

¾ Over high terrain or in mountainous areas, at a level which is at least 600 m


(2000 ft) above the highest obstacle located within 8 km of the estimated position
of the aircraft, or
¾ At a level which is at least 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle located
within 8 km of the estimated position of the aircraft

Note: The estimated position of the aircraft will take account of the
navigational accuracy which can be achieved on the relevant route segment,
having regard to the navigational facilities available on the ground and in the
aircraft

Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight

An aircraft wishing to change from IFR to VFR flight shall, if a flight plan was submitted, notify
the appropriate ATS unit that the IFR flight is cancelled and communicate the changes to be
made to the current flight plan.

When an aircraft operating under IFR is flown in, or encounters, VMC it shall not cancel its
IFR flight unless it is anticipated, and intended, that the flight will be continued for a
reasonable period of time in uninterrupted VMC.

Rules Applicable to IFR Flights within Controlled Airspace

IFR flights shall comply with the provisions of the rules laid out in ATC clearances.

An IFR flight operating in cruising flight shall be flown at a cruising level, or if authorized to
employ cruise climb techniques, between two levels or above a level, selected from the table
of cruising levels found after this section. The correlation to track does not apply when
indicated in ATC clearances or specified in the appropriate ATS authority AIP.

Rules Applicable to IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace

An IFR flight operating in level cruising flight outside controlled airspace is flown at a cruising
level appropriate to track as specified in the table of cruising levels found after this section.

ATPL Air Law 9-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Note: The provision does not preclude the use of cruise climbing techniques by
aircraft in supersonic flight

Communication

All IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace but within or into areas, or along routes
designated by the appropriate ATS authority shall maintain a listening watch on the
appropriate radio frequency. Two-way communications must be established with the ATS unit
providing the FIS.

Position Reports

All IFR flights operating outside controlled airspace and required by the appropriate ATS
authority to:

¾ Submit a flight plan


¾ Maintain a listening watch on the appropriate frequency
¾ Establish two way communication with the appropriate ATS authority

shall report their position as for controlled flight.

Note: Aircraft electing to use the air traffic advisory service while operating IFR are:

¾ Expected to comply with the provisions for ATC clearances, except

• That the flight plan and changes thereto are not subject to clearances
• Two way communication will be maintained with the unit providing the air
traffic advisory service

ATPL Air Law 9-4 24 October 2003


Table of Cruising Levels

The cruising levels to be observed when required by Annex 2 are listed in the two tables
below.

ATPL Air Law 9-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


In Areas Where, On the basis of Regional Air Navigation Agreement and in Accordance
with the Conditions Specified Therein, A Vertical Separation Minimum (VSM) of 300 m
(1000 ft) is applied between FL 290 and FL 410 Inclusive*

TRACK**
From 000º to 179º *** From 180º to 359º ***
IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights
Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude
FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet
10 300 1000 20 600 2000
30 900 3000 35 1050 3500 40 1200 4000 45 1350 4500
50 1500 5000 55 1700 5500 60 1850 6000 65 2000 6500
70 2150 7000 75 2300 7500 80 2450 8000 85 2600 8500
90 2750 9000 95 2900 9500 100 3050 10 000 105 3200 10 500

110 3350 11 000 115 3500 11 500 120 3650 12 000 125 3800 12 500
130 3950 13 000 135 4100 13 500 140 4250 14 000 145 4400 14 500
150 4550 15 000 155 4700 15 500 160 4900 16 000 165 5050 16 500
170 5200 17 000 175 5350 17 500 180 5500 18 000 185 5650 18 500
190 5800 19 000 195 5950 19 500 200 6100 20 000 205 6250 20 500

210 6400 21 000 215 6550 21 500 220 6700 22 000 225 6850 22 500
230 7000 23 000 235 7150 23 500 240 7300 24 000 245 7450 24 500
250 7600 25 000 255 7750 25 500 260 7900 26 000 265 8100 26 500
270 8250 27 000 275 8400 27 500 280 8550 28 000 285 8700 28 500
290 8850 19 000 300 9150 30 000

310 9450 31 000 320 9750 32 000


330 10 050 33 000 340 10 350 34 000
350 10 650 35 000 360 10 950 36 000
370 11 300 37 000 380 11 600 38 000
390 11 900 39 000 400 12 200 40 000

410 12 500 41 000 430 13 100 43 000


450 13 700 45 000 470 14 350 47 000
490 14 950 49 000 510 15 550 51 000

etc etc etc etc etc etc

* Except when, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a modified table of
cruising levels based on a nominal vertical separation minimum of 300 m (1000 ft) is
prescribed for use, under specified conditions, by aircraft operating above FL 410 within
designated portions of the airspace

** Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such
extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid
tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed

ATPL Air Law 9-6 24 October 2003


as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as
Grid North

*** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º
and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and
appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified

ATPL Air Law 9-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


In Other Areas

TRACK*
From 000º to 179º ** From 180º to 359º **
IFR Flights VFR Flights IFR Flights VFR Flights
Altitude Altitude Altitude Altitude
FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet FL Metres Feet
10 300 1000 20 600 2000
30 900 3000 35 1050 3500 40 1200 4000 45 1350 4500
50 1500 5000 55 1700 5500 60 1850 6000 65 2000 6500
70 2150 7000 75 2300 7500 80 2450 8000 85 2600 8500
90 2750 9000 95 2900 9500 100 3050 10 000 105 3200 10 500

110 3350 11 000 115 3500 11 500 120 3650 12 000 125 3800 12 500
130 3950 13 000 135 4100 13 500 140 4250 14 000 145 4400 14 500
150 4550 15 000 155 4700 15 500 160 4900 16 000 165 5050 16 500
170 5200 17 000 175 5350 17 500 180 5500 18 000 185 5650 18 500
190 5800 19 000 195 5950 19 500 200 6100 20 000 205 6250 20 500

210 6400 21 000 215 6550 21 500 220 6700 22 000 225 6850 22 500
230 7000 23 000 235 7150 23 500 240 7300 24 000 245 7450 24 500
250 7600 25 000 255 7750 25 500 260 7900 26 000 265 8100 26 500
270 8250 27 000 275 8400 27 500 280 8550 28 000 285 8700 28 500
290 8850 19 000 300 9150 30 000 310 9150 31 000 320 9750 32 000

330 10 050 33 000 340 10 350 34 000 350 10 650 35 000 360 10 950 36 000
370 11 300 37 000 380 11 600 38 000 390 11 900 39 000 400 12 200 40 000

410 12 500 41 000 420 12 800 42 000 430 13 100 43 000 440 13 400 44 000
450 13 700 45 000 460 14 000 46 000 470 14 350 47 000 480 14 650 48 000
490 14 950 49 000 500 15 250 50 000 510 15 550 51 000 520 15 850 52 000

etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc etc

* Magnetic track, or Polar areas at a latitude higher than 70º and within such
extensions to those areas as may be prescribed by the appropriate ATS authorities, grid
tracks as determined by a network of lines parallel to the Greenwich Meridian superimposed
as a Polar Stereographic chart in which the direction towards the North Pole is employed as
Grid North

** Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, from 090º to 269º
and from 270º to 089º is prescribed to accommodate predominant traffic directions and
appropriate transition procedures to be associated therewith are specified

ATPL Air Law 9-8 24 October 2003


Chapter 10.

Aerodrome Control Service

Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services, Doc 4444 - RAC/501

Functions of Aerodrome Control Towers

General

Aerodrome control towers issue information and clearances to aircraft under their control in
order to achieve a safe, orderly and expeditious flow of air traffic on and in the vicinity of an
aerodrome with the object of preventing collisions between:

¾ Aircraft flying in the aerodrome traffic circuits around an aerodrome


¾ Aircraft operating on the manoeuvring area
¾ Aircraft landing and taking off
¾ Aircraft and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area
¾ Aircraft on the manoeuvring area and obstructions on that area

Alerting Service Provided By Aerodrome Control Towers

Aerodrome control towers are also responsible for alerting the safety services and will
immediately report any failure or irregularity of operation in any apparatus, light or other
device established at an aerodrome for the guidance of aerodrome traffic and PICs of aircraft

Aircraft which:

¾ Fail to report after having been handed over to an aerodrome control tower, or
¾ Having once reported, cease radio contact and
¾ In either case fail to land 5 minutes after the expected landing time

are reported to the area control centre or flight information centre.

Suspension of VFR Operations by Aerodrome Control Towers

Any or all VFR operations on and in the vicinity of an aerodrome may be suspended by any of
the following units, persons or authorities whenever safety requires such action:

¾ The area control centre within whose CTA the aerodrome is located
¾ The aerodrome controller on duty
¾ The appropriate ATS authority

ATPL Air Law 10-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


All such suspensions of VFR operations are accomplished through or notified to the
aerodrome control tower.

The following procedures are observed by the aerodrome control tower whenever VFR
operations are suspended:

¾ The holding of all departures other than those which file an IFR flight plan and
obtain approval from the area control centre
¾ The recall of all local flights operating under VFR or obtain approval for special
VFR operations
¾ The notification of the area control centre of the action taken
¾ The notification of all operators, or their designated representatives, of the reason
for taking such action if necessary or requested

Traffic and Taxi Circuits

Critical Positions of Aircraft in the Aerodrome Traffic and Taxi Circuits

Aerodrome controllers maintain a continuous watch on all visible flight operations on and in
the vicinity of an aerodrome, including aircraft, vehicles and personnel on the manoeuvring
area, and control this traffic in accordance with the procedures and traffic rules. If there are
other aerodromes within a CTR, traffic at all aerodromes within such a zone are co-ordinated
so that traffic circuits do not conflict.

The following positions of aircraft in the traffic and taxi circuits are the positions where the
aircraft normally receive aerodrome control tower clearances, whether these are given by light
signals or radio. Aircraft should be watched closely as they approach these positions so that
proper clearances may be issued without delay.

3 5

1 6

ATPL Air Law 10-2 24 October 2003


Where practicable, all clearances are issued without waiting for the aircraft to initiate the call.

¾ Position 1 Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight, runway in use
information and taxi clearances given.

¾ Position 2 If there is conflicting traffic, the departing aircraft will be held at this
point. Motors of the aircraft will normally be run-up here

¾ Position 3 Take-off clearance is issued here if not practicable at position 2

¾ Position 4 Clearance to land is issued here

¾ Position 5 Clearance to taxi to hangar line or parking area is issued here

¾ Position 6 Parking information issued here if necessary

Final

Base Leg

Downwind Leg

Selection of Runway in Use

The term runway in use is used to indicate the runway that at a particular time is considered
by a unit providing aerodrome control service to be the most suitable for use by the types of
aircraft expected to land or take-off at the aerodrome.

ATPL Air Law 10-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Normally, an aircraft will land and take-off into wind unless safety, the runway configuration,
or air traffic conditions determine that a different direction is preferable. In selecting the
runway in use the unit providing aerodrome control service takes into consideration, besides
surface wind speed and direction, other relevant factors such as:

¾ The aerodrome traffic circuits


¾ The length of runways, and
¾ The approach and landing aids available

If the runway in use is not considered suitable for the operation involved the PIC may request
permission to use another runway.

Information to Aircraft by Aerodrome Control Towers

Information Related to the Operation of Aircraft

When so requested by the pilot prior to engine start, an expected take-off time will be given,
unless engine start time procedures are employed.

Prior to taxiing for take-off, aircraft are advised of the following information, in the order listed,
with the exception of those elements that it is known the aircraft has already received:

¾ The runway to be used


¾ The current surface wind direction and speed, including significant variations
¾ The QNH and, either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements or
if so requested by the aircraft, the QFE
¾ The air temperature for the runway to be used, in the case of turbine engine
aircraft
¾ The current visibility representative of the direction of take-off and initial climb, if
less than 10 km, or, when provided, the current RVR value(s) for the runway to
be used
¾ The correct time

Prior to take-off aircraft are advised of:

¾ Any significant changes in the surface wind direction and speed, the air
temperature, and the visibility or RVR value(s) given
¾ Significant meteorological conditions in the take-off and climb out area, except
when it is known that the information has already been received by the aircraft.

ATPL Air Law 10-4 24 October 2003


Prior to entering the traffic circuit an aircraft is provided with the following elements of
information, in the order listed, with the exception of those elements that it is known the
aircraft has already received:

¾ The runway to be used


¾ The mean surface wind direction and speed and significant variations
¾ The QNH and, either on a regular basis in accordance with local arrangements
or, if so requested by aircraft, the QFE

When operating under VMC, it is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to avoid collision
with other aircraft. However, due to the restricted space on and around manoeuvring areas, it
is often essential that traffic information be issued to aid the PIC of an aircraft to avoid
collision. Essential local traffic is considered to consist of any aircraft, vehicle or personnel on
or near the manoeuvring area or traffic operating in the vicinity of the aerodrome, which may
constitute a hazard to the aircraft concerned. Information on essential local traffic is issued
either directly or through the unit providing approach control service when, in the judgement
of the aerodrome controller the information is necessary in the interests of safety, or when
requested by aircraft.

Aerodrome controllers shall, whenever practicable, advise aircraft of the expected occurrence
of hazards caused by wake turbulence.

In issuing clearances or instructions, air traffic controllers should take into account the
hazards caused by jet blast and propeller slipstream to taxiing aircraft, to aircraft taking-off or
landing, particularly when intersecting runways are being used, and to vehicles and personnel
operating on the aerodrome.

Information on Aerodrome Conditions

Essential information on aerodrome conditions is information necessary to the safety of the


operation of aircraft that pertains to the movement area or any facilities associated with the
movement area.

The essential information on aerodrome conditions includes information relating to the


following:

¾ Construction or maintenance work on, or immediately adjacent to the movement


area
¾ Rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway or an apron, whether marked
or not
¾ Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Water on a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft and birds on the ground and in
the air
¾ Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome lighting system

ATPL Air Law 10-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ Any other pertinent information

Control of Aerodrome Traffic

Order of Priority for Arriving and Departing Aircraft

An aircraft landing or in the final stages of an approach to land normally has priority over an
aircraft intending to depart. Departures are normally cleared in the order in which they are
ready for take-off, except that deviations may be made from this order of priority to facilitate
the maximum number of departures with the least average delay.

Control of Taxiing Aircraft

When taxiing, a pilot’s vision is limited. It is important therefore for aerodrome control units to
issue concise instructions and adequate information to the pilot to assist him in determining
the correct taxi routes and to avoid collision with other aircraft or objects

For the purpose of expediting air traffic, aircraft may be permitted to taxi on the runway in use,
provided no delay or risk to other aircraft will result. Aircraft will not be held closer than at a
taxi holding position for the runway in use. Aircraft are not permitted to hold on the approach
end of the runway in use whenever another aircraft is landing or, until the landing aircraft has
passed the point of intended holding.

An aircraft known or believed to be the subject of unlawful interference or which for other
reasons needs isolation from normal aerodrome activities shall be cleared to the designated
isolated parking position. Where such an isolated parking position has not been designated,
or if the designated position is not available, the aircraft shall be cleared to a position within
the area or areas selected by prior agreement with the aerodrome authority. The taxi
clearance shall specify the taxi route to be followed to the parking position. This route shall be
selected with a view to minimizing any security risks to the public, other aircraft and
installations at the aerodrome.

Control of Other than Aircraft Traffic on the Manoeuvring Area

The movement of pedestrians or vehicles on the manoeuvring area are subject to


authorization by the aerodrome control tower. Persons, including drivers of all vehicles, are
required to obtain authorization from the aerodrome control tower before entry to the
manoeuvring area. Entry to a runway or runway strip or change in the operation authorized
are subject to a further specific authorization by the aerodrome control tower.

At controlled aerodromes all vehicles employed on the manoeuvring area must be capable of
maintaining two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower, except when the
vehicle is only occasionally used on the aerodrome and is:

¾ Accompanied by a vehicle with the required communications facility, or


¾ Employed in accordance with a pre-arranged plan established with the
aerodrome control tower

ATPL Air Law 10-6 24 October 2003


When communications by a system of visual signals is deemed to be adequate, or in the case
of radio communications failure, the signals given below shall have the following meanings:

Light signal from aerodrome control Meaning

Green flashes Permission to cross landing area or to move


onto taxiway
Steady red Stop
Red flashes Move off the landing area or taxiway and
watch out for aircraft
White flashes Vacate manoeuvring area in accordance with
local instructions

In emergency conditions, or if the signals are not observed, the signals given underneath are
used for runways or taxiways equipped with a lighting system and have the meaning
indicated.

Light signal Meaning


Flashing runway or taxi lights Vacate the runway and observe the tower for
light signal

When employed in accordance with a plan pre-arranged with the aerodrome control tower,
construction and maintenance personnel should not normally be required to be capable of
maintaining two-way radio communication with the aerodrome control tower.
When an aircraft is landing or taking-off, vehicles are not be permitted to hold closer to the
runway in use than:

¾ At a taxiway/runway intersection - at a taxi holding point, and

¾ At a location other than a taxiway/runway intersection - at a distance equal to


the separation distance of the taxi holding position

Control of Traffic in the Traffic Circuit

Aircraft in the traffic circuit are controlled to provide the separation minima outlined later,
except that:

¾ Aircraft in formation are exempted from the separation minima with respect to
separation from other aircraft of the same flight
¾ Aircraft operating in different areas or lanes on aerodromes equipped with
runways or mat facilities suitable for simultaneous landings or take-offs are
exempted from the separation minima
¾ Separation minima does not apply to aircraft operating under military necessity

ATPL Air Law 10-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Sufficient separation is effected between aircraft in flight in the traffic circuit to allow the
spacing of arriving and departing aircraft.

The clearance to enter the traffic circuit is issued to an aircraft whenever it is desired that the
aircraft approach the landing area in accordance with current traffic circuits and traffic
conditions are such that a clearance authorizing the actual landing is not feasible. In
connection with the clearance to enter the traffic circuit, information is given concerning the
landing direction or runway in use so that the PlC of an aircraft may intelligently plan his entry
into the traffic circuit. If an aircraft enters an aerodrome traffic circuit without proper
authorization, it shall be permitted to land if its actions indicate that it so desires. If
circumstances warrant, a controller may ask aircraft, with which he is in contact, to give way
so as to remove, as soon as possible, any hazard introduced by the unauthorized operation.
In no case shall permission to land be withheld indefinitely.

Special authorization for use of the manoeuvring area may be given to:

¾ An aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting


the safe operation of the aircraft
¾ Hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured persons requiring
urgent medical attention

Control of Departing Aircraft

A departing aircraft will not normally be permitted to commence take-off until the preceding
departing aircraft:

¾ Has crossed the end of the runway in use, or


¾ Has started a turn, or
¾ Until all preceding landing aircraft are clear of the runway in use

The appropriate ATS authority may prescribe lower minima, after consultation with the
operators, and taking into account such factors as:

¾ Runway length
¾ Aerodrome layout, and
¾ The types of aircraft involved

Such lower minima shall not apply:

¾ Between a departing aircraft and a preceding landing aircraft


¾ Between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as
may be prescribed
¾ When braking action may be adversely affected by runway contaminants
¾ In weather conditions preventing the pilot from making an early assessment of
traffic conditions on the runway

ATPL Air Law 10-8 24 October 2003


Take-off clearance may be issued to an aircraft when there is reasonable assurance that the
separation prescribed will exist when the aircraft commences its take-off. When an air traffic
control clearance from an area control centre is required prior to take-off, the take-off
clearance is not issued until the area control centre clearance has been transmitted to and
acknowledged by the aircraft concerned. The area control centre shall forward clearance to
the aerodrome control tower with the least possible delay after receipt of a request made by
the tower, or prior to such a request if practicable. The take-off clearance is issued when the
aircraft is ready for take-off and at or approaching the runway in use, and the traffic situation
permits

In the interest of expediting traffic, a clearance for immediate take-off may be issued to an
aircraft before it enters the runway. On acceptance of such a clearance the aircraft shall taxi
onto the runway and take-off in one continuous movement.

Control of Arriving Aircraft

A landing aircraft will not normally be permitted to cross the beginning of the runway on its
final approach until the preceding departing aircraft has:

¾ Crossed the end of the runway in use, or


¾ Started a turn, or
¾ Until all preceding landing aircraft are clear of the runway in use

Lower minima than those prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, after consultation with
the operators, may be used after considering such factors as:

¾ Runway length
¾ Aerodrome layout, and
¾ Type of aircraft involved

Such lower minima shall not apply:

¾ Between sunset and sunrise, or such other period between sunset and sunrise as
may be prescribed
¾ When braking action may be adversely affected by runway contaminants
¾ In weather conditions preventing the pilot from making an early assessment of
traffic conditions on the runway

An aircraft may be cleared to land when there is reasonable assurance that the separation will
exist when the aircraft crosses the runway threshold, providing that a clearance to land is not
issued until a preceding landing aircraft has crossed the runway threshold.

ATPL Air Law 10-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft and Increased Longitudinal Separation
Minima

Wake Turbulence Categorization of Aircraft

Wake turbulence separation minima is based on the grouping of aircraft types into three
categories according to the maximum certificated take-off mass as follows:

Weight

HEAVY (H) All aircraft types of 136 000 kg or more

MEDIUM (M) Aircraft types less than 136 000 kg but more than 7000 kg

LIGHT (L) Aircraft types of 7000 kg or less

Wake Turbulence Separation Minima

The following non-radar separation minima are applied

Arriving Aircraft

For timed approaches, the following minima are applied to aircraft landing:

¾ MEDIUM aircraft behind a HEAVY aircraft - 2 minutes


¾ LIGHT aircraft behind a HEAVY or MEDIUM aircraft - 3 minutes

The following minima are applied for take-off:

¾ LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft taking off behind a HEAVY aircraft - 2 minutes


¾ LIGHT aircraft taking off behind a MEDIUM aircraft - 2 minutes

The minimum is increased to 3 minutes when the aircraft takes-off from:

¾ An intermediate part of the same runway, or


¾ An intermediate part of a parallel runway separated by less than 760 m

Displaced Landing Threshold

ATPL Air Law 10-10 24 October 2003


A separation minimum of 2 minutes is applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a
HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and MEDIUM aircraft when operating on a
runway with a displaced landing threshold when:

¾ A departing LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY aircraft arrival and a


departing LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft arrival, or
¾ An arriving LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft follows a HEAVY aircraft departure and an
arriving LIGHT aircraft follows a MEDIUM aircraft departure if the projected flight
paths are expected to cross

Opposite Direction

A separation of 2 minutes shall be applied between a LIGHT or MEDIUM aircraft and a


HEAVY aircraft and between a LIGHT aircraft and a MEDIUM aircraft when the heavier
aircraft is making a low missed approach and the lighter aircraft is:

¾ Utilizing an opposite direction runway for take-off, or


¾ Landing on the same runway in the opposite direction, or
¾ On a parallel opposite direction runway separated by less than 760 m

Authorization of Special VFR Flights

When traffic conditions permit, special VFR may be authorized subject to the approval of the
unit providing approach control service. Requests for such authorization are handled
individually. SVFR is a grant by ATC not a right.

Separation shall be effected between all IFR and special VFR flights in accordance with the
separation minima and, when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, between all
special VFR flights in accordance with separation minima prescribed by that authority.

When the ground visibility is not less than 1500 m special VFR flights may be authorized to
enter a CTR for the purpose of landing or to take-off and depart directly from the CTR. Within
Class E airspace, special VFR flights may take place whether or not the aircraft is equipped
with a functioning radio receiver. Special VFR flights may be authorized to operate locally
within a CTR when the ground visibility is not less than 1500 m, provided that:

¾ The aircraft is equipped with a functioning radio receiver and the pilot has agreed
to guard the appropriate communication frequency, or
¾ Within Class E airspace, if the aircraft is not equipped with a functioning radio
receiver, adequate arrangements have been made for the termination of the flight

ATPL Air Law 10-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 10-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 11.

Approach Control Service

Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services, Doc 4444 -RAC/501

Departing Aircraft

General Procedures for Departing Aircraft

ATC clearances specify:

¾ Direction of take-off and turn after take-off


¾ Track to be made good before proceeding on desired heading
¾ Level to maintain before continuing climb to assigned cruising level
¾ Time, point and/or rate at which level change shall be made, and
¾ Any other necessary manoeuvre consistent with safe operation of the aircraft

Note: To ensure an orderly flow of air traffic, ATCUs should attempt to


permit aircraft departing on long distance flights to proceed on heading with as few
turns or other manoeuvres as possible, and to climb to cruising level without
restrictions

Departing aircraft may be expedited by suggesting a take-off direction that is not into wind. It
is the responsibility of the PIC of an aircraft to decide between making such a take-off or
waiting for normal take-off in a preferred direction. If departures are delayed to avoid
excessive holding at destination, delayed flights shall normally be cleared in an order based
on their ETD, except that deviations from this may be made to facilitate the maximum number
of departures with the least average delay. ATCUs should advise aircraft operators or their
designated representatives when anticipated delays due to traffic conditions are likely to be
substantial and in any event when they are expected to exceed 30 minutes.

Minimum Separation Between Departing Aircraft

The following minimum separations are used:

¾ One minute if the departing tracks diverge by at least 45° immediately after take-
off. This may be reduced for parallel runway or diverging runway operations. The
latter need specific ATS approval.
¾ Two minutes where the first aircraft is 40 knots faster and both aircraft intend to
follow the same track
¾ Five minutes while vertical separation does not exist.

ATPL Air Law 11-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Clearances for Departing Aircraft to Climb Maintaining Own Separation While in VMC

When requested by the aircraft and if prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority a departing
aircraft may be cleared to climb, subject to maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC
until a specified time or to a specified location if reports indicate that this is possible.

Information for Departing Aircraft

Information regarding significant changes in the meteorological conditions in the take-off or


climb out area, obtained by the unit providing approach control service after a departing
aircraft has established communication with that unit, are transmitted to the aircraft without
delay, except when it is known that the aircraft has already received the information.

Note: Significant changes in this context include those relating to:

¾ Surface wind direction or speed


¾ Visibility
¾ RVR, or air temperature for turbine aircraft
¾ Occurrence of thunderstorms or cumulonimbus
¾ Wind shear
¾ Hail
¾ Moderate or severe icing
¾ Severe squall line
¾ Freezing precipitation
¾ Severe mountain waves
¾ Sand storm
¾ Dust storm
¾ Blowing snow
¾ Tornado
¾ Waterspout

Information regarding changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential
for take-off and climb are transmitted without delay to a departing aircraft, except when it is
known that the aircraft has already received the information. Information regarding essential
local traffic known to the controller is transmitted to departing aircraft without delay.

Note: Essential local traffic in this context consists of any aircraft vehicle or
personnel on or near the runway to be used or traffic in the take-off and climb-out
area, which may constitute a collision hazard to the departing aircraft

ATPL Air Law 11-2 24 October 2003


Arriving Aircraft

General Procedures for Arriving Aircraft

When it becomes evident that delays in holding will be encountered by arriving aircraft, the
operator or a designated representative is notified and kept informed of any changes in the
expected delays, in order that diversionary action can be planned as far in advance as
possible. Arriving aircraft may be required to report when:

¾ Leaving or passing a reporting point, or


¾ When starting a procedure turn or base turn, or
¾ To provide other information required by the controller to expedite departing
aircraft

An IFR flight is not to be cleared for an initial approach below the appropriate minimum
altitude as specified by the State concerned nor to descend below that altitude unless:

¾ The pilot has reported passing an appropriate point defined by a radio aid, or
¾ The pilot reports that the aerodrome is and can be maintained in sight, or
¾ The aircraft is conducting a visual approach, or
¾ The aircraft’s position has been positively determined by the use of radar

Clearance to Descend Subject to Maintaining Own Separation while in VMC

When requested by the aircraft and if so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority an
arriving aircraft may be cleared to descend subject to maintaining its own separation and
remaining in VMC if reports indicate that this is possible.

Visual Approach

An IFR flight may be cleared to execute a visual approach provided that the pilot can maintain
visual reference to the terrain and:

¾ The reported ceiling is at or above the approved initial approach level for the
aircraft so cleared, or
¾ The pilot reports at the initial approach level or at any time during the approach
that the meteorological conditions are such that a visual approach and landing
can be completed

Separation is to be provided between an aircraft cleared to execute a visual approach and


other arriving and departing aircraft.

For successive visual approaches, radar or non-radar separation is to be maintained until the
pilot of a following aircraft reports having the preceding aircraft in sight. The aircraft is
instructed to follow and maintain separation from the preceding aircraft. Transfer of

ATPL Air Law 11-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


communications are made at a point or time that clearance to land or alternative instructions
can be issued to the aircraft in a timely manner.

Instrument Approach

If a PIC reports or it is clearly apparent to the ATC unit that they are not familiar with an
instrument approach procedure then they will be given the following details:

¾ The initial approach level


¾ The point (in minutes from the appropriate reporting point) at which a procedure
turn shall be carried out, and
¾ The final approach track

If the aircraft is to be cleared for a straight-in approach then only the last item need be
specified. The missed approach procedure will be specified when deemed necessary. If visual
reference to terrain is established before completion of the approach procedure, the entire
procedure must be continued unless the pilot requests and is cleared for a visual approach. A
particular approach procedure may be specified to expedite traffic. The omission of a
specified approach procedure will indicate that any authorized approach may be used at the
discretion of the pilot.

Holding

Holding and holding pattern entry has to be accomplished in accordance with procedures
established by the appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information
Publications. If entry and holding procedures have not been published or if the procedures are
not known to the PIC of an aircraft, the appropriate ATCU will describe the procedures to be
followed.

Aircraft must be held at a designated holding point. The required minimum vertical, lateral or
longitudinal separation from other aircraft, according to the system in use at that holding point,
will be provided. When aircraft are being held in flight, the appropriate vertical separation
minima shall continue to be provided between holding aircraft and en-route aircraft while such
aircraft are within 5 minutes flying time of the holding area, unless the correct lateral
separation exists.

Levels at holding points are assigned in a manner that facilitates the clearance of each
aircraft to approach in its proper priority. Normally, the first aircraft to arrive over a holding
point should be at the lowest level, with following aircraft at successively higher levels. Aircraft
particularly sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels, such as supersonic aircraft, are
permitted to hold at higher levels than their order in the approach sequence indicates, without
losing their order in the sequence. This is allowed whenever the availability of discrete
descent paths and/or radar makes it possible to clear the aircraft for descent through the
levels occupied by other aircraft.

If a PIC of an aircraft advises of an inability to comply with the approach control holding or
communication procedures, the alternative procedure(s) requested by the PIC should be
approved if known traffic conditions permit.

ATPL Air Law 11-4 24 October 2003


Approach Sequence

General Approach Procedures

The following procedures are applied whenever approaches are in progress.

The approach sequence is established in a manner that will facilitate arrival of the maximum
number of aircraft with the least average delay. A special priority may be given to:

¾ An aircraft which anticipates being compelled to land because of factors affecting


the safe operation of the aircraft
¾ Hospital aircraft or aircraft carrying any sick or seriously injured person requiring
urgent medical attention

Succeeding aircraft are cleared for approach when the preceding aircraft:

¾ Has reported that it is able to complete its approach without encountering IMC, or
¾ Is in communication with and sighted by the aerodrome control tower and
reasonable assurance exists that a normal landing can be accomplished

If the pilot of an aircraft in an approach sequence has indicated an intention to hold for
weather improvement, or for other reasons, such action shall be approved. When other
holding aircraft indicate their intention to continue the approach to land and if alternative
procedures involving, for instance, the use of radar are not available, the pilot desiring to hold
will be cleared to an adjacent fix for holding awaiting weather change or re-routing.
Alternatively, the aircraft should be given a clearance to place it at the top of the approach
sequence so that other holding aircraft may be permitted to land. Co-ordination is effected
with the area control centre, when required, to avoid conflict with the traffic under the
jurisdiction of this centre. The aircraft operator, or a designated representative, shall be
advised of the action taken immediately after the clearance is issued, if practicable.

When establishing the approach sequence an aircraft which has been authorized to absorb a
specified period of notified terminal delay, by cruising at a reduced speed en-route, should be
credited with the time absorbed en route.

Timed Approach Procedures

Subject to approval by the appropriate ATS authority, the following procedure should be
utilized when necessary to expedite the approaches of a number of arriving aircraft:

¾ A suitable point on the approach path, which shall be capable of being accurately
determined by the pilot, shall be specified, to serve as a check point in timing
successive approaches
¾ Aircraft shall be given a time at which to pass the specified point inbound, this
time shall be determined with the aim of achieving the desired interval between

ATPL Air Law 11-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


successive landings on the runway while respecting the applicable separation
minima at all times, including the periods of runway occupancy

The time at which aircraft should pass the specified point is determined by the unit providing
approach control service and notified to the aircraft sufficiently in advance to permit the pilot
to arrange the flight path accordingly. Each aircraft in the approach sequence is cleared to
pass the specified point inbound at the notified time after the preceding aircraft has reported
passing the point inbound.

Parallel Runway Operations

Parallel runways may be used for simultaneous instrument operations for:

¾ Independent parallel approaches


¾ Dependent parallel approaches
¾ Segregated parallel operations

For independent and dependent approaches the missed approach track for one approach
must diverge by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.

With segregated operations the nominal departure track diverges immediately after take-off
by at least 30° from the missed approach track of the adjacent approach.

Expected Approach Time

An EAT is determined for an arriving aircraft that will be subjected to a delay, and is
transmitted to the aircraft as soon as practicable and preferably not later than at the
commencement of its initial descent from cruising level. In the case of aircraft particularly
sensitive to high fuel consumption at low levels, an EAT should, whenever possible, be
transmitted to the aircraft early enough before its intended descent time to enable the pilot to
choose the method of absorbing the delay and to request a change in the flight plan if the
choice is to reduce speed en-route. A revised EAT is transmitted to the aircraft without delay
whenever it differs from that previously transmitted by 5 minutes or more, or any lesser period
of time as has been established by the appropriate ATS authority, or agreed between the ATS
units concerned.

An EAT is transmitted to the aircraft by the most expeditious means whenever it is anticipated
that the aircraft will be required to hold for 30 minutes or more.

The holding point to which an EAT relates, together with the EAT, are given to a pilot
whenever circumstances are such that the reasons are not clear.

Information for Arriving Aircraft

As early as practicable after an aircraft has established communication with the unit providing
approach control service, the following elements of information, in the order listed, is

ATPL Air Law 11-6 24 October 2003


transmitted to the aircraft, with the exception of the elements which it is known the aircraft has
already received:

¾ Runway in use
¾ Current meteorological information
¾ Current runway surface conditions, in case of precipitants or other temporary
hazards
¾ Changes in the operational status of visual and non-visual aids essential for
approach and landing

It should be recognized that the aircraft prior to departure or during en-route flight may not
have received information published by NOTAM or disseminated by other means.

At the commencement of final approach, the following information is transmitted to aircraft

¾ Significant changes in the mean surface wind direction and speed

Note: Significant changes are specified in Annex 3. If the controller


possesses wind information in the form of components, the significant changes
are:

• Mean head wind component 19 km/h (10 kt)


• Mean tail wind component 4 km/h (2 kt,)
• Mean crosswind component 9 km/h (5 kt)

¾ The latest information, if any, on wind shear and/or turbulence in the final
approach area
¾ The current visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing or,
when provided, the current RVR value(s) and the trend, if practicable,
supplemented by slant visual range value(s) if provided.

During final approach, the following information is transmitted without delay:

¾ The sudden occurrence of hazards


¾ Significant variations in the current surface wind, expressed in terms of minimum
and maximum values
¾ Significant changes in runway surface conditions
¾ Changes in the operational status of required visual or non-visual aids

Changes in observed RVR value(s), in accordance with the reported scale in use, or changes
in the visibility representative of the direction of approach and landing.

ATPL Air Law 11-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 11-8 24 October 2003


Chapter 12.

Air Traffic Control Services, Flight Information Service and ATS Routes

Reference: Annex 11 - Air Traffic Services

Air Traffic Control Service

Application

Air traffic control service is provided to:

¾ All IFR flights in Class A, B, C, D and E airspace


¾ All VFR flights in Class B, C and D airspace
¾ To all special VFR flights
¾ To all aerodrome traffic at controlled aerodromes

Provision of Air Traffic Control Service

Air traffic control service is provided by the various units as follows:

Area Control Service

¾ By an area control centre, or


¾ By the unit providing approach control service in a CTR or in a CTA of limited
extent which is designated for the provision of approach control service and
where no area control centre is available

Approach Control Service

¾ By an aerodrome control tower or area control centre when it is necessary or


desirable to combine under the responsibility of one unit the functions of the
approach control service with those of the aerodrome control service or the area
control service
¾ By an approach control when it is necessary or desirable to establish a separate
unit

Aerodrome Control Service

¾ By an aerodrome control tower

Note: The task of providing specified services on the apron may be assigned to an
aerodrome control tower or to a separate unit

ATPL Air Law 12-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Operation of Air Traffic Control Service

In order to provide ATC service, an ATCU shall:

¾ Be provided with information on the intended movement of each aircraft and with
current information on the actual progress of each aircraft
¾ Determine from the information received, the relative positions of known aircraft
to each other
¾ Issue clearances and information for the purpose of preventing collision between
aircraft under its control and of expediting and maintaining an orderly flow of
traffic
¾ Co-ordinate clearances as necessary with other units:

• Whenever an aircraft might otherwise conflict with traffic operated under the
control of such other units
• Before transferring control of an aircraft to such other units

Information on aircraft movements, together with a record of ATC clearances issued to aircraft
is displayed so as to permit an efficient flow of air traffic with adequate separation between
aircraft.

Clearances issued by ATCUs provide separation between:

¾ All flights in Class A and B airspace


¾ Between IFR flights in Class C, D and E airspace
¾ Between IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace
¾ Between IFR flights and special VFR flights
¾ Between special VFR flights when so prescribed by the appropriate authority

Except that, when requested and if detailed by the appropriate ATS authority for the first three
cases above, a flight may be cleared without separation being provided for a specific portion
of the flight conducted in VMC.

Separation by an ATCU can be obtained by at least one of the following:

¾ Vertical separation, obtained by assigning different levels selected from an


appropriate table of cruising levels (See Chapter on VFR & IFR) except that the
correlation of levels to track as prescribed shall not apply whenever otherwise
indicated in appropriate aeronautical information publications or air traffic control
clearances
¾ Horizontal separation, obtained by providing:

Longitudinal separation by maintaining an interval between aircraft operating


along the same converging or reciprocal tracks, expressed in time or distance, or

ATPL Air Law 12-2 24 October 2003


Lateral separation by maintaining aircraft on different routes or in different
geographical areas

Composite separation consisting of a combination of vertical and one of the


other forms of separation. The minima used for each of these may be lower than,
but not less than ½ of, those used for each of the combined elements when
applied individually. Composite separation shall only be applied on the basis of
regional air navigation agreements

Separation Minima

The selection of separation minima for application within a given portion of airspace is as
follows:

¾ The separation minima are selected from those prescribed by the provisions of
the PANS-RAC and regional supplementary procedures as applicable under the
prevailing circumstances except that, where types of aids are used or
circumstances prevail which are not covered by current ICAO provisions, other
separation minima shall be established as necessary by:

• The appropriate ATS authority, following consultation with operators, for


routes or portions of routes contained within the sovereign airspace of a State
• Regional air navigation agreement for routes or portions of routes contained
within airspace over the high seas or over areas of undetermined sovereignty

¾ The selection of separation minima are made in consultation between the


appropriate ATS authorities responsible for the provision of ATS in neighbouring
airspace when:

• Traffic will pass from one FIR into another FIR of neighbouring airspace
• Routes are closer to the common boundary of the neighbouring airspace than
the separation minima applicable in the circumstances

Details of the selected separation minima and their areas of application shall be notified:

¾ To the ATS units concerned, and


¾ To pilots and operators through aeronautical information publications where
separation is based on the use by aircraft of specified navigation aids or specified
navigation techniques

Responsibility for Control

A controlled flight is operated under the control of only one ATC unit at any given time.
Responsibility for the control of all aircraft operating within a given block of airspace is vested
in a single ATCU.

ATPL Air Law 12-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Transfer of Responsibility for Control

The responsibility for the control of an aircraft is transferred between ATCUs as follows:

Between Two Units Providing Area Control Service The responsibility for the control of
an aircraft is transferred from a unit providing area control service in a CTA to the unit
providing area control service in an adjacent CTA at the time of crossing the common CTA
boundary. This is estimated by the area control service having control of the aircraft or at
another point or time that has been agreed between the two units

Between a Unit Providing Area Control Service and a Unit Providing Approach Control
Service The responsibility for the control of an aircraft shall be transferred from a unit
providing area control service to a unit providing approach control service, and vice versa, at
a point or time agreed between the two units

Between a Unit Providing Approach Control Service and a Unit Providing Aerodrome
Control Service

Arriving Aircraft The responsibility for the control of an aircraft approaching


to land is transferred from the unit providing approach control service to the unit
providing aerodrome control service, when the aircraft:

¾ Is in the vicinity of the aerodrome and:

¾ It is considered that it will be able to complete its approach and landing with
visual reference to the ground, or
¾ It has reached uninterrupted VMC, or
¾ Has landed

Whichever is the earliest.

Departing Aircraft The responsibility for control of a departing aircraft is


transferred from the unit providing aerodrome control service to the unit providing
Approach Control service:

When VMC Prevail in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome

¾ Prior to the time the aircraft leaves the vicinity of the aerodrome, or
¾ Prior to the aircraft entering IMC

Whichever is earlier.

When IMC Prevail at the Aerodrome

ATPL Air Law 12-4 24 October 2003


¾ Immediately before the aircraft enters the runway in use for take-off,
or
¾ Immediately after the aircraft is airborne, if local procedures render
such action preferable

Air Traffic Control Clearances

An ATC clearance indicates:

¾ Aircraft identification as shown in the flight plan


¾ Clearance limit
¾ Route of flight
¾ Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part route and changes of level if required
¾ Any necessary instructions or information on other matters such as approach or
departure manoeuvres, communications and the time of expiry of the clearance

Co-Ordination of Clearances

An ATC clearance is to be co-ordinated between ATC units to cover the entire route of an
aircraft or a specified portion of a route as follows. An aircraft is normally cleared for the entire
route to the aerodrome of first intended landing:

¾ When it has been possible, prior to departure, to co-ordinate the clearance


between all the units under whose control the aircraft will come, or
¾ When there is reasonable assurance that prior co-ordination will be effected
between those units under whose control the aircraft will subsequently come

When co-ordination has not been achieved or is not anticipated, the aircraft is cleared only to
a point where co-ordination is reasonably certain. Prior to reaching such a point, or at that
point, the aircraft receives a further clearance, with holding instructions being issued as
appropriate.

When an aircraft intends to depart from an aerodrome within a CTA to enter another CTA
within a period of 30 minutes, or another specific period of time as has been agreed between
the area control centres concerned, co-ordination with the subsequent area control centre is
obtained prior to the issue of the departure clearance. When an aircraft intends to leave a
CTA for a flight outside CAS, and will subsequently re-enter the same or another CTA, a
clearance from the point of departure to the aerodrome of first intended landing may be
issued. This clearance or revision applies to those portions of the flight conducted within
controlled airspace.

ATPL Air Law 12-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Control of Air Traffic Flow

When it becomes apparent to an ATCU that traffic additional to that already accepted cannot
be accommodated within a given period of time at a particular location or in a particular area,
or can only be accommodated at a given rate, that unit will advise other ATCUs and operators
known or believed to be concerned and PICs of aircraft destined to that location or area that
additional flights are likely to be subjected to excessive delay, or, if applicable, that specified
restrictions are to be applied to any additional traffic for a specified period of time for the
purpose of avoiding excessive delay to aircraft in flight.

Control of Persons and Vehicles at Aerodromes

The movement of persons or vehicles including towed aircraft on the manoeuvring area of an
aerodrome shall be controlled by the aerodrome control tower as necessary to avoid hazard
to them or to aircraft landing, taxiing or taking-off

In conditions where low visibility procedures are in operation:

¾ Persons and vehicles operating on the manoeuvring area of an aerodrome shall


be restricted to the essential minimum and particular regard shall be given to the
requirements to protect the ILS/MLS sensitive areas when Category II or III
precision instrument operations are in progress
¾ The minimum separation between vehicles and taxiing aircraft shall be as
prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority taking into account the aids available
¾ When mixed ILS and MLS Category II and III precision instrument operations are
taking place to the same runway continuously, the more restrictive ILS or MLS
critical sensitive areas shall be protected

Emergency vehicles proceeding to the assistance of an aircraft in distress are afforded priority
over all other surface movement traffic.

Vehicles on the manoeuvring area are required to comply with the following rules:

¾ Vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall give way to aircraft which are landing,
taking-off or taxiing
¾ Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles towing aircraft
¾ Vehicles shall give way to other vehicles in accordance with local instructions
¾ Notwithstanding the above, vehicles and vehicles towing aircraft shall comply with
instructions issued by the aerodrome control tower

ATPL Air Law 12-6 24 October 2003


Flight Information Service

Application

FIS is provided to all aircraft which are likely to be affected by the information and which are:

¾ Provided with air traffic control service, or


¾ Otherwise known to the relevant ATS units

Where ATS units provide both FIS and air traffic control service, the provision of air traffic
control service has precedence over the provision of FIS whenever the provision of air traffic
control service so requires.

Scope of Flight Information Service

FIS includes the provision of the following:

¾ SIGMET and AIRMET information


¾ Information concerning pre-eruption volcanic activity, volcanic eruptions and
volcanic ash cloud
¾ Information concerning the release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials
or toxic chemicals
¾ Information on change in the serviceability of navigation aids
¾ Information on changes in condition of aerodromes and associated facilities,
including information on the state of the aerodrome movement areas when they
are affected by snow, ice or significant depth of water
¾ Information on unmanned free balloons, and
¾ Any other information likely to affect safety

FIS provided to flights includes, in addition to the information already outlined, the provision of
information concerning:

¾ Weather conditions reported or forecast at departure, destination and alternate


aerodromes
¾ Collision hazards to aircraft operating in airspace Classes C, D, E, F and G
¾ For flight over water areas, in so far as practicable and when requested by a pilot,
any available information such as radio call sign, position, true track, speed etc,
of vessels in the area

FIS provided to VFR flights includes all the information in the paragraph starting with SIGMET
plus the provision of available information concerning traffic and weather conditions along the
route that are likely to make operation under VFR impracticable

ATPL Air Law 12-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Operational Flight Information Service Broadcasts

Application

The meteorological and operational information concerning navigation aids and aerodromes
included in the FIS is provided in an operationally integrated form.

Information Broadcasts

When a Regional Air Navigation Agreement determines that a requirement for a broadcast
exists then the following formats are followed:

¾ HF Operational Flight Information Service (OFIS) broadcast


¾ VHF OFIS broadcast
¾ Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS)

ATIS

ATIS broadcasts are provided at aerodromes where there is a requirement to reduce the
communication load on the ATS VHF air-ground communication channels. When provided
they comprise of:

¾ One broadcast serving arriving aircraft, or


¾ One broadcast serving departing aircraft, or
¾ One broadcast serving both arriving and departing aircraft, or
¾ Two broadcasts serving arriving and departing aircraft respectively at those
aerodromes where the length of a broadcast serving both arriving and departing
aircraft would be excessively long

A discrete VHF frequency is used for ATIS broadcasts. If a discrete frequency is not available,
the transmission may be made on the voice channel of the most appropriate terminal
navigation aid, preferably a VOR, provided the range and readability are adequate and the
identification of the navigation aid is sequenced with the broadcast so that the latter is not
obliterated.

ATIS broadcasts are not to be transmitted on the voice channel of ILS.

Whenever ATIS is provided:

¾ The broadcast information shall relate to a single aerodrome


¾ The broadcast shall be continuous and repetitive
¾ The broadcast information shall be updated immediately a significant change
occurs

ATPL Air Law 12-8 24 October 2003


¾ The preparation and dissemination of the ATIS message shall be the
responsibility of the ATS
¾ The information contained in the current broadcast shall immediately be made
known to the ATS unit concerned with the provision of information relating to:

¾ Approach
¾ Landing and take-off

whenever those units have not prepared the message

¾ Individual ATIS messages shall be identified by a designator in the


form of a letter of the ICAO spelling alphabet. Designators assigned to
consecutive ATIS messages shall be in alphabetical order
¾ Aircraft shall acknowledge receipt of the broadcast information upon
establishing communication with the ATS unit providing approach control
service as appropriate
¾ The appropriate ATS unit shall, when replying to the message above
or, in the case of arriving aircraft, at such other time as may be
prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, provide the aircraft with the
current altimeter setting

When rapidly changing meteorological conditions make it inadvisable to include a weather


report in the ATIS broadcast, the ATIS message indicates that the relevant weather
information will be given on initial contact with the appropriate ATS unit

Information contained in a current ATIS broadcast, the receipt of which has been
acknowledged by the aircraft concerned, need not be included in a transmission to the
aircraft, with the exception of the altimeter setting. If an aircraft acknowledges receipt of an
ATIS broadcast that is no longer current, any element of information that needs updating shall
be transmitted to the aircraft without delay.

Principles Governing the Identification of RNP Types and the Identification of ATS
Routes Other Than Standard Departure and Arrival Routes

Designators for ATS Routes and RNP Types

The purpose of a system of route designators and required navigation performance (RNP)
types applicable to specified ATS route segments, routes or area is to allow both pilot and
ATS, taking into account automation requirements:

¾ To make unambiguous reference to any ATS route without the need to resort to
the use of geographical co-ordinates or other means in order to describe it
¾ To relate an ATS route to a specific vertical structure of the airspace, as
applicable
¾ To indicate a required level of navigation performance accuracy, when operating
along an ATS route or within a specified area

ATPL Air Law 12-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ To indicate that a route is used primarily or exclusively by certain types of aircraft

Note: Prior to the global introduction of RNP, all references to RNP also apply to
RNAV routes where navigation performance accuracy requirements have been
specified

Note: For flight planning purposes, a prescribed RNP type is not considered an
integral part of the ATS route designator

In order to meet this purpose, the designation system shall:

¾ Permit the identification of any ATS route in a simple and unique manner
¾ Avoid redundancy
¾ Be usable by both ground and airborne automation systems
¾ Permit brevity in operational use, and
¾ Provide sufficient possibility of extension to cater for any future requirements
without the need for fundamental changes

Controlled, advisory and uncontrolled ATS routes, with the exception of standard arrival and
departure routes, shall be identified as follows.

Composition of Designation

The ATS route designator consists of a basic designator supplemented, if necessary, by:

¾ One prefix, and


¾ One additional letter

The number of characters required to compose the designator:

¾ Shall not exceed 6 characters, but


¾ Should be kept to a maximum of 5 characters

The basic designator consists of one letter followed by a number from 1 to 999.

Selection of the letter shall be made from:

¾ A, B, G, R for routes which form part of the regional networks of ATS routes and
are not area navigation routes
¾ L, M, N, P for area navigation routes which form part of the regional networks of
ATS routes
¾ H, J, V, W for routes which do not form part of the regional networks of ATS
routes and are not area navigation routes

ATPL Air Law 12-10 24 October 2003


¾ Q, I, Y, Z for area navigation routes which do not form part of the regional
networks of ATS routes

Where applicable, one supplementary letter is added as a prefix to the basic designator to
designate the following:

¾ K to indicate a low level route established for use primarily by helicopters


¾ U to indicate that a route or portion of that route is established in the upper
airspace
¾ S to indicate a route established exclusively for use by supersonic aircraft during
acceleration, deceleration and while in supersonic flight

When prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or on the basis of regional air navigation
agreement, a supplementary letter may be added after the basic designator of the ATS route
in question in order to indicate the type of service provided or the turn performance required
on the route in question in accordance with the following:

¾ For RNP 1 routes at and above FL 200, the letter Y to indicate that all turns on
the route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance
of a tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of
22.5 nm

eg A123Y

¾ For RNP 1 routes at or below FL 190, the letter Z to indicate that all turns on the
route between 30° and 90° shall be made within the allowable RNP tolerance of a
tangential arc between the straight leg segments defined with a radius of 15 nm

eg G246Z

¾ The letter D to indicate that on the route an advisory service only is provided
¾ The letter F to indicate that on the route an FIS is provided

Assignment of Basic Designators

Basic ATS route designators are assigned in accordance with the following principles.

¾ The same basic designator shall be assigned to a main trunk route throughout its
entire length, irrespective of TMAs, States or regions traversed
¾ Where two or more trunk routes have a common segment, the segment in
question shall be assigned each of the designators of the routes concerned,
except where this would present difficulties in the provision of ATS, in which case,
by common agreement, one designator only shall be assigned
¾ A basic designator assigned to one route shall not be assigned to any other route

ATPL Air Law 12-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ States requirements for designators shall be notified to the regional offices of
ICAO for co-ordination

Use of Designators in Communications

In printed communications, the designator is expressed as not less than two and not more
than six characters.

In voice communications, the basic letter of a designator shall be spoken in accordance with
the ICAO spelling alphabet.

Where the prefixes K, U or S are used, they are, in voice communications, spoken as follows:

K- Kopter
U- Upper
S- Supersonic

The word Kopter is pronounced as in the word helicopter and the words upper and supersonic
as normal in the English language.

Where the letters D, F, Y or Z are used, then the flight crew are not required to use them in
voice communications.

ATPL Air Law 12-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 13.

Altimeter Setting Procedures

References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document


8168-Ops/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services (Document 4444 –RAC/501))

Expression of Vertical Position

For flights in the vicinity of aerodromes the vertical position of aircraft shall be expressed in
terms of altitudes at or below the transition altitude and in terms of flight levels at or above the
transition level. While passing through the transition layer, vertical position shall be expressed
in terms of flight levels when ascending and in terms of altitudes when descending.

After approach clearance has been issued and the descent to land is commenced, the vertical
position of an aircraft above the transition level may be expressed by reference to altitudes
provided that level flight above the transition level is not indicated or anticipated.

When an aircraft which has been given a clearance as number one to land is completing its
approach using QFE, the vertical position of the aircraft shall be expressed in terms of height
above aerodrome elevation during that portion of its flight for which QFE may be used, except
that it shall be expressed in terms of height above runway threshold elevation:

¾ For instrument runways, if the threshold is 2 m (7 ft) or more below the


aerodrome elevation, and
¾ For precision approach runways

For flights en-route the vertical position of aircraft is expressed in terms of:

¾ Flight levels at or above the lowest usable flight level


¾ Altitudes below the lowest usable flight level

Except where, on the basis of regional air navigation agreements, a transition altitude has
been established for a specified area.

Determination of the Transition Level

Approach control offices or aerodrome control towers shall establish the transition level to be
used in the vicinity of the relevant aerodrome(s) for the appropriate period of time on the basis
of QNH reports and forecast msl pressure if required.

ATPL Air Law 13-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


The transition level is the lowest flight level available for use above the transition altitude
established for the aerodrome(s) concerned. Where a common transition altitude has been
established for two or more aerodromes which are so closely located as to require co-
ordinated procedures, the appropriate ATS units establish a common transition level to be
used at any given time in the vicinity of the aerodrome concerned.

Provision of Information

Appropriate ATS units have available for transmission to aircraft in flight, on request, the
information required to determine the lowest flight level which will ensure adequate terrain
clearance on routes or segments of routes for which this information is required. Flight
information centres and area control centres have available for transmission to aircraft on
request an appropriate number of QNH reports or forecast pressures for the FIRs and CTAs
for which they are responsible.

The transition level is included in approach clearance when requested by the pilot or when the
appropriate authority deems it necessary.

A QNH altimeter setting is included in approach clearances or clearances to enter the traffic
circuit and in taxi clearances for departing aircraft, except when it is known that the aircraft
has received the information. A QFE altimeter setting is provided to aircraft on request or on a
regular basis in accordance with local arrangements. It shall be the QFE for the threshold
elevation for:

¾ Non-precision approach runways, if the threshold is 2 m (7 ft) or more below the


aerodrome elevation, and
¾ Precision approach runways

In other cases the QFE for the relevant aerodrome elevation is provided.

Altimeter settings provided to aircraft are rounded down to the nearest lower whole
hectopascal.

The procedures listed below describe the method intended for use in providing adequate
vertical separation between aircraft and adequate terrain clearance during all phases of flight.
The method is based on the following principles:

¾ During flight, when at or below a fixed altitude called the transition altitude, an
aircraft is flown at altitudes determined from an altimeter set to sea level pressure
(QNH) and its vertical position is expressed in terms of altitude
¾ During flight above the transition altitude an aircraft is flown along surfaces of
constant atmospheric pressure based on an altimeter setting of 1013.2 hPa and
throughout this phase of a flight the vertical position of an aircraft is expressed in
terms of flight levels. Where no transition altitude has been established for the
area, aircraft in the en-route phase shall be flown at a flight level

ATPL Air Law 13-2 24 October 2003


¾ The change in reference from altitude to flight levels, and vice versa, is made:

• When climbing At transition altitude, and


• When descending At the transition level

¾ The adequacy of terrain clearance during any phase of flight may be maintained
in any of several ways, depending upon the facilities available in a particular area,
the recommended methods in order of preference being:

• The use of current QNH reports from an adequate network of QNH reporting
stations
• The use of such QNH reports as are available combined with other
meteorological information such as forecast lowest mean sea level pressure
for the route or portions of route, and
• Where relevant current information is not available, the use of values of the
lowest altitudes of flight levels, derived from climatological data

¾ During the approach to land, terrain clearance may be determined by using the
QNH altimeter setting (giving altitude) or, under specified circumstances, a QFE
setting (giving height above the QFE datum)

The method provides sufficient flexibility to permit variation in detailed procedures that may be
required to account for local conditions without deviating from the basic procedures.

ATPL Air Law 13-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Flight Levels

System of Flight Levels Flight level zero is located at the atmospheric pressure level of
1013.2 hPa. A pressure interval corresponding to at least 500 ft (152.4 m) in the standard
atmosphere shall separate consecutive flight levels.

Flight Level Numbers


Height in standard atmosphere Height in standard atmosphere
Flight Metres Feet Flight Metres Feet
Level Level
Number Number
10 300 1000 50 1500 5000
15 450 1500
20 600 2000 100 3050 10 000
25 750 2500
30 900 3000 150 4550 15 000
35 1050 3500
40 1200 4000 200 6100 20 000
45 1350 4500
500 15 250 50 000

Transition Altitude

A transition altitude is normally specified for each aerodrome by the State in which the
aerodrome is located.

Where two or more closely spaced aerodromes are located so as to require co-ordinated
procedures, a common transition altitude is to be established. This common transition altitude
is the highest of the transition altitudes that would result for the aerodromes if separately
considered.

As far as possible a common transition altitude should be established:

¾ For groups of aerodromes of a State or all aerodromes of that State


¾ On the basis of an agreement, for aerodromes of adjacent States, States of the
same FIR, or two or more adjacent FIRs or one ICAO region, and
¾ For aerodromes of two or more ICAO regions when agreement can be obtained
between these regions

The height above the aerodrome of the transition altitude is as low as possible but normally
not less than 900 m (3000 ft). The calculated height of the transition altitude is rounded up to
the next full 300 m (1000 ft). A transition altitude may be established for a specified area
when determined on the basis of regional air agreements. Transition altitudes are published in
aeronautical information publications and shown on the appropriate charts.

ATPL Air Law 13-4 24 October 2003


Transition Level

States shall make provision for the determination of the transition level to be used at any one
time at each of their aerodromes.

Where two or more closely spaced aerodromes use co-ordinated procedures, a common
transition altitude and a common transition level are used.

Note: The transition level is normally passed to aircraft in the approach and landing
clearances

Transition from Flight Levels to Altitudes and Vice Versa

The vertical position of an aircraft when at or below the transition altitude shall be expressed
in terms of altitude. Whereas such position at or above the transition level shall be expressed
in terms of flight levels. While passing through the transition layer, vertical position shall be
expressed in terms of:

¾ Flight levels when ascending, and


¾ Altitude when descending.

Take-Off and Climb

A QNH altimeter setting shall be made available to aircraft in taxi clearances prior to take-off.
The vertical positioning of aircraft during climb shall be by reference to altitudes until reaching
the transition altitude above which vertical positioning shall be by reference to flight levels.

En Route

Vertical Separation

Vertical separation of aircraft during en-route flight:

¾ At and below transition altitude shall be assessed in terms of altitude


¾ Above the transition altitude shall be assessed in terms of flight levels

In air-ground communications the vertical position of an aircraft during en-route flight is


expressed in terms of altitude when the aircraft is operating at or below the transition altitude
and flight levels when the aircraft is operating above the transition altitude.

Terrain Clearance

ATPL Air Law 13-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


QNH altimeter setting reports should be provided from sufficient locations to permit
determination of terrain clearance with an acceptable degree of accuracy. For those areas in
which adequate QNH altimeter setting reports cannot be provided, the appropriate authorities
shall make available in the most usable form the information required to determine the lowest
flight level which will ensure adequate terrain clearance. Appropriate services have available
for flight planning purposes and for transmission to aircraft in flight, on request, the
information required to determine the lowest flight level which will ensure adequate terrain
clearance for routes or segments of routes on which this information is required

Approach and Landing

The QNH altimeter setting is made available to aircraft in approach clearances and in
clearances to enter the traffic circuit. A QFE altimeter setting, clearly identified as such,
should be made available in approach and landing clearances, on request or on a regular
basis in accordance with local arrangements.

The vertical positioning of aircraft during approach is controlled by reference to flight levels
until reaching the transition level below which vertical positioning shall be by reference to
altitudes.

Note: This does not preclude a pilot using a QFE setting for terrain clearance
purposes during the final approach to the runway

After approach clearance has been issued and the descent to land is commenced the vertical
positioning of an aircraft above the transition level may be by reference to altitude (QNH)
provided that level flight above the transition altitude is not indicated or anticipated.

Procedures Applicable to Operators and Pilots

Flight Planning

The levels at which a flight is to be conducted are specified in a flight plan:

¾ In terms of flight levels if the flight is to be conducted at or above the transition


level or the lowest usable flight level, whichever is applicable, and
¾ In terms of altitudes, if the flight is to be conducted at or below the transition
altitude

The altitudes or flight levels selected for flight:

¾ Should ensure adequate terrain clearance at all points along the route to be flown
¾ Should satisfy ATC requirements, and
¾ Should be compatible with the application of the cruising levels in Annex 2

ATPL Air Law 13-6 24 October 2003


Pre-Flight Altimeter Operational Test

The following test should be carried out in an aircraft by flight crew members prior to
commencement of a flight. Flight crew should be advised of the purpose of the test and the
manner in which it should be carried out and should be given specific instructions on the
action to be taken in accordance with the results of the test.

QNH Setting/ QFE Setting

With the aircraft at a known elevation on the aerodrome:

¾ Set the altimeter pressure scale on the current QNH/QFE setting


¾ Vibrate the instrument by tapping unless mechanical vibration is provided
¾ A serviceable altimeter will indicate the elevation of the point selected, plus the
height of the altimeter above this point, within a tolerance of:

¾ ± 20 m or 60 ft for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 9000 m (0 to 30


000 ft)
¾ ± 25 m or 80 ft for altimeters with a test range of 0 to 15 000 m (0 to 50
000 ft)

Take-Off and Climb

Prior to taking-off one altimeter shall be set to the latest QNH for the aerodrome. During
climb to and while at the transition altitude, references to the vertical position of the aircraft
shall be expressed in terms of altitudes.

When passing the transition altitude the reference for vertical position of the aircraft is
changed from altitude (QNH) to flight level.

En-Route

Vertical Separation

During en-route flight:

¾ At or below the transition altitude, an aircraft shall be flown at altitudes and


references to the vertical position of the aircraft shall be expressed in terms of
altitude.
¾ At or above transition level, or the lowest usable flight level, whichever is
applicable, an aircraft shall be flown at flight levels and references to the vertical
position of the aircraft shall be expressed in terms of flight levels

ATPL Air Law 13-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Terrain Clearance

Where adequate QNH altimeter setting reports are available, the latest and most appropriate
reports are used for assessing terrain clearance. Where the adequacy of terrain clearance
cannot be assessed with an adequate degree of accuracy by means of the QNH reports
available or forecast lowest msl pressure, other information must be obtained for checking the
adequacy of terrain clearance

Approach and Landing

Prior to commencing the initial approach to an aerodrome, the transition level shall be
obtained. Prior to descending below the transition level, the latest QNH altimeter setting for
the aerodrome shall be obtained.
On descending below the transition level the reference for vertical position is changed from
flight level to altitude and thereafter the vertical position of the aircraft is expressed in terms of
altitude.

The reference for vertical position may be changed from flight level to altitude above the
transition level, when cleared to do so by the appropriate ATS unit after approach clearance
has been issued and the descent to land is commenced provided that level flight above the
transition altitude is not indicated or anticipated.

When an aircraft which has been given a clearance as number one to land is completing its
approach using QFE, the vertical position of the aircraft shall be expressed in terms of height
above the aerodrome datum used in establishing obstacle clearance height (OCH) during that
portion of its flight for which the QFE may be used.

ATPL Air Law 13-8 24 October 2003


Chapter 14.

Secondary Surveillance Radar

Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Document 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Operation of Transponders

When an aircraft carries a serviceable transponder, the pilot shall operate the transponder at
all times during flight, regardless of whether the aircraft is inside or outside airspace where
SSR is used for ATS purposes.

Except as specified in respect of emergency, communication failure or unlawful interference,


the pilot shall:

¾ Operate the transponder and select Mode A codes as individually directed by the
ATC unit with which contact is being made, or
¾ Operate the transponder on Mode A codes as prescribed on the basis of regional
air navigation agreements, or
¾ In the absence of any ATC directions or regional air navigation agreements,
operate the transponder on Mode A Code 2000

When the aircraft carries serviceable Mode C equipment, the pilot shall continuously operate
this mode unless otherwise directed by ATC. When requested by ATC to specify the
capability of the transponder carried aboard the aircraft pilots indicates this by using the
characters used in item 10 of the flight plan

When requested by ATC to “Confirm Squawk” the pilot shall:

¾ Verify the Mode A code setting on the transponder


¾ Reselect the assigned code if necessary, and
¾ Confirm to ATC the setting displayed on the controls of the transponder

Pilots shall not Squawk IDENT unless requested by ATC.

ATPL Air Law 14-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Use of Mode C

Whenever Mode C is operated pilots shall, state their level to the nearest full 30 m or 100 ft as
indicated on the pilot’s altimeter. The tolerance value used to determine that Mode C derived
level information displayed to the controller is accurate is ± 300 ft.

Level Occupancy An aircraft is considered to be maintaining its


assigned level as long as the Mode C indicates that it is within ± 300 ft of the
assigned level

Climbing or Descending An aircraft is deemed to have crossed a level when


the Mode C indicates it has passed this level by more than ± 300 ft in the required
direction.

Use of Mode S

Pilots of aircraft equipped with Mode S having an aircraft identification feature shall set the
aircraft identification in the transponder. This setting shall correspond to the aircraft
identification specified in item 7 of the ICAO flight plan, or, if no flight plan has been filed, the
aircraft registration.

Emergency Procedures

The pilot of an aircraft encountering a state of emergency shall set the transponder to Mode A
Code 7700 except when directed by ATC to operate the transponder on a specified code. In
the latter case the pilot maintains the specified code unless otherwise advised by ATC. A pilot
may select Mode A Code 7700 whenever there is a specific reason to believe that this would
be the best course of action

Communication Failure Procedures

The pilot of an aircraft losing two-way communications shall set the transponder to Mode A
Code 7600.

Note: A controller observing a response on the communications failure code will


ascertain the extent of the failure by instructing the pilot to “Squawk IDENT” to
change code. Where it is determined that the aircraft receiver is functioning, further
control of the aircraft will be continued using code changes or IDENT transmissions to
acknowledge receipt of clearances issued. Different procedures may be applied to
Mode S equipped aircraft in areas of Mode S coverage.

Unlawful Interference with Aircraft in Flight

Should an aircraft in flight be subjected to unlawful interference, the PIC shall endeavour to
set the transponder to Mode A Code 7500 unless circumstances warrant the use of Mode A
7700. A pilot having selected Mode A Code 7500 and subsequently requested to confirm this
code by ATC shall, according to circumstances, either confirm this or not reply at all.

ATPL Air Law 14-2 24 October 2003


Transponder Failure Procedures When the Carriage of a Functioning Transponder is
Mandatory

In case of a transponder failure which occurs after departure, ATC units endeavour to provide
for the continuation of the flight to the destination aerodrome in accordance with the flight
plan. Pilots may expect to comply with specific restrictions.

In the case of a transponder that has failed and cannot be restored before departure, pilots
shall:

¾ Inform ATS as soon as possible, preferably before submission of a flight plan


¾ Insert in item 10 of the ICAO flight plan form under SSR the character N for
complete unserviceability of the transponder or, in the case of partial transponder
failure, the character corresponding to the remaining transponder capability
¾ Comply with any published procedures for seeking exemption from the
requirements for carriage of a functioning SSR transponder, and
¾ If so required by the appropriate ATS authority, plan to proceed, as directly as
possible, to the nearest suitable aerodrome where repair can be effected.

Operation of ACAS Equipment

The information provided by ACAS is intended to assist pilots in the safe operation of aircraft.
Nothing prevents PICs from exercising their best judgement and full authority in the choice of
the best course of action to resolve a traffic conflict.

Use of ACAS Indications

ACAS indications are intended to assist the pilots in;

¾ The active search for, and


¾ Visual acquisition of conflicting traffic, and
¾ The avoidance of potential collisions

ATPL Air Law 14-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Pilots use the indications generated by ACAS remembering that due regard to safety must be
recognized:

¾ Pilots shall not manoeuvre their aircraft in response to Traffic Advisories only
¾ In the event of a Resolution Advisory to alter the flight path, the search for the
conflicting traffic shall include a visual scan of the airspace into which other ACAS
aircraft might manoeuvre
¾ The alteration of the flight path shall be limited to the minimum extent necessary
to comply with the Resolution Advisories
¾ Pilots who deviate from ATC instruction or clearance in response to a Resolution
Advisory shall promptly return to the terms of that instruction or clearance when
the conflict is resolved and shall notify the appropriate ATC unit as soon as
practicable, of the deviation, including its direction and when the deviation has
ended

Phraseology

When acknowledging mode/code setting instructions, pilots shall read back the mode and
code to be set.

ATPL Air Law 14-4 24 October 2003


Chapter 15.

Signals

Reference: Annex 2 – Rules of the Air

Introduction

When observing or receiving any of the signals shown, aircraft shall take the actions required
by the signal. The signals are used for the purposes indicated. No other signals that are likely
to be confused with the authorised signals shall be used.

Distress and Urgency Signals

None of the provisions in this section shall prevent the use, by an aircraft in distress, of any
means at its disposal to attract attention, make known its position and obtain help.

Distress Signals

The following signals used separately, or together, mean that grave and imminent danger
threatens and immediate assistance is required:

¾ Use of the Morse code group SOS


¾ The spoken word MAYDAY
¾ Rockets or shells throwing red lights, fired one at a time or at intervals
¾ A parachute flare showing a red light

Urgency Signals

When used separately, or together, the following signals mean that an aircraft wishes to give
notice of difficulties that compel it to land without requiring immediate assistance:

¾ The repeated switching on and off of the landing lights, or


¾ The repeated switching on and off of the navigation lights in such a manner as to
be distinct from flashing navigation lights

The following signals, used either together or separately, mean that an aircraft has a very
urgent message to transmit concerning safety:

¾ Use of the Morse code group XXX


¾ The spoken words PAN PAN

ATPL Air Law 15-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Signals for Aerodrome Traffic

Lights and pyrotechnics - Instructions

LIGHT FROM AERODROME CONTROL TO


AIRCRAFT IN FLIGHT AIRCRAFT ON THE
GROUND
Steady Green Cleared to land Cleared for take-off

Steady Red Give way to other aircraft and Stop


continue circling

Series of Green flashes Return for landing* Cleared to taxi

Series of Red flashes Aerodrome unsafe, do not Taxi clear of landing area in
land use

Land at this aerodrome and Return to starting point on


Series of White flashes proceed to apron the aerodrome

Notwithstanding any previous


Red Pyrotechnic instructions, do not land for
the time being

* Clearances to land and taxi


will be given in due course

Acknowledgement by an Aircraft

When in Flight

¾ During the hours of daylight by rocking the aircraft’s wings


¾ During the hours of darkness by flashing on and off twice the aircraft’s landing
lights or, if not so equipped, by switching on and off its navigation lights twice

When on the Ground

¾ During the hours of daylight by moving the aircraft’s ailerons or rudder


¾ During the hours of darkness by flashing on and off twice the aircraft’s landing
lights or, if not so equipped, by switching on and off its navigation lights twice

ATPL Air Law 15-2 24 October 2003


Visual Ground Signals

Prohibition of Landing

A horizontal red square with yellow diagonals when displayed in a signal area indicates that
landings are prohibited and that prohibition is likely to be prolonged.

A horizontal red square with one yellow diagonal when displayed in a signal area:

¾ Indicates that owing to the bad state of the manoeuvring area, or


¾ For any other reason, special precautions must be observed in approaching to
land or in landing

Use of Runways and Taxiways

A horizontal white dumbbell when displayed in a signal area indicates that aircraft are
required to land, take-off and taxi on runways and taxiways only.

The same dumbbell but with a black bar indicates that aircraft are required to land and take-
off on runways only, but other manoeuvres need not be confined to runways and taxiways.

ATPL Air Law 15-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Closed Runways or Taxiways

A cross of a single contrasting colour, yellow or white, displayed horizontally on runways or


taxiways indicate an area unfit for the movement of aircraft

Direction for Take-off or Landing

A horizontal white or orange landing T indicates the direction to be used by aircraft for landing
and take-off.

L AND ING D IRE C T IO N

L AND O R T AK E O FF T HIS WAY

Two digits displayed vertically at or near to the aerodrome control tower indicate the direction
for take-off. These units are expressed in units of 10º to the nearest 10º of the magnetic
compass.

09

Right Hand Traffic

A right hand arrow of conspicuous colour (usually red and yellow) indicates that turns are to
be made to the right before landing and after take-off.

ATPL Air Law 15-4 24 October 2003


Air Traffic Services Reporting Office

The letter C vertically in black against a yellow background indicates the location of the ATS
reporting office.

C
Glider Flights in Operation

A double white cross displayed horizontally in the signal area indicates that gliders are using
the aerodrome.

Marshalling Signals

These signals are designed for use by the signalman or marshaller (you may see both terms
used in the book, signalman is used in accordance with ICAO), with hands illuminated as
necessary to facilitate observation by the pilot, and facing the aircraft in a position:

¾ For Fixed Wing Aircraft Forward of the left wing tip within view of the pilot
¾ For Helicopters Where the signalman can best be seen by the pilot

The aircraft engines are numbered for the signalman facing the aircraft, from right to left (The
port outer is Number 1 engine).

Prior to using the following signals, the signalman shall ascertain that the area within which an
aircraft is to be guided is clear of objects which the aircraft, if complying with the signalman,
might otherwise strike.

To Proceed Under Further Guidance by Signalman

Signalman directs pilot if traffic conditions on aerodrome require


this action.

Right or left arm down, the other arm moved across the body
and extended to indicate position of the other marshaller.

ATPL Air Law 15-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


This Bay

Arms above head in vertical position with palms facing forward.

Proceed to Next Signalman

Right or left arm down, other arm moved across the body
and extended to indicate direction of next signalman

Move Ahead

Arms a little aside, palms facing backward and


repeatedly moved upward-backward from shoulder
height.

ATPL Air Law 15-6 24 October 2003


TURN

Turn to Your Left

Right arm downward, left arm repeatedly moved


upward-backward. Speed of arm movement indicating
rate of turn.

Turn to Your Right

Left arm downward, right arm repeatedly moved


upward-backward. Speed of arm movement indicating
rate of turn.

Stop

Arms repeatedly crossed above the head (the


rapidity of the arm movement should be related
to the urgency of the stop ie the faster the
movement the quicker the stop).

BRAKES

Engage Brakes

Raise arm, and hand with fingers extended, horizontally in front of the
body, then clench the fingers.

Release Brakes
Raise arm, with fist clenched, horizontally in front of body, then extend
fingers.

ATPL Air Law 15-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


CHOCKS

Chocks Inserted

Arms down, palms facing inwards, move arms


from extended position inwards.

Chocks Removed

Arms down, palms facing outwards, move arms


outwards.

Start Engine(s)

Left hand overhead with appropriate number of fingers extended, to


indicate the number of the engine to be started, and circular motion of
right hand at head level.

Cut Engines

Either arm and hand level with shoulder, hand


across the throat, palm downward. The hand is
moved sideways with the arm remaining bent.

Slow Down

Arms down with palms toward ground

Slow Down Engine(s) on Indicated Side

Arms down with palms towards ground, then either


right or left hand waved up and down indicating
the left or right side engine(s) respectively should
be slowed down.

ATPL Air Law 15-8 24 October 2003


Move Back

Arms by sides, palms facing forward, swept


forward and upward repeatedly to shoulder
height.

Turns While Backing

Turn Tail to Starboard

Point left arm down, and right arm brought from


overhead, vertical position to horizontal forward
position, repeating right arm movement.

Turn Tail to Port

Point right arm down, and left arm brought from


overhead, vertical position to horizontal forward
position, repeating left arm movement.

All Clear

Right arm raised at elbow with thumb erect.

ATPL Air Law 15-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Signals from the Pilot of an Aircraft to a Signalman

These signals are designed for use by a pilot in the cockpit with hands plainly visible to the
signalman, and illuminated as necessary to facilitate observation by the signalman.

ATPL Air Law 15-10 24 October 2003


Chapter 16.

Air Traffic Control Clearances

Reference: Procedures for Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services (Document 4444 – RAC/501)

Departing Aircraft

Area control centres forward clearances to approach control offices or aerodrome control
towers with the least possible delay after the receipt of a request made by these units, or prior
to such a request if practicable.

Contents of ATC Clearances

Clearances contain positive and concise data and shall, as far as practicable, be phrased in a
standard manner. Clearances contain the items specified below:

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Clearance limit
¾ Route of flight
¾ Level(s) of flight for the entire route or part thereof and changes of levels if
required

Note: If the clearance for the levels covers only part of the route, it is
important for the ATCU to specify a point to which the part of the clearance
regarding levels applies

¾ Any necessary instructions or information on other matters such as SSR


transponder operation, approach or departure manoeuvres, communications and
the time of expiry of the clearance

Note: The time of expiry of the clearance indicates the time after which the
clearance will be automatically cancelled if the flight has not been started

Description of ATC Clearances

A clearance limit is specified by using the name of the appropriate reporting point, or
aerodrome, or CAS boundary. When prior co-ordination has been effected with units under
whose control the aircraft will subsequently come under or if there is reasonable time prior to
the assumption of control, the clearance limit is the destination aerodrome or, if not
practicable, an appropriate intermediate point, and co-ordination shall be expedited so that a
clearance to the destination may be issued as soon as possible.

ATPL Air Law 16-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


If an aircraft has been cleared to an intermediate point in an adjacent CTA, the appropriate
area control centre will then be responsible for issuing, as soon as practicable, an amended
clearance for flight to the limit of that CTA.

When the destination aerodrome is outside a CTA, the area control centre responsible for the
last CTA through which an aircraft passed will issue the appropriate clearance for the flight to
the limit of that CTA.

Route of Flight

The route of flight is detailed in each clearance when deemed necessary. The phrases used
and meanings are:

Cleared via flight plan route May be used to describe any route or portion of a
route, provided the route or portion of route is identical to that filed in the flight plan
and sufficient routing details are given to definitely establish the aircraft on its route

Cleared via (designation) departure or Cleared via (designation) arrival May be


used when standard departure or arrival routes have been established by the
appropriate ATS authority and published in Aeronautical Information Publication

Clearances to Fly Maintaining own Separation While in VMC

Note: The provision of vertical or horizontal separation by an ATCU is not


applicable in respect of any specified portion of a flight cleared subject to maintaining
own separation and remaining in VMC. It is for the flight so cleared to ensure, for the
duration of the clearance, that it is not operated in such proximity to other flights as to
create a collision hazard

Note: A VFR flight must remain in VMC at all times. Accordingly, the issuance of a
clearance to a VFR flight to fly subject to maintaining own separation and remaining
in VMC has no other object than to signify that, for the duration of the clearance, the
provision of separation by ATC is not entailed

When requested by an aircraft and provided it is authorized by the appropriate ATS authority,
an area control centre may clear a controlled flight to operate in VMC during the hours of
daylight. The aircraft may fly the route subject to maintaining its own separation and
remaining in VMC. When the above applies:

¾ The clearance shall be for a specified portion of the flight during climb or descent
and subject to further restrictions as and when prescribed on the basis of regional
air navigation agreements
¾ If there is a possibility that flight under VMC may become impracticable an IFR
flight shall be provided with alternative instructions to be complied with in the
event that flight in VMC cannot be maintained for the term of the clearance
¾ The pilot of an IFR flight, on observing that conditions are deteriorating and
considering that operation in VMC will become impossible, shall inform ATC

ATPL Air Law 16-2 24 October 2003


before entering IMC and shall proceed in accordance with the alternative
instructions given

ATC Clearance Expiry

One of the following phrases may be included in the initial clearance when the Air Traffic
situation necessitates:

¾ “Clearance expires (time)” This indicates that if the aircraft is not


airborne by the time stated a fresh clearance will be required

¾ “Take-off not before (time)” This is given so that a pilot can calculate the
time to start the aircraft’s engines

¾ “Unable to clear (level planned)” ATC is unable to clear the flight at the
planned level, an alternative is usually offered at this stage

Essential Traffic Information

Essential traffic is that controlled traffic to which the provision of separation by ATC is
applicable, but which in relation to a particular controlled flight, is not separated therefrom by
the minima stated.

Note: This information will inevitably relate to controlled flights cleared subject to
maintaining own separation and remaining in VMC

Essential traffic information includes:

¾ Direction of flight of aircraft involved


¾ Type of aircraft concerned
¾ Cruising level of aircraft concerned and estimated time over the reporting point
nearest to where the level will be crossed

Clearance of a Requested Change in Flight Plan

When issuing a clearance covering a requested change in flight plan (route or cruising level)
the exact nature of the change is included in the clearance. If a level change is involved and
more than one level is contained in the flight plan, all such levels shall be included in the
clearance.

When traffic conditions do not permit clearance of a requested change in a flight plan, the
words “unable to clear” are used. In these circumstances, an alternative flight plan should be
offered. When an alternative flight plan is offered, the complete clearance, as amended, or
that part of the clearance containing the alternative has to be included.

ATPL Air Law 16-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Emergency and Communication Failure

Emergency Procedures

The various circumstances surrounding each emergency situation preclude the establishment
of exact detailed procedures to be followed. The procedures outlined are intended as a
general guide to ATS personnel. ATCUs shall maintain full and complete co-ordination, and
personnel use their best judgement in handling emergency situations

Priority

An aircraft known or believed to be in a state of emergency, including being subjected to


unlawful interference, is given priority over other aircraft.

Emergency Descent

Upon receipt of advice that an aircraft is making an emergency descent through other traffic,
all possible action is taken to immediately safeguard all aircraft concerned. When deemed
necessary, ATCUs immediately broadcast by means of the appropriate radio aids. If this is
not possible the appropriate communications stations immediately broadcast an emergency
message.

Action by the Pilot in Command

It is expected that aircraft receiving such a broadcast will clear the specified areas and stand
by on the appropriate radio frequency for further clearances from the ATCU

Air-Ground Communication Failure

Action by ATCUs when unable to maintain two-way communication with an aircraft operating
in a CTA or CTR are as follows.

As soon as it is known that two-way communications has failed, action is taken to ascertain
whether the aircraft is able to receive transmissions from the ATCU by requesting it to
execute a specified manoeuvre which can be observed by radar or to transmit, if possible a
specified signal in order to indicate acknowledgement.

ATPL Air Law 16-4 24 October 2003


If the aircraft fails to indicate that it is able to receive and acknowledge transmissions,
separation shall be maintained between the aircraft having the communication failure and
other aircraft, based on the assumption that the aircraft will:

¾ If in VMC

• Continue to fly in VMC


• Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome, and
• Report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate ATCU

¾ If in IMC or when weather conditions are such that it does not appear feasible to
complete the flight in accordance with the above:

• Proceed according to the current flight plan to the appropriate designated


navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome and, when required to
ensure compliance with the paragraph below, hold over this aid until
commencement of descent
• Commence descent from the navigation aid specified above as close as
possible to, the EAT last received and acknowledged. If no EAT has been
received and acknowledged, at, or as close as possible to the ETA resulting
from the current flight plan
• Complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the
designated navigation aid, and
• Land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the ETA specified above or the last
acknowledged EAT, whichever is later

Action taken to ensure suitable separation ceases to be based on the above when:

¾ It is determined that the aircraft is following a procedure differing from that


expected
¾ Through the use of electronic or other aids, ATCUs determine that action differing
from that required may be taken without impairing safety, or
¾ Positive information is received that the aircraft has landed

ATPL Air Law 16-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 16-6 24 October 2003


Chapter 17.

Flight Plans

Reference: Annex 2 - Rules of the Air

Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services (Doc 4444 -RAC/501)

Introduction

A flight plan form based on the ICAO model is provided for use by operators and ATS units.
The flight plan form is printed and includes an English text in addition to the language of the
State concerned.

Submission of Flight Plans

Information about a flight, or portion of flight, to any air traffic unit is submitted in the form of a
flight plan

A flight plan shall be submitted prior to operating:

¾ Any flight, or portion of flight, to be provided with an ATC service


¾ Any IFR flight in advisory airspace
¾ Any flight, or within designated areas, or along designated routes, when required
by the appropriate ATS authority. This being to facilitate the provision of:

¾ Flight information, or
¾ Alerting search and rescue services

¾ Any flight across an international boundary

Note: The term “Flight Plan” is used to mean.

¾ Full information on all items comprised in the flight plan description, covering
the whole of the route of a flight, or
¾ Limited information required when the purpose is to obtain a clearance for a
minor portion of a flight such as:

¾ Crossing an airway
¾ Taking off from, or to land at, a controlled aerodrome

ATPL Air Law 17-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


A flight plan is submitted before departure to an ATS reporting office. During flight it is
transmitted to the appropriate ATS unit or air-ground control radio station. This does not apply
where arrangements have been made to use repetitive flight plans.

Unless otherwise stated, a flight plan for a flight to be provided with an Air Traffic Control
Service or an air traffic advisory service is submitted (See Regional Supplementary
Procedures for AFTM procedures):

¾ 60 minutes before departure, or


¾ If submitted in flight, at a time that will ensure its receipt by the appropriate air
traffic services unit at least ten minutes before the aircraft is estimated to reach:

• The intended point of entry into a CTA or advisory area, or


• The point of crossing an airway or advisory route

Prior to Departure

Except when other arrangements have been made for the submission of repetitive flight
plans, a flight plan submitted prior to departure is submitted in person or by telephone to the
ATS reporting office at the departure aerodrome. If there is no unit at the departure
aerodrome to accept the flight plan then it is submitted by telephone or teletypewriter. If these
means are not available then submission is by radio to the unit serving or designated to serve
the departure aerodrome.

In the event of a delay of 30 minutes in excess of the estimated off-block time for a controlled
flight or a delay of one hour for an uncontrolled flight for which a flight plan has been
submitted, the flight plan should be amended or a new flight plan submitted and the old flight
plan cancelled.

During Flight

A flight plan to be submitted during flight is normally transmitted to the ATS unit in charge of
the FIR, CTA, advisory area or advisory route in or on which the aircraft is flying, or in or
through which the aircraft wishes to fly. When this is not practicable, it should be transmitted
to another aeronautical telecommunication station for retransmission as required to the
appropriate ATS unit.

Acceptance of a Flight Plan

The first ATS unit receiving a flight plan, or change thereto, shall:

¾ Check it for compliance with the format and data conventions


¾ Check it for completeness and, to the extent possible for accuracy
¾ Take action, if necessary, to make it acceptable to the ATS, and
¾ Indicate acceptance of the flight plan or change thereto, to the originator

ATPL Air Law 17-2 24 October 2003


Contents of a Flight Plan

A flight plan comprises of information that is considered relevant by the appropriate ATS
authority:

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Flight rules and type of flight
¾ Number and types of aircraft and wake turbulence category
¾ Equipment
¾ Departure aerodrome
¾ Estimated off-block time
¾ Cruising speed(s)
¾ Cruising level(s)
¾ Route to be followed
¾ Destination aerodrome and total elapsed time
¾ Alternate aerodrome(s)
¾ Fuel endurance
¾ Total number of persons on board
¾ Emergency and survival equipment
¾ Other information

Completion of a Flight Plan

All flight plans contain information on the relevant items up to and including “Alternate
aerodromes”. In addition, information that is deemed necessary is also included:

¾ By the appropriate ATS authority, or


¾ The person submitting the flight plan

Changes to a Flight Plan

All changes to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight, or a VFR flight operated as a controlled
flight, are reported to the appropriate ATS unit. For other VFR flights significant changes are
reported.

Note: Information submitted before departure regarding fuel endurance, persons on


board, if incorrect at the ATD, constitute a significant change and as such must be
reported

ATPL Air Law 17-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Closing a Flight Plan

A report of arrival is made either in person or by radio at the earliest possible moment after
landing, to the appropriate ATS unit. This must be done by any flight for which a flight plan
has been submitted.

When a flight plan has been submitted for a portion of a flight it is closed by the appropriate
report to the relevant ATS unit.

When no ATS unit exists at an arrival aerodrome, the arrival report is made as soon as
practicable after landing and by the quickest means available to the nearest ATS unit.

When communication facilities are inadequate and alternative arrangements for the handling
of arrival reports on the ground are not available; the following action is taken:

¾ Immediately prior to landing the aircraft transmits by radio to an appropriate ATS


unit, a message comparable to an arrival report. This is where a report is
required.
¾ This transmission is made to the aeronautical station serving the ATS unit in
charge of the FIR in which the aircraft is operating

Arrival reports made by aircraft contain the following elements:

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Departure aerodrome
¾ Destination aerodrome (only in the case of a diversionary landing)
¾ Arrival aerodrome
¾ Time of arrival

Note: Whenever an arrival report is required, failure to comply with these provisions
may cause serious disruption in the ATS and incur great expense in carrying out
unnecessary search and rescue operations.

Use of Repetitive Flight Plans (RPLs)

RPLs are not be used for flights other than:

¾ IFR flights operated regularly on:

¾ The same day(s) of consecutive weeks, and


¾ On at least ten occasions, or
¾ Every day over a period of at least 10 consecutive days.

The elements of each flight plan shall have a high degree of stability.

ATPL Air Law 17-4 24 October 2003


RPLs cover the entire flight from the departure aerodrome to the destination aerodrome. RPL
procedures are only applied when all ATS authorities concerned with the flights have agreed
to accept RPLs.

The use by States of RPLs for international flight are subject to the provision that the affected
adjacent States either already use RPLs or will use them at the same time. The procedures
for use between States are subject to bilateral, multilateral or regional air navigation
agreement as appropriate.

Change from IFR to VFR Flight

Change from IFR fight to VFR flight is only acceptable when a message initiated by the PlC
containing the specific expression “Canceling my IFR flight”. No invitation to change from
IFR flight to VFR flight is to be made either directly or by inference.

No reply, other than the acknowledgement “IFR flight cancelled at … (time)“, should be
normally be made by an ATS unit.

When an ATS unit is in possession of information that IMC are likely to be encountered along
the route of flight, a pilot changing from IFR flight to VFR flight should, if practicable, be so
advised.

An ATS unit receiving notification of an aircraft’s intention to change from IFR flight to VFR
flight shall as soon as practicable inform all other ATS units to whom the IFR flight plan was
addressed, except those units the flight has already passed.

Scope of Clearances and Information

The issue of ATC clearances by ATCUs is the authority for an aircraft to proceed only in so
far as known traffic is concerned.

Clearances are based:

¾ Solely on expediting and separating air traffic and do not constitute authority to
violate any applicable regulations for promoting the safety of flight operations or
for any other purpose
¾ On known traffic conditions which affect safety in aircraft operation

These traffic conditions include aircraft in the air, on the manoeuvring area over which control
is being exercised and any vehicular traffic or other obstructions not permanently installed on
the manoeuvring area in use.

If an ATC clearance is not suitable to the PlC of an aircraft, he may request an amended
clearance. Clearances issued by controllers relate to traffic and aerodrome conditions only

ATPL Air Law 17-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


and do not relieve a pilot of any responsibility whatsoever in connection with a violation of
applicable rules and regulations.

Issuance

ATCUs issue ATC clearances that are necessary to meet the objectives of collision
prevention and the expedition and maintenance of an orderly flow of traffic.

Aircraft flying through a TMA are, where possible, cleared by the most direct route from the
entry to the exit point of the TMA. Aircraft arriving or departing within a TMA are, where
possible, cleared by the most direct route from the point of entry to the aerodrome of landing
or from the aerodrome of departure to the point of exit.

Aircraft intending supersonic flight are where practicable, cleared for the transonic
acceleration phase prior to departure.

Control of Air Traffic Flow

When it becomes apparent to an ATCU that traffic additional to that already accepted cannot
be accommodated within a given period of time at a particular location or in a particular area,
or can only be accommodated at a given rate, that unit advises the other ATCUs known or
believed to be concerned. PICs of aircraft destined to the location or area in question and
operators known or believed to be concerned are also advised of the delays expected or the
restrictions that will be applied.

Air Traffic Control Clearances

An ATC clearance has to be obtained prior to operating a controlled flight, or a portion of a


flight as a controlled flight. The clearance is requested through the submission of a flight plan
to an ATC unit.

Note: A flight plan may cover only part of a flight necessary to describe that portion
of flight or those manoeuvres which are subject to ATC. A clearance may cover only
part of a current flight plan, as indicated by a clearance limit or by reference to
specific rnanoeuvres such as taxiing, landing or take-off

Note: If an ATC clearance is not satisfactory to the PIC of an aircraft, the PIC may
request and, practicable, will be issued an amended clearance.

Whenever an aircraft has requested a clearance involving priority, a report explaining the
necessity for this priority is submitted, if requested by the appropriate ATC unit.

Potential Reclearance in Flight

If prior to departure it is anticipated that depending on fuel, endurance and subject to


reclearance in flight, a decision may be taken to proceed to a revised destination aerodrome.

ATPL Air Law 17-6 24 October 2003


The appropriate ATC units are notified by the insertion in the flight plan of information
concerning the revised route (where known) and the revised destination.

Note: The intent of this provision is to facilitate a reclearance to a revised


destination, normally beyond the filed destination aerodrome.

An aircraft operated on a controlled aerodrome shall not taxi on the manoeuvring area without
clearance from the aerodrome tower and shall comply with any instructions given by that unit.

Adherence to Flight Plan

Except where stated, an aircraft adheres to the current flight plan or the applicable portion of
a current flight plan submitted for a controlled flight, unless:

¾ Requests for a change to a flight plan have be made to the appropriate ATC unit;
clearance must be obtained before any changes can be made, or
¾ If an emergency situation arises which necessitates immediate action by the
aircraft, in which event as soon as circumstances permit, after such emergency
authority is exercised, the appropriate ATS unit shall be notified of the action
taken.

Unless otherwise authorized or directed by the appropriate ATC unit, controlled flights:

¾ When on an established ATS route, operate along the defined centre line of that
route, or
¾ When on any other route, operate directly between the navigational facilities
and/or points defining that route

Aircraft operating along an ATS route segment defined by reference to VOR change over
navigation guidance from the facility behind the aircraft to that ahead of it at, or as close as
operationally feasible to, the change over point.

Any deviation from the above requirements is notified to the appropriate ATS unit.

Inadvertent Changes

In the event that a controlled flight inadvertently deviates from its current flight plan; the
following action is taken:

Deviation From Track If the aircraft is off track, action shall be taken
immediately to adjust the heading of the aircraft to regain track as soon as practicable

Variation in TAS If the average TAS at cruising level between reporting points
varies, or is expected to vary, by ± 5% of the true airspeed from that given in the flight
plan, the appropriate ATS unit shall be informed.

ATPL Air Law 17-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Change in Estimate Time If the time estimate for the next applicable reporting
point, FIR boundary or destination aerodrome, whichever comes first, is found to be
in error in excess of ± 3 minutes from that notified to ATS, or such other period of
time as is prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority or on the basis of air
navigational regional agreements, a revised estimate time shall be notified as soon as
possible to the appropriate ATS unit.

Intended Changes

Requests for flight plan changes include the following:

Change of Cruising Level

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Requested new cruising level and cruising speed at this level
¾ Revised time estimates (when applicable) at subsequent FIR boundaries

Change of Route

Destination Unchanged

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Flight rules
¾ Description of new route of flight including related flight plan data beginning with
the position from which requested change of route is to commence
¾ Revised time estimates
¾ Any other pertinent information

Destination Changed

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Flight rules
¾ Description of revised route of flight to revised destination aerodrome including
related flight plan data, beginning with the position from which the requested
change of route is to commence
¾ Revised time estimates
¾ Alternate aerodrome(s)
¾ Any other pertinent information

ATPL Air Law 17-8 24 October 2003


Weather Deterioration Below the VMC

When it becomes evident that flight in VMC in accordance with the current flight plan is not
practicable, a VFR flight operated as a controlled flight will:

¾ Request an amended clearance enabling the aircraft to continue in VMC to


destination or to an alternate aerodrome, or to leave the airspace within which an
ATC clearance is required, or
¾ If no clearance can be obtained, continue to operate in VMC and notify the
appropriate ATC unit of the action being taken either to leave the airspace
concerned or to land at the nearest suitable aerodrome, or
¾ If operated within a CTR, request authorization to operate as a Special VFR flight,
or
¾ Request clearance to operate in accordance with the IFR.

Position Reports

Unless exempted by the appropriate ATS authority or unit, a controlled flight reports to the
appropriate ATS unit, as soon as possible, the time and level of passing each designated
compulsory reporting point, together with any other required information. Position reports are
made in relation to additional points when requested by the appropriate ATS unit. In the
absence of designated reporting points, position reports are made at intervals as detailed by
the appropriate ATS authority or unit.

Note: The conditions and circumstances where SSR Mode C satisfies the
requirements for level information in position reports are indicated in PANS-RAC, Part
II (Doc 4444,).

Termination of Control

A controlled flight, except when it is landing at a controlled aerodrome, advises the


appropriate ATC unit as soon as it ceases to be subject to an ATC service.

Communication

An aircraft operated as a controlled flight shall establish two way communications with the
appropriate ATC unit. It must also maintain a continuous listening watch on the appropriate
radio frequency. The appropriate ATS authority may exempt aircraft when they form part of
the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome.

Note: SELCAL or similar automatic signaling devices satisfy the requirement to


maintain a listening watch.

ATPL Air Law 17-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Communication Failure

If a communication failure precludes an aircraft from complying with the above then the
communication failure procedures from Annex 10 must be followed and with any of the
following procedures that may be appropriate. In addition, the aircraft, when forming part of
the aerodrome traffic at a controlled aerodrome, shall keep a watch for instructions issued by
visual signals.

If in VMC, the aircraft shall:

¾ Continue to fly in VMC


¾ Land at the nearest suitable aerodrome, and
¾ Report its arrival by the most expeditious means to the appropriate ATC unit

Note: The above relates to all controlled flights

If in IMC or conditions are such that it is not feasible to complete the flight in accordance with
VMC, the aircraft shall:

¾ Unless otherwise prescribed on the basis of a regional navigation agreement:

• Maintain the last assigned speed and level, or minimum flight altitude if
higher, for a period of 20 minutes following the aircraft’s failure to report its
position over a compulsory reporting point, and
• Thereafter, adjust level and speed in accordance with the filed flight plan

¾ Proceed in accordance with the flight planned route to the appropriate designated
navigation aid serving the destination aerodrome
¾ Hold over the above navigation aid until commencement of descent or until
required to comply with the paragraph below
¾ Commence descent from the navigation aid at, or as close as possible to:

• The EAT last received and acknowledged, or


• If no EAT has been received and acknowledged at, or as close as possible
to, the ETA resulting from the current flight plan

¾ Complete a normal instrument approach procedure as specified for the


designated navigation aid
¾ Land, if possible, within 30 minutes after the ETA or the last acknowledged EAT,
whichever is later

Note: The above relates to IFR flights only

ATPL Air Law 17-10 24 October 2003


Note: The provision of ATC service to other flights operating in the airspace
concerned will be based on the premise that an aircraft experiencing communications
failure will comply with the rules for IFR traffic

ATPL Air Law 17-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 17-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 18.

Flight Procedures – Introduction & Departures

References: Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (Document


8168-OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Introduction

The Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations (PANS-OPS) consists of two
volumes:

Volume I - Flight Procedures This volume describes the operational procedures


recommended for the guidance of flight operations personnel. It also outlines the various
parameters on which the criteria in Volume II are based so as to illustrate the need for
operational personnel including flight crew to adhere strictly to the published procedures in
order to achieve and maintain an acceptable level of safety in operations

Volume II - Construction of Visual and Instrument Procedures This volume is


intended for the guidance of procedure specialists and describes the essential areas and
obstacle clearance requirements for the achievement of safe, regular instrument flight
operations. It provides the basic guidelines to States, and those operators and organizations
producing instrument flight charts that will result in uniform practices at all aerodromes where
instrument flight procedures are carried out.

The division of the PANS-OPS into the two volumes was the result of extensive amendments
to the obstacle clearance criteria and the construction of approach to land procedures. Both
volumes present coverage of operational practices that are beyond the scope of SARPs but
with respect to which a measure of international uniformity is desirable.

ATPL Air Law 18-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Abbreviations Used

ATIS Automatic terminal information service NOZ Normal operating zone


C/L Centre line NTZ No transgression zone
DA/H Decision altitude/height OCA/H Obstacle clearance altitude/height
DER Departure end of the runway OIS Obstacle identification surface
DR Dead reckoning OM Outer marker
EFIS Electronic flight instrument system PAR Precision approach radar
FAF Final approach fix PDG Procedure design gradient
FAP Final approach point RNAV Area navigation
FMS Flight management system RSR En-route surveillance radar
HSI Horizontal situation indicator RSS Root sum square
IAF Initial approach fix SID Standard instrument departure
IF Intermediate fix SOC Start of climb
MAPt Missed approach point SPI Special position indicator
MDA/H Minimum descent altitude/height STAR Standard instrument arrival
MOC Minimum obstacle clearance TAR Terminal area surveillance radar
TP Turning point

Departure Procedures

The criteria in this part are designed to provide flight crews and other flight operations
personnel with an appreciation, from the operational point of view, of the parameters and
criteria used in the design of instrument departure procedures which include but are not
limited to standard instrument departure routes and associated procedures.

These procedures assume that all engines are operating. In order to ensure acceptable
clearance above obstacles during the departure phase, instrument departure procedures
maybe published as:

¾ Specific routes to be followed, or


¾ As omni-directional departures, together with PDGs and details of significant
obstacles

Omni-directional departures may specify vectors to be avoided.

The PDG is not intended as an operational limitation for those operators who assess
departure obstacles in relation to aircraft performance, taking into account the availability of
appropriate ground/airborne equipment.

ATPL Air Law 18-2 24 October 2003


The Instrument Departure Procedure

The design of an instrument departure procedure is dictated by factors such as:

¾ The terrain surrounding the aerodrome


¾ Catering for ATC requirements in the case of SID Airspace restrictions affecting
routing

All these factors in turn influence the type and siting of navigation aids.

At many aerodromes, a prescribed departure route is not required for ATC purposes.
However, there may be obstacles in the vicinity of the aerodrome that will have to be
considered in determining whether restrictions to departures are to be prescribed. In these
cases, departure procedures may be:

¾ Restricted to a given sector(s), or


¾ Published with a PDG in the sector containing the obstacle

The use of automatic take-off thrust control systems (ATTCS) and noise abatement
procedures will need to be taken into consideration by the pilot and the operator.

Where no suitable navigation aid is available the criteria for omni-directional departures is
applied.

Where obstacles cannot be cleared by the appropriate margin when the aeroplane is flown on
instruments, aerodrome operating minima are established to permit visual flight clear of
obstacles.

Wherever possible a straight departure will be specified which is aligned with the runway
centre line.

When a departure route requires a turn of more than 15º to avoid an obstacle, a turning
departure is constructed. Wherever limiting speeds or flight speeds are promulgated, they
must be complied with to remain within the appropriate areas. If an aeroplane operation
requires a higher speed, then an alternative departure procedure must be requested.

Establishment of a Departure Procedure

A departure procedure will be established for each runway where instrument departures are
expected to be used. This will define a departure procedure for the various categories of
aircraft based on all-engines PDG of 3.3% or an increased PDG if required to achieve
minimum obstacle clearance (see below).

ATPL Air Law 18-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


The procedures will assume that:

¾ Pilots will not compensate for wind effects when being radar vectored, and
¾ Pilots will compensate for known or estimated wind effect when flying departure
routes which are expressed as track to be made good

Obstacle Clearance

Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument


departure procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation are covered in
the PANS-OPS Volume II. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to
individual types of departure are specified later in this document.

Unless otherwise promulgated a PDG of 3.3% is assumed. The PDG is made up of:

¾ 2.5% gradient of obstacle identification surfaces or the gradient based on the


most critical obstacle penetrating these surfaces, whichever is the higher
gradient, and
¾ 0.8% increasing obstacle clearance

THIS ALTITUDE/HEIGHT
AND GRADIENT TO BE
PROMULGATED IF MORE
3.3%
THAN 60 m (200 ft)
2.5%

4.5% 3.7%
OIS
2.5%

5 m (16 ft)

DER OBSTACLE AERODROME ELEVATION

Gradients published will be specified to an altitude/height after which the minimum gradient of
3.3% is used. The final PDG continues until obstacle clearance is ensured for the next phase
of flight. At this point the departure procedure ends and is marked by a significant point.

The minimum obstacle clearance equals zero at the DER and increases by 0.8% of the
horizontal distance in the direction of flight assuming a maximum turn of 15º.

In the turn initiation area and turn area a minimum obstacle clearance of 90 m (295 ft) is
provided. Where mountainous terrain exists, consideration is given by the procedure designer
to increasing the minimum obstacle clearance.

ATPL Air Law 18-4 24 October 2003


Whenever a suitably located DME exists, additional specific height/distance information
intended for obstacle avoidance may be published. RNAV way-point or other suitable fixes
may be used to provide a means of monitoring climb performance.

Standard Instrument Departures

General

A SID is normally developed to accommodate as many aircraft categories (See Approach


Procedures for Aircraft Categories) as possible. Departures that are limited to specific aircraft
categories are clearly annotated. The SID terminates at the first fix/facility/way-point of the en-
route phase following the departure procedure.

There are two basic types of departure route, straight and turning. Departure routes are
based on track guidance acquired within:

¾ 20 km (10.8 nm) from the DER on straight departures, and


¾ 10 km (5.4 nm) after completion of turns on departures requiring turns

The design of instrument departure routes and the associated obstacle clearance criteria are
based on the definition of tracks to be followed by the aeroplane. When flying the published
track, the pilot is expected to correct for known wind to remain within the protected airspace.

Straight Departures

A straight departure is one in which the initial departure track is within 15º of the runway
centre line. Track guidance may be provided by a suitably located facility (VOR or NDB) or by
RNAV.
VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3° VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3°

15° VOR NDB 3.7 km (2 NM)/VOR


AREA 1 DEPARTURE TRACK
DER 4.6 km (2.5 NM)/NDB
MAX
15° AREA 2
15°
C/L
3.5 km
150 m
(1.9 NM)
VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3° VOR 7.8°/NDB 10.3°

Where obstacles exist affecting the departure route, PDGs greater than 3.3% are
promulgated to an altitude/height after which the 3.3% gradient is considered to prevail.
Gradients to a height of 60 m (200 ft) or less, caused by close-in obstacles, are not specified.
In these cases the procedures to be used are discussed later

ATPL Air Law 18-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Turning Departures

When a turning departure requires a turn of more than 15º, a turning area is constructed.

FLIGHT TECHNICAL TOLERANCE SPLAY 7.8°/VOR; 10.3° NDB

C/L
DB
R/N
VO

K
15° AC
TR
URE
RT
FLX TOLERANCE

PA
DE

3.7 km (2.0 NM)/VOR


4.6 km (2.5 NM)/NDB

15°

15° 15°

DER
150 m

Turns may be specified at:

¾ An altitude/height
¾ At a fix
¾ At a facility

Straight flight is assumed until reaching an altitude/height of at least 120 m (394 ft) above the
elevation of the DER. Where the location and/or height of obstacles precludes the
construction of turning departures which satisfy the minimum turn height criteria, departure
procedures should be developed on a local basis in consultation with the operators
concerned.

A turn is prescribed upon reaching a specified altitude/height to accommodate the situation


where there is:

¾ An obstacle located in the direction of the straight departure which must be


avoided, and/or
¾ Another obstacle located abeam the straight departure track which must be
overflown after the turn with the appropriate margin

In the above case, the procedure will require a climb to a specified altitude/height before
initiating the turn as specified.

ATPL Air Law 18-6 24 October 2003


Turns at a facility or DME distance are constructed in the same manner and using the same
parameters as for the missed approach, except that the speeds employed are the final
missed approach speeds increased by 10% to account for increased aeroplane weight on
departure.

Maximum Speeds For Turning Departures


Aeroplane Category Maximum Speed (kts)
A 120
B 165
C 265
D 290
E 360

In exceptional cases where acceptable terrain clearances cannot otherwise be provided,


turning departure routes are constructed with maximum speeds as low as the intermediate
missed approach speed increased by 10%; in such cases the procedure is annotated with a
cautionary note.

Parameters of construction of the turning areas are based on the following conditions:

Altitude Aerodrome elevation plus 300 m (1000 ft)

Temperature ISA + 15°C corresponding to the altitude

Indicated Air Speed The speed tabulated for final missed approach for the speed
category for which the departure is designed, increased by 10% to account for the
increased aircraft mass at departure.

Where operationally required, reduced speeds as slow as the lAS tabulated for
intermediate missed approach increased by 10% may be used, provided the
procedure is annotated:

“Departure turn limited to …. kt lAS maximum”

True Air Speed The lAS above adjusted for altitude and temperature

Wind Maximum 95% probability wind on an omni-directional basis, where statistical


wind data are available. Where no wind data are available, an omni-directional 56
km/h (30 kt) is used

Bank Angle 15º average achieved

Fix Tolerance As appropriate to the type of fix

ATPL Air Law 18-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Flight Technical Tolerances Pilot reaction time 3 seconds; Bank establishment
time 3 seconds. Total 6 seconds.

Turn Boundary Calculated in PANS-OPS Volume II

Secondary Areas Secondary areas are specified when track guidance is


available

When obstacles exist prohibiting the turn before DER or prior to reaching an altitude/height,
an earliest turn point or a minimum turning altitude/height will be specified.

Contingency Procedures

Development of contingency procedures required to cover the case of engine failure or an


emergency in flight that occurs after V1 is the responsibility of the operator. When it is
necessary to develop turning procedures to avoid an obstacle which would have become
limiting, then the procedure should be detailed in the appropriate operator’s manual. The point
for a start of a turn in this procedure must be readily identifiable by the pilot when flying under
instrument conditions.

Omni-directional Departures

Where no track guidance is provided in the design, the departure criteria are developed by
using the omni-directional method.

The departure procedure commences at the DER, which is the end of the area declared
suitable for take-off. The end of the runway or clearway as appropriate. Since the point of lift-
off will vary, the departure is constructed on the assumption that a turn at 120 m (394 ft)
above the elevation of the aerodrome will not be initiated sooner than 600 m from the
beginning of the runway.

Unless otherwise specified, departure procedures are developed on the assumption of a 3.3%
PDG and a straight climb on the extended runway centre line until reaching 120 m (394 ft)
above the aerodrome elevation.

The basic procedure ensures:

¾ The aircraft will climb on the extended runway centre line to 120 m (394 ft) before
turns can be specified, and
¾ At least 90 m (295 ft) of obstacle clearance will be provided before turns greater
than 15º can be specified

ATPL Air Law 18-8 24 October 2003


The omni-directional departure procedure is designed using any one of a combination of the
following:

¾ Standard Case Where no obstacles penetrate the 2.5% OIS and 90 m (295
ft) of obstacle prevails, a 3.3% climb to 120 m (394 ft) will satisfy the obstacle
clearance requirements

C/L

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••
•• •

••

• ••

AREA 2

•• •
•• •


•• •
•••


•••
•••

30°
•• •
•• •


•• •
•• •

dr = DISTANCE WHERE THE AIRCRAFT CLIMBING AT THE


•••
•••

MINIMUM GRADIENT (3.3% OR THE GRADIENT SPECIFIED


••
•• •

IN THE PROCEDURE, WHICHEVER IS THE HIGHER) WILL


•• •

AREA 1
•• ••

dr HAVE REACHED THE SPECIFIED TURN HEIGHT/ALTITUDE.


•• ••

IF THE TURN HEIGHT IS 120 m (394 ft) ABOVE THE DER


•• ••

THIS DISTANCE IS 3.5 km (1.9 NM) FOR A 3.3% GRADIENT.


•• ••
••••

••••
• •• •

3.5 KM
• •• •
• •• •

(1.9 NM)
• •• •

OR LESS
••••

••••
• •• •

15°
• •• •

15°
• •• •

• •• •
••••

••••
•• ••

DER
•• ••

•••••••••••••••••••

•••••••••••••••••••
RUNWAY

150 m 150 m
AREA BOUNDED BY THE DOTTED LINE
IS THE TURN INITIATION AREA
•• ••••• 600 m

ATPL Air Law 18-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ Specified Turn Altitude/Height Where obstacle(s) preclude omni-directional
turns at 120 m (394 ft), the procedure will specify a 3.3% climb to an
altitude/height where omni-directional turns can be made (Area 2)

• = OBSTACLE
d 0 = SHORTEST DISTANCE RUNWAY CENTRE LINE
FROM OBSTACLE TO
BOUNDARY OF TURN
INITIATION AREA

••••••••••••••••••••••• d0

• ••

•••
•• •

•• •
AREA 2


••• •
• •• ••
d0

•• ••
AREA 1

••
• •• ••

•• ••

••• ••

••• ••
DER

d0

DISTANCE NECESSARY
FOR THE DEPARTURE 600 m
d0


AREA 3

CENTRE LINE

¾ Specified Procedure Design Gradient Where obstacle(s) exist, the


procedure may define a minimum gradient of more than 3.3% to a specified
altitude/height before turns are permitted (Area 3)

¾ Sector Departures Where obstacle(s) exist, the procedure may identify sector(s)
for which either a minimum gradient or a minimum turn altitude/height is specified

“Climb straight ahead to ... altitude/height ... before commencing a turn to ...
west/the sector 180º - 360º

ATPL Air Law 18-10 24 October 2003


Where obstacles do not permit the development of omni-directional procedures, it is
necessary to:

¾ Fly a departure route, or


¾ Ensure that the ceiling and visibility will permit obstacles to be avoided by visual
means

Published Information

The information listed will be published for operational reasons.

For departure routes, the following information is promulgated:

¾ Significant obstacles which penetrate the OIS


¾ The position and height of close-in obstacles penetrating the OIS. A note is
included on the SID chart whenever close-in obstacles exist which were not
considered for the published PDG
¾ The highest obstacle in the departure area, and any significant obstacle outside
the area which dictates the design of the procedure
¾ The altitude/height at which a gradient in excess of 3.3% is no longer used. A
note is included whenever the published PDG is based only on airspace
restriction
¾ All navigation facilities, fixes or way points, radials and DME distances depicting
route segments are clearly indicated on the SID chart

Departure routes are labeled as RNAV only when that is the primary means of navigation
utilized.

For omni-directional departures, the restrictions will be expressed as sectors in which


minimum gradients and/or minimum altitudes are specified to enable an aeroplane to safely
overfly obstacles.

The published minimum gradient will be the highest in any sector that may be expected to be
overflown. The altitude to which the minimum gradient is specified will permit the aircraft to
continue at the 3.3% minimum gradient through:

¾ That sector
¾ A succeeding sector, or
¾ To an altitude authorized for another phase of flight eg en-route, holding or
approach

A fix may also be designated to mark the point at which a gradient in excess of 3.3% is no
longer required.

ATPL Air Law 18-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 18-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 19.

Approach Procedures

Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Introduction

The specifications in this volume are designed to provide flight crew and other flight
operations personnel with:

¾ An appreciation from the operational point of view, of the parameters and criteria
used in the standardized development of precision and non-precision instrument
approach procedures, and
¾ The procedures to be followed and the limitations to be observed in order to
achieve an acceptable level of safety in the conduct of instrument approach
procedures

The Instrument Approach Procedure

The design of an instrument approach procedure is, in general, dictated by:

¾ The terrain surrounding an aerodrome


¾ The type of operations contemplated, and
¾ The aircraft to be accommodated

An instrument approach procedure may have 5 segments. They are:

¾ The arrival
¾ The initial approach
¾ The intermediate approach
¾ The final approach, and
¾ The missed approach

The approach segments begin and end at designated fixes. Under certain circumstances
certain of the segments may begin at specified points where no fixes are available.

eg The final approach segment of a precision approach may originate at the


point of intersection of the designated intermediate flight altitude with the nominal
glide path

ATPL Air Law 19-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Wherever possible a straight-in approach will be specified which is aligned with the runway
centre line. In the case of non-precision approaches a straight-in approach is considered
acceptable if the angle between the final approach track and the runway centre line is 30º or
less.

In those cases where terrain or other constraints cause the final approach track alignment or
descent gradient to fall outside the criteria for a straight-in approach a circling approach will
be specified. The final approach track of a circling approach procedure is in most cases
aligned to pass over a portion of the usable landing surface of the aerodrome.

Minimum sector altitudes are established for each aerodrome and provide at least 300 m (984
ft) obstacle clearance within 46 km (25 nm) of the homing facility associated with the
approach procedure for that aerodrome.

Categories of Aircraft

Aircraft performance has a direct effect on the airspace and visibility needed to perform the
various manoeuvres associated with the conduct of instrument approach procedures. The
most significant performance factor is aircraft speed. Accordingly, five categories of typical
aircraft have been established. Each category is based on 1.3 times stall speed in the landing
configuration at maximum certificated landing mass. This provides a standardized basis for
relating aircraft manoeuvrability to specific instrument approach procedures.

Category A Less than 169 km/h (91 kt) lAS


Category B 169 km/h (91 kt) or more but less than 224 km/h (121 kt) lAS
Category C 224 km/h (121 kt) or more but less than 261 km/h (141 kt) lAS
Category D 261 km/h (141 kt) or more but less than 307 km/h (166 kt) lAS
Category E 307 km/h (166 kt) or more but less than 391 km/h (211 kt) lAS

This specified range of handling speeds for each category of aircraft is assumed for use in
calculating airspace and obstacle clearance requirements for each procedure.

The instrument approach chart will specify the individual categories of aircraft for which the
procedure is approved. Normally, procedures will be designed to provide protected airspace
and obstacle clearance for aircraft up to and including Category D. Where airspace
requirements are critical, procedures may be restricted to lower speed categories.

Alternatively, the procedure may specify a maximum lAS for a particular segment without
reference to aircraft category. It is essential that pilots comply with the procedures and
information depicted on instrument flight charts and the appropriate flight parameters if the
aircraft is to remain in the areas developed for obstacle clearance procedures.

ATPL Air Law 19-2 24 October 2003


Obstacle Clearance

Obstacle clearance is a primary safety consideration in the development of instrument


approach procedures. The criteria used and the detailed method of calculation is covered in
PANS-OPS, Volume II. The obstacle clearance applied in the development of each
instrument approach procedure is considered to be the minimum required for an acceptable
level of safety in operations. The protected areas and obstacle clearance applicable to
individual types of approaches are specified later.

Obstacle Clearance Altitude/Height (OCA/H)

For each individual approach procedure an obstacle clearance altitude/height (OCA/H) is


calculated for a procedure and published on the instrument approach chart. In the case of
precision approach and circling approach procedures an OCA/H is specified for each
category of aircraft. OCA/H is:

ATPL Air Law 19-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Precision Approach Procedure

The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the elevation of the
relevant runway threshold (OCH), at which a missed approach must be initiated to ensure
compliance with the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.
PRECISION APPROACH
ALTITUDE

DECISION ALTITUDE (DA)


OR
DECISION HEIGHT (DH)

MARGIN
OR
LOWER LIMIT

BASED ON OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATION OF:


- CATEGORY OF OPERATION
- GROUND/AIRBORNE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS
- CREW QUALIFICATIONS OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
- AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE ALTITUDE (OCA)
- METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
- AERODROME CHARACTERISTICS
OR
- TERRAIN PROFILE/RADIO ALTIMETER
- PRESSURE ERROR/PRESSURE ALTIMETER
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
- ETC. HEIGHT (OCH)

DA

DH
PCA
MARGIN. THE MARGIN IS DEPENDENT ON AIRCRAFT
APPROACH SPEED, HEIGHT LOSS AND ALTIMETRY AND OCH
IS ADJUSTABLE FOR STEEP GLIDE PATHS AND HIGH
LEVEL AERODROMES.

THE HEIGHT OF THE HIGHEST APPROACH


OBSTACLE OR OF THE HIGHEST EQUIVALENT
MISSED APPROACH OBSTACLE, WHICHEVER
IS GREATER.

NOTE. IDENTIFICATION OF OBSTACLES IS DEPENDENT


ON:

- CATEGORY OF OPERATION
- ILS GEOMETRY (GLIDE PATH ANGLE, DISTANCE
FROM LOCALIZER ANTENNA TO RUNWAY THRESHOLD,
REFERENCE DATUM HEIGHT AND LOCALIZER COURSE
WIDTH)
- AIRCRAFT DIMENSIONS THRESHOLD
- MISSED APPROACH CLIMB GRADIENT ELEVATION
- MISSED APPROACH TURNPOINT
- USE OF AUTOPILOT (CAT II OPERATIONS ONLY)

MEAN SEA LEVEL

ATPL Air Law 19-4 24 October 2003


Non-Precision Approach Procedure

The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation or
the elevation of the relevant runway threshold, if the threshold elevation is more than 2 m (7
ft) below the aerodrome elevation (OCH), below which the aircraft cannot descend without
infringing the appropriate obstacle clearance criteria.

ATPL Air Law 19-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


NON-PRECISION APPROACH
ALTITUDE

MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE (MDA)


OR
MINIMUM DESCENT HEIGHT (MDH)

MARGIN
OR
LOWER LIMIT
BASED ON OPERATIONAL ONSIDERATIONOF:
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
-GROUND/AIRBOURNE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS ALTITUDE (OCA)
- CREW QUALIFICATIONS
- AIRCRAFT PERFORMANCE OR
- METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
- AERODROME CHARACTERISTICS OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
- LOCATION OF GUIDANCE AID RELATIVE TO RUNWAY HEIGHT (OCH) MDA
- ETC
MDH

OCA
MINIMUM OBSTACLE CLEARANCE (MOC)
FOR THE FINAL SEGMENT OCH

FIXED MARGIN FOR ALL AIRCRAFT


90 m (295 ft) WITHOUT FAF
75 m (246 ft) WITH FAF
(FAF = FINAL APPROACH FIX)

NOTE. MOC MAY INCLUDE AN ADDITIONAL MARGIN


IN MOUTAINOUS TERRAIN AND IS INCREASED FOR
EXCESSIVE LENGTH OF FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT
AND FOR REMOTE AND FORECAST ALTIMETER
SETTINGS.

THE HEIGHT OF THE HIGHEST OBSTACLE


IN THE FINAL APPROACH.

NOTE. IDENTIFICATION OF OBSTACLES ACCORDING


TO AREAS ASSOCIATED WITH TYPE OF FACILITY
USED IN THE PROCEDURE.

AERODROME ELEVATION OR
THRESHOLD ELEVATION IF
MORE THAN 2 m (7 ft) BELOW
THE AERODROME ELEVATION

MEAN SEA LEVEL

Visual (Circling) Procedure

The lowest altitude (OCA) or alternatively the lowest height above the aerodrome elevation
(OCH) below which an aircraft cannot descend without infringing the appropriate obstacle
clearance criteria

ATPL Air Law 19-6 24 October 2003


VISUAL MANOEUVRING (CIRCLING)
ALTITUDE

MINIMUM DESCENT ALTITUDE


FOR CIRCLING (MDA)
OR
MINIMUM DESCENT HEIGHT
FOR CIRCLING (MDH)

MARGIN
OR
LOWER LIMIT
BASED ON OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATION OF:
- AIRCRAFT CHARACTERISTICS
- METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS
- CREW QUALIFICATIONS
- AERODROME CHARACTERISTICS
- ETC.
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE ALTITUDE (OCA)
OR
OBSTACLE CLEARANCE HEIGHT (OCH)

THE OCH SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN:


CATEGORY A 120 m (394 ft)
CATEGORY B 150 m (492 ft)
MDA
CATEGORY C 180 m (591 ft)
CATEGORY D 210 m (689 ft) MDH
CATEGORY E 240 m (787 ft)
OCA

OCH

MINIMUM OBSTACLE CLEARANCE (MOC)


CATEGORY A & B 90 m (295 ft)
CATEGORY C & D 120 m (394 ft)
CATEGORY E 150 m (492 ft)

NOTE. MOC MAY INCLUDE AN ADDITIONAL MARGIN IN


MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN AND IS INCREASSED FOR
REMOTE AND FORECAST ALTIMETER SETTINGS.

HEIGHT OF THE HIGHEST


OBSTACLE IN CIRCLING AREA

AERODROME
ELEVATION

MEAN SEA LEVEL

ATPL Air Law 19-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Factors Affecting Operational Minima

Minima are developed by adding the effect of a number of operational factors to OCA/H to
produce:

¾ In the case of precision approaches a DA or DH


¾ In the case of a non-precision approach, MDA or MDH

The general operational factors to be considered are specified in Annex 6. The relationship of
OCA/H to operating minima (landing) is shown in the preceding 3 diagrams.

Approach Procedure Design

Where track guidance is provided in the design of an instrument approach procedure each of
the five segments of the approach comprises of a specified volume of airspace. The vertical
cross section of which is an area located symmetrically about the centre line of each
segment. The vertical cross section is broken down into primary and secondary areas as
shown in the diagram below.

•••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••

ASSUMED LOWEST
FLIGHT PATH MOC
MOC

SECONDARY AREA PRIMARY AREA SECONDARY AREA

1/4 OF 1/2 OF 1/4 OF


TOTAL TOTAL TOTAL

TOTAL WIDTH

CENTRE LINE

At any point the width of the primary area is equal to ½ of the total width. The width of each
secondary area is equal to ¼ of the total width.

Where no track guidance is provided during a turn specified by the procedure, the total width
of the area is considered as a primary area.

ATPL Air Law 19-8 24 October 2003


MOC is provided for the whole width of the primary area. For the secondary area, MOC is
provided at the inner edges gradually reducing to zero at the outer edge.

Accuracy of Fixes

General

Fixes and points used in designing approach procedures include, but are not limited to:

¾ The initial approach fix (IAF)


¾ The intermediate approach fix (IF)
¾ The final approach fix (FAF)
¾ The holding fix, and
¾ When necessary the MAPt

Fixes are normally based on standard navigation systems.

Fixes Formed by Intersection

Because all navigational facilities have accuracy limitations, the geographic point that is
identified is not precise, but may be anywhere within an area called the fix tolerance area
which surrounds its plotted point of intersection. The diagram below illustrates the intersection
of two radials or tracks from different navigation facilities.

NOMINAL FIX

FIX TOLERANCE AREA

ATPL Air Law 19-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intersection Fix Tolerance Factors

The dimensions of the intersection fix are determined by the accuracy of the navigational
system that supplies the information to define the fix. The factors from which the accuracy of
a system is determined are:

¾ Ground station tolerance


¾ Airborne receiving system tolerance
¾ Flight technical tolerance
¾ Distance from the facility

Accuracy of Facility Providing Track

¾ VOR ± 5.2º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of’ ± 2.5º)
¾ ILS Localizer ± 2.4º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 2º)
¾ NDB ± 6.9º (this value includes a flight technical tolerance of ± 3º)

Overall Tolerance of the Intersecting Facility

¾ VOR ± 4.5º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down


fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails, accuracy is
considered to be ± 7.80º
¾ ILS Localizer ± 1.4º
¾ NDB ± 6.2º when used in an approach procedure to establish a step down
fix where less than 300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance prevails, accuracy is
considered to be ± 10.3º

Other Fix Tolerance Factors

Surveillance Radar

Radar fix accuracy is based on:

¾ Radar mapping accuracy


¾ Azimuth resolution
¾ Flight technical tolerance
¾ Controller technical tolerances, and
¾ The speed of the aircraft in the terminal area

Terminal Area Radar (TAR) within 37km (20 nm) Fix tolerance is ± 1.5 km (±
0.8 nm)

ATPL Air Law 19-10 24 October 2003


En-Route Surveillance Radar (ESR) within 74 km (40 nm) Fix tolerance is ±
3.1 km (± 1.7 nm)

DME Fix tolerance is ± 0.46 km (± 0.25 nm) + 1.25% of the distance to the
antenna

75 MHz Marker Beacons Fix tolerances for ILS and “Z” markers for use with
instrument approach procedures are calculated using the aerial polar diagram.

Fix Tolerance Overhead a Station

VOR Fix tolerance overhead a VOR is based upon a cone of confusion 50º from the vertical,
or less if determined by flight test. Entry into the cone is assumed to be within accuracy from
the prescribed track so as to keep the lateral deviation abeam the VOR.

For a cone angle of 50º:

¾ The accuracy of entry is ± 50º


¾ Tracking through the cone is assumed to be within an accuracy of ± 50º
¾ Station passage is assumed to be within the limits of the cone of ambiguity

NDB

Fix tolerance overhead an NDB is based upon an inverted cone of ambiguity extending at an
angle of 40º either side of the facility. Entry into the cone is assumed to be achieved within an
accuracy of ± 15º from the prescribed track. Tracking through the cone is assumed to be
within an accuracy of ± 50º.

CONE
EFFECT AREA TRACK OF MAXIMUM
RIGHT TOLERANCE

z INBOUND HOLDING TRACK


OR INTENDED ENTRY TRACK

15°
NDB 15°

5° TRACK OF MAXIMUM
LEFT TOLERANCE

POSITION FIX
TOLERANCE AREA z = RADIUS OF NDB CONE

Approach Area Splays

Tolerances are used to narrow and widen instrument approach areas as the aircraft flies to
and from a facility respectively. The area is of a standard width of 3.7 km (2 nm) for VOR and
4.6 km (2.5 nm) for NDB at the facility.

ATPL Air Law 19-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


APPROACH FROM FACILITY
SECONDARY
AREAS
FARTHEST LIMIT
FOR MAPt
FAF FACILITY

PRIMARY WIDTH TO
AREA FACILITY

FINAL APPROACH
SPLAY 7.8° VOR/10.3° NDB SEGMENT

APPROACH TO FACILITY
SECONDARY
AREAS

FAF FACILITY AND MAPt

PRIMARY
AREA

FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT

APPROACH TO FACILITY
SECONDARY
AREAS

FAF
FACILITY AND MAPt

PRIMARY
AREA

FACILITY

FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT

The diagram above shows the final approach segment (contained between FAF and MAPt).
The optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF relative to the threshold are 9 km
(5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively.

Descent Gradient

In designing instrument approach procedures adequate space is allowed for descent from the
facility crossing altitude/height to the runway threshold for straight-in approach or to OCA/H
for circling approaches.

Establishing a maximum allowable descent gradient for each segment of the procedure
provides adequate space for descent. The optimum descent gradient in the final approach
should not exceed 5% (50 m/km, approximately 300 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3º
glidepath. Where a steeper descent gradient is necessary, the maximum permissible is 6.5%
(65 m/km, approximately 400 ft/nm) which is equivalent to a 3.8º glidepath. In the case of a
precision approach the operationally preferred glidepath angle is 3º. An ILS glidepath in
excess of 3º is used only where alternate means of satisfying obstacle clearance
requirements are impractical.

ATPL Air Law 19-12 24 October 2003


In certain cases the maximum descent gradient of 6.5% (65 m/km) results in descent rates
that exceed the recommended rates of descent for some aircraft. Pilots should consider
carefully the descent rate required for non-precision final approach segments before starting
the approach.

Standard Instrument Arrivals

When necessary or where an operational advantage is obtained, arrival routes from the en-
route phase to a fix or facility used in the procedure are published. When arrival routes are
published, the width of the associated area decreases from the “en-route” value to the “initial
approach” value with a convergence angle of 30º each side of the axis. This convergence
begins at:

¾ 46km (25 nm) before the IAF if the length of the arrival route is greater than or
equal to 46 km (25 nm).
¾ It begins at the starting point of the arrival route if the length is less than 46 km
(25 nm)

The arrival route normally ends at the initial approach fix. Omni-directional or sector arrivals
can be provided taking into account MSA.

When terminal radar is employed the aircraft is vectored to a fix, or onto the intermediate or
final approach track, at a point where the pilot may continue the approach.

Initial Approach Segment

The initial approach segment commences at the IAF and ends at the IF. In the initial
approach, the aircraft has departed the en-route structure and is manoeuvring to enter the
intermediate approach segment. Aircraft speed and configuration will depend on the distance
from the aerodrome, and descent required. The initial approach segment provides at least
300 m (984 ft) of obstacle clearance in the primary area.

Track guidance is provided along the initial approach segment to the IF, with a maximum
angle of interception of 90º for a precision approach and 120º for a non-precision approach.
Where no suitable lAF or IF is available a racetrack or holding pattern is required.

Intermediate Approach Segment

This is the segment during which the aircraft speed and configuration is adjusted to prepare
the aircraft for final approach. The descent gradient is kept as shallow as possible. During the
intermediate approach the obstacle clearance requirement reduces from 300 m (984 ft) to 150
m (492 ft) in the primary area, reducing to zero at the outer edge of the secondary area.

Where a FAF is available, the intermediate approach segment begins when the aircraft is on
the inbound track of the procedure turn, base turn or final inbound leg of the racetrack
procedure.

ATPL Air Law 19-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Note: Where no FAF is specified, the inbound track is the final approach segment

Final Approach Segment

This is the segment in which alignment and descent for landing are made. Final approach
may be made to a runway for a straight in landing or to an aerodrome for a visual manoeuvre.

Final Approach - Non-Precision Approach With FAF

This segment begins at the FAF and ends at the MAPt. The FAF is sited on the final approach
track at a distance that permits selection of final approach configuration, and descent from
intermediate approach altitude/height to the MDA/H applicable either for a straight in
approach or for a visual circling. The optimum and maximum distances for locating the FAF
relative to the threshold are 9 km (5 nm) and 19 km (10 nm) respectively.

The FAF is crossed at, or above, the specified altitude/height and descent is then initiated.
The descent gradient is published, and where range information is available, descent profile
information is provided.

A step-down fix may be incorporated in some non-precision approach procedures, in which


case two OCA/H values will be published:

¾ A higher value applicable to the primary procedure, and


¾ A lower value applicable only if the step-down fix is positively identified during the
approach

Normally only one step-down fix is specified, but in the case of a VOR/DME procedure
several DME fixes may be depicted, each with its associated minimum crossing attitude.

Where a step-down procedure using a suitably located DME is published, the pilot shall not
commence descent until established on the specified track. Once established on track, the
pilot commences descent maintaining the aeroplane on or above the published DME
distance/height requirements.

ATPL Air Law 19-14 24 October 2003


STEPDOWN PROCEDURE
FIX TURN
RWY
C
L
MAXIMUM DISTANCE
VOR 11 KM (6 NM)
IF REDUCED OBSTACLE
CLEARANCE APPLIED

PROCEDURE
FINAL TURN

OCA/H IF STEPDOWN FIX STEPDOWN


NOT RECEIVED FIX
OCA/H
MAPt
MOC

VOR MAXIMUM DISTANCE REDUCED


11 KM (6NM) OBSTACLE
IF REDUCED OBSTACLE CLEARANCE
CLEARANCE APPLIED

Final Approach - Non-Precision Approach With No FAF

When an aerodrome is served by a single facility located on or near the aerodrome, and no
other facility is suitably situated to form a FAF, a procedure may be designed where the
facility is both the IAF and the MAPt.

These procedures will indicate a minimum altitude/height for a reversal procedure or


racetrack, and an OCA/H for final approach. In the absence of a FAF, descent to MDA/H is
made once the aircraft is established inbound on the final approach track.

In procedures of this type, the final approach track cannot normally be aligned on the runway
centre line. Whether OCA/H for straight in approach limits are published or not depends on
the angular difference between the track and the runway.

ATPL Air Law 19-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Final Approach Segment - Precision Approach – ILS

The final approach segment begins at the final approach point (FAP). This is a point in space
on the centre line of the localizer where the intermediate approach altitude/height intersects
the nominal glide path.

Normally, glide path interception occurs at heights from 300 m (984 ft) to 900 m (2955 ft)
above runway elevation. On a 3º glide path interception occurs between 6 km (3 nm) and 19
km (10 nm) from the threshold

The width of the ILS final approach area is much narrower than those of a non-precision
approach. Descent on the glide path must never be initiated until the aircraft is established on
the localizer. The ILS obstacle clearance surfaces assume that the pilot does not normally
deviate from the centre line more than half a scale deflection after being established on track.
Thereafter the aircraft should adhere to the on-course, on-glide path position since more than
half course sector deflection or more than half course fly up deflection combined with other
allowable system tolerances could place the aircraft in the vicinity of the edge or bottom of the
protected airspace where loss of protection from obstacles can occur.

The intermediate approach track or radar vector has been designed to place the aircraft on
the localizer at an altitude/height that is below the nominal glide path.

The final approach area contains a fix or facility that permits verification of the glide
path/altimeter relationship. The outer marker is normally used for this purpose. Prior to
crossing the fix, descent may be made on the glide path to the published fix crossing
altitude/height. Descent below the fix crossing altitude/height should not be made prior to
crossing the fix.

In the event of loss of glide path guidance during the approach, the procedure becomes a
non-precision approach. The OCA/H published for the glide path inoperative case will apply.

Determination of DA or DH – ILS

As well as the physical characteristics of the ILS installation, the procedures specialist’s
consideration is given to obstacles in the approach areas for the calculation of the OCA/H for
a procedure. The calculated OCA/H is the height of the highest approach obstacle or
equivalent missed approach obstacle, plus an aircraft category related allowance. In
assessing these obstacles the operational variables of the:

¾ Aircraft category
¾ Approach coupling
¾ Category of operation, and
¾ Missed approach climb performance

are considered.

ATPL Air Law 19-16 24 October 2003


The OCA or OCH values are listed on the instrument approach chart for those categories of
aircraft for which the procedure is designed. The values are based on the following standard
conditions:

¾ Cat I flown with pressure altimeter


¾ Cat II flown with radio altimeter and flight director
¾ Aircraft wing span is not more than 60 m and the vertical distance between the
flight paths of the wheels and glide path antenna is no more than 6 m
¾ Missed approach climb gradient is 2.5%

Additional values of OCA/H may be promulgated to cater for:

¾ Specific aircraft dimensions


¾ Improved missed approach performance
¾ Use of autopilot in a Cat II approach

Additional factors are considered by the operator to arrive at the DA/H value. These additional
factors applied to the OCA/H result in the DA/H value that is calculated by the pilot:

Since the OCA/H might be based on an obstacle in the missed approach area and since
advantage may be taken of the variable missed approach climb performances, operators
must consider:

¾ Weight
¾ Altitude
¾ Temperature limitations
¾ Wind velocity

when determining DA/H should a missed approach be necessary.

Unless otherwise noted on the instrument approach chart the nominal missed approach climb
gradient is 2.5%.

The allowance for vertical displacement during initiation of a missed approach takes into
account the type of altimeter used and the height loss due to aircraft characteristics. It should
be recognized that no allowance is included for any abnormal meteorological conditions eg
windshear or turbulence.

Determination of Landing Minima

The calculation of DA/DH, or MDA/MDH, is determined by firstly considering the obstacles


that help us calculate the OCA/OCH. The lowest safe height that an aircraft may descend to
may depend on the particular system of guidance, this is called system minima. The specified
minimum will vary according to the accuracy of the individual approach aid:

ATPL Air Law 19-17 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Precision Approach Aids (Category 1)

PAR 200 ft
ILS 200 ft
MLS 200 ft

Non-Precision Approach Aids

ILS (no Glidepath) 250 ft


VOR 300 ft
NDB/DME 300 ft

In addition to the above a Pressure Error Correction (PEC) for the aircraft in approach
configuration is applied. The PEC is found in the aircraft/operator’s manual. If no PEC is
specified then a PEC of + 50 ft should be used.

Determination of DA/DH or MDA/MDH

1. Determine the OCA/OCH for the aircraft category.


2. Determine the system minimum.
3. Take the higher of the two figures above.
4. If a precision approach add PEC, when calculating MDA/MDH for a non-precision
approach, PEC need not be considered.

Different minima have to be applied to engine out approaches.

Missed Approach

General

During the missed approach phase of the instrument approach procedure the pilot is faced
with the demanding task of changing the aircraft configuration, attitude and altitude. For this
reason the design of the missed approach is kept as simple as possible and consists of three
phases:

¾ Initial
¾ Intermediate
¾ Final

ATPL Air Law 19-18 24 October 2003


NOMINAL NOMINAL
DESCENT MAPt 2.5%
30 m (98 ft)
PATH
50 m (164 ft)
OCA/H

FINAL
FINAL APPROACH SEGMENT INTERMEDIATE MISSED APPROACH MISSED
APPROACH
INITIAL
MISSED
APPROACH

A missed approach procedure is designed to provide protection from obstacles throughout the
missed approach manoeuvre. Established for each instrument approach procedure, it
specifies a point where the missed approach begins and a point or an altitude/height where it
ends. The missed approach is assumed to be initiated not lower than DA/H in the precision
approach or at a specified point in non-precision approach procedures not lower than the
MDA/H.

The MAPt in a procedure may be:

¾ The point of intersection of an electronic glide path with the applicable DA/H, or
¾ A navigational facility, or
¾ A fix, or
¾ A specified distance from the FAF

When a navigational facility or a fix defines the MAPt, the distance from the FAF to the MAPt
is normally published, and may be used for timing to the MAPt. In all cases where timing is
not authorised the procedure is annotated “timing not authorized for defining the MAPt”

When reaching the MAPt, if the required visual reference is not established, then a missed
approach is initiated immediately to ensure obstacle clearance. Only one missed approach
procedure is published for each approach procedure.

Pilots are expected to fly the missed approach procedure as published. In the event that a
missed approach is initiated prior to arriving at the MAPt, the pilot will normally proceed to the
MAPt and then follow the missed approach procedure in order to remain within the protected
airspace.

Procedures are based on a nominal missed approach climb gradient of 2.5%.

¾ A gradient of 2% may be used in the procedure construction if the necessary


survey and safeguarding can be provided with the approval of the appropriate
authority

ATPL Air Law 19-19 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ Gradients of 3, 4 or 5% may be used for aircraft whose climb performance
permits an operational advantage to be thus obtained

If a gradient other than a 2.5% gradient is used this is indicated on the instrument approach
chart. In addition to the OCA/H for the specific gradient used the OCA/H applicable to the
nominal gradient will also be shown.

A missed approach procedure which is based on the nominal climb gradient of 2.5% cannot
be used by all aeroplanes when operating at or near maximum certificated gross mass and
engine out conditions. The operation of these aeroplanes needs special consideration at
aerodromes where there are critical obstacles on the missed approach area. These obstacles
may result in a special procedure being established with a possible increase in the DA/H or
MDA/H.

Initial Phase

The initial phase begins at the MAPt and ends at the point where the climb is established. The
pilot establishes the climb and changes in aircraft configuration. Guidance equipment is not
normally fully utilized during these manoeuvres and therefore no turns are specified in this
phase.

Intermediate Phase

The intermediate phase is the phase within which the climb is continued, normally straight
ahead. It extends to the first point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is obtained and can
be maintained. The intermediate missed approach track may be changed by a maximum of
15º from that of the initial missed approach phase. During this phase, it is assumed that the
aircraft will begin track corrections.

Final Phase

The final phase begins at the point where 50 m (164 ft) obstacle clearance is first obtained
and can be maintained. It extends to the point where:

¾ A new approach is initiated


¾ Holding occurs, or
¾ En-route flight is initiated

Turns may be prescribed during this phase.

ATPL Air Law 19-20 24 October 2003


Turning Missed Approach

Turns in a missed approach procedure are only prescribed where terrain and other factors
make a turn necessary. When turns greater than 15º are required in a missed approach
procedure, they are not allowed until at least 50 m (164 ft) of vertical clearance above
obstacles has been ensured. If a turn from the final approach track is made, a specially
constructed turning missed approach area is specified. The turning point is specified in one of
two ways:

At a designated facility or fix The turn is made upon arrival overhead the facility or
fix, or

At a designated altitude The turn is made upon reaching the designated


altitude unless an additional fix or distance is specified to limit early turns

The protected airspace for turns is based upon aeroplane speed. Where operationally
required to avoid obstacles, the lAS as slow as for the intermediate missed approach may be
used provided the approach chart is annotated.

eg “Missed approach turn limited to .... kt lAS maximum”

In addition, where an obstacle is located early in the missed approach procedure, the
instrument approach chart will be annotated

eg “Missed approach turn as soon as operationally practicable to heading”

The dimensions of the turning missed approach area will be affected by the following:

¾ Width of missed approach area at the turning point


¾ Aircraft speed
¾ Number of degrees of track change
¾ Wind velocity, and
¾ Time to establish average achieved bank angle

The turning missed approach area is based on the following assumed conditions:

Bank Angle 15º average achieved


Speed Different for each category
Wind Where statistical data are available, a maximum 95%
probability on omni-directional basis is used. Where
no data are available, omni-directional wind of 56
km/h (30 kt) is used
Pilot Reaction Time 0 to ± 3 seconds
Bank Establishment Time 0 to + 3 seconds

ATPL Air Law 19-21 ©Atlantic Flight Training


As with any turning manoeuvre, speed is a controlling factor in determining the aircraft track
during the turn. The outer boundary of the turning area is based on the highest speed of
category for which the procedure is authorized. The inner boundary caters for the slowest
aircraft, which is expected to have an lAS of at least 185 km/h (100 kt) prior to reaching the
turning point

Turning Points

All turning points are buffered by fix tolerance areas.

Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) in the Vicinity of the Aerodrome

Visual manoeuvring (circling) is the term used to describe the visual phase of flight after
completing an instrument approach, to bring an aircraft into position for landing on a runway
which is not suitably located for a straight in approach.

The Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area

The visual manoeuvring area for a circling approach is determined by drawing arcs centred
on each runway threshold and joining those arcs with tangent lines.

The radius of the arcs is related to:

¾ Aircraft category
¾ Speed for each category
¾ Wind speed, 46 km/h (25 kt) throughout the turn, and
¾ Bank angle, 20º average or 3º per second, whichever requires less bank

Visual Manoeuvring (Circling) Area Not Considered for Obstacle Clearance

It is permissible to eliminate from consideration a particular sector where a prominent


obstacle exists in the visual manoeuvring (circling) area outside the final approach and
missed approach area. The dimensions of the instrument approach surfaces bound this
sector, within the circling area. When this option is exercised, the published procedure
prohibits circling within the total sector in which the obstacle exists.

Obstacle Clearance

When the visual manoeuvring (circling) area has been established the OCA/H is determined
for each category of aircraft.

ATPL Air Law 19-22 24 October 2003


Minimum Descent Altitude/Height

When additional margin is added to the OCA/H for operational considerations a MDA/H is
specified. Descent below MDA/H should not be made until:

¾ Visual reference has been established and can be maintained


¾ The pilot has the landing threshold in sight, and
¾ The required obstacle clearance can be maintained and the aircraft is in a
position to carry out a landing

Visual Flight Manoeuvre

A circling approach is a visual flight manoeuvre. Each circling situation is different because of
variables such as:

¾ Runway layout
¾ Final approach track
¾ Wind velocity, and
¾ Meteorological conditions

There is no single procedure that caters for conducting a circling approach in every situation.
After initial visual contact, the basic assumption is that the runway environment:

¾ The runway threshold, or


¾ Approach lighting aids, or
¾ Other markings identifiable with the runway

should be kept in sight while at MDA/H for circling.

Missed Approach While Circling

If visual reference is lost while circling to land from an instrument approach, the missed
approach must be followed. It is expected that the pilot will make an initial climbing turn
toward the landing runway and overhead the aerodrome. Then, the pilot will establish the
aircraft climbing on the missed approach track. Because the circling manoeuvre may be
accomplished in more than one direction, different patterns will be required to establish the
aircraft on the prescribed missed approach course depending on its position at the time visual
reference is lost.

Area Navigation (RNAV) Approach Procedures Based On VOR/DME

RNAV approach procedures based on VOR/DME are assumed to be based on one reference
facility composed of a VOR and co-located DME.

ATPL Air Law 19-23 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Aircraft equipped with RNAV systems which have been approved by the State of the Operator
for an appropriate level of RNAV operations may use these systems to carry out VOR/DME
RNAV approaches may be carried out, providing that before conducting any flight it is
ensured that:

¾ The RNAV equipment is serviceable


¾ The pilot has a current knowledge of how to operate the equipment so as to
achieve the optimum level of navigation accuracy
¾ The published VOR/DME facility upon which the procedure is based is
serviceable

The accuracy and limitations of RNAV systems are those of a computer employed to convert
navigational data inputs into:

¾ Aircraft position

• To calculate track and distance, and


• To provide steering guidance to the next waypoint

A disadvantage of this system is that the waypoint and, in some cases, data contained in the
navigational database, have been calculated and promulgated by States and inserted by the
operator or crew. However, the computer cannot identify data input errors. Furthermore, while
the computer is designed so that the calculation errors are minimal and do not affect the
accuracy of the output significantly, the actual computed position will contain any errors
introduced into the navigational data base.

The aid used in the construction of the procedure is the reference VOR/DME indicated on the
approach plate. The passage of the stipulated fixes shall be verified by means of the
reference facility.

The pilot shall not commence a VOR/DME RNAV approach if either the VOR or DME
component of the reference facility is unserviceable.

The factors on which the navigational accuracy of the VOR/DME RNAV depends are:

¾ Ground station tolerance


¾ Airborne receiving system tolerance
¾ Flying technical tolerance
¾ System computation tolerance
¾ Distance from reference facility

ATPL Air Law 19-24 24 October 2003


Fixes used in the procedure are indicated as waypoints. These waypoints are referred to by
alpha-numeric indicators and their positions are specified in latitude and longitude (degrees,
minutes and seconds with an accuracy to the nearest second of arc or equivalent) A radial
and DME distance (to an accuracy of 0.18 km (0.1 nm)) from the reference facility are also
provided:

¾ The final approach segment is generally aligned with the runway.


¾ When the procedure requires a track reversal, a racetrack pattern may be
established.
¾ A runway threshold waypoint is provided.
¾ The VOR/DME RNAV approach procedure is a non-precision approach.
¾ The minimum obstacle clearance in the primary area of the final approach
segment is 75 m (246 ft).

Use of FMS/RNAV Equipment to Follow Conventional Non-Precision Approach


Procedures

When FMS/RNAV equipment is available, it may be used when flying a conventional non-
precision approach procedure defined by the PANS-OPS, provided:

¾ The procedure is monitored using the basic display normally associated with the
procedure, and
¾ The tolerances for flight using raw data on the basic display are complied with

Lead radials are for use by non-RNAV equipped aircraft and are not intended to restrict the
use of turn anticipation by the FMS.

Simultaneous Operations on Parallel or Near Parallel Instrument Runways

Introduction

Simultaneous operations on parallel or near parallel instrument runways in IMC are essential
in order to increase capacity at busy aerodromes. An aerodrome already having dual parallel
precision approach (ILS and/or MLS) runways can increase capacity if these runways are
safely operated simultaneously and independently under IMC. However various factors, such
as:

¾ Surface movement guidance and control


¾ Environmental considerations
¾ Land side/air side infrastructure

may negate the advantages to be gained from simultaneous operations.

There can be a variety of modes of operation associated with the use of parallel or near
parallel instrument runways.

ATPL Air Law 19-25 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Simultaneous Parallel Instrument Approaches

Two basic modes of operation are possible:

Mode 1, Independent Parallel Approaches Approaches which are made to


parallel runways where radar separation minima between aircraft using adjacent ILS
and/or MLS are not prescribed, and

Mode 2, Independent Parallel Approaches Approaches which are made to


parallel runways where radar separation minima between aircraft using adjacent ILS
and/or MLS are prescribed

Simultaneous Instrument Departures

Mode 3, Independent Parallel Departures Simultaneous departures for aircraft


departing in the same direction from parallel runways

Note: When the minimum distance between two parallel runway centre lines is
lower than the specified value dictated by wake turbulence considerations, the
parallel runways are considered as a single runway in regard to separation between
departing aircraft. A simultaneous dependent parallel departure mode of operation is
therefore not used.

Segregated Parallel Approaches/Departures

Mode 4, Segregated Parallel Operations One runway is used for approaches;


one runway is used for departures.

Semi-Mixed and Mixed Operations

In the case of parallel approaches and departures there may be semi-mixed operations:

Scenario 1
One runway is used exclusively for departures, while
The other runway accepts a mixture of approaches and departures, or

Scenario 2
One runway is used exclusively for approaches, while
The other runway accepts a mixture of approaches and departures
There may also be mixed operations

ATPL Air Law 19-26 24 October 2003


Scenario 3
Simultaneous parallel approaches, with
Departures interspersed on both runways.

Semi-mixed or mixed operations may be related to the four basic modes as follows:

Semi-mixed operations Mode

One runway is used exclusively for


approaches while:
Approaches are being made to the other 1 or 2
runway, or
Departures are in progress on the other 4
runway

One runway is used exclusively for


departures while:
Approaches are being made to the other
runway, or 4
Departures are in progress on the other
runway 3

Mixed operations Mode


All modes of operation are possible 1, 2, 3 or 4

Normal Operating Zone (NOZ)

Airspace of defined dimensions extending to either side of an ILS localizer course and/or MLS
final approach track centre line. Only the inner half of the NOZ is taken into account in
independent parallel approaches

No-Transgression Zone (NTZ)

In the context of independent parallel approaches, a corridor of air space of defined


dimensions located centrally between the two extended runway centre lines, where a
penetration by an aircraft requires a controller intervention to manoeuvre any threatened
aircraft on the adjacent approach

ATPL Air Law 19-27 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Equipment Requirements

Normal IFR avionics including full ILS or MLS capability are required for conducting parallel
approaches

Vectoring to the ILS Localizer Course or MLS Final Approach Track

When simultaneous independent parallel approaches are in progress, the following apply:

¾ All approaches regardless of weather conditions are radar monitored. Control


instructions and information necessary to ensure separation between aircraft and
to ensure aircraft do not enter the NTZ are issued. The ATC procedure will be to
vector arriving aircraft to one or the other of the parallel ILS localizer courses
and/or the MLS final approach tracks. When cleared for an ILS or MLS approach,
a procedure turn is not permitted
¾ When vectoring to intercept the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track,
the final vector is such as to enable the aircraft to intercept the ILS localizer
course or MLS final approach track at an angle not greater than 30º and to
provide at least 2 km (1 nm) straight and level flight prior to ILS localizer course
or MLS final approach track intercept. This vector enables the aircraft to be
established on the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track in level flight
for at least 3.7 km (2.0 nm) prior to intercepting the ILS glide path or specified
MLS elevation angle
¾ Each pair of parallel approaches will have a “high side” and a “low side’ for
vectoring, to provide vertical separation until aircraft are established inbound on

ATPL Air Law 19-28 24 October 2003


their respective parallel ILS localizer course and/or MLS final approach track. The
low side altitude will normally be such that the aircraft will be established on the
ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track well before ILS glidepath or
specified MLS elevation angle interception. The high side altitude will be 300 m
(1000 ft) above the low side
¾ When assigning the final heading to intercept the ILS localizer course or MLS
final approach track, the aircraft shall be advised of:

• Its position relative to a fix on the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach
track
• The altitude to be maintained until established on the ILS localizer course or
MLS final approach track to the ILS glide path or specified MLS elevation
angle intercept point, and
• If required, clearance for the appropriate ILS or MLS approach

¾ The main objective is that both aircraft be established on the ILS localizer course
or MLS final approach track before the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is
reduced
¾ If an aircraft is observed to overshoot the ILS localizer course or MLS final
approach track during turn to final, the aircraft will be instructed to return
immediately to the correct track. Pilots are not required to acknowledge these
transmissions or subsequent instructions while on final approach unless
requested to do so
¾ Once the 300 m (1000 ft) vertical separation is reduced, the radar controller
monitoring the approach will issue control instructions if the aircraft deviates
substantially from the ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track. If the
aircraft fails to take corrective action and penetrates the NTZ, the aircraft on the
adjacent ILS localizer course or MLS final approach track will be issued
appropriate control instructions

Track Divergence

Simultaneous parallel operations require diverging tracks for missed approach procedures
and departures. When turns are prescribed to establish divergence, pilots shall commence
the turns as soon as practicable.

ATPL Air Law 19-29 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 19-30 24 October 2003


Chapter 20.

Holding Procedures

Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

In-flight Procedures

Note: Deviations from the in-flight procedures incur the risk of excursions beyond
the perimeters of holding areas established in accordance with the procedures
detailed below

Note: The procedures described in this chapter are related to right turn holding
patterns, for left turn holding patterns the corresponding entry and holding procedures
are symmetrical with respect to the inbound holding track

Shape and Terminology Associated With Holding Pattern

The shape and terminology associated with the holding pattern are shown below.

ATPL Air Law 20-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Speeds, Rates of Turn, Timing, Distance and Limiting Radial

Holding patterns are entered and flown at or below the following indicated airspeeds given in
the table below:

Holding Speeds

Levels1 Normal Conditions Turbulence Conditions

Up to 4250 m (14 000 ft) 425 km/h (230 kt)2 520 km/h (280 kt)3
inclusive 315 km/h (170 kt)4 315 km/h (170 kt)4

Above 4250 m (14 000 ft) to 445 km/h (240 kt)5 520 km/h (280 kt)
6100m (20 000 ft) inclusive
or 0.8 M whichever is less3

Above 6100 m (20 000 ft) to


10 350 m (34 000 ft) inclusive 490 km/h (265 kt)5 520 km/h (280 kt)
or 0.8 M whichever is less3
Above 10350m (34000ft)
0.83 M 0.83 M

1. The levels tabulated represent altitudes or corresponding flight levels depending upon
the altimeter setting in use
2. When the holding procedure is followed by the initial segment of an instrument
approach procedure promulgated at a speed higher than 425 km/h, (230 kt), the holding
should also be promulgated at this higher speed wherever possible
3. The speed of 520 km/h, (280 kt) (0.8M) reserved for turbulence conditions shall be
used for holding only after prior clearance with ATC, unless the relevant publications indicate
that the holding area can accommodate aircraft flight at these high holding speeds
4. For holdings limited to CAT A and B aircraft only
5. Wherever possible, 520 Km/h (280 kt) should be used for holding procedures
associated with airway route structures

All turns are to be made at a bank angle of 25º or at a rate of 3º (rate 1) per second, which
ever is the lesser.

All procedures depict tracks and pilots should attempt to maintain the track by making
allowance for known wind by applying corrections both to heading and timing during entry and
while flying in the holding pattern.

Outbound timing begins over or abeam the fix whichever occurs later. If the abeam position
cannot be determined, the timing is started when the turn into the outbound leg is completed.

ATPL Air Law 20-2 24 October 2003


If the outbound leg length is based upon a DME distance the outbound leg terminates as
soon as the limiting DME distance is attained.

In the case of holding away from the station where the distance from the holding fix to the
VOR/DME station is short a limiting radial may be specified. If the limiting radial is
encountered first, this radial should be followed until a turn inbound is initiated or at latest
where the limiting DME distance is reached.

If for any reason a pilot is unable to conform to the procedures for normal conditions laid
down for any particular holding pattern, ATC should be advised as early as possible.

Aircraft equipped with RNAV systems which have been approved by the State of the Operator
for the appropriate level of RNAV operations may use these systems to carry out VOR/DME
RNAV holding, provided that before conducting any flight:

¾ The aircraft is fitted with serviceable RNAV equipment


¾ The pilot has current knowledge of how to operate the equipment so as to
achieve the optimum level of navigational accuracy, and
¾ The published VOR/DME facility upon which the procedure is based is
serviceable

Conventional holding patterns may be flown with the assistance of a RNAV system. In this
case the RNAV system has no other function than to provide guidance for the autopilot or
flight director. The pilot remains responsible for ensuring that the aircraft complies with the
speed, bank angle, timing and distance assumptions.

Some RNAV systems can fly non-RNAV holding patterns without strict compliance with the
PANS-OPS, Volume H assumptions. Before these systems are used operationally, they must
have demonstrated to the satisfaction of the appropriate authority, that their commands will
contain the aircraft within the basic holding area defined by PANS-OPS. The pilot shall verify
overflight of the stipulated fixes by means of the reference facility.

RNAV holding may be conducted in a specifically designed holding pattern. These patterns
utilize the criteria and flight procedures assumptions of conventional holding with orientations
that may be referenced either by an overhead position or by radial and distance from a
VOR/DME facility. These holding patterns assume:

¾ That automatic radio navigation updating is utilized so that all authorized aircraft
during the entry manoeuvre achieve the navigation tolerance assumed by the
procedure designer and while in the holding pattern.
¾ That the pilot is provided with tracking information in a suitable form such as HSI
and/or EFIS presentation or cross track data, and
¾ That the pilot confirms the holding way-points by cross-reference to the published
VOR/DME fixes

RNAV holding procedures may be constructed using one or two waypoints. Area holding may
also be provided. Area holding is specified by an area holding waypoint and an associated
radius. The value of this radius is always such that the pilot may select any inbound track to

ATPL Air Law 20-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


the fix and join and follow a standard left or right holding pattern based on the fix and selected
track. Alternatively any other pattern may be flown which will remain within the specified area.

The waypoints for VOR/DME RNAV holding are defined by radio navigation fixes that
determine the maximum accuracy required to fly the procedure.

Track Reversal

Track reversals are a procedural method of turning from the outbound to the inbound. The
reversals are either carried out by:

¾ A procedure turn, or
¾ A base turn

1. Procedure Turns

Procedure turns start at a facility. Two turns are recognised:

45°/180° Initially a straight leg using track guidance is flown. This can be
timed or DME limited. The aircraft then makes a 45° turn. A
straight leg with no track guidance is then flown. This leg is timed
as below:

Category A and B Aircraft 1 minutes

ATPL Air Law 20-4 24 October 2003


Category C, D and E Aircraft 75 seconds

A 180° turn is then made in the opposite direction to intercept the


inbound track at a converging angle.

80°/260° Initially a straight leg using track guidance as for the 45°/180°
procedure is flown. The aircraft then makes an 80° turn. A 260°
turn in the opposite direction is then made to align the aircraft on
the inbound track.

2. Base Turn

A specific outbound track is used with track guidance given:

¾ Electronically
¾ By using timing, or
¾ Using DME range.

This is then followed by a turn to intercept the inbound track.

Entry

The entry into the holding pattern is according to heading in relation to the three entry sectors
shown below recognizing a zone of flexibility of 5º either side of the sector boundaries.

70°
3
1

30°

2
3

70°

ATPL Air Law 20-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


For holding on a VOR intersection, the entry track is limited to the radials forming the
intersection. For holding on a VOR/DME fix, the entry track is limited to either the VOR radial,
DME arc, or alternatively along the entry radial to a VOR/DME fix at the end of the outbound
leg as published.

Sector 1 Procedure (Parallel Entry)

¾ Having reached the fix, the aircraft is turned left onto an outbound heading,
reciprocal to the inbound track for the appropriate period of time
¾ The aircraft is then turned left onto the holding side to intercept the inbound track
or to return to the fix.
¾ On second arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft is turned right to follow the
holding pattern

Sector 2 Procedure (Offset Entry)

¾ Having reached the fix, the aircraft is turned onto a heading to make good a track
making an angle of 30° from the reciprocal of the inbound track on the holding
side
¾ The aircraft will fly outbound
¾ For the appropriate period of time, where timing is specified, or
¾ Until the appropriate limiting DME distance is attained, where distance is
specified, or
¾ Where a limiting radial is also specified, either until the limiting DME distance is
attained or until the limiting radial is encountered, whichever occurs first
¾ The aircraft is turned right to intercept the inbound holding track, then

ATPL Air Law 20-6 24 October 2003


¾ On second arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft is turned right to follow the
holding pattern

Sector 3 Procedures (Direct Entry)

Having reached the fix, the aircraft is turned right to follow the holding pattern

DME Arc Entry

Having reached the fix the aircraft enters the holding pattern in accordance with either Sector
1, or Sector 3, entry procedures.

Construction of Entry Areas

Arrival to a VOR/DME holding pattern may be:

¾ Along the axis of the inbound track


¾ Along a published track
¾ By radar vectoring, when aircraft must be established on prescribed protected
flight paths

The entry point may be either:

¾ The holding fix, or


¾ The fix at the end of the outbound leg

In the first case, arrival at the entry point is generally effected using:

¾ The VOR radial for the inbound leg


¾ The DME arc defining the holding fix

In the second case, arrival at the entry point is generally effected using:

¾ The VOR radial passing through the fix at the end of the outbound leg

It is also possible to make use of guidance from another radio facility eg NDB, in which case,
protection of the entry should be the subject of a special study based on general criteria

The radius of a DME arc used as guidance for arrival at a VOR/DME holding should not be
less than 18.5 km (10 nm)

ATPL Air Law 20-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Method of Arrival at a VOR/DME Holding and the Corresponding Entry Procedures

Where the entry point is a holding fix:

Arrival on the VOR radial for the inbound leg, on the same heading as the
inbound track (See A) The arrival path (or last segment) is aligned with the inbound
track and follows the same heading. The entry consists of the holding pattern A.

Arrival on the VOR radial for the inbound leg, on a heading reciprocal to the
inbound track (See B) On arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft turns onto the
holding side on a track making an angle of 30° with the reciprocal of the inbound
track, until reaching the DME outbound limiting distance, at which point it turns to
intercept the inbound track. In the case of a VOR/DME holding entry away from the
facility with a limiting radial, if the aircraft encounters the radial ahead of the DME
distance, it must turn and follow it until reaching the DME outbound limiting distance,
at which point it turns to join the inbound track.

Arrival on the DME arc defining the holding fix, from the non-holding side (See
C) On arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft turns and follows a track parallel to
and on the same heading as the outbound track, until reaching the DME outbound
limiting distance, at which point it turns to intercept the inbound track.

Arrival on the DME arc defining the holding fix, from the holding side (See D)An
arrival track leading to this type of entry should not be specified if possible,
particularly in the case of a VOR/DME holding procedure away from the facility. If an
appropriate DME distance is chosen, this type of arrival can actually be replaced by
one on a DME arc terminating in the extension of the inbound track.

However, space problems may preclude this solution. Criteria are therefore provided for an
arrival on the DME arc defining the holding fix, coming from the holding side:

(See E) On arrival over the holding fix, the aircraft turns and follows a track parallel
and reciprocal to the inbound track, until reaching the DME limiting outbound
distance, at which point it turns to intercept the inbound track.

(See F and G) Where the entry point is the fix at the end of the outbound leg, arrival
(or last segment) is effected along the VOR radial passing through the outbound fix.
On arrival over the fix at the end of the outbound leg, the aircraft turns and follows the
holding pattern.

ATPL Air Law 20-8 24 October 2003


Time/Distance Outbound

The still air time for outbound entry heading should not exceed:

¾ 1 minute if at or below 4250 m (14 000 ft), or


¾ 1½ minutes if above 4250 m (14 000 ft)
¾ Where DME is available, the length of the outbound leg may be specified in terms
of distance instead of time

ATPL Air Law 20-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


RNAV Holding Entries

Except where it is published that specific entries are required, entries into a one way-point
RNAV holding are the same as for conventional holding.

Note: Future RNAV systems able to enter into a one way-point RNAV holding
without overflying the holding point may use specific holding patterns based on this
assumption. They may also use conventional or RNAV holding described above

Sectors for entry into an RNAV two way-point holding procedure are separated by the line
which passes through the two way points. Entries from either sector shall be made through
the associated waypoint. After passing the waypoint, the aircraft shall turn to follow the
procedure.

For area holding, any entry procedure that is contained within the given area is permissible.

Holding

Still Air Condition

Having entered the holding pattern, on the second and subsequent arrivals over the fix the
aircraft is turned to fly an outbound track which will most appropriately position the aircraft for
the turn onto the inbound track.

Continue outbound:

¾ For 1 minute if at or below 4250 m (14 000 ft), or


¾ 1½ minutes if above 4250 m (14 000 ft), where timing is specified, or
¾ Until the appropriate limiting DME distance is attained, where the distance is
specified, then
¾ Turn so to realign the aircraft on the inbound track.

Corrections for Wind Effect

Allowance should be made in both heading and timing to compensate for the effects of wind
to ensure the inbound track is regained before passing the holding fix inbound. In making
these corrections full use should be made of the indications available from the aid and
estimated or known wind. The limiting DME distance always terminates the outbound leg.
Where a limiting radial is also published and this radial is encountered first, this radial shall be
followed until a turn inbound is initiated, at latest where the limiting DME distance is attained.

ATPL Air Law 20-10 24 October 2003


Departing the Pattern

When clearance is received specifying the time of departure from the holding point, the pilot
should adjust the pattern within the limits of the established holding procedure in order to
leave the holding point at the time specified.

When RNAV equipment is used for non-RNAV holding procedures, the pilot shall verify
positional accuracy at the holding fix on each passage of the fix.

To ensure that aircraft remain in the protected holding areas, pilots use established error
check procedures to reduce operating errors, data errors or equipment malfunction.

Pilots ensure that speeds used to fly the RNAV holding procedures comply with those in the
table shown earlier.

Obstacle Clearance

Holding Area

The holding area includes:

The Basic Holding Area The basic holding area at any particular level is the
airspace required at that level to encompass a holding pattern based on the
allowances for aircraft speed, wind effect, timing errors, holding fix characteristics etc

The Entry Area The entry area includes the airspace required to
accommodate the specified entry procedures

Buffer Area

The Buffer Area is the area extending 9.3 km (5 nm) beyond the boundary of the holding area
where the height and nature of obstacles are taken into consideration when determining the
minimum holding level usable in the holding pattern associated with the holding area.

Minimum Holding Level

The minimum permissible holding level provides a clearance of at least:

¾ 300 m (984 ft) above obstacles in the holding area


¾ A value above obstacles in the buffer area

ATPL Air Law 20-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


The minimum holding altitude to be published shall be rounded up to the nearest 50 m or 100
ft as appropriate.

Over high terrain or in mountainous areas obstacle clearance up to a total of 600 m (1969 ft)
is provided to negate the possible effects of turbulence, down draughts and other
meteorological phenomena on the performance of altimeters.

ATPL Air Law 20-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 21.

Area Control Service

Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Aircraft Operations (Doc 8168-
OPS/611, Volume 1), Volume I - Flight Procedures

Position Reporting

Transmission of Position Reports

On routes defined by a designated point, a position report is made when over, or as soon as
possible after passing, a compulsory reporting point. Additional reports over any other points
may be requested by the appropriate ATS unit or requested for ATS purposes.

On routes not defined by designated significant points, position reports are made as soon as
possible after the first 30 minutes of flight and at 60 minute intervals thereafter. Additional
reports at shorter intervals of time can be requested by the appropriate ATS. Flights may be
exempted from the requirement to make position reports at a designated compulsory
reporting point or interval. Any position reports required are made to the ATS unit serving the
airspace in which the aircraft is operating.

Contents of Position Reports

The position report contains the following elements:

¾ Aircraft identification
¾ Position
¾ Time
¾ Flight level or altitude
¾ Next position and time over
¾ Ensuing significant point

The last three elements may be omitted when regional air navigation agreements are in force.

Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS)

Position reports are made automatically to the ATSU serving the airspace in which the aircraft
is operating. The requirements for the transmission and contents of ADS reports are
established by the controlling ATC unit on the basis of current operational conditions, and
communicated to the aircraft and acknowledged through an ADS agreement.

ATPL Air Law 21-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Air Traffic Incident Report (ATIR)

An ATIR should be submitted for incidents specifically related to the provision of ATS
involving such occurrences as aircraft proximity (AIRPROX) or other serious difficulty
resulting in a hazard to aircraft. Procedures are established for the reporting of AIRPROX
incidents and their investigation to promote the safety of aircraft. The degree of risk involved
in an AIRPROX should be determined in the incident investigation and classified as:

¾ Risk of collision
¾ Safety not assured
¾ No risk of collision
¾ Risk not determined

When an accident/incident investigative authority conducts an investigation of an AIRPROX


incident, ATS aspects should be included.

Provision in Regard to Aircraft Equipped With Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems


(ACAS)

The procedures to be applied for the provision of ATS to aircraft equipped with ACAS are
identical to those applicable to non-ACAS equipped aircraft. In particular:

¾ The prevention of collisions


¾ The establishment of appropriate separation and the information which might be
provided in relation to conflicting traffic, and
¾ That possible avoiding action shall conform with the normal ATS procedures and
shall exclude consideration of aircraft capabilities dependent on ACAS
equipment.

When a pilot reports a manoeuvre because of an ACAS resolution advisory, the controller will
not attempt to modify the aircraft flight path until the pilot reports that the aircraft is returning to
the current ATC instruction or clearance. Traffic information is provided during the
manoeuvre.

General Provisions for Separation

Vertical or horizontal separation is provided between:

¾ All flights in Class A and B airspace


¾ IFR flights in Class C, D and E airspace
¾ IFR flights and VFR flights in Class C airspace
¾ IFR flights and SVFR flights
¾ SVFR flights, when so prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority

ATPL Air Law 21-2 24 October 2003


For the first 3 cases above, during the hours of daylight, flights can be cleared to climb or
descend subject to maintaining their own separation and remaining in VMC. No clearance is
given that would reduce the spacing between two aircraft to less than the separation minimum
applicable in the circumstances.

Greater separations than the specified minima are applied whenever wake turbulence or
other exceptional circumstances such as unlawful interference call for extra provisions.

Where the separation or minimum used to separate two aircraft cannot be maintained, action
is taken to ensure that another minimum exists or is established prior to the time when the
previously used separation would be insufficient.

Vertical Separation

Vertical Separation Application

Vertical separation is obtained by requiring aircraft to use prescribed altimeter setting


procedures to operate at different levels expressed in terms of flight levels or altitudes.

Vertical Separation Minimum

The vertical separation minimum shall be:

¾ Within designated airspace, subject to regional air navigation agreement, a


nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL 410 or a higher level where so prescribed for
use under special conditions, and a nominal 600 m (2000 ft) at or above this
level, and
¾ Within other airspace, a nominal 300 m (1000 ft) below FL 290 and a nominal
600 m (2000 ft) at or above this level.

Minimum Cruising Level

Except where authorized by the appropriate authority, cruising levels below a minimum flight
altitude established by a State shall not be assigned. Area control centres shall determine the
lowest usable flight level or levels for the whole or parts of the CTA for which they are
responsible

Assignment of Cruising Levels

Except when traffic conditions and co-ordination procedures permit authorization of cruise
climb, an area control centre normally authorizes only one cruising level for an aircraft beyond
its CTA. Normally the cruising level at which the aircraft will enter the next CTA. Aircraft are
advised to request changes en-route to any subsequent cruising level desired.

If it is necessary to adjust the cruising level of an aircraft operating along an established ATS
route extending partly within and partly outside CAS and where cruising levels are not

ATPL Air Law 21-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


identical, adjustment shall, whenever possible, be effected within CAS and over a radio
navigation aid.

When an aircraft has been cleared into a CTA at a cruising level which is below the
established minimum cruising level for a subsequent portion of a route, action is initiated by
the area control centre to ensure a revised clearance to the aircraft is given even though the
pilot has not requested the change.

Where necessary, an aircraft may be cleared to change cruising level at a specified time,
place or rate.

Cruising levels of aircraft flying to the same destination are assigned so that they are correct
for the approach sequence at the destination.

An aircraft at a cruising level normally has priority over other aircraft that request that cruising
level. When two or more aircraft are at the same cruising level, the lead aircraft shall normally
have priority.

An aircraft may be assigned a level previously occupied by another aircraft once the latter has
reported that it is vacating. However, if severe turbulence is known to exist the clearance is
delayed until the aircraft vacating the level has reported at another level separated by the
required minimum.

The cruising levels, or, in the case of a cruise climb, the range of levels, assigned to a
controlled flight is selected from those allocated to IFR flights. Except where published by the
appropriate authority.

Vertical Separation During Ascent or Descent

Pilots in direct communication with each other may be cleared to maintain a specified vertical
separation between their aircraft during ascent or descent.

Lateral Separation

Application

Lateral separation is applied so that the distance between aircraft that are to be laterally
separated is never less than an established distance taking into account navigational
inaccuracies plus a specified buffer. This buffer is determined by the appropriate authority and
is included in the lateral separation minima.

Lateral separation of aircraft at the same level is obtained by:

¾ Requiring operation on different routes, or


¾ In different geographical locations as determined by visual observation, or
¾ By use of navigation aids or by use of area navigation equipment.

ATPL Air Law 21-4 24 October 2003


Lateral Separation Criteria and Minima

The means by which lateral separation may be achieved include the following

Geographical Separation

The aircraft reports over different a geographical location determined visually or by reference
to a navigation aid.

Track Separation Between Aircraft Using the Same Navigation Aid or Method

Aircraft fly on specified tracks which are separated by a minimum amount appropriate to the
navigation aid or method employed:

VOR

At least 15° and at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility

28 km (15 NM)

VOR
15°

28 km (15 NM)

ATPL Air Law 21-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


NDB

At least 30° and at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the facility.

28 km(15 NM)
NDB
30°

28 km(15 NM)

Dead Reckoning (DR)

Tracks diverging by at least 45° and at a distance of 28 km (15 nm) or more from the point of
intersection of the tracks, this point being determined either visually or by reference to a
navigation aid.

28 km (15 NM)
FIX
45°
28
km
(1
5
NM
)

When aircraft are operating on tracks which are separated by considerably more than these
minima, States may reduce the distance at which the lateral separation is achieved.

ATPL Air Law 21-6 24 October 2003


Track Separation Between Aircraft Transitioning Into Airspace Over the High Seas

Aircraft fly on specific tracks which are separated by at least 15° and at a distance of 28 km
(15 nm) or more from the same VOR providing that:

¾ The aircraft tracks continue to diverge by at least 15° until the appropriate lateral
separation minimum is established in airspace over the high seas, and
¾ It is possible to ensure, by means approved by the appropriate ATS authority,
that the aircraft have the navigation capability necessary to ensure accurate track
guidance

Track Separation Between Aircraft Using Different Navigation Aids or Methods

Track separation between aircraft using different navigation aids and RNAV equipment may
be achieved by requiring aircraft to fly on a specified track which is determined by taking into
account the navigational accuracy of the navigation aid and RNAV equipment:

¾ Used by each aircraft


¾ Where the protection areas established for each track do not overlap

The navigational accuracy for the various navigation aids and RNAV equipment are
established by the appropriate ATS authority.

Longitudinal Separation

Longitudinal separation is applied so that the spacing between the estimated positions of the
aircraft being separated is never less than the prescribed minimum. Longitudinal separation
between aircraft following the same or diverging tracks may be maintained by the application
of the Mach No technique.

Longitudinal separation shall be established by requiring aircraft:

¾ To depart at a specified time


¾ To lose time
¾ To arrive over a geographical location at a specified time, or
¾ To hold over a geographic location until a specified time

ATPL Air Law 21-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Time

Aircraft at the Same Cruising Level

Aircraft Flying on the Same Track

15 minutes

15 MIN

10 minutes, if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed

NAVIGATIONAL NAVIGATIONAL
AID AID

10 MIN

5 minutes in the following cases, providing that in each case the lead aircraft is
maintaining a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following

¾ Between aircraft that have departed from the same aerodrome


¾ Between en-route aircraft that have reported over the same exact
reporting point
¾ Between departing aircraft and en-route aircraft after the en-route
aircraft has reported over a fix that is so located in relation to the
departure point as to ensure that 5 minute separation can be established
at the point the departing aircraft will join the air route

AERODROME
OR 37 KM/H (20 KT)
REPORTING POINT OR MORE FASTER

5 MIN

ATPL Air Law 21-8 24 October 2003


3 minutes in the cases listed below provided that in each case the lead aircraft is
maintaining a TAS of 74 km/h (40 kt) or more faster than the aircraft following.

AERODROME
OR 74 KM/H (40
REPORTING POINT OR
KT)MORE
FASTER

3 MIN

Aircraft Flying on Crossing Tracks

15 minutes

15 MIN

10 minutes if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed

NAVIGATIONAL
AID

NAVIGATIONAL
AID

10 MIN

NAVIGATIONAL
AIDS

ATPL Air Law 21-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Aircraft Climbing or Descending

Traffic on the Same Track

When an aircraft will pass through the level of another aircraft on the same track, the following
minimum longitudinal separation shall be provided:

15 minutes at the time the level is crossed

15 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
15 MIN

FL 240
15 MIN

or when descending,
1 5 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
1 5 M IN

FL 240
1 5 M IN

10 minutes at the time the level is crossed, provided that separation is authorized
only where navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed

10 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
10 M IN

FL 240
10 M IN

NAV IG AT ION AID

ATPL Air Law 21-10 24 October 2003


or when descending,

10 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
10 MIN

FL 240
10 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

5 minutes at the time the level is crossed, provided that the level change is
commenced within 10 minutes of the time the second aircraft has reported over an
exact reporting point
5 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
5 M IN

1 0 M IN
F L 2 40
5 M IN

N A V IG A T IO N A ID

or when descending,

5 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
5 MIN
10 MIN

FL 240
5 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

ATPL Air Law 21-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Traffic on Crossing Tracks

15 minutes at the time the levels are crossed

15 M IN
FL 260

FL 250
15 M IN

FL 240
15 M IN

or when descending,
15 M IN

FL 260

FL 250
15 M IN

FL 240
15 M IN

10 minutes, if navigation aids permit frequent determination of position and speed

10 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
10 MIN

FL 240
10 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

ATPL Air Law 21-12 24 October 2003


or when descending,
10 MIN
FL 260

FL 250
10 MIN

FL 240
10 MIN

NAVIGATION AID

Traffic on Reciprocal Tracks

Where lateral separation is not provided, vertical separation is provided for at least 10
minutes prior to and after the time the aircraft are estimated to pass, or are estimated to have
passed. If it has been determined that the aircraft have passed each other, this minimum
need not apply.

ESTIMATEDTIME
OF PASSING

10 MIN

10 MIN

Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using DME

Separation shall be established by maintaining not less than the specified distance(s)
between aircraft positions as reported by reference to DME in conjunction with other
appropriate navigation aids. Direct controller-pilot communications shall be maintained while
such separation is used.

ATPL Air Law 21-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Aircraft at the Same Cruising Level

Aircraft on the Same Track

37 km (20 nm) provided:

¾ Each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and


¾ Separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from
the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be
infringed

DME

37 KM (20 NM)

19 km (10 nm) provided:

¾ The lead aircraft maintains a TAS of 37 km/h (20 kt) or more faster
than the aircraft following
¾ Each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations, and
¾ Separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from
the aircraft at intervals as necessary to ensure that the minimum
established and will not be infringed

37 KM/H (20 KT)


OR MORE FASTER
DME

19 KM
(10 NM)

ATPL Air Law 21-14 24 October 2003


Aircraft on Crossing Tracks

The separation for aircraft on the same track applies provided that each aircraft reports
distance from the station located at the crossing point of the tracks.

DME

KM M)
37 0 N
(2

or,

37 KM/H (20 KT)


OR MORE FASTER
DME

KM )
19 0 NM
(1

ATPL Air Law 21-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track

19 km (10 nm) at the time the level is crossed provided:

¾ Each aircraft utilizes "on-track" DME stations


¾ One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist, and
¾ Separation is established by obtaining simultaneous DME readings from the
aircraft

19 KM
1 0 NM
FL 260

FL 250
19 KM
1 0 NM

FL 240
1 9 KM
1 0 NM

or when descending,
19 KM
10 NM
FL 260

19 KM 19 KM
10 NM 10 NM
FL 250

FL 240

DME

Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks

Aircraft utilizing on-track DME may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels
occupied by other aircraft utilizing on-track DME provided that it is positively established that
the aircraft have passed each other and are at least 10 nm apart or any other value as
prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority.

ATPL Air Law 21-16 24 October 2003


Longitudinal Separation Minima Based on Distance Using RNAV

Separation is established by maintaining not less than the specified distance between aircraft
positions as reported by reference to RNAV equipment. Direct controller-pilot communication
should be maintained, while such separation is used. To assist pilots providing the required
RNAV distance information, position reports should be referenced to a common way-point
ahead of both aircraft.

RNAV distance based separation may be applied between RNAV equipped aircraft when
operating on designated RNAV routes or on ATS routes defined by VOR.

150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used on same direction
tracks in lieu of a 10 minute longitudinal separation minimum. When applying this separation
minimum between aircraft on same direction track, the Mach number technique (MNT) shall
be applied. Lead aircraft maintain a Mach number equal to or greater than that maintained by
the following aircraft.

Turbo-jet aircraft adhere to the Mach number approved by ATC and request ATC approval
before making any changes. If it is essential to make an immediate temporary change in the
Mach number eg due to turbulence, ATC have to be notified as soon as possible that a
change has been made.

If it is not feasible, due to aircraft performance to maintain the last assigned Mach number
during en-route climbs and descents, pilots of the aircraft concerned advise ATC at the time
of the climb or descent request.

RNAV distance based separation minima shall not be applied after ATC has received pilot
advice indicating navigation equipment deterioration or failure.

Aircraft at the Same Cruising Level

Aircraft on the Same Track

W AY -P O INT

1 50 k m
80 N M

A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used provided:

¾ Each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-track" way point, and
¾ Separation is checked by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings from
the aircraft at frequent intervals to ensure that the minimum will not be infringed.

ATPL Air Law 21-17 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Aircraft Climbing or Descending on the Same Track

A 150 km (80 nm) RNAV distance based separation minimum may be used at the time the
level is crossed, provided:

¾ Each aircraft reports its distance to or from the same "on-track" way point
¾ One aircraft maintains a level while vertical separation does not exist, and
¾ Separation is established by obtaining simultaneous RNAV distance readings
from the aircraft

150 KM WAY-POINT
80 NM
FL 260

FL 250
150 KM
80 NM

FL 240
150 KM
80 NM

or when descending,

150 K M
W A Y -P O INT
8 0 NM
F L 2 60

FL 25 0
1 50 KM
8 0 NM

F L 24 0
150 K M
8 0 NM

ATPL Air Law 21-18 24 October 2003


Aircraft on Reciprocal Tracks

Aircraft utilizing RNAV may be cleared to climb or descend to or through the levels occupied
by other aircraft utilizing RNAV provided that it has been positively established by
simultaneous RNAV distance readings to or from the same "on-track" way-point that the
aircraft have passed each other by at least 150 km (80 nm)

150 km
WAY -POINT W AY -POINT
80 NM

Reduction in Separation Minima

Separation minima detailed may be reduced in the following circumstances.

As determined by the appropriate ATS authority and after prior consultation with the aircraft
operators, as appropriate:

¾ When special electronic or other aids enable the PIC of an aircraft to determine
accurately the aircraft's position and when adequate communication facilities
exists for that position to be transmitted without delay to the appropriate ATCU, or
¾ When, in association with rapid and reliable communication facilities, radar
derived information of an aircraft's position is available to the appropriate ATCU,
or
¾ When special electronic or other aids enable the air traffic controller to predict
rapidly and accurately the flight paths of aircraft and adequate facilities exist to
verify frequently the actual aircraft positions with the predicted positions, or
¾ When RNAV equipped aircraft operate within the coverage of electronic aids that
provide the necessary updates to maintain navigation accuracy

ATPL Air Law 21-19 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Intentionally Left Blank

ATPL Air Law 21-20 24 October 2003


Chapter 22.

Aerodrome Aeronautical Data and Markings

Reference: Annex 14 - Aerodromes

Introduction

This Annex contains SARPs that detail:

¾ The physical characteristics and obstacle limitation surfaces to be provided for at


aerodromes, and
¾ Certain facilities and technical services normally provided at an aerodrome.

It is not intended that these specifications limit or regulate the operation of an aircraft.

Aerodrome Reference Code

An aerodrome reference code - code number and letter - which is selected for aerodrome
planning purposes shall be determined in accordance with the characteristics of the
aeroplane for which an aerodrome facility is intended.

¾ The code number for element 1 shall be determined by selecting the code
number corresponding to the highest value for the aeroplane reference field
lengths of the aeroplanes for which the runway is intended
¾ The code letter for element 2 shall be determined by selecting the code letter
which corresponds to the greatest wing span, or the greatest outer main gear
wheel span whichever gives the more demanding code letter of the aeroplanes
for which the facility is intended

Aerodrome Reference Code


Code Element 1 Code Element 2
Code Aeroplane Reference Field Code Wing Span Outer Main Gear
Number Length Letter Wheel Span
1 Less than 800 m A Up to but not including 15 m Up to but not including
4.5 m
2 800 m up to but not including B 15 m up to but not including 4.5 m up to but not
1200 m 24 m including 6 m
3 1200 m up to but not including C 24 m up to but not including 6 m up to but not
1800 m 36 m including 9 m
4 1800 m and over D 36 m up to but not including 9 m up to but not
52 m including 14 m
E 52 m up to but not including 9 m up to but not
65 m including 14 m
Distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels

ATPL Air Law 22-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


For convenience the code letters and numbers are not used in the text of these notes. The
data within the table is given instead. However, the table is examined in the JAR Air Law
examination.

Aeronautical Data

Geographical Co-ordinates

Geographical co-ordinates indicating latitude and longitude shall be determined and reported
in terms of the World Geodetic System - 1984 (WGS-84)

Aerodrome Reference Point

An aerodrome reference point is established for an aerodrome. The aerodrome reference


point shall be located near the initial or planned centre of the aerodrome. The position is
measured and reported to the aeronautical information services in degrees, minutes and
seconds.

Aerodrome and Runway Elevations

The aerodrome elevation is measured to the accuracy of ½ m or foot. For an aerodrome used
by international civil aviation:

¾ For non-precision approaches the accuracy shall be measured to ¼ m or foot


¾ For precision approach runways the accuracy is measured to ¼ m or foot

Aerodrome Reference Temperature

An aerodrome reference temperature shall be determined for an aerodrome in degrees


Celsius.

Note: The aerodrome reference temperature should be the monthly mean of the
daily maximum temperatures/or the hottest month of the year (the hottest month
being that which has the highest monthly mean temperature). This temperature
should be averaged over a period of years

Aerodrome Dimensions and Related Information

The following data shall be measured or described as appropriate, for each facility provided at
an aerodrome:

Runway True bearing to one-hundredth of a degree, designation number,


length, width, displaced threshold location to the nearest metre or foot, slope, surface
type, type of runway and, for a precision approach runway Category I, the existence
of an obstacle free zone when provided.

ATPL Air Law 22-2 24 October 2003


Strip, Runway End Safety Area, Stopway Length, width to the nearest foot or
metre, surface type.

Taxiway Designation, width, surface type.

Apron Surface type, aircraft stands

ATC The boundaries of the Air Traffic Control Service

Clearway Length to the nearest metre or foot, ground profile

Visual Aids and Lighting Visual aids for approach procedures, marking and
lighting of runways, taxiways and aprons, other visual guidance and control aids on
taxiways and aprons, including taxi-holding positions and stop bars, and location and
type of visual docking guidance systems.

Check Points The location and radio frequency of any VOR aerodrome check point.

Taxi Routes The location and designation of standard taxi routes

ILS/MLS Distances to the nearest metre or foot of localizer and glidepath


elements comprising an ILS or azimuth and elevation antenna of MLS in relation to
the associated runway extremities

The geographical co-ordinates of the following are measured and reported to the aeronautical
information services authority in degrees, minute, seconds and hundredths of seconds:

¾ Each threshold and aircraft stand


¾ Significant obstacles in the approach and take-off areas, in the circling area and
in the vicinity of an aerodrome

In addition, the top elevation rounded up to the nearest metre or foot, type, marking and
lighting (if any) of the significant obstacles is reported to the aeronautical information services
authority.

Note: This information may be best shown in the form of charts such as those
required for the preparation of aeronautical publications

ATPL Air Law 22-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Pre-Flight Altimeter Check Location

One or more pre-flight altimeter check locations shall be established for an aerodrome. A pre-
flight check location should be located on an apron

Note: Locating a pre-flight altimeter check location on an apron enables an


altimeter check to be made prior to obtaining taxi clearance and eliminates the need
for stopping for that purpose after leaving the apron

Note: Normally an entire apron can serve as a satisfactory altimeter check location

The elevation of a pre-flight altimeter check location is given as the average elevation,
rounded to the nearest metre or foot, of the area on which it is located. The elevation of any
portion of a pre-flight altimeter check location shall be within 3 m (10 ft) of the average for that
location.

Declared Distances

The following distances shall be calculated to the nearest metre or foot for a runway intended
for use by international commercial air transport

¾ TORA
¾ TODA
¾ Accelerate-stop distance available
¾ Landing distance available

Condition of the Movement Area and Related Facilities

Information on the condition of:

¾ The movement area and the operational status of related facilities shall be
provided to the appropriate aeronautical information service units, and
¾ Similar information of operational significance to the ATS units

shall be provided to the appropriate aeronautical information service units. This is to enable
the above units to provide the necessary information required by arriving and departing
aircraft. The information shall be kept up to date and changes in conditions reported without
delay.

ATPL Air Law 22-4 24 October 2003


The condition of the movement area and operational status of related facilities shall be
monitored and reports on matters of operational significance or affecting aircraft performance
in respect of:

¾ Construction or maintenance work


¾ Rough or broken surfaces on a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Snow, slush or ice on a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Water on a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Snow banks or drifts adjacent to a runway, a taxiway or an apron
¾ Anti-icing or de-icing liquid chemicals on a runway or taxiway
¾ Other temporary hazards, including parked aircraft
¾ Failure or irregular operation of part or all of the aerodrome visual aids
¾ Failure of the normal or secondary power supply

Water on a Runway

Whenever water is present on a runway, a description of the runway surface conditions on the
centre half of the width of the runway, including the possible assessment of water depth
where applicable should be made using the following terms:

DRY The surface is not affected by water, slush, snow or ice


DAMP The surface shows a change of colour due to moisture
WET The surface is soaked but there is no standing water
WATER PATCHES Significant patches of standing water are visible
FLOODED Extensive standing water is visible

Information that a runway may be slippery when wet shall be made available. A runway shall
be determined as being slippery when wet when the measurements specified by a continuous
friction measuring device are below the minimum friction level specified by the State.

Determination of Friction Characteristics of Wet Paved Runways

The friction of a wet paved runway should be measured to:

¾ Verify the friction characteristics of new or re-surfaced paved runways when wet
¾ Assess periodically the slipperiness of paved runways when wet
¾ Determine the effect on friction when drainage characteristics are poor
¾ Determine the friction of paved runways that become slippery under unusual
conditions

ATPL Air Law 22-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Snow, Slush or Ice on a Runway

Whenever a runway is affected by snow, slush or ice and it has not been possible to clear the
precipitant fully, the condition of the runway should be assessed, and the friction coefficient
measured.

The table below, with associated descriptive terms, was developed from friction data collected
in compacted snow and ice and should not be taken as absolute values applicable in all
conditions. If the surface is affected by snow or ice and the braking action is reported as
“good”, pilots should not expect to find conditions as good as on a clean dry runway (where
the available friction may well be greater than that needed in any case). The value “good” is a
comparative value and is intended to mean that aeroplanes should not experience directional
control or braking difficulties especially when landing,

Measured Coefficient Estimated Braking Action Code


0.40 and above Good 5
0.39 to 0.36 Medium to good 4
0.35 to 0.30 Medium 3
0.29 to 0.26 Medium to poor 2
0.25 and below Poor 1

Surface friction information should be provided for each 1/3 of the runway, These
measurements are made along two lines parallel to the runway. Each line being
approximately 3 m from the centre line or at a distance at which most operations take place.

Whenever dry snow, wet snow or slush is present on a runway, an assessment of mean
depth over each 1/3 of the runway should be made to an accuracy of:

¾ 2 cm for dry snow


¾ 1 cm for wet snow
¾ 0.3 cm for slush

ATPL Air Law 22-6 24 October 2003


Physical Characteristics

Runway Width

The width of a runway should be:

Code Code Letter


Number A B C D E
1 18 m 18 m 23 m
2 23 m 23 m 30 m
3 30 m 30 m 30 m 45 m
4 45 m 45 m 45 m

For a precision approach runway the width should not be less than 30 m when the Aerodrome
Code Number is 1 or 2.

Minimum Distance Between Parallel Runways

Non-Instrument Runways

¾ 210 m where the higher code number is 3 or 4


¾ 150 m where the higher code number is 2
¾ 120 m where the higher code is 1

Parallel Instrument Runways

The minimum distance between the runway centre lines should be:

¾ 1035 m for independent parallel approaches


¾ 915 m for dependent parallel approaches
¾ 760 m for independent parallel departures
¾ 760 m for segregated parallel operations

Where segregated parallel operations are flown the specified minimum distance:

¾ May be increased by 30 m for each 150 m that the arrival runway is staggered
toward the arriving aircraft, to a minimum of 300 m, and
¾ Should be increased by 30 m for each 150 m that the arrival runway is staggered
away from the arriving aircraft

ATPL Air Law 22-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Runway Strips

A Runway Strip is a defined area including the runway and stopway, if provided, intended:

¾ To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off the runway, and
¾ To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off and landing operations

A runway and any associated stopways shall be included in a strip.

Length of Runway Strip

A strip should extend before the threshold and beyond the end of the runway or stopway for a
distance of at least:

¾ 60m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 800 m
¾ 60m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the
runway is an instrument one, and
¾ 30 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 800 m and the
runway is a non-instrument one

Width of Runway Strips

A strip including a precision approach runway shall, wherever practicable, extend laterally to a
distance of at least:

¾ 150 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m, and
¾ 75 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 1200 m

Grading of Runway Strips

That portion of a strip of an instrument runway within a distance of at least:

¾ 75 m where the aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m


¾ 40 m where the aeroplane reference field length is less than 1200 m

Runway End Safety Areas

Runway End Safety Area (RESA)

An area symmetrical about the extended runway centre line and adjacent to the end of the
strip primarily intended to reduce the risk of damage to an aeroplane undershooting or
overrunning the aerodrome

ATPL Air Law 22-8 24 October 2003


A RESA should be provided at each end of a runway strip where.

¾ The aeroplane reference field length is greater than 1200 m


¾ The aeroplane reference field lengths less than 1200 m and the runway is an
instrument one

Dimensions of RESA

A RESA should extend from the end of a runway strip for as great a distance as practicable,
but at least 90 m

The width of a runway and safety area should he at least twice that of the associated runway

Clearway

Definition

A defined rectangular area on the ground or water under the control of the appropriate
authority, selected or prepared as a suitable area over which an aeroplane may make a
portion of its initial climb to a specified height

Length of Clearways

The length of a clearway should not exceed half the length of the TORA

Width of Clearways

A clearway should extend laterally to a distance of at least 75 m on each side of the extended
centre line of the runway

Stopways

Definition

A defined rectangular area on the ground at the end of TORA prepared as a suitable area in
which an aircraft can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off

Width of a Stopway

A stopway shall have the same width as the runway with which it is associated.

ATPL Air Law 22-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Radio Altimeter Operating Area

A radio altimeter operating area should be established in the pre-threshold area of a precision
approach runway

Length of the Area

A radio altimeter operating area should extend before the threshold for a distance of at least
300 m

Width of the Area

A radio altimeter operating area should extend laterally, on each side of the extended centre
line of the runway, to a distance of 60 m, except that when special circumstances so warrant,
the distance may be reduced to no less than 30 m an aeronautical study indicates that such
reduction would not affect the safety of operations of aircraft

Width of Taxiway

The width of taxiway should follow the rules below:

Code Letter Taxiway Width


A 7.5 m
B 10.5 m
C 15 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base
less than 18 m

18 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a wheel base


equal or greater than 18 m
D 18 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with an outer main
gear wheel span of less than 9 m

23 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with an outer main


gear wheel span equal to or greater than 9 m
E 23 m

ATPL Air Law 22-10 24 October 2003


Taxiway Curves

The design of a taxiway should be such that, when the cockpit of the aeroplane for which the
taxiway is intended remains over the taxiway centre line markings, the clearance distance
between the outer main wheel of the aeroplane and the edge of the taxiway should be not
less than that given in the table below.

Aerodrome Reference Clearance


Code

A 1.5m

B 2.25 m

C 3 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a


wheel base less than 18 m
4.5 m if the taxiway is intended to be used by aeroplanes with a
wheel base equal to or greater than 18 m

4.5 m
D

4.5 m
E

Holding Bays, Taxi Holding Positions and Road Holding Positions

Holding bays should be provided when the traffic volume is high

A taxi holding position or positions shall be established:

¾ At an intersection of a taxiway with a runway, and


¾ At an intersection of a runway with another runway when the former runway is
part of a standard taxi route

A taxi holding position shall be established on a taxiway if its location or alignment is such that
a taxiing aircraft or vehicle can infringe an obstacle limitation surface or interfere with the
operation of radio navigation aids. A road holding position shall be established at an
intersection of a road with a runway.

ATPL Air Law 22-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Visual Aids for Navigation

Indicators and Signalling Devices

Wind Direction Indicators

An aerodrome shall be equipped with at least one wind direction indicator. It shall be located:

¾ So as to be visible from aircraft in flight


¾ So as to be visible from aircraft on the movement area, and
¾ In such a way as to be free from the effects of air disturbance from nearby objects

The wind direction indicator should be in the form of a truncated cone made of fabric. It
should be constructed so that it gives a clear direction of the surface wind and a general
indication of wind speed The colour should be selected so as to make the wind direction
indicator clearly visible and understandable from a height of at least 300 m. Where
practicable, a single colour, preferably white or orange should be used Where two colours are
used they should be arranged in five alternative bands, the first and last bands being the
darker colour

Provision should be made for illuminating at least one wind indicator at an aerodrome
intended for use at night

Landing Direction Indicator

Where provided, a landing direction indicator shall be located in a conspicuous place on the
aerodrome. The landing direction indicator should be in the form of a “T”

The colour of the landing “T” is either white or orange. Where required for use at night, the
landing “T” is illuminated or outlined by white lights.

Signalling Lamp

A signalling lamp shall be provided at a controlled aerodrome in the aerodrome control tower
and should be capable of producing red, green and white signals. it should also be capable
of:

¾ Being aimed at any target as required


¾ Giving a signal in any one colour followed by a signal in either of the two other
colours and
¾ Transmitting a message in Morse code up to a speed of at least 4 words per
minute

ATPL Air Law 22-12 24 October 2003


Signal Panels and Signal Areas

The signal area should be located so as to be visible from all angles of azimuth above an
angle of 10º above the horizontal when viewed from a height of 300 m.

The signal area shall be an even horizontal surface at least 9 m square. It should be
surrounded by a white border not less than 0.3 m wide.

Markings

Interruption of Runway Markings

At an intersection of two (or more) runways the markings of the more important runway,
except for the runway side stripe marking, shall be displayed. The markings of the other
runway(s) shall be interrupted. The runway side stripe marking of the more important runway
may be either continued across the intersection or interrupted.

The order of importance of runways for the display of runway markings should be as follows:

¾ Precision approach runway


¾ Non-precision approach runway, and
¾ Non-instrument runway

At an intersection of a runway and taxiway the markings of the runway shall be displayed and
the markings of the taxiway interrupted, except that runway side stripe markings may be
interrupted.

Colour of markings

Runway markings shall be white. Taxiway markings and aircraft stand markings shall be
yellow. Apron safety lines shall be of a conspicuous colour that contrasts with that used for
aircraft stand markings.

Unpaved Taxiways

An unpaved taxiway should be provided with the markings prescribed for paved taxiways.

ATPL Air Law 22-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Runway Designation Marking

A runway designation marking shall be provided at the thresholds of a paved runway. The
runway designation marking shall be located at the threshold as shown in the diagram below.

A runway designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number and on parallel runways
shall be supplemented with a letter. The two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest
the one-tenth of the magnetic north when viewed from the direction of approach. Where there
are four or more parallel runways:

¾ One set of adjacent runways shall be numbered to the nearest 1/10 magnetic
azimuth, and
¾ The other set of adjacent runways numbered to the next nearest 1/10 of the
magnetic azimuth.

When the above rule gives a single digit number, then it shall be lead by a zero.

eg 9 would become 09

Runway Centre Line Marking

A runway centre line marking shall be provided on a paved runway. The marking shall be
located along the centre line between the runway designation markings as shown below.

ATPL Air Law 22-14 24 October 2003


Centre line markings shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps. The length
of a stripe plus a gap shall not be less than 50 m or more than 75 m. The length of each stripe
shall be at least equal to the length of the gap or 30m, whichever is greater.

Threshold Markings

A threshold marking shall be provided at the threshold of:

¾ A paved instrument runway, and


¾ A paved non-instrument runway that is intended for use by international
commercial air transport

A threshold marking should be provided at the thresholds of an unpaved runway. The stripes
of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the runway edge.

A runway threshold marking shall consist of a pattern of longitudinal stripes of uniform


dimensions disposed symmetrically about the centre line. The number of stripes shall be in
accordance with the runway width as follows:

Runway Width Number of Stripes


18m 4
23m 6
30m 8
45m 12
60m 16

Displaced Threshold Marking

Where a threshold is displaced from the end of a runway or where the end of a runway is not
square with the runway centre line, a transverse stripe should be added to the threshold
marking

ATPL Air Law 22-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Where a runway is permanently displaced, arrows shall be provided on the portion of runway
before the displaced threshold as shown below.

When a runway threshold is temporarily displaced from the normal position it shall be marked
as shown in the diagram above. All markings before the displaced threshold shall be
obscured except the runway centre line marking, which shall be converted to arrows.

Aiming Point Marking

An aiming point marking shall be provided at the approach end of a paved instrument runway
of greater than 800 m in length. An aiming point marking should be provided at each
approach end of

¾ A paved non-instrument runway greater than 1200 m in length


¾ A paved instrument runway where the runway length is less than 800 m

when additional conspicuity of the aiming point is desirable

The aiming point marking shall commence no closer to the threshold than the distance
indicated in the table below. Except that on a runway equipped with a visual approach slope
indicator system, the beginning of the marking shall be coincident with the visual approach
slope origin.

ATPL Air Law 22-16 24 October 2003


Landing Distance Available
Location and Less than 800 m 800 m up to 1200 m up to but 2400 m and
dimensions but not not including above
including 2400 m
1200 m
Distance from 150 m 250 m 300 m 400 m
threshold to
beginning of
marking
Length of stripe 30 – 45 m 30 - 45 m 45 – 60 m 45 – 60 m
Width of stripe 4m 6m 6 – 10 m 6 – 10 m
Lateral spacing 6m 9m 18 – 22.5 m 18 – 22.5 m
between inner
sides of stripes

Where a touchdown zone marking is provided, the lateral spacing shall be the same as that of
the aiming point marking.

Touchdown Zone Marking

A touchdown zone marking shall be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved precision
approach runway of greater than 800 m length.

A touchdown zone marking should be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved non-
precision approach or non-instrument runway where the runway is greater than 1200 m length

A touchdown zone marking shall consist of pairs of rectangular markings as shown in the
diagram below. These markings shall be symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line
with the number of such pairs related to the landing distance available.

Where the marking is to be displayed at both the approach directions of a runway, the
distance between the thresholds as follows:

Landing distance available or the Pair(s) of


distance between thresholds markings
Less than 900 m 1
900 m up to but not including 1200 m 2
1200 m up to but not including 1500 m 3
1500 m up to but not including 2400 m 4
2400 m or more 5

The pairs of markings shall be provided at longitudinal spacing of 150 m beginning from the
threshold except that pairs of touchdown zone markings coincident with, or located within 50
m, of an aiming point marking shall be deleted from the pattern.

ATPL Air Law 22-17 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Runway Side Stripe

A runway side stripe marking shall be provided between the runway edges and the shoulders
of the surrounding terrain.

A runway side stripe marking should be provided on a precision approach runway irrespective
of the contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders of the surrounding terrain

ATPL Air Law 22-18 24 October 2003


Taxiway Centre Line Marking

Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided where the runway length is 1200 m or greater.
These markings provide guidance from the runway centre line to the point on the apron where
aircraft stand markings commence.

RUNW AY TAXI-HOLDING POSITION MARKING PATTERN 'A'


IDENTIFYING THE LAST HOLDING POSITION PRIOR TO
*1 ENTERING RUNW AY. MARKS VISUAL/CAT I HOLD WHERE
EARLIER CAT II/III HOLD PROVIDED. MARKS VISUAL CAT I
& CAT II/III TAXI-HOLDING POSITIONS WHERE ONLY
TAXI-HOLDING POSITION PROVIDED.

RUNW AY TAXI-HOLDING POSITION MARKING PATTERN


*2 'B' IDENTIFYING CATEGORY I. II OR III WHERE A CLOSER
VISUAL/CAT I TAXI-HOLDING POSITION IS PROVIDED.

*3 INTERMEDIATE TAXI-HOLDING POSITION MARKING.


*1

TAXIW AY EDGE MARKING INDICATES PAVED SHOULDER


*4 OF BEARING STRENGTH LESS THAN TAXIW AY OR AREA
BEYOND MARK NOT INTENDED FOR AIRCRAFT USE.

SURFACE PAINTED
DIRECTION SIGN
TAXIWAY 'A'
A
A
B

SURFACE PAINTED *3 *2 *1
LOCATION SIGN
TAXIWAY
CENTRE INE
MARKING

*4 20

*2 *1

ATPL Air Law 22-19 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Taxiway centre line markings shall be provided on a paved runway when the runway is part of
a standard taxi route and:

¾ There is no runway centre line marking


¾ Where the taxiway centre line is not co-incident with the runway centre line

At the intersection of a taxiway with a runway where the taxiway serves as an exit from the
runway, the taxiway centre line marking should be curved into the runway centre line marking
as shown in the previous diagram.

Taxiway Holding Position Marking

The taxi holding position marking for the intersection of a taxiway and non-instrument, non-
precision approach or take-off runway is shown as circle 1 on the previous diagram

Where a single taxi holding position is provided at the intersection of a taxiway and a
precision approach Category II or III runway the taxi holding position marking is shown as
circle 1. Where two or three taxi holding positions are provided:

¾ The closest holding position to the runway is shown by circle 1


¾ Any markings further from the runway shall use the pattern shown in circle 2

Circle 4 shows taxiway edge marking.

Taxiway Intersection Marking

A taxiway intersection marking should be displayed at an intersection of two paved taxiways


where it is desired to designate a specific holding position

A taxiway intersection marking shall consist of a single broken line as shown in circle 3.

VOR Aerodrome Check-Point Marking

When a VOR aerodrome check-point is established it shall be indicated by a check-point


marking and sign. The check-point sign shall be located as near as possible to the check-
point so that the sign is clearly visible from the cockpit of an aircraft properly positioned on the
VOR aerodrome check-point marking. The marking shall be centred on the spot at which an
aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct signal.

The check-point sign shall consist of black letters and numerals on a yellow background.

A VOR aerodrome check-point marking should preferably be white in colour but should differ
from the colour used for taxiway markings

ATPL Air Law 22-20 24 October 2003


The inscriptions on a VOR check-point sign should be in accordance with one of the following
alternatives:

Where No DME is Co-Located With the VOR

VOR 116.3 147º

Where a DME is Co-Located

VOR 116.3 147º 4.3 NM

VOR An abbreviation identifying this as a VOR check-point

116.3 The frequency of the VOR concerned

147º The VOR bearing accurate to the nearest degree

4.3NM The distance in nautical miles to a DME co-located with the VOR concerned

Note: A check-point can only be used operationally when checks show it to


be consistently within 2º of the stated bearing

Aircraft Stand Markings

Aircraft stand markings should be provided/or designated parking positions on a paved apron

Aircraft stand markings should be located so as to give safe clearance when the nose wheel
follows the stand markings

Aircraft stand markings should include such elements as stand identification, lead in line, turn
bar, turning line, alignment bar, stop line and lead out line, as are required by the parking
configuration and to complement other parking aids

Aircraft stand identification (letter and/or number) should be included in the lead in line a short
distance after the beginning of the lead in line. The height of the identification should be
adequate to be readable from the cockpit of aircraft using the stand

Where it is intended that an aircraft proceed in one direction only, arrows pointing in the
direction to be followed should be added as part of the lead in and lead out lines

ATPL Air Law 22-21 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Apron Safety Lines

Apron safety lines shall be located so as to define the areas intended for use by ground
vehicles and other aircraft servicing equipment. This is to ensure safe separation from aircraft.

Apron safety lines should include elements such as wing tip clearance and service road
boundary lines

Road Holding Position Marking

A road holding position marking shall be located at all road entrances to a runway.

Information Marking

Where an information sign would normally be installed and it is physically impossible to install
a sign, an information marking shall be displayed on the paved surface.

Where operationally required an information sign should be supplemented by an information


marking

An information marking shall consist of:

¾ An inscription in yellow, when it supplements or replaces a location sign, and


¾ An inscription in black, when it replaces or supplements a direction or destination
sign

Where there is insufficient contrast between the marking and the pavement surface, the
marking shall include:

¾ A black background where the inscriptions are in yellow, and


¾ A yellow background where the inscriptions are in black

ATPL Air Law 22-22 24 October 2003


Chapter 23.

Runway Lights and Visual Approach Systems

Reference: Annex 14 - Aerodromes

Lights Which May Endanger the Safety of Aircraft

A non-aeronautical ground light near an aerodrome which might endanger the safety of
aircraft shall be extinguished or screened to eliminate the source of danger.

Lights Which May Cause Confusion

A non-aeronautical ground light which might prevent, or cause confusion in, the clear
interpretation of aeronautical ground lights should be extinguished or screened. Attention
should be directed to a non-aeronautical ground light visible from the air within the following
areas:

Instrument Runway 1800 m or greater in length


Within the areas before the threshold and beyond the end of the runway extending at
least 4500 m in length from the threshold and runway end and 750 m either side of
the extended run way centre line in width

Instrument Runway 800 m up to but not including 1800 m


Within the areas before the threshold and beyond the end of the runway extending at
least 3000 m in length from the threshold and runway end and 750 m either side of
the extended runway centre line in width

Instrument Runway Less than 800 m


Within the approach area

Non-Instrument Runway
Within the approach area

ATPL Air Law 23-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Elevated Approach Lights

Elevated approach lights and their supporting structures shall be frangible except that in the
approach lighting system beyond 300 m from the threshold:

¾ Where the height of the supporting structure exceeds 12 m, the frangibility


requirement shall apply to the top 12 m only, and
¾ Where a supporting structure is surrounded by non-frangible objects, only that
part of the structure that extends above the surrounding objects

shall be frangible

When an approach light fixture or supporting structure is not sufficiently conspicuous, it shall
be suitably marked.

Elevated Lights

Elevated runway, stopway and taxiway lights shall be frangible. Their height shall be
sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and for the engine pods of jet aircraft.

Surface Lights

Light fixtures inset in the surface of runways, stopways, taxiways and aprons shall be so
designed and lifted as to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without
damage either to the aircraft or to the lights themselves.

Light Intensity and Control

The intensity of runway lights shall be adequate for the minimum conditions of visibility and
ambient light in which the runway is intended, and compatible with that of the nearest section
of the approach lighting system provided.

Where a high intensity lighting system is provided, a suitable intensity control shall be
incorporated to allow for adjustment of the light. Separate intensity controls or other suitable
methods shall be provided to ensure that the following systems, when installed, can be
operated at compatible intensities:

¾ Approach lighting systems


¾ Runway edge lights
¾ Runway threshold lights
¾ Runway end lights
¾ Runway centre line lights
¾ Runway touchdown zone lights

ATPL Air Law 23-2 24 October 2003


Emergency Lighting

At an aerodrome provided with runway lighting and without a secondary power supply,
sufficient emergency lights should be conveniently available for installation on at least the
primary runway in the event of failure of the normal lighting system.

Aeronautical Beacons

Where operationally necessary an aerodrome beacon or an identification beacon shall be


provided at each aerodrome intended for use at night. The operational requirement shall be
determined having regard to:

¾ The air traffic using the aerodrome


¾ The conspicuity of the aerodrome features in relation to its surroundings
¾ The installation of other visual and non-visual aids useful in locating the
aerodrome

Aerodrome Beacon

An aerodrome beacon shall be provided at an aerodrome intended for use at night if one or
more of the following conditions exist:

¾ Aircraft navigate predominantly by visual means


¾ Reduced visibilities are frequent, or
¾ It is difficult to locate the aerodrome from the air due to surrounding lights or
terrain

The aerodrome beacon is either:

¾ A flashing light alternating coloured flashes with white flashes, or


¾ White flashing light only

Where used, the coloured flashes emitted by a land aerodrome are green.

Identification Beacon

An identification beacon shall be provided at an aerodrome that is intended for use at night
and cannot be easily identified from the air by other means. At a land aerodrome the
identification beacon shall show flashing green characters. The identification characters shall
be transmitted in the International Morse Code.

ATPL Air Law 23-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Approach Lighting Systems

Attachment A to Annex 14 provides for the basic characteristics for simple and precision
approach lighting systems. The approach lighting configuration is to be provided irrespective
of the location of the threshold for example whether the threshold is at the extremity of the
runway or displaced from the runway extremity. In both cases, the approach lighting system
should extend up to the threshold. However, in the case of a displaced threshold, inset lights
are used from the runway extremity up to the threshold to obtain the specified configuration.

Non-Instrument Runway

Where physically practicable a simple approach lighting system as shown below should be
provided.

SIMPLE APPROACH AND RUNWAY


LIGHTING SYSTEM

Approach and Runway lighting

Where practicable a simple approach lighting system shall be provided to serve a non-
precision approach runway, except when the runway is used only in conditions of good
visibility or sufficient guidance is given by other aids.

ATPL Air Law 23-4 24 October 2003


Precision Approach Runway Category I

Where possible a precision approach category I lighting system shall be provided to serve a
precision approach runway category I.

Precision Approach Runway Categories II and Ill

A precision category II and III lighting system as shown shall be provided to serve a precision
approach runway category II or Ill.

Simple Approach Lighting System

A simple approach lighting system shall consist of:

¾ A row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway extending over a
distance of not less than 420 m from the threshold, with
¾ A row of lights forming a crossbar 18 m or 30m in length at a distance of 300m
from the threshold

The system shall lie as near as practicable in the horizontal plane passing through the
threshold, provided that:

¾ No object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna shall protrude through the
plane of the approach lights within a distance of 60 m from the centre line of the
system
¾ No light other than a light located within the central part of a crossbar or a centre
line barrette shall be screened from an approaching aircraft

Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights shall be treated as
an obstacle and marked and lighted accordingly.

The lights of a simple approach system shall be fixed lights and the colour of the lights shall
be such as to ensure that the system is readily distinguishable from other aeronautical ground
lights. Each centre line light shall consist of:

¾ A single source, or
¾ A barrette at least 3 m in length

ATPL Air Law 23-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Precision Approach Category I Lighting System

A precision approach category I lighting system shall consist of:

¾ A row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway extending over a
distance of 900 m from the runway threshold, with
¾ A row of lights forming a crossbar 30 m in length at a distance of 300 m from the
runway threshold

Approach & Runway Lighting


Typical Cat 1 System

Yellow Caution Zone

Yellow Caution Zone

ATPL Air Law 23-6 24 October 2003


The system shall lie as near as practicable in the horizontal plane passing through the
threshold, provided that:

¾ No object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna shall protrude through the
plane of the approach lights within a distance of 60 m from the centre line of the
system
¾ No light other than a light located within the central part of a crossbar or a centre
line barrette (not their extremities) shall be screened from an approaching aircraft

Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights shall be treated as
an obstacle and marked and lighted accordingly.

The centre line and crossbar lights of a precision approach category I lighting system shall be
fixed lights showing variable white. Each centre line light shall consist of either:

¾ A single light source in the innermost 300 m of the centre line, two light sources in
the central 300 m of the centre line and three light sources in the outer 300 m of
the centre line to provide distance information, or
¾ A barrette at least 4 m in length

If the centre line consists of single, double and triple lights, additional crossbars of light shall
be provided at 150 m, 300 m, 450 m, 600 m, and 750 m from the threshold.

Precision Approach Category II and III Lighting System

The approach lighting system consists of:

¾ A row of lights on the extended centre line of the runway extending over a
distance of 900 m from the runway threshold
¾ In addition the system shall have two side rows of lights extending 270 m from
the threshold
¾ Two crossbars, one at 150 m and one at 300 m from the threshold

The system shall lie as near as practicable in the horizontal plane passing through the
threshold, provided that:

¾ No object other than an ILS or MLS azimuth antenna shall protrude through the
plane of the approach lights within a distance of 60 m from the centre line of the
system
¾ No light other than a light located within the central part of a crossbar or a centre
line barrette (not their extremities) shall be screened from an approaching aircraft

Any ILS or MLS azimuth antenna protruding through the plane of the lights shall be treated as
an obstacle and marked and lighted accordingly.

ATPL Air Law 23-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ The centre line of a precision approach category II and III lighting system:

• For the first 300 m from the threshold shall consist of barrettes showing
variable white (if the threshold is displaced 300 in or more, the centre line
may consist of single light sources showing variable white). The barrettes
shall be at least 4 m in length

¾ Beyond 300 m from the threshold each centre line shall consist of either:

• A barrette as used on the inner 300 m, or


• Two light sources in the central 300 m of the centre line and three light
sources in the outer 300 m of the centre line (If this lighting system is used
then additional crossbars of light shall be provided at 450 m, 600 m and 750
m).

All the above lights shall show variable white.

ATPL Air Law 23-8 24 October 2003


APPROACH AND RUNWAY LIGHTING
TYPICAL CAT II OR CAT III SYSTEM

RUNWAY END

COLOUR CODED CENTRELINE

TOUCHDOWN ZONE

PAPI

RUNWAY THRESHOLD
AND WING BARS

SUPPLEMENTARY
APPROACH

CENTRELINE AND 5 BAR

ATPL Air Law 23-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Visual Approach Slope Indicator Systems

A visual approach slope indicator system (VASI) shall be provided to serve the approach to a
runway whether or not the runway is served by other visual approach aids or by non-visual
aids, where one or more of the following conditions are met:

¾ The runway is used by turbojet or other aeroplanes with similar approach


guidance requirements
¾ The pilot of any type of aeroplane may have difficulty in judging the approach due
to:

• Inadequate visual guidance such as is experienced during an approach over


water or featureless terrain by day or in the absence of sufficient extraneous
lights in the approach area by night, or
• Misleading information such as is produced by deceptive surrounding terrain
or runway slopes

¾ The presence of objects in the approach area may involve serious hazard if an
aeroplane descends below the normal approach path, particularly if there are no
non-visual or other visual aids to give warning of such objects
¾ Physical conditions at either end of the runway present a serious hazard in the
event of an aeroplane undershooting or overrunning the runway, and
¾ Terrain or prevalent meteorological conditions are such that the aeroplane may
be subjected to unusual turbulence during approach

The standard visual approach slope indicator systems shall consist of the following:

¾ T-VASIS and AT-VASIS


¾ PAPI and APAPI

PAPI, T-VASIS or AT-VASIS shall be provided where the runway is 1200 m or greater. PAPI
or APAPI shall be provided when:

¾ The runway length is up to 1200 m, or


¾ When any of the restricting conditions apply

Where a runway threshold is temporarily displaced from the normal position a PAPI should be
provided where the runway length is greater than 1200 m, otherwise APAPI may be fitted

T-VASIS and AT-VASIS

T-VASIS shall consist of twenty light units symmetrically disposed about the runway centre
line in the form of two wing bars of four units each, with bisecting lines of six units as shown
below.

ATPL Air Law 23-10 24 October 2003


pe
S lo
a ch
p ro
IT E Ap E
I TE IT E L E E IB L
E WH ISIB WH ISIBL V IS T E
WH ISIBL TV T
TV T V
O IT E NO WH I LE IT E ITE
O NO N WH B WH I BL
E
WH
N IS I
V IS
TV T
RE D NO
RE D
NO RE D
RE D

THRESHOLD

FLY-DOWN LIGHT UNITS WING BAR FLY-UP LIGHT UNITS


LIGHT UNITS

LIGHT BEAMS AND ELEVATION SETTINGS OF T-VASIS AND AT-VASIS

The AT-VASIS shall consist of ten light units arranged on one side of the runway in the form
of a single wing bar of four units with a bisecting line of six lights.

The light units shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner that the pilot of an
aeroplane during an approach will:

Above the approach slope See the wing bars white and one, two or three fly-down
lights, the more fly down lights being visible the higher the pilot is above the approach
slope

On the approach slope See the wing bars white

When below the approach slope See the wing bars and one, two or three fly-up
lights white, the more fly-up lights being visible the lower the pilot is,

Well below the approach See the wing bars and the three fly-up lights red

When on or above the approach slope, no light shall be visible from the fly-up light units;
when on or below the approach slope, no light shall be visible from the fly-down lights.

Note: The siting of the T-VASIS will provide for a 3º slope at a nominal eye height
over the threshold of 15 m.

The systems shall be suitable for both day and night operations.

Approach Slope and Elevation Setting of Light Beams

When the runway on which a T-VASIS is provided is equipped with an ILS or MLS the siting
and elevation of the lights shall be such that the visual approach slope conforms as closely as
possible with the glide path of the lLS and the minimum glidepath of the MLS, as appropriate.

The elevation setting of the top of the red light beams of the wing bar and fly-up lights shall be
such that during an approach, the pilot of an aeroplane to whom the wing bar and three fly-up

ATPL Air Law 23-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


lights are visible would clear all objects in the approach area by a safe margin if any such
lights did not appear red.

PAPI and APAPI

The PAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 4 sharp transition multi-lamp (or paired single
lamp) units equally spaced. The APAPI system shall consist of a wing bar of 2 sharp
transition multi-lamp (or paired single lamp) units. Both systems shall be located on the left
side of the runway unless it is physically impracticable to do so.

The wing bar of a PAPI shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner that a pilot
making an approach will:

When on or close to the approach slope See the two units nearest the
runway as red and the two units farthest from the runway as white

When above the approach slope


See the one unit nearest the runway as red and the three units farthest from the
runway as white, and
When further above the approach slope see all units as white

When below the approach slope


See the three units nearest the runway as red and the unit farthest from the runway
as white, and
When further below the approach slope see all units as red

The wing bar of an APAPI shall be constructed and arranged in such a manner that a pilot
making an approach will:

When on or close to the approach slope See the unit nearer the runway as red
and the unit further away as white.

When above the approach slope See both units as white

When below the approach slope See both units as red

ATPL Air Law 23-12 24 October 2003


0'
3°3
E
HIT
W ED 0' C
R 3°1 B +
IT E 2
WH ED pe =
R slo '
oach E 2°50
app WHIT
r
PI RED
D PA

C WHIT E 2°30'
RED
B

PAPI WING BAR THRESHOLD

A - 3° PAPI ILLUSTRATED

5'
3°1 B
ITE A +
WH ED = 2
R pe
h slo
ac
pro
P I ap
A
AP TE 2°45'
WHI
RED
B

APAPI WING BAR THRESHOLD

B - 3° APAPI ILLUSTRATED

The systems shall be suitable for both day and night operations.

When the runway is equipped with an ILS or MLS the siting and elevation of the lights shall be
such that the visual approach slope conforms as closely as possible with the glide path of the
ILS and the minimum glidepath of the MLS, as appropriate.

The angle of elevation settings of the light units:

¾ In a PAPI wing bar shall be such that, during an approach, the pilot of an
aeroplane observing a signal of one white and three reds will clear all objects in
the approach area by a safe margin.
¾ In an APAPI wing bar shall be such that, during an approach, the pilot of an
aeroplane observing the lowest onslope signal (one white, one red) will clear all
objects in the approach area by a safe margin.

ATPL Air Law 23-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Obstacle Protection Surface

The following applies to T-VASIS, AT-VASIS, PAPI and APAPI.

A A
DIVERGENCE
26

OBSTACLE PROTECTION SURFACE

APPROACH SURFACE
INNER EDGE

OBSTACLE PROTECTION SURFACE

THRESHOLD APPROACH SURFACE INNER EDGE

SECTION A-A

An obstacle protection surface shall be established when it is intended to provide a visual


approach slope indicator system. Existing objects above an obstacle protection surface shall
be removed except when:

¾ The object is shielded by an existing immovable object, or


¾ The object would not adversely affect the safety of operations of aeroplanes

New objects or extensions of existing objects shall not be permitted above an obstacle
protection surface except when the new object or extension would be shielded by an existing
immovable object.

ATPL Air Law 23-14 24 October 2003


Wheel Clearance over Threshold for PAPI and APAPI

Where an existing object extending above an obstacle protection surface could adversely
affect the safety of operations of aeroplanes one or more of the following measures shall be
taken:

¾ Suitably raise the approach slope of the system


¾ Reduce the azimuth spread of the system so that the object is outside the
confines of the beam
¾ Displace the axis of the system and its associated obstacle protection surface by
no more than 5º
¾ Suitably displace the threshold
¾ Where displacing the threshold is impracticable, suitably displace the system
upwind of the threshold to provide an increase in threshold crossing height equal
to the height of the object penetration

Circling Guidance Lights

Circling guidance lights should be provided when existing approach and runway lighting
systems do not satisfactorily permit identification of the runway and/or approach area to a
circling aircraft in the conditions for which it is intended

The number and location of circling guidance lights should be adequate to enable a pilot as
appropriate to:

¾ Join the downwind leg or align and adjust the aircraft’s track to the runway at a
required distance from it and to distinguish the threshold in passing, and
¾ Keep in sight the runway threshold and/or other features which will make it
possible to judge the turn on to base leg and final approach, taking into account
the guidance provided by other visual aids

Circling guidance lights should consist of

¾ Lights indicating the extended centre line of the runway and/or parts of any
approach lighting system, or
¾ Lights indicating the position of the runway threshold, or
¾ Lights indicating the direction or location of the runway

or a combination of such lights as is appropriate to the runway under consideration

ATPL Air Law 23-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Circling guidance lights should be fixed or flashing lights of an intensity and beam spread
adequate for the conditions of visibility and ambient light in which it is intended to make visual
approaches.

¾ Flashing lights should be white lights


¾ Steady lights either white or gaseous discharge lights

Runway Lead-In Lighting Systems

A runway lead-in lighting system should be provided where it is desired to provide visual
guidance along a specific approach path.

A runway lead-in lighting system should consist of groups of lights positioned so as to define
the desired approach path and so that one group may be sighted from the preceding group.
The interval between adjacent groups should not exceed approximately 1600 in.

Where practicable, the flashing lights in each group should flash in sequence towards the
runway.

ATPL Air Law 23-16 24 October 2003


Chapter 24.

Runway, Taxiway and Apron Lighting

Reference: Annex 14 - Aerodromes

Runway Threshold Identification Lights

Runway threshold identification lights should be installed

¾ At the threshold of a non-precision approach runway when additional threshold


conspicuity is necessary or where it is not practicable to provide other approach
lighting aids
¾ Where a runway threshold is permanently displaced from the runway extremity or
temporarily displaced from the normal position and additional threshold
conspicuity is necessary

Runway threshold identification lights shall be located symmetrically about the runway centre
line:

¾ In line with the runway, and


¾ Approximately 10 m outside each line of the runway edge lights. The lights shall
be visible only in the direction of approach to the runway.

Runway threshold identification lights should be flashing white lights

Runway Edge Lights

Runway edge lights shall be provided for:

¾ A runway intended for use at night, or


¾ A precision approach runway intended for use by day or night

Runway edge lights should be provided on a runway intended for take-off with an operating
minimum below an RVR of the order of 800 m.

Runway edge lights shall be placed along the full length of the runway and shall be in two
parallel rows equidistant from the centre line. The lights shall be placed along:

¾ The edges of the runway, or


¾ Outside the edges of the area at a distance of not more than 3 m

ATPL Air Law 24-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


The lights shall be spaced in rows at intervals:

¾ Of not more than 60 m for an instrument runway


¾ Of not more than 100 m for a non-instrument runway

At intersections of runways, lights may be spaced irregularly or omitted, provided that


adequate guidance remains available to the pilot.

Runway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing variable white, except that:

¾ In the case of a displaced threshold, the lights between the beginning of the
runway and the displaced threshold shall show red in the approach direction, and
¾ A section of the lights 600 m or 1/3 of the runway length, whichever is less, at the
remote end of the runway from the end at which the take-off run is started may
show yellow

The lights are omni-directional which is:

¾ Necessary to provide guidance to a pilot landing or taking-off in either direction,


and
¾ Where circling guidance is provided they shall show in all angles of azimuth

Runway Threshold and Wing Bar Lights

Runway threshold lights shall be provided for:

¾ A runway equipped with runway edge lights, except


¾ On a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway where the threshold is
displaced and wing bar lights are provided

When a threshold is at the end of a runway, the threshold lights shall be placed in a row at
right angles to the runway axis as shown in the next diagram.

When a threshold is displaced from the extremity of a runway, threshold lights shall be placed
in a row at right angles to the runway axis at the displaced threshold.

Threshold lighting shall consist of:

On a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway At least six lights

On a precision approach runway category I At least the number of lights that


would be required if the lights were uniformly spaced at intervals of 3 m between the
rows of runway edge lights

ATPL Air Law 24-2 24 October 2003


On a precision approach runway category II or III Lights uniformly spaced
between the rows of runway edge lights at intervals of not more than 3m

Wing Bar Lights

Wing bar lights should be provided on a precision approach runway when additional
conspicuity is considered desirable

Wing bar lights shall be provided on a non-instrument or non-precision approach runway


where the threshold is displaced and runway threshold lights are required, but not provided.
The lights shall be symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in two groups. Five
lights extending at least 10 m outward from the line of the runway edge lights shall form each
wing bar.

Runway threshold and wing bar lights shall be fixed uni-directional lights showing green in the
direction of approach to the runway.

ATPL Air Law 24-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


RUNWAY TYPE
CONDITION

LIGHTS

NON-INSTRUMENT AND NON-PRECISION PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAYS


APPROACH RUNWAYS
RUNWAY THRESHOLD &
RUNWAY END LIGHTS
RUNWAY EXTREMITY
THRESHOLD AT

RED RED RED

GREEN GREEN GREEN

GREEN GREEN
RUNWAY THRESHOLD LIGHTS
THRESHOLD DISPLACED FROM

GREEN
RUNWAY EXTREMITY

GREEN
RUNWAY END LIGHTS

RED RED

NOTE: THE MINIMUM NUMBER OF LIGHTS ARE


LEGEND
SHOWN FOR A RUNWAY 45m WIDE WITH
EDGE LIGHTS INSTALLED AT THE EDGE.
UNIDIRECTIONAL LIGHT
BIDIRECTIONAL LIGHT

CONDITIONAL RECOMMENDATION

Runway End Lights

Runway end lights shall be provided for a runway equipped with runway edge lights. The
lights shall be placed on a line at right angles to the runway axis as near to the end of the
runway as possible.

ATPL Air Law 24-4 24 October 2003


Runway end lighting should consist of at least six lights and should be:

¾ Equally spaced between the rows of runway edge lights, or


¾ Symmetrically disposed about the runway centre line in two groups

For a precision approach runway category III, the spacing between runway end lights, except
the two innermost lights if a gap is used: should not exceed 6 m

Runway end lights shall be fixed unidirectional lights showing red in the direction of the
runway.

Runway Centre Line Lights

Runway centre line lights shall be provided on a precision approach runway category II and
IlI. Runway centre line lights should be provided on a precision approach runway category I
when:

¾ The runway is used by aircraft with high landing speeds, or


¾ Where the width between the runway edge lights is greater than 50m

Runway centre line lights shall be provided on a runway intended to be used for take-off with
an operating minimum below an RVR of the order of 400 m.

Runway centre line lights should be provided on a runway intended to be used for take -off
with an operating minimum of an RVR in the order of 400 m or higher when:

¾ The runway is used by aircraft with high landing speeds or


¾ Where the width between the runway edge lights is greater than 50 m

Runway centre line lights shall be located along the centre line of the runway, an offset of 60
cm is allowed where necessary. The lights shall be located from the threshold to the end of
the runway at a longitudinal spacing of approximately:

¾ 7.5 m or 15 m on a precision approach runway category III


¾ 7.5 m, 15 m or 30 m on a precision approach runway category II or other runway
on which the lights are provided

Runway centre line lights shall be fixed lights showing:

¾ Variable white from the threshold to the point 900 m from the runway end, then
¾ Alternate red and variable white from 900 m to 300 m from the runway end, then
¾ Red from 300 m to the runway end

ATPL Air Law 24-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Except that:

¾ Where the runway centre line lights are spaced at 7.5 m intervals, alternate pairs
of red and variable white lights shall be used on the section from 900 m to 300 in
from the runway end, and
¾ For runways less than 1800 m in length, the alternate and variable white lights
shall extend from the mid-point of the runway usable for landing to 300 m from
the runway end

Runway Touchdown Zone Lights

Touchdown zone lights shall be provided in the touchdown zone of a precision approach
runway category II or III, Touchdown zone lights shall extend from the threshold for a
longitudinal distance of 900 m. For runways less than 1800 m in length, the system shall be
shortened so that it does not extend beyond the midpoint of the runway. The pattern shall be
formed by pairs of barrettes symmetrically located about the runway centreline. The lateral
spacing between the innermost lights of a pair of barrettes shall be equal to the lateral
spacing selected for the touchdown zone marking. The longitudinal spacing between pairs of
barrettes shall be either 30 m or 60 m.

A barrette shall be composed of at least three lights with a spacing between the lights of not
more than 1.5 m.

Touchdown zone lights shall be fixed uni-directional lights showing variable white.

Stopway Lights

Stopway lights shall be provided for a stopway intended for use at night. The lights shall be
placed along the full length of the stopway and shall be in two parallel rows that are
equidistant from the centre line and coincident with the rows of the runway edge lights.
Stopway lights shall also be provided across the end of a stopway. Stopway lights shall be
fixed red uni-directional lights in the direction of the runway.

Taxiway Centre Line Lights

Taxiway centre line lights shall be provided for:

¾ An exit taxiway
¾ A taxiway
¾ An apron

intended for use in RVR conditions less than 350 m. Lights shall be provided on a runway
forming part of a standard taxi-route and intended for taxiing in RVR conditions less than 350
m. Taxiway centre line lights on a taxiway other than an exit taxiway and on a runway forming
part of a standard taxi route shall be fixed lights showing green. The light shall only be visible
from aeroplanes on or in the vicinity of the taxiway.

ATPL Air Law 24-6 24 October 2003


Exit taxiway lights shall be fixed alternate green and yellow lights from their beginning near
the runway centre line to the perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area. The light nearest
to the perimeter shall show yellow. Where aircraft follow the same centre line in the opposite
directions, all the centre line lights shall show green to aircraft approaching the runway.

Taxiway centre line lights on a straight section of a taxi way should be spaced at intervals of
not more than 30 m, except that:

¾ Larger intervals not exceeding 60 m may be used where because of the


prevailing meteorological conditions adequate guidance is provided by such
spacing
¾ Intervals less than 30 m should be provided on short straight sections
¾ On a taxi way intended for use in RVR conditions of less than a value of 350 m,
the longitudinal spacing should not exceed 1.5 m

On a taxi way intended for use in RVR conditions of less than 350 m, the lights on a curve
should not exceed a spacing of 15 m and on a curve of less than 400 m the lights should be
spaced at intervals of not greater than 7.5 m. This spacing should extend for 60 m before and
after the curve.

Spacing on curves that have been found suitable for a taxiway intended for use in RVR
conditions of 350 m or greater are:

Curve radius Light spacing

up to 400 7.5 m
401 m to 899 m 15 m
900 m or greater 30 m

Taxiway Centre Line Lights On Rapid Exit Taxiways

Taxiway centre line lights on a rapid exit taxi way should commence at a point at least 60 m
before the beginning of the taxi way centre line curve and continue beyond the end of the
curve to a point on the centre line of the taxi way where an aeroplane can be expected to
reach normal taxiing speed

Taxiway Centre Line Lights on Other Exit Taxiways

Centre line markings begin to curve from the runway centre line. Taxiway centre line lights on
other exit taxiways should commence at a point where the taxiway begins.

ATPL Air Law 24-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Taxiway Centre Line Lights on Runways

Taxiway centre line lights on a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route and intended for
taxiing in RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m should be spaced at longitudinal
intervals not exceeding 15 m.

Taxiway Edge Lights

Taxiway edge lights shall be provided on a holding bay, apron, etc, intended for use at night
and on a taxiway not provided with taxiway centre line lights and intended for use at night.
Taxiway edge lights need not be provided where, considering the nature of the operations,
adequate guidance can be achieved by surface illumination or other means.

Taxiway edge lights shall be provided on a runway forming part of a standard taxi-route and
intended for taxiing at night where the runway is not provided with taxiway centreline lights.

The lights should be located as near as practicable to the edges of the taxiway, holding bay,
apron or runway, etc or outside the edges at a distance of not more than 3 m.

Taxiway edge lights shall be fixed lights showing blue,

Stop Bars

A stop bar shall be provided at every taxi holding position serving a runway when it is
intended that the runway will be used in RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m, except
where:

¾ appropriate aids and procedures are available to assist in preventing inadvertent


incursions of aircraft and vehicles onto the runway, or
¾ operational procedures exist to limit, in RVR conditions less than a value of
550 m, the number of:

• aircraft on the manoeuvring area to one at a time; and


• vehicles on the manoeuvring area to the essential minimum

ATPL Air Law 24-8 24 October 2003


Recommendation

A stop bar should be provided at every taxi holding position served by a runway when it is
intended that the runway will be used in RVR conditions between 350 m and 550 m, except
where:

¾ appropriate aids and procedures are available to assist in preventing inadvertent


incursions of aircraft and vehicles onto the runway, or
¾ operational procedures exist to limit, in RVR conditions less than a value of
550 m, the number of

• aircraft on the manoeuvring area to one at a time; and


• vehicles on the manoeuvring area to the essential minimum

Stop bars shall be located across the taxiway at the point where it is desired that traffic stop.
The stop bar shall consist of lights spaced at intervals of 3 m across the taxiway showing red
in the intended direction of approach. At a taxi holding position the stop bar lights shall be uni-
directional and show in the direction of the runway.

Selective stop bars shall be installed in conjunction with at least 3 taxiway centre line lights,
extending for a distance of at least 90 m from the stop bar, in the direction that it is intended
for an aircraft to proceed from the stop bar.

The lighting circuit shall be designed that:

¾ Stop bars located across entrance taxiways are selectively switchable


¾ Stop bars located across taxiways intended to be used only as exit taxiways are
switchable selectively or in groups
¾ When a stop bar is illuminated, any taxiway centre line lights installed beyond the
stop bar shall be extinguished for a distance of 90 m
¾ Stop bars shall be interlocked with the taxiway centre line lights so that when the
centre line lights beyond the stop bar are illuminated the stop bar is extinguished
and vice versa

Taxiway Intersection Lights

Taxiway intersection lights shall be located at a point between 30 m to 60 m from the near
edge of the intersecting taxiway. Taxiway intersection lights shall consist of at least three fixed
unidirectional lights showing yellow in the direction of approach to the intersection.

Runway Guard Lights

There are two standard configurations of runway guard lights.

ATPL Air Law 24-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Runway guard lights, Configuration A, shall be provided at each taxiway/runway intersection
associated with a runway intended for use in:

¾ RVR conditions less than a value of 550 m where a stop bar is not installed, and
¾ RVR conditions between 550 and 1200 m where the traffic density is high

Runway guard lights shall be located:

Configuration A At each side of the taxiway at a distance from the runway


centre line not less than that specified for a take-off runway

Configuration B Across the taxiway at a distance from the runway centreline


not less than that specified for a take-off runway

Runway guard lights shall consist of:

Configuration A Two pairs of yellow lights

Configuration B Yellow lights spaced at intervals of 3 m across the taxiway.

Adjacent lights shall be alternately illuminated at between 30 and 60 cycles per second,

Apron Floodlighting

Apron floodlights should be located so as to provide adequate illumination on all apron


service areas with a minimum of glare.

Visual Docking Systems

A visual docking system shall be provided when it is intended to indicate, by a visual aid, the
precise positioning of an aircraft on an aircraft stand and other alternative means, such as
marshallers, are not practicable. The system shall provide both azimuth and stopping
guidance,

The azimuth guidance unit and the stopping position indicator shall be adequate for use in all
weather, visibility, background lighting and pavement conditions. The azimuth guidance unit
and the stopping position indicator shall be of a design such that:

¾ A clear indication of malfunction of either or both is available to the pilot, and


¾ They can be turned off

ATPL Air Law 24-10 24 October 2003


Azimuth Guidance Unit

The azimuth guidance unit shall be located on or close to the extension of the stand centre
line ahead of the aircraft so that its signals are visible from the cockpit of an aircraft
throughout the docking manoeuvre and aligned for use at least by the pilot in the left seat.

The azimuth guidance unit shall provide unambiguous left/right guidance. When guidance is
indicated by colour change:

¾ Green shall be used to identify the centre line


¾ Red for deviations from the centre line

Stopping Position Indicator

The stopping position indicator shall be located in conjunction with, or sufficiently close to, the
azimuth guidance unit so the pilot can observe both without turning his head, The stopping
position indicator shall be usable at least by the pilot occupying the left seat,

The stopping position information provided for by the indicator for a particular type of aircraft
shall account for the anticipated range of variations in pilot eye height and/or viewing angle.
The indicator shall show:

¾ The stopping position for the aircraft, and


¾ Closing rate information

This information is given to enable the pilot to gradually decelerate the aircraft to a full stop at
the stopping position. When stopping guidance is indicated by a colour change:

¾ Green shall be used to show that the aircraft can proceed


¾ Red to show that the stop point has been reached, and
¾ For a short distance prior to the stop point a third colour may be used to warn that
the stopping point is close

Aircraft Stand Manoeuvring Guidance Lights

Aircraft stand manoeuvring lights should be provided to facilitate the positioning of an aircraft
on an aircraft stand intended for use in poor visibility conditions, unless adequate guidance is
provided by other meas.

Aircraft stand manoeuvring lights shall be co-located with the aircraft stand markings. The
lights other than those indicating a stop position, shall be fixed yellow lights, visible throughout
the segments within which they are intended to provide guidance. The lights indicating a stop
position shall be fixed unidirectional lights, showing red.

ATPL Air Law 24-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Road Holding Position Light

A road holding position light shall be provided at each road holding position serving a runway
when it is intended that the runway will be used in RVR conditions less than a value of 350 m.
A road holding position light shall be adjacent to the holding position marking 1.5 m (±0.5 m)
from one edge of the road.

The road holding position shall comprise of

¾ A controllable red (stop)/green (go) traffic light, or


¾ A flashing red light

The light shall be unidirectional and aligned so as to be visible to the driver of a vehicle
approaching the holding position

ATPL Air Law 24-12 24 October 2003


Chapter 25.

Aerodrome Signs and Markers

Reference: Annex 14- Aerodromes Signs

General

Signs shall be provided to convey:

¾ A mandatory instruction
¾ Information on a specific location, or
¾ To provide other information on surface movement guidance

Signs shall be:

¾ Frangible, and
¾ Near a runway or taxiway they must be sufficiently low to preserve clearance for
engines and propellers

Signs shall be illuminated for use:

¾ In RVR conditions less than a value of 800 m, or


¾ At night in association with instrument runways, or
¾ At night in association with non-instrument runways where the runway is 1200 m
or greater

Mandatory Instruction Signs

A mandatory instruction sign shall be provided to identify a location beyond which an aircraft
taxiing or vehicle shall not proceed unless authorized by the aerodrome control tower.
Mandatory signs shall include:

¾ Runway designation signs


¾ Category I, II or III holding position signs
¾ Taxi-holding position signs
¾ Road holding position signs
¾ NO ENTRY signs

A runway designation sign at a taxiway/runway intersection shall be located at least on the left
side of a taxiway facing the direction of approach to the runway. Where practicable a runway
designation sign shall be located on each side of the taxiway.

ATPL Air Law 25-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


A NO ENTRY sign shall be located at the beginning of the area to which entrance is
prohibited on the left side of the taxiway. Where practicable, a NO ENTRY sign shall be
located on each side of the taxiway.

A Category I, II or III holding position sign shall be located on either side of the holding
position marking facing the direction of the approach to the critical area.

YELLOW
LEFT SIDE RED RIGHT SIDE BLACK

B 25-07 25-07 B
WHITE

LOCATION/RUNWAY DESIGNATION RUNWAY DESIGNATION/LOCATION

B2 25 CAT
TAXI-HOLDING POSITION RUNWAY DESIGNATION/
CATEGORY II HOLDING POSITION

A 25 25 A
LOCATION/RUNWAY DESIGNATION RUNWAY DESIGNATION/LOCATION

NO ENTRY

A taxi-holding position sign shall be located at least on the left side of the taxi holding position
facing the approach to the obstacle limitation surface or ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area, as
appropriate. Where practicable, a holding position sign shall be located on each side of the
taxi-holding position.

Mandatory instruction signs shall consist of an inscription in white on a red background. The
inscription of signs shall be in accordance with the diagram below.

ATPL Air Law 25-2 24 October 2003


B 25- 07 Indicates a taxi holding position located at other than a taxiway/runway,
runway/runway or taxiway/taxiway intersection

B2 Indicates a taxi-holding position located at other than a taxi-way/runway,


runway/runway or taxiway/taxiway intersection

A 25 To indicate a taxi-holding position at a runway extremity

25 CAT II Indicates a category II taxi-holding position at the threshold of runway 25.


CAT II can be replaced by either CAT I or CAT III respectively.

Information Signs

An information sign shall be provided where there is an operational need to identify by a sign,
a specific location, or routing (direction or destination) information. Information signs shall
include:

¾ Direction signs
¾ Location signs
¾ Destination signs
¾ Runway exit signs
¾ Runway vacated signs

ATPL Air Law 25-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


LEFT SIDE RIGHT SIDE

➧ C B C➨
DIRECTION/LOCATION/DIRECTION
YELLOW BLACK

YELLOW

B ➧ C➨ ➧ APRON
LOCATION/DIRECTION DESTINATION

A A
LOCATION/RUNWAY VACATED RUNWAY VACATED/LOCATION

➧ G ➫ G2 G ➨ G2 ➬
RUNWAY EXIT RUNWAY EXIT

A
LOCATION

➧ C B B➬ C➨
DIRECTION/LOCATION/DIRECTION/DIRECTION

➭D➧ C ➫ E B D➬ C➨ E➮
DIRECTION/DIRECTION/DIRECTION/LOCATION/DIRECTION/DIRECTION/DIRECTION

A runway exit sign shall be provided where there is an operational need to identify a runway
exit.

A runway vacated sign shall be provided where the exit taxiway is not provided with taxiway
centre line lights and there is a need to indicate to a pilot leaving a runway;

¾ The perimeter of the ILS/MLS critical/sensitive area, or


¾ The lower edge of the inner transitional surface whichever is farther from the
runway centre line.

A combined location and direction sign shall be provided when it is intended to indicate
routing information prior to a taxiway intersection.

ATPL Air Law 25-4 24 October 2003


A direction sign shall be provided in conjunction with a runway designation sign except at a
runway/runway intersection. Location signs shall be provided in conjunction with a direction
sign. Where study shows that the location sign is not needed then they may be omitted.

An information sign other than a location sign shall consist of an inscription in black on a
yellow background. A location sign shall consist of an inscription in yellow on a black
background. If the sign is stand alone then it shall have a yellow border.

A The inscription on a runway vacated sign shall depict the pattern of a taxi
holding position marking as shown

G→ The inscription on a runway exit sign shall consist of the designator of the exit
taxiway and an arrow indicating the direction to follow

APRON The inscription on a destination sign shall comprise of a message identifying


the destination plus an arrow indicating the direction to proceed as shown

←B C→ The inscription on a direction sign shall comprise of a message


identifying the taxi-way plus an arrow or arrows appropriately orientated

A The inscription on a location sign shall comprise the designation of the


location taxiway, runway or other pavement the aircraft is on or is entering and shall
not contain arrows

Where a location sign and direction sign are used in combination:

¾ All direction signs related to left turns shall be placed on the left side of the
location sign and all turns to the right on the right side. Where the junction
consists of one intersecting taxiway, the location sign may be alternatively placed
on the left side
¾ The direction signs shall be placed such that the direction of the arrows departs
increasingly from the vertical with increasing deviation from the corresponding
taxiway
¾ An appropriate direction sign shall be placed next to the location sign where the
direction of the location taxiway changes significantly beyond the intersection,
and
¾ Adjacent direction signs shall be delineated by a vertical black line as shown

When designating a taxiway, the use of the letters I, O or X and the use of words such as
inner and outer should be avoided wherever possible to avoid confusion with the numeral 1, 0
and closed markings.

A taxiway shall be identified by a designator comprising of a letter, letters or a combination of


a letter, letters followed by a number. The use of numbers alone on the manoeuvring area
shall be reserved for the designation of runways.

ATPL Air Law 25-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


NON-INSTRUMENT, NON-PRECISION, TAKE-OFF RUNWAYS

27

A 27 27 A

PRECISION APPROACH RUNWAYS

27 27

Y X
Y
CATEGORY I
A 27 27 A A 27 27 A
27CAT 27CAT

27 27

Y X
Y
CATEGORY II
A 27 27 A A 27 27 A
27CAT 27CAT

27 27

Y X
Y
CATEGORY III
A 27 27 A A 27 27 A
27CAT 27CAT

DISTANCE X IS DETERMINED BY THE RUNWAY WIDTH. DISTANCE Y IS ESTABLISHED


AT THE EDGE OF THE ILS/MLS CRITICAL/SENSITIVE AREA

Road Holding Position Sign

A road holding position sign shall be located 1.5 m from the edge of the road at the holding
position. A road holding position sign shall consist of an inscription in white on a red
background. The inscription shall be in the national language, be in conformity with the local
traffic regulations and include the following:

¾ A requirement to stop, and


¾ Where appropriate:
• A requirement to obtain ATC clearance, and
• A location designator

ATPL Air Law 25-6 24 October 2003


Markers

Markers shall be frangible. Those located near a runway or taxiway shall be sufficiently low to
preserve clearance for propellers and engines.

Unpaved Runway Edge Markers

Markers should be provided when the extent of an unpaved runway is not clearly indicated

Where runway lights are provided the markers should be incorporated in the light fixtures.
Where there are no lights, markers of flat rectangular or conical shape should be placed so as
to identify the runway clearly.

Stopway Edge Markers

The stopway edge markers shall be sufficiently different from any runway edge markers used
to ensure that the two types of markers cannot be confused.

Taxiway Edge Markers

A taxiway edge marker shall be reflective blue and be frangible. Their height shall be
sufficiently low to ensure clearance for propellers and engines.

Taxiway Centre Line Markers

A taxiway centre line marker shall be reflective green. The markers shall be so designed and
fitted as to withstand being run over by the wheels of an aircraft without damage either to the
aircraft or to the markers themselves.

Boundary Markers

Boundary markers shall be provided at an aerodrome where the landing area has no runway.

The markers should be coloured to contrast with the background against which they will be
seen. A single colour, orange or red or two contrasting colours, orange and white or red and
white should be used

ATPL Air Law 25-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Visual Aids for Denoting Obstacles

Objects to be Marked and/or Lighted

The marking and/or lighting of obstacles is intended to reduce hazards to aircraft by indicating
the presence of obstacles. It does not necessarily reduce operating limitations that may be
imposed by an obstacle

A fixed obstacle that extends above an approach or transitional surface within 3000 m of the
inner edge of the approach surface shall be marked and, if the runway is used at night, lit,
except that:

¾ Such marking and lighting may be omitted when the obstacle is shielded by
another fixed obstacle
¾ The marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lit by high intensity obstacle
lights by day, and
¾ The lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a lighthouse and an
aeronautical study indicates the lighthouse light to be sufficient

A fixed obstacle that extends above a take-off climb surface within 3000 m of the inner edge
should be marked and if the runway is used at night, lit, except that:

¾ Such marking and lighting may be omitted when the obstacle is shielded by
another fixed obstacle
¾ The marking may be omitted when the obstacle is lit by high intensity obstacle
lights by day, and
¾ The lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a lighthouse and an
aeronautical study indicates the lighthouse light to be sufficient

A fixed obstacle above a horizontal surface should be marked and, if the aerodrome is used
at night, lit except that:

¾ The marking and lighting may be omitted when:

• The obstacle is shielded by another fixed obstacle, or


• For a circuit extensively obstructed by immovable objects or terrain,
procedures have been established to ensure safe vertical clearance below
prescribed flight paths, or
• An aeronautical study shows the obstacle not to be of operational
significance

¾ The markings may be omitted when the obstacle is lit by high intensity obstacle
lights by day
¾ The lighting may be omitted where the obstacle is a lighthouse and an
aeronautical study indicates the lighthouse light to be sufficient

ATPL Air Law 25-8 24 October 2003


A fixed obstacle that extends above an obstacle protection surface shall be marked, and if the
runway is used at night, lit. Vehicles and other mobile objects, excluding aircraft, on the
movement area of an aerodrome are obstacles and shall be marked and, if the vehicles and
aerodrome are used at night or in conditions of low visibility, lit. Aircraft servicing equipment
and vehicles used only on aprons may be exempt.

Elevated aeronautical ground lights within the movement area shall be marked so as to be
conspicuous by day.

Overhead wires, cables etc, crossing a river, valley or highway should be marked and their
supporting towers marked and lit if an aeronautical study indicates that the wires or cables
could constitute a hazard to aircraft, except that the marking of the supporting towers may be
omitted when they are lit by high intensity obstacle lights by day

Marking Of Objects

All fixed objects to be marked shall:

¾ Whenever practicable be coloured


¾ If colouring is not practicable then markers or flags shall be displayed on or above
them, except that
¾ Objects that are sufficiently conspicuous by their shape, size or colour need not
otherwise be marked

All mobile objects to be marked shall be coloured or display flags.

An object should be coloured:

¾ To show a chequered pattern if it has essentially unbroken surfaces and its


projection equals or exceeds 45 m in both directions
¾ The pattern should be rectangles for objects which has one dimension greater
than 1.5 m and the other dimension less than 4.5 m

The colours of the pattern should contrast each other and with the background against which
they will be seen.

When mobile objects are marked by a colour:

Emergency Vehicles Red or yellowish green

Service Vehicles Yellow

ATPL Air Law 25-9 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Markers displayed on or adjacent to objects shall be located in conspicuous positions so as to
retain the general definition of the object and shall be recognizable:

¾ In clear weather from a distance of at least 1000 m for an object viewed from the
air, and
¾ 300 m for an object to be viewed from the ground

in all directions in which an aircraft is likely to approach the object. The shape of markers shall
be distinctive to the extent necessary to ensure that:

¾ They are not mistaken for markers employed to convey other information, and
¾ They shall be such that the hazard presented by the object they mark is not
increased

A marker displayed on an overhead wire, cable etc should be spherical.

Flags used to mark objects shall be displayed around, on top or around the highest edge of,
the object. When flags are used to mark extensive objects or groups of closely spaced
objects, they shall be displayed at least every 15 m. Flags shall not increase the hazard
presented by the object they mark.

Flags should be orange in colour or a combination of two triangular sections, one orange or
red the other white, except that where such colours merge with the background, other
conspicuous colours should be used.

Flags used to mark mobile objects shall consist of a chequered pattern of orange or red and
white squares.

Lighting of Objects

The presence of objects that must be lit shall be indicated by low, medium or high intensity
obstacle lights, or a combination of such lights.

High intensity obstacle lights are intended for day and night use. Care is needed to ensure
that these lights do not create excessive dazzle.

Medium intensity obstacle lights should be used, either alone or in combination with low
intensity obstacle lights, where the object is an extensive one or its height above the
surrounding round is greater than 45 m

High intensity obstacle lights should be used to indicate an obstacle if its height above the
level of the surrounding ground exceeds 150 m and an aeronautical study indicates such
lights to be essential for the recognition of the object by day

High intensity obstacle lights should be used to indicate the presence of a tower supporting
overhead wires, cables etc

ATPL Air Law 25-10 24 October 2003


Location of Obstacle Lights

One or more obstacle lights shall be located as close as practicable to the top of the object.
The top lights shall be arranged to indicate the points or edges of the object highest in relation
to the obstacle limitation surface.

In the case of a guyed tower or antenna where it is not possible to locate a high intensity
obstacle light on the top, such a light shall be located at the highest practicable point and a
medium intensity obstacle light, showing white, mounted at the top.

In the case of an extensive object or of a group of closely spaced objects, top lights shall be
displayed at least on the points or edges of the objects highest in relation to the obstacle
limitation surface. This is to indicate the general definition and the extent of the objects. If two
or more edges are the same height, the edge nearest the landing area shall be marked.
Where low intensity lights are used, they shall be spaced at longitudinal intervals not
exceeding 45 m. Where medium intensity lights are used, they shall be spaced at longitudinal
intervals not less exceeding 90 m.

Where an object is indicated by low or medium intensity obstacle lights, and the top of the
object is more than 45 m above the level of the surrounding ground or the elevation of tops of
nearby buildings, additional lights shall be provided at intermediate levels. These additional
lights shall be spaced as equally as practicable, between the top lights and ground level or
the level of tops of nearby buildings as appropriate, with the spacing not exceeding 45 m.

Where high intensity obstacle lights are used on a tower they shall be spaced at uniform
intervals not exceeding 105 m between the ground level and the top lights.

Where high intensity obstacle lights indicate the presence of a tower supporting overhead
wires, cables etc they shall be located at three levels:

¾ At the top of the tower


¾ At the lowest level of the catenary (lowest point) of the wires or cables, and
¾ At approximately midway between these two levels

High intensity obstacle lights located on a tower should flash sequentially.

¾ First the middle light


¾ Second the top light, and
¾ Last the bottom light

ATPL Air Law 25-11 ©Atlantic Flight Training


TOP LIGHT

MIDDLE LIGHT

BOTTOM LIGHT
(MARKS LOWEST POINT
OF CATENARY)

The number and arrangements of obstacle lights is such that they can be seen from any
azimuth.

Low Intensity Obstacle Lights

Low intensity obstacle lights:

¾ On fixed objects shall be steady red lights


¾ On vehicles associated with emergency or security vehicles shall be flashing blue
¾ On other vehicles shall be flashing yellow

Medium Intensity Obstacle Light

Medium intensity obstacle lights shall be flashing red lights, except that when used in
conjunction with high intensity obstacle lights they shall be flashing white lights

High Intensity Obstacle Light

High intensity obstacle lights shall be flashing white lights.

Visual Aids for Denoting Restricted Use Areas

Closed Runways and Taxiways or Parts Thereof

A closed marking shall be displayed on a runway or taxiway which is permanently closed.

ATPL Air Law 25-12 24 October 2003


On a runway:

¾ A closed marking shall be placed at each end of the runway, or portion, declared
closed.
¾ Additional markings shall be placed at intervals of no more than 300 m. On a
taxiway a closed marking shall be placed at least at each end of the taxiway
closed,

The marking shall be white when displayed on a runway and yellow when displayed on a
taxiway. All normal runway and taxiway markings shall be obliterated, Lighting on a closed
runway or taxiway shall not be operated, except as required for maintenance purposes.

In addition to closed markings, when the runway or taxiway closed is intercepted by a usable
runway or taxiway which is used at night, unserviceability lights shall be placed across the
entrance to the closed area,

Non-Load Bearing Surfaces

Shoulders for taxiways, holding bays and aprons and other non-load bearing surfaces which
cannot be readily distinguished from load bearing surfaces and which, if used by aircraft,
might result in damage to the aircraft, shall have the boundary between such areas and the
load bearing surface marked by a taxi side stripe marking.

Pre-Threshold Area

When the surface before a threshold is paved and exceeds 60 m in length and is not suitable
for normal use by aircraft the entire length before the threshold should be marked with a
chevron marking.

PRE-THRESHOLD AREA OF
FIT FOR USE AS A STOPWAY
RUNWAY
AIRCRAFT
BY LANDING IN THE
OPPOSITE DIRECTION BUT NOT FI
FOR NORMAL MOVEMENT
OF
AIRCRAFT

A chevron marking should be of a conspicuous colour and contrast with the colour used for
runway markings; preferably yellow.

ATPL Air Law 25-13 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Unserviceable Areas

Unserviceability markers shall be displayed wherever any portion of a taxiway, apron or


holding bay is unfit for the movement of aircraft but it is still possible for aircraft to bypass the
area safely. On a movement area used at night, unserviceability lights shall be used.

The markers shall consist of conspicuous standing devices such as flags, cones or marker
boards. Lights are red.

Introduction to Emergency and Other Services

The principal objective of a rescue and fire fighting service is to save lives, For this reason,
the provision of means of dealing with an aircraft accident or incident occurring at, or in the
immediate vicinity of, an aerodrome assumes primary importance because it is within this
area that there are the greatest opportunities of saving lives. This must assume at all times
the possibility of, and the need for, extinguishing a fire which may occur either immediately
following an aircraft accident or incident or at any time during rescue operations.

The most important factors bearing on effective rescue in a survivable aircraft accident are:

¾ The training received


¾ The effectiveness of the equipment, and
¾ The speed with which the personnel and equipment designated for rescue and
fire fighting purposes can be put to use

Rescue and Fire Fighting

Rescue and fire fighting equipment and services shall be provided at an aerodrome. The level
of protection provided at an aerodrome for rescue and fire fighting shall be based on:

¾ The longest aeroplanes normally using the aerodrome, and


¾ Their fuselage width.

If after selecting the category appropriate to the aeroplane’s overall length, the aeroplanes
fuselage width is greater than the maximum given in the Aerodrome Category table within this
annex, then the category is increased by one.

There are 10 aerodrome categories. The level of protection shall be appropriate to the
aerodrome category, except that, where the number of movements of the aeroplanes in the
highest category normally using the aerodrome is less than 700 in the busiest consecutive 3
months, the level of protection provided shall be:

Up to 31 December 1999 not less than 2 categories below the determined category, and
From 1 January 2000 not less than one category below the determined category

ATPL Air Law 25-14 24 October 2003


Note: A take -off or a landing constitutes a movement

Response Time

The operational objective of the rescue and fire fighting service should be to achieve
response times of 2 minutes, and not exceeding 3 minutes, to the end of each runway. This
includes any other part of the movement area, in optimum conditions of visibility and surface
conditions.

Response time is considered to be the time between the initial call to the rescue and fire
fighting service and the time the first responding vehicle is in a position to apply foam at a rate
of at least 50% of the discharge rate specified.

Emergency access roads should be provided on an aerodrome where terrain conditions


permit their construction, so as to facilitate achieving minimum response times. Particular
attention should be given to the provision of ready access to approach areas up to 1000 m
from the threshold or at least within the aerodrome boundary. Where a fence is provided, the
need for convenient access to outside areas should be taken into account

All rescue and fire fighting vehicles should normally be housed in a fire station. Satellite fire
stations should be provided whenever the response time cannot be achieved from a single
fire station

Number of Rescue and Fire Fighting Vehicles

The minimum number of rescue and fire fighting vehicles provided at an aerodrome is as
follows:

Aerodrome Rescue and Fire


Category Fighting Vehicles
1, 2, 3, 4 & 5 1
6 and 7 2
8, 9 and 10 3

Apron Management Service

When warranted by the volume of traffic and operating conditions an appropriate apron
management service should be provided on an apron by an aerodrome ATS unit, by another
aerodrome operating authority or by a co-operative combination of these in order to:

¾ Regulate movement with the objective of preventing collisions between aircraft


and obstacles
¾ Regulate entry of aircraft into, and co-ordinate exit of aircraft from, the apron with
the aerodrome tower, and

ATPL Air Law 25-15 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ Ensure safe and expeditious movement of vehicles and appropriate regulation of
other activities

An apron management service shall be provided with R/T facilities. Where low visibility
procedures are in effect, persons and vehicles operating on an apron shall be restricted to the
essential minimum.

An emergency vehicle responding to an emergency shall be given priority over all other
surface movement traffic,

A vehicle operating on an apron shall give way to:

¾ An emergency vehicle
¾ An aircraft taxiing, about to taxi or being pushed or towed, and
¾ Other vehicles in accordance with local regulations

An aircraft stand shall be visually monitored to ensure that the recommended clearances are
provided to an aircraft using the stand.

Ground Servicing of Aircraft

Fire extinguishing equipment suitable for at least initial intervention in the event of a fuel fire
and personnel trained in its use shall be readily available during the ground servicing of an
aircraft, There shall be a means of quickly summoning the rescue and fire fighting service in
the event of a fire or major fuel spill,

When aircraft refuelling operations take place while passengers are embarking, on board or
disembarking, ground equipment shall be positioned so as to allow:

¾ The use of a sufficient number of exits for easy and quick evacuation, and
¾ A ready escape route from each of the exits to be used in an emergency

ATPL Air Law 25-16 24 October 2003


Chapter 26.

General Radar Procedures

Reference: Procedures For Air Navigation Services, Rules of the Air and Air Traffic
Services, Document 4444-RAC/501

Introduction

The use of radar in ATS shall be limited to specified areas of radar cover and shall be subject
to such other limitations as specified by the appropriate ATS authority. Adequate information
on the operating methods used shall be published in AlPs, as well as operating practices
and/or equipment limitations having direct effects on the operation of ATS.

Primary surveillance radar (PSR) and secondary surveillance radar (SSR) may be used either
alone or in combination provided:

¾ Reliable coverage exists in the area, and


¾ The probability of detection, the accuracy and the integrity of the radar system
are satisfactory

PSR systems alone should be used in circumstances where SSR alone would not meet the
ATS requirements.

SSR systems, especially those with monopulse technique or Mode S capability, may be used
alone, including in the provision of separation between aircraft, provided.

¾ The carriage of SSR transponders is mandatory within the area, and


¾ Aircraft identification is established and maintained by use of assigned discrete
SSR codes

Presentation of Radar Information

The minimum radar derived information available for display to the controller shall include:

¾ Radar position indications


¾ Radar map information and,
¾ When available information from SSR Mode A, Mode C and Mode S

ATPL Air Law 26-1 ©Atlantic Flight Training


Identification of Aircraft

Establishment of Radar Identification

Before providing a radar service to an aircraft, radar identification shall be established and the
pilot informed. Thereafter, radar identification shall be maintained until termination of the radar
service. If radar identification is subsequently lost, the pilot shall be informed accordingly and,
when applicable appropriate instructions issued.

Radar identification shall be established by at least one of the following methods.

SSR Identification Procedures

Where SSR is used, aircraft may be identified by one or more of the following procedures:

¾ Recognition of the aircraft identification in a radar label


¾ Recognition of an assigned discrete code, the setting of which has been verified,
in a radar label
¾ Direct recognition of the aircraft identification of a Mode S equipped aircraft in a
radar label
¾ By transfer of radar identification
¾ Observance of compliance with an instruction to set a specific code
¾ Observation of compliance with an instruction to squawk IDENT

When a discrete code has been assigned to an aircraft, a check shall be made at the earliest
opportunity to ensure that the code set by the pilot is identical to that assigned for the flight.
Only after this check has been made shall the discrete code be used as a basis for
identification.

PSR Identification Procedures

Where SSR is not used or available, radar identification shall be established by at least one of
the following methods:

¾ By correlating a particular radar position indication with an aircraft reporting its


position over, or as bearing and distance from a point displayed on the radar
map, and by confirming that the track of the particular radar position is consistent
with the aircraft path or reported heading
¾ By correlating an observed radar position indication with an aircraft which is
known to have just departed, provided that the identification is established within
2 km (1 nm) from the end of the runway used. Particular care should be taken to
avoid confusion with aircraft holding over or overflying the aerodrome, or with
aircraft departing from or making a missed approach over adjacent runways
¾ By transfer of radar identification
¾ By ascertaining aircraft heading, if circumstances require, and following a period
of track observation:

ATPL Air Law 26-2 24 October 2003


• Instructing the pilot to execute one or more changes of heading of 30° or
more and correlating the movements of one particular radar position
indication with the aircraft’s acknowledged execution of the instructions given,
or
• Correlating the movements of a particular radar position indication with
manoeuvres currently executed by an aircraft having so reported

When using these methods, the radar controller shall:

¾ Verify that the movements of not more than one radar position indication
corresponds with those of the aircraft, and
¾ Ensure that the manoeuvre(s) will not carry the aircraft outside the coverage of
the radar display

Use may be made of direction finding bearings to assist in radar identification of an aircraft.
This method shall not be used as the sole means of establishing radar identification, unless
so prescribed by the ATS authority for particular cases under specified conditions

When two or more radar position indications:

¾ Are observed in close proximity, or


¾ Are observed to be making similar movements at the same time, or
¾ When any doubt exists as to the identity of a radar position indication for any
other reason

changes of heading should be prescribed or repeated as many times as necessary, or


additional methods of identification should be employed, until all risk of error in identification is
eliminated.

Position Information

An aircraft provided with radar service should be informed of its position in the following
circumstances, when identified:

¾ Based upon the pilots report of the aircraft position or within 1 nm of the runway
upon departure and the observation is consistent with the aircraft’s time of
departure, or
¾ By use of assigned discrete SSR codes or Mode S and the location of the
observed radar position indication is consistent with the current flight plan of the
aircraft, or
¾ By transfer of radar identification
¾ When the pilot requests this information
¾ When a pilots estimate differs significantly from the radar controller’s estimate
based on radar observation

ATPL Air Law 26-3 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ When the pilot is instructed to resume own navigation after radar vectoring if the
current instructions had diverted the aircraft from a previously assigned route
¾ Immediately before termination of radar service, if the aircraft is observed to
deviate from its intended route

Position information shall be passed to aircraft in one of the following forms:

¾ As a well known geographical position


¾ Magnetic track and distance to a significant point, an en-route navigation aid, or
an approach aid
¾ Direction and distance from a known position
¾ Distance to touchdown, if the aircraft is on final approach, or
¾ Distance and direction from the centre line of an ATS route

Where practicable, position information shall relate to positions or routes pertinent to the
navigation of the aircraft concerned and displayed on the radar map.

The pilot may omit position reports at compulsory reporting points when specified by the ATS
unit concerned, this includes points at which air-reports are required for meteorological
purposes. Pilots shall resume position reporting:

¾ When instructed
¾ When advised that radar service is terminated, or
¾ That radar identification is lost.

Radar Vectoring

¾ Radar vectoring shall be achieved by issuing the pilot specific headings which
enable the aircraft to maintain the desired track. When vectoring an aircraft, a
radar controller should comply with the following:

¾ Whenever practicable, the aircraft should be vectored along routes or tracks on


which the pilot can monitor the aircraft position with reference to pilot interpreted
navigation aids
¾ When an aircraft is given a vector diverting it from a previously assigned route,
the pilot should be informed, unless it is self-evident, what the vector is to
accomplish and, when possible, the limit of the vector should be specified
¾ Except when transfer of radar control is to be effected aircraft shall not be
vectored:

• Closer than 4.6 km (2.5 nm), or,


• Where a radar separation greater than 9.3 km (5 nm) is prescribed, a
distance equivalent to ½ of the prescribed separation minimum, from the limit
of the airspace for which the radar controller is responsible

ATPL Air Law 26-4 24 October 2003


unless local arrangements have been made to ensure that separation will exist with radar
controlled aircraft operating in adjoining areas

¾ Controlled flights should not be vectored into uncontrolled airspace except in:

• The case of emergency, or


• In order to circumnavigate severe weather (in which case the pilot should be
so informed), or
• At the specific request of the pilot

¾ When an aircraft has reported unreliable directional instruments, the pilot should
be requested, prior to the issuance of manoeuvring instructions, to make turns at
an agreed rate and to carry out the instruction immediately upon receipt

When vectoring an IFR flight, the radar controller shall issue clearances such that the
required obstacle clearance will exist at all times until the aircraft reaches the point where the
pilot will resume own navigation.

Whenever possible, minimum vectoring altitudes should be sufficiently high to minimize


activation of GPWS. States shall encourage operators to report incidents involving the
activation of aircraft GPWS so that their locations can be identified and altitude, routing and/or
aircraft operating procedures can be altered to prevent recurrences.

In terminating radar vectoring of an aircraft, the radar controller shall instruct the pilot to
resume own navigation, giving the pilot the aircraft’s position and appropriate instructions, as
necessary.

Information Regarding Adverse Weather

Information that an aircraft appears likely to penetrate an area of adverse weather should be
issued in sufficient time to permit the pilot to decide on an appropriate course of action,
including that of requesting advice on how best to circumnavigate the adverse weather, if so
desired.

In vectoring an aircraft for circumnavigating any area of adverse weather, the radar controller
should ascertain that the aircraft can be returned to its intended or assigned flight path within
the available radar coverage, and, if this does not appear possible, inform the pilot of the
circumstances.

Use of Radar in the Air Traffic Control Service

Functions

The information presented on a radar display may be used to perform the following functions
in the provision of air traffic control service:

ATPL Air Law 26-5 ©Atlantic Flight Training


¾ Provide radar services as necessary in order to improve airspace utilization,
reduce delays, provide for direct routings and more optimum flight profiles, as
well as to enhance safety
¾ Provide radar vectoring to departing aircraft for the purpose of facilitating an
expeditious and efficient departure flow and expediting climb to cruising level
¾ Provide radar vectoring to aircraft for the purpose of resolving potential conflicts
¾ Provide radar vectoring to arriving aircraft for the purpose of establishing an
expeditious and efficient approach sequence
¾ Provide radar vectoring to assist pilots in their navigation
¾ Provide separation and maintain normal traffic flow when an aircraft experiences
communication failure within the area of radar coverage
¾ Maintain monitoring of air traffic
¾ When applicable, maintain a watch on the progress of air traffic, in order to
provide a non-radar controller with:

• Improved position information regarding aircraft under control


• Supplementary information regarding other traffic, and
• Information regarding any significant deviations, by aircraft from the terms of
their respective ATC clearances, including their cleared routes as well as
levels when appropriate

Co-ordination of Traffic under Radar and Non-Radar Control

Appropriate arrangements shall be made in any ATCU using radar to ensure the co-ordination
of traffic under radar control with traffic under non-radar control. This includes the provision of
adequate separation between the radar controlled aircraft and all other controlled aircraft. To
this end, close liaison shall be maintained at all times between radar controllers and non-
radar controllers

Radar Separation Minima

Unless otherwise stated the horizontal radar separation minimum shall be 9.3 km (5 nm).

The radar separation may, if prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority, be reduced, but not
below:

¾ 5.6 km (3 nm) when radar capabilities at a given location so permit, and


¾ 4.6 km (2.5 nm) between succeeding aircraft which are established on the same
final approach track within 18.5 km (10 nm) of the runway end. A reduced
separation minimum of 4.6 km (2.5 nm) may be applied provided:

• The average runway occupancy time of landing aircraft is proven, by


statistical means such as data collection and statistical analysis and methods
based on a theoretical model, not to exceed 50 seconds
• Braking action is reported as good and runway occupancy times are not
adversely affected by runway contaminants such as slush, snow or ice

ATPL Air Law 26-6 24 October 2003


• A radar system with appropriate azimuth and range resolution and an update
rate of 5 seconds or less is used in combination with suitable radar displays,
and
• The aerodrome controller is able to observe visually or by means of surface
movement radar (SMR) or a surface movement guidance and control system
(SMCGS), the runway in use and associated exit and entry taxiways
• The wake turbulence radar separation minima prescribed, or as may be
prescribed by the appropriate ATS authority do not apply
• Aircraft approach speeds are closely monitored by the controller and when
necessary adjusted so as to ensure that separation is not reduced below the
minimum
• Aircraft operators and pilots have been made fully aware of the need to exit
the runway in an expeditious manner whenever the reduced separation
minimum on final approach is applied, and
• Procedures concerning the application of the reduced minimum are published
in Aeronautical Information Publication

The radar separation minima to be applied shall be prescribed by the appropriate ATS
authority according to the capability of the particular radar system or sensor to accurately
identify the aircraft position in relation to the centre of an RPS, PSR blip or SSR response and
taking into account factors which may affect the accuracy of the radar derived information,
such as aircraft range from the radar site.

The following wake turbulence radar separation minima shall be applied to aircraft in the
approach and departure phases of flight:

Aircraft category Wake turbulence radar


Preceding aircraft Succeeding aircraft separation minima

HEAVY HEAVY 7.4 km (4 nm)


MEDIUM 9.3 km (5 nm)
LIGHT 11.1 km (6 nm)
MEDIUM LIGHT 9.3 km (5 nm)

The minima set out above shall be applied when:

¾ An aircraft is operating directly behind another aircraft at the same altitude or less
than 300 m (1000 ft), or
¾ Both aircraft are using the same runway, or parallel runways separated by less
than 760 m, or
¾ An aircraft is crossing behind another aircraft, at the same altitude or less than
300 m (1000 ft)

Emergencies, Hazards and Equipment Failures

In the event of an aircraft in, or appearing to be in, any form of emergency, every assistance
shall be provided by the radar controller. The progress of an identified aircraft in emergency

ATPL Air Law 26-7 ©Atlantic Flight Training


shall be monitored and plotted on the rada